National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for improve water quality

  1. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  2. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface ...

  3. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-07-19

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during

  4. NMS 74-6 Environmental Improvement of Water Quality | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmental Improvement of Water Quality Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: NMS 74-6 Environmental Improvement of...

  5. Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity March 25, 2015 Cross-cutting Sustainability ... that measure feedstock production, water quality, water quantity, and biodiversity. ...

  6. Mesh Quality Improvement Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-11-15

    MESQUITE is a linkable software library to be used by simulation and mesh generation tools to improve the quality of meshes. Mesh quality is improved by node movement and/or local topological modifications. Various aspects of mesh quality such as smoothness, element shape, size, and orientation are controlled by choosing the appropriate mesh qualtiy metric, and objective function tempate, and a numerical optimization solver to optimize the quality of meshes, MESQUITE uses the TSTT mesh interfacemore » specification to provide an interoperable toolkit that can be used by applications which adopt the standard. A flexible code design makes it easy for meshing researchers to add additional mesh quality metrics, templates, and solvers to develop new quality improvement algorithms by making use of the MESQUITE infrastructure.« less

  7. Improvement of the quality of life through safe drinking water & poverty alleviation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susheela, A.K.

    1997-12-31

    Fluorosis, a crippling disease caused by ingesting excess fluoride in drinking water, is a public health problem, affecting people in 20 nations in the world. One of the worst public health problems in the history of mankind known to have occurred and reported about 6 decades ago strangely enough the disease continue to be afflicting millions of people in India, Africa and China with all its severity even during the turn of the century. The present report describes the disease characteristics and the devastating manner in which the disease affects children and adults. The need to bring this to the attention of policy, makers, has been attempted.

  8. Purified water quality study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  9. CBEI - Improving Benchmarking Data Quality

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Benchmarking Data Quality 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Scott ... Analysis of 2013 Philadelphia benchmarking data; Evaluation of Proficiency in Benchmarking ...

  10. Vermont Section 401 Water Quality Certification Application ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract Application required for Section 401 water quality certification under the Clean Water Act. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Section 401 Water Quality...

  11. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  12. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  13. Vermont Water Quality Certification Application for Hydroelectric...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Certification Application for Hydroelectric Facilities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Vermont Water Quality Certification...

  14. Vermont Water Quality Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: Vermont Water Quality Standards Abstract Vermont 401 Water Quality Certification Policy Guidance for...

  15. Alaska Water Quality Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Standards Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Alaska Water Quality...

  16. Industry disagrees with water quality recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1992-11-25

    Industry groups are distancing themselves from recommendations on cleaning up the nation's waters issued by Water Quality 2000, a coalition of more than 80 organizations representing industry, environmental groups, government, academia, and professional and scientific societies. The report, [open quotes]A National Water Agenda for the 21st Century[close quotes], is a result of work begun in 1989. It recommends an approach to water quality that emphasizes pollution prevention, increased individual and collective responsibility for protecting water resources, and reorienting water resource programs and institutions along natural, rather than political, watershed boundaries. It includes 85 specific recommendations, many of which are to be implemented locally. The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington) [open quotes]wholeheartedly endorses not only the specific solutions offered today but the process by which these proposals were reached,[close quotes] says Robert W. Adler, NRDC senior attorney and vice chairman of Water Quality 2000. John B. Coleman, corporate environmental affairs manager for Du Pont and a member of the groups's steering committee, says [open quotes]Du Pont and the other industry members of Water Quality 2000 are committed[close quotes] to working to make continuous improvements.

  17. California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    401 Water Quality Certification Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water...

  18. SWQM: Source Water Quality Modeling Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-08

    The Source Water Quality Modeling software (SWQM) simulates the water quality conditions that reflect properties of water generated by water treatment facilities. SWQM consists of a set of Matlab scripts that model the statistical variation that is expected in a water treatment facility’s water, such as pH and chlorine levels.

  19. ADEQ Water Quality Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ADEQ Water Quality Forms Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: ADEQ Water Quality FormsLegal Abstract The Arizona...

  20. Colorado Water Quality Certification General Information | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Colorado Water Quality Certification General InformationLegal Abstract The Colorado Department of...

  1. Montana Water Quality Permit Application, Nondegradation Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Permit Application, Nondegradation Authorization, and Permit Fees Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance -...

  2. Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater - Industrial...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities) Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater - Industrial Activities) Website...

  3. SHOPP Conference 2016: Improving Data Quality

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    SHOPP's EIA-877 Winter Heating Fuels Survey: Improving Data Quality Presentation to 2016 State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) Workshop July 13, 2016 | Washington, D.C. By SHOPP Survey Team: David Dudley and Hallie Black Overview Office of Petroleum and Biofuels Statistics 2 Survey Overview * Purpose * Who Uses SHOPP Data? * Data Collection Data Quality * Individual Price Data * Overall Price Data Price Characteristics and Qualifiers * Criteria for Identifying Correct Prices Data

  4. Water quality assessment of the Rio Conchos, Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutierrez, M.; Borrego, P.

    1999-07-01

    A baseline study was conducted to evaluate the overall quality of the Rio Conchos (Chihuahua, Mexico) and to identify those chemical parameters that can best represent the water quality in different segments of the river. Chemical analyses included the measurement of 62 elements at more than 100 sampling stations along the river, in addition to conventional field analyses (e.g., pH, conductivity). Concentrations of these elements are reported and water quality indicators were identified. Based on the element concentration patterns, the segment of the river in which the water quality is most endangered corresponds to that receiving irrigation drain returns near the confluence of the Rio San Pedro. Self-cleaning and dilution processes account for the improvement in water quality observed as the Rio Conchos approaches the Rio Grande.

  5. Energy Savings with Acceptable Indoor Air Quality Through Improved...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings with Acceptable Indoor Air Quality Through Improved Air Flow Control in Residential Retrofit Energy Savings with Acceptable Indoor Air Quality Through Improved Air Flow ...

  6. Water quality assessment in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudy, J.P.; Arniella, E.; Gil, E.

    1993-02-01

    The El Tor cholera pandemic arrived in Ecuador in March 1991, and through the course of the year caused 46,320 cases, of which 692 resulted in death. Most of the cases were confined to cities along Ecuador's coast. The Water and Sanitation for Health Project (WASH), which was asked to participate in the review of this request, suggested that a more comprehensive approach should be taken to cholera control and prevention. The approach was accepted, and a multidisciplinary team consisting of a sanitary engineer, a hygiene education specialist, and an institutional specialist was scheduled to carry out the assessment in late 1992 following the national elections.

  7. WC 26 - Water Quality Control Administrative Provisions | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    26 - Water Quality Control Administrative Provisions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WC 26 - Water Quality...

  8. RAPID/Geothermal/Water Quality/Alaska | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDGeothermalWater QualityAlaska < RAPID | Geothermal | Water Quality Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About...

  9. Washington 401 Water Quality Certification JARPA Process | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    401 Water Quality Certification JARPA Process Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Washington 401 Water Quality...

  10. Water Quality Surface and Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Surface and Ground Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterQualitySurfaceandGround&oldid612197" Feedback...

  11. Microsoft Word - S05072_WaterQualityComplStrategy.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Water Quality Compliance Strategy December 2009 LMSMNTS05072 This page intentionally left blank LMSMNTS05072 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Water Quality ...

  12. EPA Section 401 Water Quality Certification Manual | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Section 401 Water Quality Certification Manual Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: EPA Section 401 Water Quality Certification Manual...

  13. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  14. Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality (BRISQ)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ph.D., Helen M.; Kelly Ph.D., Andrea; Jewell Ph.D., Scott D.; McShane Ph.D., Lisa M.; Clark M.D., Douglas P.; Greenspan M.D., Renata; Hayes M.D., Daniel F.; Hainaut Ph.D.,, Pierre; Kim, Paula; Mansfield Ph.D., Elizabeth; Potapova Ph.D., Olga; Riegman Ph.D., Peter; Rubinstein Ph.D., Yaffa; Seijo M.S., Edward; Somiari Ph.D., Stella; Watson M.B., Peter; Weier Ph.D., Heinz-Ulrich; Zhu Ph.D., Claire; Vaught Ph.D., Jim

    2011-04-26

    Human biospecimens are subject to a number of different collection, processing, and storage factors that can significantly alter their molecular composition and consistency. These biospecimen preanalytical factors, in turn, influence experimental outcomes and the ability to reproduce scientific results. Currently, the extent and type of information specific to the biospecimen preanalytical conditions reported in scientific publications and regulatory submissions varies widely. To improve the quality of research utilizing human tissues it is critical that information regarding the handling of biospecimens be reported in a thorough, accurate, and standardized manner. The Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality (BRISQ) recommendations outlined herein are intended to apply to any study in which human biospecimens are used. The purpose of reporting these details is to supply others, from researchers to regulators, with more consistent and standardized information to better evaluate, interpret, compare, and reproduce the experimental results. The BRISQ guidelines are proposed as an important and timely resource tool to strengthen communication and publications around biospecimen-related research and help reassure patient contributors and the advocacy community that the contributions are valued and respected.

  15. Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ph.D., Helen M.; Kelly, Ph.D., Andrea B.; Jewell, Ph.D., Scott D.; McShane, Ph.D., Lisa M.; Clark, M.D., Douglas P.; Greenspan, M.D., Renata; Hayes, M.D., Daniel F.; Hainaut, Ph.D., Pierre; Kim, Paula; Mansfield, Ph.D., Elizabeth A.; Potapova, Ph.D., Olga; Riegman, Ph.D., Peter; Rubinstein, Ph.D., Yaffa; Seijo, M.S., Edward; Somiari, Ph.D., Stella; Chir., B; Weier, Ph.D., Heinz-Ulrich; Zhu, Ph.D., Claire; Vaught, Ph.D., Jim; Watson,M.B., Peter

    2010-12-27

    Human biospecimens are subjected to collection, processing, and storage that can significantly alter their molecular composition and consistency. These biospecimen preanalytical factors, in turn, influence experimental outcomes and the ability to reproduce scientific results. Currently, the extent and type of information specific to the biospecimen preanalytical conditions reported in scientific publications and regulatory submissions varies widely. To improve the quality of research that uses human tissues, it is crucial that information on the handling of biospecimens be reported in a thorough, accurate, and standardized manner. The Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality (BRISQ) recommendations outlined herein are intended to apply to any study in which human biospecimens are used. The purpose of reporting these details is to supply others, from researchers to regulators, with more consistent and standardized information to better evaluate, interpret, compare, and reproduce the experimental results. The BRISQ guidelines are proposed as an important and timely resource tool to strengthen communication and publications on biospecimen-related research and to help reassure patient contributors and the advocacy community that their contributions are valued and respected.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: Improving Biodiesel and Other Fuels’ Quality

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office is working with industry to test biofuels samples and improve their quality and consistency over time.

  17. Water Efficiency Improvements at Various U.S. Environmental Protection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Efficiency Improvements at Various U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water Efficiency Improvements at Various U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water...

  18. Water Efficiency Improvements at Various U.S. Environmental Protection...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Improvements at Various U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water Efficiency Improvements at Various U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Sites Water ...

  19. 2010 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan 2010 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan This Project Plan is jointly developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), to provide execution support to the EM Quality Assurance (QA) Corporate Board. The Board serves a vital and critical role in ensuring that the EM mission is completed safely, correctly, and efficiently. 2010 Quality Assurance Improvement Project

  20. 2012 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan 2012 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan This Project Plan is jointly developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), to provide execution support to the EM Quality Assurance (QA) Corporate Board. The Board serves a vital and critical role in ensuring that the EM mission is completed safely, correctly, and efficiently. 2012 Quality Assurance Improvement

  1. 2014 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan 2014 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan This Project Plan is jointly developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), to provide execution support to the EM Quality Assurance (QA) Corporate Board. The Board serves a vital and critical role in ensuring that the EM mission is completed safely, correctly, and efficiently. 2014 Quality Assurance Improvement

  2. 2015 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan 2015 Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan This Project Plan is jointly developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), to provide execution support to the EM Quality Assurance (QA) Corporate Board. The Board serves a vital and critical role in ensuring that the EM mission is completed safely, correctly, and efficiently. 2015 Quality Assurance Improvement

  3. Slag pit practices to improve slag quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertdogan, A.; Gambol, F.C.; Spaeth, J.R.; Zbos, J.; Batka, R.; Tolliver, D.

    1996-12-31

    Slag quality had deteriorated recently. Without the explicit approval for slag quality by the Illinois Department of Transportation, the slag would not be saleable. Disposal of slag to landfills was going to be an expensive solution and rife with environmental concerns. A slag quality control program embarked on in mid-1994 restored slag quality to desired specifications. This paper describes the changes in slag pit practice adopted following extensive tests performed on cooling slag under controlled conditions.

  4. Optical parametric osicllators with improved beam quality

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Arlee V.; Alford, William J.

    2003-11-11

    An optical parametric oscillator (OPO) having an optical pump, which generates a pump beam at a pump frequency greater than a desired signal frequency, a nonlinear optical medium oriented so that a signal wave at the desired signal frequency and a corresponding idler wave are produced when the pump beam (wave) propagates through the nonlinear optical medium, resulting in beam walk off of the signal and idler waves, and an optical cavity which directs the signal wave to repeatedly pass through the nonlinear optical medium, said optical cavity comprising an equivalently even number of non-planar mirrors that produce image rotation on each pass through the nonlinear optical medium. Utilizing beam walk off where the signal wave and said idler wave have nonparallel Poynting vectors in the nonlinear medium and image rotation, a correlation zone of distance equal to approximately .rho.L.sub.crystal is created which, through multiple passes through the nonlinear medium, improves the beam quality of the OPO output.

  5. Utah Water Quality Standards Workgroup Website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quality Standards Workgroup Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Utah Water Quality Standards Workgroup Website Abstract This...

  6. CBEI: Improving Benchmarking Data Quality - 2015 Peer Review | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Benchmarking Data Quality - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Improving Benchmarking Data Quality - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Scott Wagner, PSU View the Presentation CBEI: Improving Benchmarking Data Quality - 2015 Peer Review (1.49 MB) More Documents & Publications CBEI: Aligning Owners and Service Providers - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Using DOE Tools - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Benchmarking Analytics Tools - 2015

  7. Bio-oil Quality Improvement and Catalytic Hydrotreating of Bio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2.3.1.302 Bio-oil Quality Improvement and Catalytic Hydrotreating of Bio-oils - PNNL ... lifetime Define quality metric for oil feed and intermediate streams Understand ...

  8. Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Congress declares that there is a national policy for the environment which provides for the enhancement of environmental quality. This policy is evidenced by statutes heretofore enacted...

  9. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification of

  10. Real-Time Water Quality Management in the Grassland Water District

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanna, W. Mark; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josphine R.; Taylor, Christophe M.; Marciochi, Don; Lower, Scott; Woodruff, Veronica; Wright, Diane; Poole, Tim

    2004-12-10

    The purpose of the research project was to advance the concept of real-time water quality management in the San Joaquin Basin by developing an application to drainage of seasonal wetlands in the Grassland Water District. Real-time water quality management is defined as the coordination of reservoir releases, return flows and river diversions to improve water quality conditions in the San Joaquin River and ensure compliance with State water quality objectives. Real-time water quality management is achieved through information exchange and cooperation between shakeholders who contribute or withdraw flow and salt load to or from the San Joaquin River. This project complements a larger scale project that was undertaken by members of the Water Quality Subcommittee of the San Joaquin River Management Program (SJRMP) and which produced forecasts of flow, salt load and San Joaquin River assimilative capacity between 1999 and 2003. These forecasts can help those entities exporting salt load to the River to develop salt load targets as a mechanism for improving compliance with salinity objectives. The mass balance model developed by this project is the decision support tool that helps to establish these salt load targets. A second important outcome of this project was the development and application of a methodology for assessing potential impacts of real-time wetland salinity management. Drawdown schedules are typically tied to weather conditions and are optimized in traditional practices to maximize food sources for over-wintering wildfowl as well as providing a biological control (through germination temperature) of undesirable weeds that compete with the more proteinaceous moist soil plants such as swamp timothy, watergrass and smartweed. This methodology combines high resolution remote sensing, ground-truthing vegetation surveys using established survey protocols and soil salinity mapping using rapid, automated electromagnetic sensor technology. This survey methodology

  11. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Section 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    document outlines the Agency of Natural Resources coordination process with respect to Clean Water Act Section 401 water quality certification decisions. Author Vermont...

  12. Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act Published Publisher...

  13. Hawaii Water Quality Certification Form | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Certification Form Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Hawaii Water Quality Certification Form Form Type ApplicationNotice Form...

  14. Colorado Water Quality Control Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Colorado Water Quality Control ActLegal Abstract Statute setting forth laws for water quality control...

  15. Regional Water Quality Control Boards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Regional Water Quality Control BoardsLegal Abstract California Regional Water Quality Control Boards,...

  16. Geothermal Power Plants — Meeting Water Quality and Conservation Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    U.S. geothermal power plants can easily meet federal, state, and local water quality and conservation standards.

  17. Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Web) | Department of Energy and Water Quality Food Web) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food Web) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food Web) 57_mhk_modeling.ppt (7.28 MB) More Documents & Publications Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport, and Water Quality) Free Flow Energy (TRL 1 2 3 Component) - Design and Development of a Cross-Platform Submersible Generator Optimized for the

  18. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality across multiple states Permitting Location State Nonpoint Source Pollution Process Nonpoint Source Pollution Agency State Discharge Elimination System...

  19. RAPID/Geothermal/Water Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality across multiple states Permitting Location State Nonpoint Source Pollution Process Nonpoint Source Pollution Agency State Discharge Elimination System...

  20. Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave Title: Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave Two datasets, one a ...

  1. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems This project ...

  2. Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Project Management Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology...

  3. Improving weld quality with laser monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burris, M.K.

    1980-10-01

    A carbon dioxide laser beam monitoring system has been developed to enhance the quality of a weld by monitoring equipment parameters affecting the weld. Investigative efforts resulted in the characterization of a laser beam by specially designed monitor assemblies, data collection by a newly developed data acquisition system, and data analysis by computer interface with the data acquisition system.

  4. WDEQ-Water Quality Division | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quality Division Jump to: navigation, search Name: WDEQ-Water Quality Division Abbreviation: WDEQ WQD Address: 122 West 25th Street 3W Place: Cheyenne, Wyoming Zip: 82002 Phone...

  5. EPA 401 Water Quality Certification website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OtherOther: EPA 401 Water Quality Certification websiteLegal Abstract The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides various information and resources related...

  6. EPA Handbook on 401 Water Quality Certifications | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: EPA Handbook on 401 Water Quality CertificationsPermittingRegulatory...

  7. Utah Division of Water Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Quality Protection Permitting Contact 2 Contacts.png Woody Campbell http:www.waterquality.utah.gov Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  8. Montana 401 Water Quality Certification Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana 401 Water Quality Certification Webpage Abstract Contains information on...

  9. Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater Discharge Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permits) Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater Discharge Permits) Website...

  10. Vermont Section 401 Water Quality Certification Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Vermont Section 401 Water Quality Certification Program Abstract Vermont Agency of Natural Resource's...

  11. Vermont Application for Individual Section 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application for Individual Section 401 Water Quality Certification Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Vermont Application for Individual...

  12. Texas Surface Water Quality Standards Webpage | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Texas Surface Water Quality Standards Webpage Citation Texas Commission on...

  13. WSDE 401 Water Quality Certification webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for WSDE 401 Water Quality Certification webpage Citation Washington State...

  14. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water ... New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. ...

  15. Improved and new water-pumping windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    The conventional multibladed windmill - a functional, reliable, long-lasting, economical-range water-pumping system - has been in use for over 125 years. However, work continues on improvements to the conventional windmill and the development of new designs such as: Fully counterbalanced windmill; Spring-counterbalanced windmill; Cam-operated windmill; Hydraulic system which replaces the pump rods of a conventional windmill; Automatic stroke control for a conventional windmill; Automatic stroke control for a three-bladed wind turbine; Electric wind ac generator driving an ac submersible pump; Electric wind dc generator driving a dc submersible pump; Windmill-driven air compressor operating an air-lift pump; Long-life well cylinder; Performance modeling and testing of windmills.

  16. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  17. Water Efficiency Improvements At Various Environmental Protection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. EPA completed ...

  18. Project Hanford management contract quality improvement project management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADAMS, D.E.

    1999-03-25

    On July 13, 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) Manager transmitted a letter to Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) describing several DOE-RL identified failed opportunities for FDH to improve the Quality Assurance (QA) Program and its implementation. In addition, DOE-RL identified specific Quality Program performance deficiencies. FDH was requested to establish a periodic reporting mechanism for the corrective action program. In a July 17, 1998 response to DOE-RL, FDH agreed with the DOE concerns and committed to perform a comprehensive review of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) QA Program during July and August, 1998. As a result, the Project Hanford Management Contract Quality Improvement Plan (QIP) (FDH-3508) was issued on October 21, 1998. The plan identified corrective actions based upon the results of an in-depth Quality Program Assessment. Immediately following the scheduled October 22, 1998, DOE Office of Enforcement and Investigation (EH-10) Enforcement Conference, FDH initiated efforts to effectively implement the QIP corrective actions. A Quality Improvement Project (QI Project) leadership team was assembled to prepare a Project Management Plan for this project. The management plan was specifically designed to engage a core team and the support of representatives from FDH and the major subcontractors (MSCs) to implement the QIP initiatives; identify, correct, and provide feedback as to the root cause for deficiency; and close out the corrective actions. The QI Project will manage and communicate progress of the process.

  19. Software quality and process improvement in scientific simulation codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrosiano, J.; Webster, R.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the quest to develope better simulation code quality through process modeling and improvement. This study is based on the experience of the authors and interviews with ten subjects chosen from simulation code development teams at LANL. This study is descriptive rather than scientific.

  20. 23 CCR 3855 et seq. - Water Quality Certification | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 23 CCR 3855 et seq. - Water Quality CertificationLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took...

  1. Montana 2012 Final Water Quality Integrated Report: Appendix...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appendix A Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Montana 2012 Final Water Quality Integrated Report: Appendix A Abstract Index for impaired...

  2. Montana 2012 Final Water Quality Integrated Report | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Report Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Montana 2012 Final Water Quality Integrated Report Abstract Provides an overview of sources of...

  3. ADEQ 401 Water Quality Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ADEQ 401 Water Quality FormsLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2012 Legal Citation Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  4. ARM 17-30 - Water Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water quality regulations. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1980 Legal Citation ARM 17.30 (1980) DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org...

  5. Title 18 Alaska Administrative Code Chapter 70 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0 Water Quality Standards Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Title 18 Alaska Administrative Code Chapter 70...

  6. Geothermal Direct-Use — Meeting Water Quality Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal direct-use applications—such as greenhouses, district and space heating, and aquaculture—can easily meet local and federal water quality standards, which help protect our environment.

  7. New Mexico Surface Water Quality Bureau Federal Dredge and Fill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: New Mexico Surface Water Quality Bureau Federal Dredge and Fill Permits webpage Author New Mexico...

  8. WAC - 173-210A Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0A Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters of the State of Washington Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation:...

  9. New pulsating casing collar to improve cementing quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.; He, K.; Wu, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the design and test results of a new pulsating casing collar which improves cementing quality. The new pulsating casing collar (PCC) is designed according to the Helmholtz oscillator to generate a pulsating jet flow by self-excitation in the cementing process. By placing this new pulsating casing collar at the bottom of casing string, the generated pulsating jet flow transmits vibrating pressure waves up through the annulus and helps remove drilling mud in the annulus. It can therefore improve cementing quality, especially when eccentric annulus exists due to casing eccentricity where the mud is difficult to remove. The new pulsating casing collar consists of a top nozzle, a resonant chamber, and a bottom nozzle. It can be manufactured easily and is easy to use in the field. It has been tested in Jianghan oil-field, P.R. China. The field-test results support the theoretical analysis and laboratory test, and the cementing quality is shown greatly improved by using the new pulsating casing collar.

  10. Use of Long Time-series ACRF Measurements to Improve Data Quality...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Use of Long Time-Series ACRF Measurements to Improve Data Quality Analysis Sean Moore Mission Research and Technical Services Santa Barbara, CA ARM Data Quality Office...

  11. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

    2003-04-01

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the

  12. Method to improve optical parametric oscillator beam quality

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Arlee V.; Alford, William J.; Bowers, Mark S.

    2003-11-11

    A method to improving optical parametric oscillator (OPO) beam quality having an optical pump, which generates a pump beam at a pump frequency greater than a desired signal frequency, a nonlinear optical medium oriented so that a signal wave at the desired signal frequency and a corresponding idler wave are produced when the pump beam (wave) propagates through the nonlinear optical medium, resulting in beam walk off of the signal and idler waves, and an optical cavity which directs the signal wave to repeatedly pass through the nonlinear optical medium, said optical cavity comprising an equivalently even number of non-planar mirrors that produce image rotation on each pass through the nonlinear optical medium. Utilizing beam walk off where the signal wave and said idler wave have nonparallel Poynting vectors in the nonlinear medium and image rotation, a correlation zone of distance equal to approximately .rho.L.sub.crystal is created which, through multiple passes through the nonlinear medium, improves the beam quality of the OPO output.

  13. Improve Chilled Water System Peformance: Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) Improves Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) can help optimize the performance of of industrial chilled water systems.

  14. Improving Light Water Reactor Fuel Reliability Via Flow-Induced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving Light Water Reactor Fuel Reliability Via Flow-Indu... Failures of the fuel rod elements used to power U.S. nuclear ... and a recognized bottleneck to optimal fuel utilization. ...

  15. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed

  16. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  17. Improving the Quality and Scope of EIA Data

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    Section 805(a) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Public Law 110-1401 requires the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to establish a five-year plan to enhance the quality and scope of its data collection necessary to ensure that the scope, accuracy, and timeliness of the information needed for efficient functioning of energy markets and related financial operations. This report is in response to section 805(b) of EISA which calls on EIA to submit to Congress the plan established under subsection (a), including a description of any improvements needed to enhance the ability of the Administrator to collect and process energy information in a manner consistent with the needs of energy markets.

  18. Improved association in a classical density functional theory for water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krebs, Eric J.; Schulte, Jeff B.; Roundy, David

    2014-03-28

    We present a modification to our recently published statistical associating fluid theory-based classical density functional theory for water. We have recently developed and tested a functional for the averaged radial distribution function at contact of the hard-sphere fluid that is dramatically more accurate at interfaces than earlier approximations. We now incorporate this improved functional into the association term of our free energy functional for water, improving its description of hydrogen bonding. We examine the effect of this improvement by studying two hard solutes (a hard hydrophobic rod and a hard sphere) and a Lennard-Jones approximation of a krypton atom solute. The improved functional leads to a moderate change in the density profile and a large decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds broken in the vicinity of the hard solutes. We find an improvement of the partial radial distribution for a krypton atom in water when compared with experiment.

  19. Flattening filter removal for improved image quality of megavoltage fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, James D.; Kirichenko, Alexander; Gayou, Olivier

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Removal of the linear accelerator (linac) flattening filter enables a high rate of dose deposition with reduced treatment time. When used for megavoltage imaging, an unflat beam has reduced primary beam scatter resulting in sharper images. In fluoroscopic imaging mode, the unflat beam has higher photon count per image frame yielding higher contrast-to-noise ratio. The authors goal was to quantify the effects of an unflat beam on the image quality of megavoltage portal and fluoroscopic images.Methods: 6 MV projection images were acquired in fluoroscopic and portal modes using an electronic flat-panel imager. The effects of the flattening filter on the relative modulation transfer function (MTF) and contrast-to-noise ratio were quantified using the QC3 phantom. The impact of FF removal on the contrast-to-noise ratio of gold fiducial markers also was studied under various scatter conditions.Results: The unflat beam had improved contrast resolution, up to 40% increase in MTF contrast at the highest frequency measured (0.75 line pairs/mm). The contrast-to-noise ratio was increased as expected from the increased photon flux. The visualization of fiducial markers was markedly better using the unflat beam under all scatter conditions, enabling visualization of thin gold fiducial markers, the thinnest of which was not visible using the unflat beam.Conclusions: The removal of the flattening filter from a clinical linac leads to quantifiable improvements in the image quality of megavoltage projection images. These gains enable observers to more easily visualize thin fiducial markers and track their motion on fluoroscopic images.

  20. An alternative approach to achieving water quality-based limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, C.M.; Graeser, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    Since May 1982, members of the Iron and Steel Industry have been required to meet effluent limits based on Best Available Technology (BAT) for a process water discharge to receiving stream. US Steel Clairton Works has been successful in meeting these limits in the last three years; however, the current regulatory thrust is toward more stringent limits based on water quality. In cases of smaller streams such as the receiving stream for Clairton Works` process outfall, these limits can be very rigid. This paper will discuss the alternative approaches investigated to meet the new more stringent limits including the solution chosen.

  1. Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butkus, S.R. . Water Quality Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  3. Linking quality improvement and energy efficiency/waste reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.E.; Moore, N.L.

    1995-04-01

    For some time industry has recognized the importance of both energy efficiency/waste reduction (ee/wr) and quality/manufacturing improvement. However, industry has not particularly recognized that manufacturing efficiency is, in part, the result of a more efficient use of energy. For that reason, the energy efficiency efforts of most companies have involved admonishing employees to save energy. Few organizations have invested resources in training programs aimed at increasing energy efficiency and reducing waste. This describes a program to demonstrate how existing utility and government training and incentive programs can be leveraged to increase ee/wr and benefit both industry and consumers. Fortunately, there are a variety of training tools and resources that can be applied to educating workers on the benefits of energy efficiency and waste reduction. What is lacking is a method of integrating ee/wr training with other important organizational needs. The key, therefore, is to leverage ee/wr investments with other organizational improvement programs. There are significant strides to be made by training industry to recognize fully the contribution that energy efficiency gains make to the bottom line. The federal government stands in the unique position of being able to leverage the investments already made by states, utilities, and manufacturing associations by coordinating training programs and defining the contribution of energy-efficiency practices. These aims can be accomplished by: developing better measures of energy efficiency and waste reduction; promoting methods of leveraging manufacturing efficiency programs with energy efficiency concepts; helping industry understand how ee/wr investments can increase profits; promoting research on the needs of, and most effective ways to, reach the small and medium-sized businesses that so often lack the time, information, and finances to effectively use the hardware and training technologies available.

  4. File:06MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:06MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidi...

  5. File:Colorado Water Quality Control Act.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Water Quality Control Act.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Colorado Water Quality Control Act.pdf Size of this preview: 463 ...

  6. ARS Title 49-200 Water Quality Control | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    -200 Water Quality Control Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ARS Title 49-200 Water Quality ControlLegal Abstract...

  7. ARM 17-30-101 - Water Quality: 401 Certification | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    30-101 - Water Quality: 401 Certification Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: ARM 17-30-101 - Water Quality:...

  8. U.A.C. R317-6: Ground Water Quality Protection | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6: Ground Water Quality Protection Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: U.A.C. R317-6: Ground Water Quality...

  9. A.A.C. R18-11: Water Quality Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C. R18-11: Water Quality Standards Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: A.A.C. R18-11: Water Quality...

  10. Improved quality of intrafraction kilovoltage images by triggered readout of unexposed frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Jonassen, Johnny; Jensen, Carsten; Schmidt, Mai Lykkegaard

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The gantry-mounted kilovoltage (kV) imager of modern linear accelerators can be used for real-time tumor localization during radiation treatment delivery. However, the kV image quality often suffers from cross-scatter from the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. This study investigates readout of unexposed kV frames as a means to improve the kV image quality in a series of experiments and a theoretical model of the observed image quality improvements. Methods: A series of fluoroscopic images were acquired of a solid water phantom with an embedded gold marker and an air cavity with and without simultaneous radiation of the phantom with a 6 MV beam delivered perpendicular to the kV beam with 300 and 600 monitor units per minute (MU/min). An in-house built device triggered readout of zero, one, or multiple unexposed frames between the kV exposures. The unexposed frames contained part of the MV scatter, consequently reducing the amount of MV scatter accumulated in the exposed frames. The image quality with and without unexposed frame readout was quantified as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold marker and air cavity for a range of imaging frequencies from 1 to 15 Hz. To gain more insight into the observed CNR changes, the image lag of the kV imager was measured and used as input in a simple model that describes the CNR with unexposed frame readout in terms of the contrast, kV noise, and MV noise measured without readout of unexposed frames. Results: Without readout of unexposed kV frames, the quality of intratreatment kV images decreased dramatically with reduced kV frequencies due to MV scatter. The gold marker was only visible for imaging frequencies ≥3 Hz at 300 MU/min and ≥5 Hz for 600 MU/min. Visibility of the air cavity required even higher imaging frequencies. Readout of multiple unexposed frames ensured visibility of both structures at all imaging frequencies and a CNR that was independent of the kV frame rate. The image lag was 12.2%, 2

  11. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of Defense Exchange Facilities Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of Defense ...

  12. Standards, Guidance and Practices for Improved Data Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin B. Sattison

    2010-06-01

    Since the mid 1980s, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been involved with numerous projects to collect operational reactor data, develop data tools, and trend and analyze that data for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because the data are used in subsequent risk analyses, the NRC must have confidence in the quality of the data delivered. The NRC tasked the INL to establish a comprehensive data quality assurance program. A key element of that effort was to establish a set of requirements based on industry and government standards, guidance and good practices. This paper discusses where these were found, the process of extracting the requirements and recommendations from the source materials, and the consolidation of them into a concise set of 22 standards, guidance and practices for technical data quality. While this set was created specifically for the data programs within the NRC’s Office of Research, they have broad application to many high-technology industries.

  13. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office: Improving Biodiesel and Other Fuels' Quality

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For biofuels to succeed in the marketplace, they must be easy to use with a minimum of problems. The Vehicle Technologies Office has collaborated with industry to test biofuel samples and improve...

  15. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempel, Jane

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  16. 2009-12 "Hold a Planned DOE-EM Meeting on LANL Water Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Programs in a Northern New Mexico Location" 2009-12 "Hold a Planned DOE-EM Meeting on LANL Water Quality Programs in a Northern New Mexico Location" The NNMCAB recommends ...

  17. WAC - 173-200 Water Quality Standards for Groundwaters of the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    These rules establish ground water quality standards to protect the environment and human health and protection of existing and future beneficial uses of groundwaters in...

  18. 5 CCR 1002-42 Site Specific Water Quality Standards for Ground...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: 5 CCR 1002-42 Site Specific Water Quality Standards for Ground WaterLegal Abstract...

  19. MCA 75-5-101 et seq. - Water Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: MCA 75-5-101 et seq. - Water QualityLegal Abstract Title 75, Chapter 5, MCA governs water...

  20. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  1. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  2. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed, these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the western-most pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground-water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Novel ebullated bed catalyst regeneration technology improves regenerated catalyst quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuman, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Regeneration of spent hydroprocessing catalysts has long been practiced by the refining industry. With increased pressures on refiners to reduce catalyst expenditures and waste generation, refiners are more frequently reusing spent hydroprocessing catalysts after ex-situ regeneration to restore catalytic activity. By reusing regenerated catalyst for at least two cycles, the refiner reduces catalyst waste by at least one-half. As environmental laws become more restrictive, spent hydroprocessing catalyst is more likely to be classified as hazardous waste. Disposal of spent catalyst, which was previously accomplished by landfilling, now requires more expensive reclamation techniques. TRICAT has introduced the TRICAT Regeneration Process (TRP), a novel ebullated bed regeneration plant, to improve the catalyst regeneration process. The ebullated bed design allows for better control of heat release during the regeneration process. As a result, the regeneration can be accomplished in a single-pass, with improved catalyst activity retention. Catalyst losses are also minimized due to reduced catalyst handling. Commercial results from the TRP have demonstrated successful scale-up of the technology from pilot scale. The plant has achieved complete recovery of the available catalyst activity with little or no losses in catalyst yield or extrudate length. The flexibility of the TRP to process a variety of catalysts is also discussed.

  4. Technologies for improved soil carbon management and environmental quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reicosky, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to create an environmental awareness of and to provide insight into the future balance of environment and economic issues in developing new technologies that benefit the farmer, the public, and agricultural product sales. Agricultural impacts of tillage-induced CO{sub 2} losses are addressed along with new and existing technologies to minimize tillage-induced flow of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, Emphasis is placed on the carbon cycle and the cost of environmental damage to illustrate the need for improved technologies leading to reduced environmental impacts by business ventures. New technologies and concepts related to methods of tillage and stover management for carbon sequestration with the agricultural production systems are presented. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Needs and perspectives of air quality improvement in Cracow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wertz, J.

    1995-12-31

    In 1970s and 80s the Cracow province area belonged to the regions of highest concentration of air pollutants throughout Europe. The majority of inhabitants, terrified of continuously worsening conditions of the environment, were of the opinion that this situation was caused by the industrial plants located within the Cracow area (town and/or province) as well as by the advection of pollutants from the neighboring Katowice province - the most industrialized region of Poland. The results of two large measurement series carried out in Cracow in 1984 and 1986 were surprising for the majority of the people. It appeared that 40% of the pollution came from local coal-fired boiler houses and household coal-fired stoves. These emission sources, situated at relatively low altitude above the ground level, were called low emission sources. The quantity of such sources has been estimated. It was estimated that the number of local boiler houses was close to 1,600 while the total number of household tile stoves reached 200,000. A full inventory of these sources drawn up in 1989-90 confirmed the quantity of existing boiler houses and the verified total number of tile stoves was 130,000. In 1986, the elimination of low emission sources was admitted to be one of the strategic directions of actions in the field of air quality protection. The following two solutions to this problem were accepted for implementation: (1) boiler house elimination by means of an administrative, compulsory decision, and (2) co-financing or even complete financing from the environmental protection fund, of the capital investment related to the elimination of a boiler house or its conversion to another mode of heating (gas, fuel-oil or connection to the municipal district heating loop). These two solutions are discussed.

  6. Riding the Clean Energy Wave: New Projects Aim to Improve Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Riding the Clean Energy Wave: New Projects Aim to Improve Water Power Devices Riding the Clean Energy Wave: New Projects Aim to Improve Water Power Devices April 16, 2014 - 1:56pm ...

  7. Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in theSan Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington,Dennis W.

    2005-08-28

    The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing methods were developed to document long-term trends in wetland moist soil vegetation and soil salinity in response to management options such as delaying the initiation of seasonal wetland drainage. These environmental management tools provide wetland managers with some of the tools necessary to improve salinity conditions in the San Joaquin River and improve compliance with State mandated salinity objectives without inflicting long-term harm on the wild fowl habitat resource.

  8. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  9. Does enhanced regulation improve EIA report quality? Lessons from South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandham, L.A.; Heerden, A.J. van; Jones, C.E.; Retief, F.P.; Morrison-Saunders, A.N.

    2013-01-15

    Recently, various EIA systems have been subjected to system review processes with a view to improve performance. Many of these reviews resulted in some form of legislative reform. The South African Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations were modified in 2006 with the express intent to improve EIA effectiveness. In order to evaluate to what extent the desired outcome was achieved, the quality of EIA reports produced under the 2006 regulations was investigated for comparative analysis with the preceding regime. A sample of EIA reports from the two legislative regimes was reviewed using an adapted version of a well established method known colloquially as the 'Lee and Colley' review package. Despite some improvements in certain aspects, overall report quality has decreased slightly from the 1997 EIA regime. It therefore appears that the modifications to the regulations, often heralded as the solution to improvements in performance have not resulted in improved quality of EIA reports. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA regulations in South Africa were revised and became more comprehensive in 2006. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The report quality of a sample of EIAs was reviewed using the Lee and Colley review package. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report quality showed a slight decline from the previous regulatory regime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA good practice needs flexibility rather than over-detailed regulation.

  10. NREL Survey Shows Dramatic Improvement in B100 Biodiesel Quality - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Survey Shows Dramatic Improvement in B100 Biodiesel Quality April 15, 2013 The latest national survey of 100% biodiesel (B100) "blend stock" samples by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) found that 95% of the samples from 2011-12 met ASTM International fuel quality specifications. The ASTM standards serve as guidelines for industry and are designed to ensure quality at the pump for consumers - along with reliable operation of

  11. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to think about performing water audits. Kitchens can be out of sight, out of mind; a commercial kitchen, however, can consume large amounts of water and energy if inefficient ...

  12. OAR 340-048 - Certification of Compliance with Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Procedures for processing applications for certification pursuant to Section 401 of the Clean Water Act. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1985 Legal Citation OAR 340-048...

  13. 16 TAC, part 1, chapter 3, rule 3.93 Water Quality Certification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    93 Water Quality Certification Definitions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 16 TAC, part 1, chapter 3, rule...

  14. MCA 75-5-401 - Water Quality Permits: Board Rules for Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: MCA 75-5-401 - Water Quality Permits: Board Rules for PermitsLegal Abstract Sets forth board...

  15. H.A.R. 11-54 - Water Quality Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: H.A.R. 11-54 - Water Quality StandardsLegal Abstract The State of Hawaii Department of Health...

  16. 49 A.R.S. 321 et seq.: Water Quality Appeals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 49 A.R.S. 321 et seq.: Water Quality AppealsLegal Abstract This section governs appeals to the...

  17. NMS 74-6-4 Duties and Powers of the Water Quality Control Commission...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    -4 Duties and Powers of the Water Quality Control Commission Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: NMS 74-6-4 Duties...

  18. U.A.C. R317-2: Standards of Quality for Waters of the State ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: U.A.C. R317-2: Standards of Quality for Waters of the StateLegal Abstract This regulation...

  19. U.A.C. R317-15: Water Quality Certification | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: U.A.C. R317-15: Water Quality CertificationLegal Abstract This rule establishes procedures for...

  20. I.C. 39-3602 - Water Quality--Definitions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: I.C. 39-3602 - Water Quality--DefinitionsLegal Abstract This statutory section provides...

  1. Stormwater runoff water quality evaluation and management program for hazardous chemical sites: Development issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, G.F.; Jones-Lee, A.

    1998-12-31

    The deficiencies in the typical stormwater runoff water quality monitoring from hazardous chemical sites and an alternative approach (Evaluation Monitoring) for monitoring that shifts the monitoring program from periodic sampling and analysis of stormwater runoff for a suite of chemical parameters to examining the receiving waters to determine what, if any, water quality use impairments are occurring due to the runoff-associated constituents is presented in this paper. Rather than measuring potentially toxic constituents such as heavy metals in runoff, the monitoring program determines whether there is aquatic life toxicity in the receiving waters associated with the stormwater runoff. If toxicity is found, its cause is determined and the source of the constituents causing the toxicity is identified through forensic analysis. Based on this information, site-specific, technically valid stormwater runoff management programs can be developed that will control real water quality impacts caused by stormwater runoff-associated constituents.

  2. A modeling study of the potential water quality impacts from in-stream tidal energy extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-09

    To assess the effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality in a simplified estuarine system, which consists of a tidal bay connected to the coastal ocean through a narrow channel where energy is extracted using in-stream tidal turbines, a three-dimensional coastal ocean model with built-in tidal turbine and water quality modules was applied. The effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality were examined for two energy extraction scenarios as compared with the baseline condition. It was found, in general, that the environmental impacts associated with energy extraction depend highly on the amount of power extracted from the system.more » Model results indicate that, as a result of energy extraction from the channel, the competition between decreased flushing rates in the bay and increased vertical mixing in the channel directly affects water quality responses in the bay. The decreased flushing rates tend to cause a stronger but negative impact on water quality. On the other hand, the increase of vertical mixing could lead to higher bottom dissolved oxygen at times. As the first modeling effort directly aimed at examining the impacts of tidal energy extraction on estuarine water quality, this study demonstrates that numerical models can serve as a very useful tool for this purpose. Furthermore, more careful efforts are warranted to address system-specific environmental issues in real-world, complex estuarine systems.« less

  3. Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Coutant, Charles C

    2006-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used

  4. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  5. Waste stream recycling: Its effect on water quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornwell, D.A. ); Lee, R.G. )

    1994-11-01

    Waste streams recycled to the influent of a water treatment plant typically contain contaminants at concentrations that are of concern. These contaminants may include giardia and Cryptosporidium, trihalomethanes, manganese, and assimilable organic carbon. This research shows that proper management--treatment, equalization, and monitoring--of the waste streams can render them suitable for recycling in many situations.

  6. Improving the efficiency of water splitting in dye-sensitized...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bound to the water oxidation catalyst, a colloidal iridium oxide particle, and is coadsorbed onto a porous titanium dioxide electrode with a Ruthenium polypyridyl sensitizer. ...

  7. DNFSB 2002-1 Software Quality Assurance Improvement Plan Commitment 4.2.1.2: Safety Quality Assurance Plan and Criteria for the Safety Analysis Toolbox Codes

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EH-4.2.1.2-Criteria Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2002-1 Software Quality Assurance Improvement Plan Commitment 4.2.1.2: Software Quality Assurance Plan and Criteria for the Safety Analysis Toolbox Codes U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environment, Safety and Health 1000 Independence Ave., S.W. Washington, DC 20585-2040 November 2003 Software Quality Assurance Criteria for Safety Analysis Codes November 2003 INTENTIONALLY BLANK ii Software Quality Assurance Criteria

  8. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Defense Exchange Facilities | Department of Energy Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of Defense Exchange Facilities Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of Defense Exchange Facilities Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of Defense Exchange Facilities Case study details the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Exchange (formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service), which took a

  9. Quality problems in waters used for drinking purposes in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funari, E.; Bastone, A.; Bottoni, P.; De Donno, D.; Donati, L. )

    1991-12-01

    With a grant from the Italian Ministry of the Environment, the National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita) promoted and coordinated some activities aimed at determining the extent and the intensity of contamination of waters used for human consumption by some chemical agents, and describing causes and modalities of contamination and human health implications. The chemical agents examined were herbicides, nitrates, trihalomethanes, asbestos, manganese and fluoride. In this paper a first nationwide picture of these problems is reported.

  10. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  11. A methodology for evaluating air pollution strategies to improve the air quality in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrera-Roldan, A.S.; Guzman, F.; Hardie, R.W.; Thayer, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative has developed a methodology to assist decision makers in determining optimum pollution control strategies for atmospheric pollutants. The methodology introduces both objective and subjective factors in the comparison of various strategies for improving air quality. Strategies or group of options are first selected using linear programming. These strategies are then compared using Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis. The decision tree for the Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis was generated by a panel of experts representing the organizations in Mexico that are responsible for formulating policy on air quality improvement. Three sample strategies were analyzed using the methodology: one to reduce ozone by 33% using the most cost effective group of options, the second to reduce ozone by 43% using the most cost effective group of options and the third to reduce ozone by 43% emphasizing the reduction of emissions from industrial sources. Of the three strategies, the analysis indicated that strategy 2 would be the preferred strategy for improving air quality in Mexico City.

  12. Water Efficiency Improvements At Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-03-24

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA’s ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  13. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noris, Federico; Delp, William W.; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Singer, Brett C.; Fisk, William J.

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  14. Protocol for Maximizing Energy Savings and Indoor Environmental Quality Improvements when Retrofitting Apartments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noris, Federico; Delp, William W.; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Singer, Brett C.; Fis, William J.

    2012-06-18

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  15. IMPROVING BIOMASS LOGISTICS COST WITHIN AGRONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY CONSTRAINTS AND BIOMASS QUALITY TARGETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; David J. Muth; William Smith

    2012-10-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon shelf-life. The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  16. An improved multi-exposure approach for high quality holographic femtosecond laser patterning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei E-mail: jwl@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Jiawen E-mail: jwl@ustc.edu.cn; Lao, Zhaoxin; Ni, Jincheng; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Wu, Dong

    2014-12-01

    High efficiency two photon polymerization through single exposure via spatial light modulator (SLM) has been used to decrease the fabrication time and rapidly realize various micro/nanostructures, but the surface quality remains a big problem due to the speckle noise of optical intensity distribution at the defocused plane. Here, a multi-exposure approach which used tens of computer generate holograms successively loaded on SLM is presented to significantly improve the optical uniformity without losing efficiency. By applying multi-exposure, we found that the uniformity at the defocused plane was increased from ?0.02 to ?0.6 according to our simulation. The fabricated two series of letters HELLO and USTC under single-and multi-exposure in our experiment also verified that the surface quality was greatly improved. Moreover, by this method, several kinds of beam splitters with high quality, e.g., 2??2, 5??5 Daman, and complex nonseperate 5??5, gratings were fabricated with both of high quality and short time (<1?min, 95% time-saving). This multi-exposure SLM-two-photon polymerization method showed the promising prospect in rapidly fabricating and integrating various binary optical devices and their systems.

  17. Method and apparatus for improving the quality and efficiency of ultrashort-pulse laser machining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stuart, Brent C.; Nguyen, Hoang T.; Perry, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the quality and efficiency of machining of materials with laser pulse durations shorter than 100 picoseconds by orienting and maintaining the polarization of the laser light such that the electric field vector is perpendicular relative to the edges of the material being processed. Its use is any machining operation requiring remote delivery and/or high precision with minimal collateral dames.

  18. Two-dimensional water quality modeling of Town Creek embayment on Guntersville Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bender, M.D.; Shiao, Ming C.; Hauser, G.E. . Engineering Lab.); Butkus, S.R. . Water Quality Dept.)

    1990-09-01

    TVA investigated water quality of Town Creek embayment using a branched two-dimensional model of Guntersville Reservoir. Simulation results were compared in terms of algal biomass, nutrient concentrations, and volume of embayment with depleted dissolved oxygen. Stratification and flushing play a significant role in the embayment water quality. Storms introduce large loadings of organics, nutrients, and suspended solids. Dissolved oxygen depletion is most severe after storms followed by low flow that fails to flush the embayment. Embayment water quality responses to potential animal waste and erosion controls were explored. Modeling indicated animal waste controls were much more cost-effective than erosion controls. Erosion controls will decrease embayment suspended solids and thereby increase algal biomass due to greater light penetration. 29 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houde, Sebastien; Spurlock, C. Anna

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  20. Dispersal Limitations on Fish Community Recovery Following Long-term Water Quality Remediation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Jett, Robert T.; Ryon, Michael G.; Gregory, Scott M.; Stratton, Sally H.; Peterson, Mark J.

    2016-02-22

    Holistic restoration approaches, such as water quality remediation, are likely to meet conservation objectives because they are typically implemented at watershed scales, as opposed to individual stream reaches. However, habitat fragmentation may impose constraints on the ecological effectiveness of holistic restoration strategies by limiting colonization following remediation. We questioned the importance of dispersal limitations to fish community recovery following long-term water quality remediation and species reintroductions across the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed near Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA). Long-term (26 years) responses in fish species richness and biomass to water quality remediation were evaluated in light of habitat fragmentation andmore » population isolation from instream barriers, which varied in their passage potential. In addition, ordination techniques were used to determine the relative importance of habitat connectivity and water quality, in explaining variation fish communities relative to environmental fluctuations, i.e. streamflow. Ecological recovery (changes in richness) at each site was negatively related to barrier index, a measure of community isolation by barriers relative to stream distance. Following species reintroductions, dispersal by fish species was consistently in the downstream direction and upstream passage above barriers was non-existent. The importance of barrier index in explaining variation in fish communities was stronger during higher flow conditions, but decreased over time an indication of increasing community stability and loss of seasonal migrants. Compared to habitat fragmentation, existing water quality concerns (i.e., outfalls, point source discharges) were unrelated to ecological recovery, but explained relatively high variation in community dynamics. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation limited the ecological effectiveness of intensive water quality remediation efforts and fish reintroduction

  1. Method for quantifying the prediction uncertainties associated with water quality models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, J.K.; Wilson, H.T.; Kou, J.

    1993-01-01

    Many environmental regulatory agencies depend on models to organize, understand, and utilize the information for regulatory decision making. A general analytical protocol was developed to quantify prediction error associated with commonly used surface water quality models. Its application is demonstrated by comparing water quality models configured to represent different levels of spatial, temporal, and mechanistic complexity. This comparison can be accomplished by fitting the models to a benchmark data set. Once the models are successfully fitted to the benchmark data, the prediction errors associated with each application can be quantified using the Monte Carlo simulation techniques.

  2. Farm operator perceptions of water quality protective pest management practices: Selected survey findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, R.; Blair, J.; Webb, B.

    1995-12-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture often poses a tension between water quality and environmental protection goals on the one hand and the viability of food supplies on the other hand. Pesticides used for field crops (e.g., corn, soy beans and wheat) have been detected in waterbodies, and according to some studies, are apparently finding their way into water supplies. A considerable amount of discretion is allowed in farm operator`s choice of pest management practices, and voluntary behavior becomes an important factor in promoting environmentally protective practices. Thus, it is important to know the attitudes of farmers who make pest management decisions including pesticide choices, toward the use of various water quality protective pest management practices. A number of studies show that more general environmental attitudes reflect a general world view that shapes attitudes toward particular environmental issues. This paper addresses the relationship between the more general environmental attitudes of farmers to their attitudes toward water quality issues and pest management practices which are protective of water quality. Some of the personal tradeoffs farmers are willing to make to enhance environmental controls on pesticides are also explored. Results are based on preliminary findings from a survey of farm operators who grow corn, soybeans and other field crops in three eastern states. The survey was conducted via a mail questionnaire to 2,700 farmers with telephone follow-up during the Fall of 1994. Implications of the findings for pest management in general are discussed.

  3. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Rubber-pyrolysis oil is difficult to be fuel due to high proportion of PAHs. • The efficiency of pyrolysis was increased as the percentage of sawdust increased. • The adding of sawdust improved pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the PAHs content. • Adding sawdust reduced nitrogen/sulfur in oil and was easier to convert to diesel. - Abstract: This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG–FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis–gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2 s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil.

  4. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks. gshp_spitler_design_tools.html_.pdf (286.01 KB) More Documents & Publications City of Eagan …Civic Ice Arena Renovation

  5. Water quality criteria for colored smokes: Solvent Yellow 33, Final report. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.

    1987-11-01

    The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of Solvent Yellow 33, a quinoline dye used in colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its use and of human health. 87 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. EM Completes Project to Maintain Water Quality of Spent Nuclear Fuel Basin at Idaho Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – EM and its main cleanup contractor at DOE’s Idaho Site recently reached a major project milestone necessary to maintain water quality and continued, safe operations within the site’s spent nuclear fuel storage basin.

  7. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Improved Surface Quality of Exposed Automotive Sheet Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John G. Speer; David K. Matlock; Noel Meyers; Young-Min Choi

    2002-10-10

    Surface quality of sheet steels is an important economic and technical issue for applications such as critical automotive surfaces. This project was therefore initiated to develop a more quantitative methodology for measuring surface imperfections, and to assess their response to forming and painting, particularly with respect to their visibility or invisibility after painting. The objectives were met, and included evaluation of a variety of imperfections present on commercial sheet surfaces or simulated using methods developed in the laboratory. The results are expected to have significant implications with respect to the methodology for assessing surface imperfections, development of quantitative criteria for surface inspection, and understanding and improving key painting process characteristics that influence the perceived quality of sheet steel surfaces.

  8. Effect of FeO-content and potentials for quality improvements of iron ore pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortmann, H.A.; Mertins, E.; Ritz, V.J.

    1995-12-01

    The FeO-content strongly influences the physical and metallurgical properties of iron ore pellets. A wide range of FeO-contents within the pellet deliveries to the Germany market is evaluated. Investigations include the effect of pellet size. The paper concludes potentials for quality improvement of iron ore pellets. Most of the German blast furnaces are operated with high injection rates either of oil or of coal resulting in a decrease of coke consumption down to a level of about 300 kg/t hot metal. As the retention time of the burden increases, blast furnace operators demand higher quality burden material, basically with respect to strength before and during reduction.

  9. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements.

  10. Replanning During Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Improved Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Haihua; Hu Wei; Wang Wei; Chen Peifang; Ding Weijun; Luo Wei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Anatomic and dosimetric changes have been reported during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of replanning on quality of life (QoL) and clinical outcomes during the course of IMRT for NPC patients. Methods and Materials: Between June 2007 and August 2011, 129 patients with NPC were enrolled. Forty-three patients received IMRT without replanning, while 86 patients received IMRT replanning after computed tomography (CT) images were retaken part way through therapy. Chinese versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and Head and Neck Quality of Life Questionnaire 35 were completed before treatment began and at the end of treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of treatment. Overall survival (OS) data were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: IMRT replanning had a profound impact on the QoL of NPC patients, as determined by statistically significant changes in global QoL and other QoL scales. Additionally, the clinical outcome comparison indicates that replanning during IMRT for NPC significantly improved 2-year local regional control (97.2% vs 92.4%, respectively, P=.040) but did not improve 2-year OS (89.8% vs 82.2%, respectively, P=.475). Conclusions: IMRT replanning improves QoL as well as local regional control in patients with NPC. Future research is needed to determine the criteria for replanning for NPC patients undergoing IMRT.

  11. Coastal water quality from remote sensing and GIS. A case study on South West Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poli, U.; Ippoliti, M.; Venturini, C.; Falcone, P.; Marino, A.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the application of remote sensing image processing and GIS techniques in monitoring and managing coastal areas is proposed. The methodology has been applied to South-West Sardinia Coast where the environment is endangered by industrial plants and other human activities. The area is characterized by the presence of many submarine springs aligned along coastal cliffs. Water quality parameters (chlorophyll, suspended sediments and temperature) spatial and temporal variations, have been studied using Landsat TM images. Particularly, in this paper are reported the results referred to sea surface thermal gradients, considered as one of the main water quality index. Thermal gradients have been mapped in order to outline water circulation, thermal pollution and presence and distribution of submarine springs. Furthermore, a GIS approach of relating mono and multitemporal TM data with ground referenced information on industrial plants characteristics and distribution has been applied.

  12. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  13. Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawthorne, Steven B.; Miller, David J.; Lagadec, Arnaud Jean-Marie; Hammond, Peter James; Clifford, Anthony Alan

    2002-01-01

    The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100.degree. to 374.degree. C. while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents, and degrading various compounds.

  14. Water Quality Trends in the Entiat River Subbasin: Final 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodsmith, Richard; Bookter, Andy

    2009-03-30

    The ISEMP program monitors the status and trend of water quality elements that may affect restoration project effectiveness in the Entiat subbasin. As part of this effort, the PNW Research Station (PNW) measures, analyzes and interprets temporal trends in natural stream water pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity and temperature. The Entiat River is currently on the Clean Water Act 303(d) list for pH exceedence, and there is insufficient information to determine the spatial and temporal extent or potential causes of this exceedence. In the spring 2008, PNW redeployed data-logging, multiparameter probes at four locations in the Entiat subbasin to measure water quality parameters, focusing on pH. This resumed previous data collection that was interrupted by river ice in early December 2007. Instruments were again removed from the river in early December 2008. This annual report covers the period from December 2007 through December 2008. The highest pH values occurred during the low-flow period from midsummer through the following midspring then dropped sharply during the annual snowmelt runoff period from late spring through early summer. Water temperature began rapidly increasing during the receding limb of the annual snowmelt hydrograph. Highest mean monthly temperatures occurred in July and August, while instantaneous maxima occurred during the period July-September. Dissolved oxygen reached its lowest levels during the period of highest water temperature in July-September. Specific conductivity remained very low at all sites throughout the year.

  15. Integration of remote sensing and geographic information systems for Great Lakes water quality monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lathrop, R.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The utility of three operational satellite remote sensing systems, namely, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), the SPOT High Resolution Visible (HRV) sensors and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), were evaluated as a means of estimating water quality and surface temperature. Empirical calibration through linear regression techniques was used to relate near-simultaneously acquired satellite radiance/reflectance data and water quality observations obtained in Green Bay and the nearshore waters of Lake Michigan. Four dates of TM and one date each of SPOT and AVHRR imagery/surface reference data were acquired and analyzed. Highly significant relationships were identified between the TM and SPOT data and secchi disk depth, nephelometric turbidity, chlorophyll a, total suspended solids (TSS), absorbance, and surface temperature (TM only). The AVHRR data were not analyzed independently but were used for comparison with the TM data. Calibrated water quality image maps were input to a PC-based raster GIS package, EPPL7. Pattern interpretation and spatial analysis techniques were used to document the circulation dynamics and model mixing processes in Green Bay. A GIS facilitates the retrieval, query and spatial analysis of mapped information and provides the framework for an integrated operational monitoring system for the Great Lakes.

  16. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The QAIP outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance activities as management tools to ensure that UMTRA Project activities are carried out in amanner to protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project, and meet or exceed contract requirements.

  17. Enhancing e-waste estimates: Improving data quality by multivariate Input–Output Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Stevels, Ab; Baldé, Cornelis Peter

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A multivariate Input–Output Analysis method for e-waste estimates is proposed. • Applying multivariate analysis to consolidate data can enhance e-waste estimates. • We examine the influence of model selection and data quality on e-waste estimates. • Datasets of all e-waste related variables in a Dutch case study have been provided. • Accurate modeling of time-variant lifespan distributions is critical for estimate. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input–Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e

  18. Water quality in the shingle creek basin, Florida, before and after wastewater diversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Dell, K.M.

    1994-05-01

    Shingle Creek is a major inflow to Lake Tohopekaliga, Florida. Water quality and the trophic status of Lake Tohopekaliga are affected strongly by the water quality of Shingle Creek. This report documents 10 yr of water quality data in Shingle Creek at the lake outfall; for a pre- (October 1981-December 1986) and a post-wastewater discharge (January 1987-September 1991) removal period. Nutrient budgets for the subbasins were calculated from an intense research program (January 1983-December 1985) to document instream impacts attributable to wastewater, determine the role of the cypress swamp in the middle subbasin, and document relationships between water quality and land uses. Rapid urbanization converted forested uplands and agricultural lands to housing and commercial land use during the study. Stormwater runoff in Florida has been identified as a major pollution source. Treatment of stormwater pollution, through Best Management Practices (BMPs), has been regulated by the State of Florida in this area since 1982. By 1988, 84% of the urban landuse in the upper basin was subject to stormwater treatment prior to being discharged to the creek. Potential increases in urban derived nutrient inputs were offset by stormwater management, and alum treatment and diversion of municipal wastewater. Nitrogen loading and P loads and variance decreased significantly during the 10-yr period, despite rapid urbanization in the northern and central subbasins. Nutrient export from the subbasins was influenced by the dominant land use. The middle subbasin contains a swamp that contributed the greatest P and Cl{sup -} loads because of the increase in discharge to the swamp from sources other than the canal. The northern urban subbasin received the wastewater discharges and served as a net sink for N and P exported from the subbasin. 24 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Papio-Missouri river natural resources district, Eastern Nebraska, July through September 1992. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verstraeten, I.M.; Ellis, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe the water quality of the principal aquifers in the study area. Wells representative of the geology and land use in the study area were selected for water-quality sampling. Variations in constituent concentration among aquifers are discussed. The report describes the spatial distributions of dissolved nitrite plus-nitrate as nitrogen and triazine and other acetanilide herbicides and evaluates the effects of cropland application of nitrogen and herbicides on the ground-water quality within the study area. The report also summarizes the concentrations of dissolved major and trace constituents including radionuclide activity and concentration.

  20. Evaluation of Water Quality Conditions Near Proposed Fish Production Sites Associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project, 1991-1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP.

  1. Improving Water Management: Applying ModelBuilder to site water impoundments using AEM survey data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sams, J.I.; Lipinski, B.A.; Harbert, W.P.; Ackman, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    ArcGIS ModelBuilder was used to create a GIS-based decision support model that incorporated digital elevation data and electromagnetic geophysical results gathered by helicopter to screen potential sites for water disposal impoundments produced from coal bed natural gas.

  2. SU-E-J-38: Improved DRR Image Quality Using Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Fiducial in Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, S; Jacob, R; Popple, R; Duan, J; Wu, X; Cardan, R; Brezovich, I

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Fiducial-based imaging is often used in IGRT. Traditional gold fiducial marker often has substantial reconstruction artifacts. These artifacts Result in poor image quality of DRR for online kV-to-DRR matching. This study evaluated the image quality of PEEK in DRR in static and moving phantom. Methods CT scan of the Gold and PEEK fiducial (both 1×3 mm) was acquired in a 22 cm cylindrical phantom filled with water. Image artifacts was evaluated with maximum CT value deviated from water due to artifacts; volume of artifacts in 10×10 cm in the center slice; maximum length of streak artifacts from the fiducial. DRR resolution were measured using FWHM and FWTM. 4DCT of PEEK fiducial was acquired with the phantom moving sinusoidally in superior-inferior direction. Motion artifacts were assessed for various 4D phase angles. Results The maximum CT value deviation was −174 for Gold and −24 for PEEK. The volume of artifacts in a 10x10 cm 3 mm slice was 0.369 for Gold and 0.074 cm3 for PEEK. The maximum length of streak artifact was 80mm for Gold and 7 mm for PEEK. PEEK in DRR, FWHM was close to actual (1.0 mm for Gold and 1.1 mm for PEEK). FWTM was 1.8 mm for Gold and 1.3 mm for PEEK in DRR. Barrel motion artifact of PEEK fiducial was noticeable for free-breathing scan. The apparent PEEK length due to residual motion was in close agreement with the calculated length (13 mm for 30–70 phase, 10 mm in 40–60 phase). Conclusion Streak artifacts on planning CT associated with use of gold fiducial can be significantly reduced by PEEK fiducial, while having adequate kV image contrast. DRR image resolution at FWTM was improved from 1.8 mm to 1.3 mm. Because of this improvement, we have been routinely use PEEK for liver IGRT.

  3. Improved Planning Time and Plan Quality Through Multicriteria Optimization for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David L.; Hong, Theodore S.; Shih, Helen A.; Bortfeld, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether multicriteria optimization (MCO) can reduce treatment planning time and improve plan quality in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Ten IMRT patients (5 with glioblastoma and 5 with locally advanced pancreatic cancers) were logged during the standard treatment planning procedure currently in use at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Planning durations and other relevant planning information were recorded. In parallel, the patients were planned using an MCO planning system, and similar planning time data were collected. The patients were treated with the standard plan, but each MCO plan was also approved by the physicians. Plans were then blindly reviewed 3 weeks after planning by the treating physician. Results: In all cases, the treatment planning time was vastly shorter for the MCO planning (average MCO treatment planning time was 12 min; average standard planning time was 135 min). The physician involvement time in the planning process increased from an average of 4.8 min for the standard process to 8.6 min for the MCO process. In all cases, the MCO plan was blindly identified as the superior plan. Conclusions: This provides the first concrete evidence that MCO-based planning is superior in terms of both planning efficiency and dose distribution quality compared with the current trial and error-based IMRT planning approach.

  4. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  5. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, S.; Nottelman, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Biology Team of ESH-20 (the Ecology Group) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies measure water quality parameters and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from sampling sites within the upper canyon stream. Reports by Bennett and Cross discuss previous aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands the previous findings. The Biology Team collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates monthly at three sampling stations within Sandia Canyon in 1995. The two upstream stations occur near a cattail (Typha latifolia) dominated marsh downstream from outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. The third station is approximately 1.5 miles downstream from the outfalls within a mixed conifer forest. All water chemistry parameters measured in Sandia Canyon during 1995 fell within acceptable State limits and scored in the {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} ranges when compared to an Environmental Quality Index. However, aquatic macroinvertebrates habitats have been degraded by widespread erosion, channelization, loss of wetlands due to deposition and stream lowering, scour, limited acceptable substrates, LANL releases and spills, and other stressors. Macroinvertebrate communities at all the stations had low diversities, low densities, and erratic numbers of individuals. These results indicate that although the stream possesses acceptable water chemistry, it has reduced biotic potential. The best developed aquatic community occurs at the sampling station with the best habitat and whose downstream location partially mitigates the effects of upstream impairments.

  6. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  7. Water as a Catalyst - Improving how Batteries Function - Joint Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Research February 29, 2016, Accomplishments Water as a Catalyst - Improving how Batteries Function Anyone who has ever dropped a cell phone in the sink will tell you that electrical devices and water do not go together. However, a new study has shown that conventional wisdom may not hold on the molecular scale in some beyond-lithium-ion batteries. Download Electrochemical Discovery Laboratory

  8. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82?ºC (180?ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  9. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  10. Tailoring the laser pulse shape to improve the quality of the self-injected electron beam in laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Samant, Sushil A.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2013-01-15

    In laser wakefield acceleration, tailoring the shape of the laser pulse is one way of influencing the laser-plasma interaction and, therefore, of improving the quality of the self-injected electron beam in the bubble regime. Using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution dynamics of the laser pulse and the quality of the self-injected beam, for a Gaussian pulse, a positive skew pulse (i.e., one with sharp rise and slow fall), and a negative skew pulse (i.e., one with a slow rise and sharp fall) are studied. It is observed that with a negative skew laser pulse there is a substantial improvement in the emittance (by around a factor of two), and a modest improvement in the energy-spread, compared to Gaussian as well as positive skew pulses. However, the injected charge is less in the negative skew pulse compared to the other two. It is also found that there is an optimal propagation distance that gives the best beam quality; beyond this distance, though the energy increases, the beam quality deteriorates, but this deterioration is least for the negative skew pulse. Thus, the negative skew pulse gives an improvement in terms of beam quality (emittance and energy spread) over what one can get with a Gaussian or positive skew pulse. In part, this is because of the lesser injected charge, and the strong suppression of continuous injection for the negative skew pulse.

  11. 2009-10 "Convene a Panel of Water Quality Experts" | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 "Convene a Panel of Water Quality Experts" 2009-10 "Convene a Panel of Water Quality Experts" The intent of this recommendation is to help the DOE and LANL to maintain good relations with oversight agencies, such as the EPA, and to keep the general public fully informed of the ongoing cleanup of legacy wastes at LANL. Rec 2009-10 - September 30, 2009 (145.42

  12. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This

  13. FABRICATION PROCESS AND PRODUCT QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS IN ADVANCED GAS REACTOR UCO KERNELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M Barnes

    2008-09-01

    A major element of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program is developing fuel fabrication processes to produce high quality uranium-containing kernels, TRISO-coated particles and fuel compacts needed for planned irradiation tests. The goals of the AGR program also include developing the fabrication technology to mass produce this fuel at low cost. Kernels for the first AGR test (“AGR-1) consisted of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) microspheres that werre produced by an internal gelation process followed by high temperature steps tot convert the UO3 + C “green” microspheres to first UO2 + C and then UO2 + UCx. The high temperature steps also densified the kernels. Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) fabricated UCO kernels for the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, which went into the Advance Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory in December 2006. An evaluation of the kernel process following AGR-1 kernel production led to several recommendations to improve the fabrication process. These recommendations included testing alternative methods of dispersing carbon during broth preparation, evaluating the method of broth mixing, optimizing the broth chemistry, optimizing sintering conditions, and demonstrating fabrication of larger diameter UCO kernels needed for the second AGR irradiation test. Based on these recommendations and requirements, a test program was defined and performed. Certain portions of the test program were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), while tests at larger scale were performed by B&W. The tests at B&W have demonstrated improvements in both kernel properties and process operation. Changes in the form of carbon black used and the method of mixing the carbon prior to forming kernels led to improvements in the phase distribution in the sintered kernels, greater consistency in kernel properties, a reduction in forming run time, and simplifications to the forming process. Process parameter variation tests in both forming and sintering steps led

  14. Authority of states of use section 401 water quality certification to deny or condition Federal Energy Regulatory Commission licenses. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, E.O.

    1994-09-01

    This thesis discusses a recent United States Supreme Court case that will have a profound influence on the licensure of hydroelectric projects and the related ability of States to protect the quality of their waters. On October 4, 1993, the Supreme Court granted a Writ of Certiorari to resolve a conflict among the state courts of last resort. This case involves two fundamental and competing national interests: the nation's thirst for cheap, dependable power versus its equally strong desire to improve the quality of its water resources. It also involves two underlying regulatory regimes that overlap and conflict with each other in some ways. This case illustrates how those two national interests and their underlying regulatory regimes cannot always be reconciled. It also demonstrates how Congress, with its muddled ways of passing legislation, can create conflicts between federal and state regulatory agencies.

  15. Improved methods for water shutoff. Semi-annual report, May 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.

    1997-08-01

    In the United States, more than 20 billion barrels of water are produced each year during oilfield operations. Today, the cost of water disposal is typically between $0.25 and $0.50 per bbl for pipeline transport and $1.50 per bbl for trucked water. Therefore, there is a tremendous economic incentive to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. For each 1% reduction in water production, the cost-savings to the oil industry could be between $50,000,000 and $100,000,000 per year. Reduced water production would result directly in improved oil recovery (IOR) efficiency in addition to reduced oil-production costs. A substantial positive environmental impact could also be realized if significant reductions are achieved in the amount of water produced during oilfield operations. In an earlier project, we identified fractures (either naturally or artificially induced) as a major factor that causes excess water production and reduced oil recovery efficiency, especially during waterfloods and IOR projects. We also found fractures to be a channeling and water-production problem that has a high potential for successful treatment by gels and certain other chemical blocking agents. By analogy, these blocking materials also have a high potential for treating narrow channels behind pipe and small casing leaks. We also determined that the ability of blocking agents to reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil is critical to the success of these blocking treatments in production wells if zones are not isolated during placement of the blocking agents.

  16. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McHenry, Mark P.; Johnson, Jay; Hightower, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG) exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the networkmore » characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.« less

  17. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data ...

  18. Effects of uranium-mining releases on ground-water quality in the Puerco River Basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Wirt, L.; Lopes, T.J.; Ferguson, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe: (1) the water quality of the Puerco River alluvial aquifer, (2) the movement of water between the Puerco River and underlying alluvial aquifer, and (3) changes in the water quality of the alluvial and bedrock aquifers related to releases of contaminants by uranium-mining activities. This report focuses on the alluvial aquifer near the reach of the Puerco River that was subjected to continuous flow containing mine-dewatering effluents and to flow containing mine-dewatering effluents and to flow from the tailings-pond spill.

  19. Water Management Strategies for Improved Coalbed Methane Production in the Black Warrior Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, Jack; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Merkel, David

    2013-10-31

    The modern coalbed methane industry was born in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and has to date produced more than 2.6 trillion cubic feet of gas and 1.6 billion barrels of water. The coalbed gas industry in this area is dependent on instream disposal of co-produced water, which ranges from nearly potable sodium-bicarbonate water to hypersaline sodium-chloride water. This study employed diverse analytical methods to characterize water chemistry in light of the regional geologic framework and to evaluate the full range of water management options for the Black Warrior coalbed methane industry. Results reveal strong interrelationships among regional geology, water chemistry, and gas chemistry. Coalbed methane is produced from multiple coal seams in Pennsylvanian-age strata of the Pottsville Coal Interval, in which water chemistry is influenced by a structurally controlled meteoric recharge area along the southeastern margin of the basin. The most important constituents of concern in the produced water include chlorides, ammonia compounds, and organic substances. Regional mapping and statistical analysis indicate that the concentrations of most ionic compounds, metallic substances, and nonmetallic substances correlate with total dissolved solids and chlorides. Gas is effectively produced at pipeline quality, and the only significant impurity is N{sub 2}. Geochemical analysis indicates that the gas is of mixed thermogenic-biogenic origin. Stable isotopic analysis of produced gas and calcite vein fills indicates that widespread late-stage microbial methanogenesis occurred primarily along a CO{sub 2} reduction metabolic pathway. Organic compounds in the produced water appear to have helped sustain microbial communities. Ammonia and ammonium levels increase with total dissolved solids content and appear to have played a role in late-stage microbial methanogenesis and the generation of N{sub 2}. Gas production tends to decline exponentially, whereas water production

  20. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  1. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

    2009-11-24

    Baylor University Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR) has conducted a phased, comprehensive evaluation of Lake Whitney to determine its suitability for use as a regional water supply reservoir. The area along the Interstate 35 corridor between Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex and the Waco / Temple Centroplex represents one of the fastest growth areas in the State of Texas and reliable water supplies are critical to sustainable growth. Lake Whitney is situated midway between these two metropolitan areas. Currently, the City of Whitney as well as all of Bosque and Hill counties obtain their potable water from the Trinity Sands aquifer. Additionally, parts of the adjoining McLennan and Burleson counties utilize the Trinity sands aquifer system as a supplement to their surface water supplies. Population growth coupled with increasing demands on this aquifer system in both the Metroplex and Centroplex have resulted in a rapid depletion of groundwater in these rural areas. The Lake Whitney reservoir represents both a potentially local and regional solution for an area experiencing high levels of growth. Because of the large scope of this project as well as the local, regional and national implications, we have designed a multifaceted approach that will lead to the solution of numerous issues related to the feasibility of using Lake Whitney as a water resource to the region. Phase IA (USEPA, QAPP Study Elements 1-4) of this research focused on the physical limnology of the reservoir (bathymetry and fine scale salinity determination) and develops hydrodynamic watershed and reservoir models to evaluate how salinity would be expected to change with varying hydrologic and climatic factors. To this end, we implemented a basic water quality modeling program in collaboration with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to add to the developing long-term database on Lake Whitney. Finally, we conducted an initial

  2. Foams and surfactants for improved underground storage of natural gas by blockage of water cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Jikich, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    Foam blockage to alleviate water coning during the retrieval stage appears to be the simplest, least expensive, and most easily commercialized foam-based technology for improving the underground storage of natural gas. This paper describes effects of injection rate, surfactant concentration, NaCl salinity, and divalent ions on measured aqueous-phase and gaseous-phase relative permeabilities, as well as why these data are needed for modeling the process and designing single-well field tests.

  3. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river drainage, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Henriette I.; Baskaran, Latha M.; Schweizer, Peter E.; Turhollow, Anthony F.; Brandt, Craig C.; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2014-05-15

    We study that the mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remain a significant concern for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.

  4. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river basin, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Brandt, Craig C; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Schweizer, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    The mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remain a significant concern for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.

  5. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river drainage, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jager, Henriette I.; Baskaran, Latha M.; Schweizer, Peter E.; Turhollow, Anthony F.; Brandt, Craig C.; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2014-05-15

    We study that the mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remainmore » a significant concern for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.« less

  6. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river basin, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jager, Yetta; Brandt, Craig C; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Schweizer, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    The mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remain a significant concernmore » for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.« less

  7. Application of Hotelling’s T{sup 2} charts in monitoring quality parameters in a drinking water supply system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, Mafalda T.; Carolino, Elisabete; Oliveira, Teresa A.

    2015-03-10

    In water supply systems with distribution networkthe most critical aspects of control and Monitoring of water quality, which generates crises system, are the effects of cross-contamination originated by the network typology. The classics of control of quality systems through the application of Shewhart charts are generally difficult to manage in real time due to the high number of charts that must be completed and evaluated. As an alternative to the traditional control systems with Shewhart charts, this study aimed to apply a simplified methodology of a monitoring plan quality parameters in a drinking water distribution, by applying Hotelling’s T{sup 2} charts and supplemented with Shewhart charts with Bonferroni limits system, whenever instabilities with processes were detected.

  8. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Static Water Level Data ...

  9. Trailing edge devices to improve performance and increase lifetime of wind-electric water pumping systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N.

    1996-12-31

    Trailing edge flaps were applied to the blades of a 10 kW wind turbine used for water pumping to try to improve the performance and decrease the structural fatigue on the wind turbine. Most small wind turbines (10 kW and below) use furling (rotor turns out of wind similar to a mechanical windmill) to protect the wind turbine from overspeed during high winds. Some small wind turbines, however, do not furl soon enough to keep the wind turbine from being off line part of the time in moderately high wind speeds (10 - 16 m/s). As a result, the load is disconnected and no water is pumped at moderately high wind speeds. When the turbine is offline, the frequency increases rapidly often causing excessive vibration of the wind turbine and tower components. The furling wind speed could possibly be decreased by increasing the offset between the tower centerline and the rotor centerline, but would be a major and potentially expensive retrofit. Trailing edge flaps (TEF) were used as a quick inexpensive method to try to reduce the furling wind speed and increase the on time by reducing the rotor RPM. One TEF configuration improved the water pumping performance at moderately high wind speeds, but degraded the pumping performance at low wind speeds which resulted in little change in daily water volume. The other TEF configuration differed very little from the no flap configuration. Both TEF configurations however, reduced the rotor RPM in high wind conditions. The TEF, did not reduce the rotor RPM by lowering the furling wind speed as hoped, but apparently did so by increasing the drag which also reduced the volume of water pumped at the lower wind speeds. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  10. 2009-12 "Hold a Planned DOE-EM Meeting on LANL Water Quality Programs in a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Northern New Mexico Location" | Department of Energy 2 "Hold a Planned DOE-EM Meeting on LANL Water Quality Programs in a Northern New Mexico Location" 2009-12 "Hold a Planned DOE-EM Meeting on LANL Water Quality Programs in a Northern New Mexico Location" The NNMCAB recommends that DOE-EM open the special meeting with Mr. Gilkeson to the public and change the location for the meeting to one of the Northern New Mexico communities, such as Los Alamos or Espanola. Rec

  11. An improved simple polarisable water model for use in biomolecular simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmann, Stephan J.; Gunsteren, Wilfred F. van

    2014-12-14

    The accuracy of biomolecular simulations depends to some degree on the accuracy of the water model used to solvate the biomolecules. Because many biomolecules such as proteins are electrostatically rather inhomogeneous, containing apolar, polar, and charged moieties or side chains, a water model should be able to represent the polarisation response to a local electrostatic field, while being compatible with the force field used to model the biomolecules or protein. The two polarisable water models, COS/G2 and COS/D, that are compatible with the GROMOS biomolecular force fields leave room for improvement. The COS/G2 model has a slightly too large dielectric permittivity and the COS/D model displays a much too slow dynamics. The proposed COS/D2 model has four interaction sites: only one Lennard-Jones interaction site, the oxygen atom, and three permanent charge sites, the two hydrogens, and one massless off-atom site that also serves as charge-on-spring (COS) polarisable site with a damped or sub-linear dependence of the induced dipole on the electric field strength for large values of the latter. These properties make it a cheap and yet realistic water model for biomolecular solvation.

  12. Spatiotemporal nonpoint source pollution water quality management framework using bi-directional model-GIS linkage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faizullabhoy, M.S.; Yoon, J.

    1999-07-01

    A framework for water quality assessment and management purposes was developed. In this framework, a bilateral linkage was implemented between the distributed model, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model (AGNPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) to investigate a spatiotemporal nonpoint source pollution problem from a 750-acre watershed in the NSGA (Naval Security Group Activity) Northwest base at the Virginia/North Carolina border. AGNPS is an event-based, distributed parameter model that simulates runoff and the transport of sediment and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from predominantly agricultural watersheds. In this study rather than manually implementing AGNPS simulation, extracted data are integrated in an automated fashion through a direct bilateral linkage framework between the AGNPS model engine and the GIS. This bilateral linkage framework resulted in a powerful, up-to-date tool that would be capable of monitoring and instantaneously visualizing the transport of any pollutant as well as effectively identifying critical areas of the nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. The framework also allowed the various what if scenarios to support the decision-making processes. Best Management Practices (BMP) for the watershed can be generated in a close loop iterative scheme, until predefined management objectives are achieved. Simulated results showed that the optimal BMP scenario achieved an average reduction of about 41% in soluble and sediment-attached nitrogen and about 62% reduction in soluble and sediment phosphorus from current NPS pollution levels.

  13. Water quality evaluation and geochemical assessment of iron, manganese, and arsenic in a landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pisigan, R.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Several monitoring wells at a landfill site were sampled for water quality parameters to determine the nature of groundwater contamination. The landfill, located beneath a limestone and dolomitic bedrock, has been used for about 20 years for trash and garbage disposal. The monitoring parameters include major cations and anions, as well as iron, manganese, arsenic, and other parameters measured in the field to characterize the subsurface conditions. Groundwater samples collected near the landfill and downgradient locations had higher levels of iron, manganese, arsenic, alkalinity, hardness than those samples from an upgradient well. The downgradient and on-site samples were also more acidic and turbid, The dissolved oxygen data tend to suggest reducing conditions in the leachate environment. The elevated groundwater concentrations of the three metals, especially iron, were most probably caused by the acidity generated by carbon dioxide and organic acids released from microbial degradation of organic compounds dumped into the landfill. The acidic pH led to the dissolution of iron, manganese, and arsenic bearing mineral phases. The buffering reactions of limestone and dolomite to neutralize the acidic degradation products increased the hardness cations, Ca{sup +2} and Mg{sup +2}. Inorganic speciation modeling indicates that iron, manganese, and arsenic predominantly exist as Fe {sup +2}, Mn{sup +2}, and H{sub 3}AsO{sub 3}. The possible presence of organic complexes of iron was discussed, but could be modeled due to lack of appropriate equilibrium constant data.

  14. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs

  15. Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawthorne, Steven B.; Miller, David J.; Yang, Yu; Lagadec, Arnaud Jean-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100.degree. to 374.degree. C. while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from nonaqueous liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, and removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents.

  16. Method of improving superconducting qualities of fabricated constructs by shock preprocessing of precursor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nellis, William J.; Maple, M. Brian

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of improving the physical properties of superconducting materials which comprises: a. applying a high strain rate deformation to said materi The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California, for the operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  17. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    The Exchange, formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), is a joint military activity and the U.S. Department of Defense?s (DOD) oldest and largest retailer. The Exchange is taking a leadership role in water efficiency improvements in their commercial kitchens by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization?s overall sustainability plan and objectives.

  18. Water quality: Historic values and impact of drilling activities during FY 1988 at the reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, P.A.; Teel, S.S.; Raymond, J.R.; Bierschenk, W.H.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring Program was to monitor the characterization activities related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at boreholes DC-24CX and DC-25CX and document any environmental impacts as a result of these activities including contamination and/or degradation of the aquifer water quality from the invasion of drilling fluids into the formation and surface contamination from the disposal of drilling fluid at the land surface. The first phase of this program involved describing the baseline water quality at the Reference Repository Location (RRL) including data for spring and surface waters, and both the unconfined and confined aquifers. The second phase involved the collection and analysis of samples collected during drilling operations at wells DC-24CX and DC-25CX. Five surface water and 25 spring sampling sites were designated for chemical and radiological background data collection for BWIP. Chemical and radiological background data from 61 wells that obtain water from the unconfined aquifers indicate that the chemistry of these aquifers is similar to the spring and surface water samples. However, some of the wells show contamination from existing operations and past operations of various facilities on the Hanford Site. These contaminants are both chemical and radiological in nature with nitrate as the primary chemical constituent and tritium as the major radiological constituent. 20 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Improvements of fuel failure detection in boiling water reactors using helium measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsson, I.; Sihver, L.; Grundin, A.; Helmersson, J. O.

    2012-07-01

    To certify a continuous and safe operation of a boiling water reactor, careful surveillance of fuel integrity is of high importance. The detection of fuel failures can be performed by off-line gamma spectroscopy of off-gas samples and/or by on-line nuclide specific monitoring of gamma emitting noble gases. To establish the location of a leaking fuel rod, power suppression testing can be used. The accuracy of power suppression testing is dependent on the information of the delay time and the spreading of the released fission gases through the systems before reaching the sampling point. This paper presents a method to improve the accuracy of power suppression testing by determining the delay time and gas spreading profile. To estimate the delay time and examine the spreading of the gas in case of a fuel failure, helium was injected in the feed water system at Forsmark 3 nuclear power plant. The measurements were performed by using a helium detector system based on a mass spectrometer installed in the off-gas system. The helium detection system and the results of the experiment are presented in this paper. (authors)

  20. Multileaf collimator performance monitoring and improvement using semiautomated quality control testing and statistical process control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ltourneau, Daniel McNiven, Andrea; Keller, Harald; Wang, An; Amin, Md Nurul; Pearce, Jim; Norrlinger, Bernhard; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: High-quality radiation therapy using highly conformal dose distributions and image-guided techniques requires optimum machine delivery performance. In this work, a monitoring system for multileaf collimator (MLC) performance, integrating semiautomated MLC quality control (QC) tests and statistical process control tools, was developed. The MLC performance monitoring system was used for almost a year on two commercially available MLC models. Control charts were used to establish MLC performance and assess test frequency required to achieve a given level of performance. MLC-related interlocks and servicing events were recorded during the monitoring period and were investigated as indicators of MLC performance variations. Methods: The QC test developed as part of the MLC performance monitoring system uses 2D megavoltage images (acquired using an electronic portal imaging device) of 23 fields to determine the location of the leaves with respect to the radiation isocenter. The precision of the MLC performance monitoring QC test and the MLC itself was assessed by detecting the MLC leaf positions on 127 megavoltage images of a static field. After initial calibration, the MLC performance monitoring QC test was performed 34 times/week over a period of 1011 months to monitor positional accuracy of individual leaves for two different MLC models. Analysis of test results was performed using individuals control charts per leaf with control limits computed based on the measurements as well as two sets of specifications of 0.5 and 1 mm. Out-of-specification and out-of-control leaves were automatically flagged by the monitoring system and reviewed monthly by physicists. MLC-related interlocks reported by the linear accelerator and servicing events were recorded to help identify potential causes of nonrandom MLC leaf positioning variations. Results: The precision of the MLC performance monitoring QC test and the MLC itself was within 0.22 mm for most MLC leaves and the

  1. Improving the quality of numerical software through user-centered design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pancake, C. M., Oregon State University

    1998-06-01

    The software interface - whether graphical, command-oriented, menu-driven, or in the form of subroutine calls - shapes the user`s perception of what software can do. It also establishes upper bounds on software usability. Numerical software interfaces typically are based on the designer`s understanding of how the software should be used. That is a poor foundation for usability, since the features that are ``instinctively right`` from the developer`s perspective are often the very ones that technical programmers find most objectionable or most difficult to learn. This paper discusses how numerical software interfaces can be improved by involving users more actively in design, a process known as user-centered design (UCD). While UCD requires extra organization and effort, it results in much higher levels of usability and can actually reduce software costs. This is true not just for graphical user interfaces, but for all software interfaces. Examples show how UCD improved the usability of a subroutine library, a command language, and an invocation interface.

  2. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-09-13

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  3. Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

    2013-09-24

    The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

  4. Improvement of the quality of graphene-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othmen, Riadh Rezgui, Kamel; Ajlani, Hosni; Oueslati, Meherzi; Cavanna, Antonella; Madouri, Ali

    2014-06-07

    In this paper, we study the transfer of graphene onto InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The graphene is first grown on Cu foils by chemical vapor deposition and then polymer Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) is deposited on the top of graphene/Cu. High quality graphene sheet has been obtained by lowering the dissolving rate of PMMA using vapor processing. Uncapped as well as capped graphene InAs/GaAs QDs have been studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We gather from this that the average shifts ?? of QDs Raman peaks are reduced compared to those previously observed in graphene and GaAs capped QDs. The encapsulation by graphene makes the indium atomic concentration intact in the QDs by the reduction of the strain effect of graphene on QDs and the migration of In atoms towards the surface. This gives us a new hetero-structure grapheneInAs/GaAs QDs wherein the graphene plays a key role as a cap layer.

  5. Improving the Quality of Alerts and Predicting Intruder's Next Goal with Hidden Colored Petri-Net

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Dong; Frincke, Deb A.

    2006-06-22

    Intrusion detection systems (IDS) often provide poor quality alerts, which are insufficient to support rapid identification of ongoing attacks or predict an intruder’s next likely goal. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to alert post-processing and correlation, the Hidden Colored Petri-Net (HCPN). Different from most other alert correlation methods, our approach treats the alert correlation problem as an inference problem rather than a filter problem. Our approach assumes that the intruder’s actions are unknown to the IDS and can be inferred only from the alerts generated by the IDS sensors. HCPN can describe the relationship between different steps carried out by intruders, model observations (alerts) and transitions (actions) separately, and associate each token element (system state) with a probability (or confidence). The model is an extension to Colored Petri-Net (CPN) .It is so called “hidden” because the transitions (actions) are not directly observable but can be inferred by looking through the observations (alerts). These features make HCPN especially suitable for discovering intruders’ actions from their partial observations (alerts,) and predicting intruders’ next goal. Our experiments on DARPA evaluation datasets and the attack scenarios from the Grand Challenge Problem (GCP) show that HCPN has promise as a way to reducing false positives and negatives, predicting intruder’s next possible action, uncovering intruders’ intrusion strategies after the attack scenario has happened, and providing confidence scores.

  6. Systems Level Engineering of Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis to Improve Biofuel Feedstock Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, Samuel

    2013-09-27

    Our new regulatory model of cell wall biosynthesis proposes original network architecture with several newly incorporated components. The mapped set of protein-DNA interactions will serve as a foundation for 1) understanding the regulation of a complex and integral plant component and 2) the manipulation of crop species for biofuel and biotechnology purposes. This study revealed interesting and novel aspects of grass growth and development and further enforce the importance of a grass model system. By functionally characterizing a suite of genes, we have begun to improve the sparse model for transcription regulation of biomass accumulation in grasses. In the process, we have advanced methodology and brachy molecular genetic tools that will serve as valuable community resource.

  7. Improve Chilled Water System Performance, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) can help optimize the performance of of industrial chilled water systems.

  8. Water Efficiency Improvements at Various U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Sites

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Case study discusses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) successful water conservation program, which reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories.

  9. Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, John G; Stewart, Arthur J; Loar, James M

    2011-01-01

    discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

  10. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Natural Gas Analysis Data ...

  11. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Time-Concentration Graph ...

  12. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Time-Concentration Graphs ...

  13. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data Static ...

  14. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data Static ...

  15. Improved image quality of cone beam CT scans for radiotherapy image guidance using fiber-interspaced antiscatter grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stankovic, Uros; Herk, Marcel van; Ploeger, Lennert S.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-06-15

    acquisition scenarios. Parameters used in the phantom study weret{sub cup} for nonuniformity and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for soft tissue visibility. Clinical scans were evaluated in an observer study in which four experienced radiotherapy technologists rated soft tissue visibility and uniformity of scans with and without the grid. Results: The proposed angle dependent gain correction algorithm suppressed the visible ring artifacts. Grid had a beneficial impact on nonuniformity, contrast to noise ratio, and Hounsfield unit accuracy for both scanning geometries. The nonuniformity reduced by 90% for head sized object and 91% for pelvic-sized object. CNR improved compared to no corrections on average by a factor 2.8 for the head sized object, and 2.2 for the pelvic sized phantom. Grid outperformed software correction alone, but adding additional software correction to the grid was overall the best strategy. In the observer study, a significant improvement was found in both soft tissue visibility and nonuniformity of scans when grid is used. Conclusions: The evaluated fiber-interspaced grid improved the image quality of the CBCT system for broad range of imaging conditions. Clinical scans show significant improvement in soft tissue visibility and uniformity without the need to increase the imaging dose.

  16. Use of environmental sensors and sensor networks to develop water and salinity budgets for seasonal wetland real-time water quality management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Rahilly, P.J.A,; Royer, C.W.

    2009-10-01

    Successful management of river salt loads in complex and highly regulated river basins such as the San Joaquin of California presents significant challenges to Information Technology. Models are used as means of simulating major hydrologic processes in the basin which affect water quality and can be useful as tools for organizing basin information in a structured and readily accessible manner. Models can also be used to extrapolate the results of system monitoring since it is impossible to collect data for every point and non-point source of a pollutant in the Basin. Fundamental to every model is the concept of mass balance. This paper describes the use of state-of-the-art sensor technologies deployed in concert to obtain the first water and salinity budgets for a 60,000 hectare tract of seasonally managed wetlands in the San Joaquin Basin of California.

  17. Water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes, northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, J.E.; Halasz, S.J.; Liscum, F.

    1980-11-01

    This report contains water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin. Water-quality data were compiled for aquifers in the Wilcox Group, the Carrizo Sand, and the Queen City Sand. The data include analyses for dissolved solids, pH, temperature, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Water-quality and streamflow data were obtained from 63 surface-water sites in the vicinity of the domes. These data include water discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Samples were collected at selected sites for analysis of principal and selected minor dissolved constituents.

  18. Manual for the certification of laboratories analyzing drinking water. Criteria and procedures quality assurance (third edition)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Contents: introduction; responsibilities; implementation--(regional laboratories and programs; principal state laboratories; local laboratories; other considerations for certification; requirements for maintaining certification status; criteria and procedures for downgrading/revoking certification status; reciprocity; training; technical services; and alternate analytical techniques); chemistry--(personnel; laboratory facilities; laboratory equipment and instrumentation; general laboratory practices; analytical methodology; sample collection, handling, and preservation; quality assurance; records and data reporting; and action response to laboratory); microbiology--(personnel; laboratory facilities; laboratory equipment and instrumentation; general laboratory practices; analytical methodology; sample collection, handling, and preservation; quality assurance; records and data reporting; and action response to laboratory); radiochemistry--(personnel; laboratory facilities; laboratory equipment and instrumentation; general laboratory practices; analytical methodology; sample collection, handling, and preservation; quality assurance; records and data reporting; and action response to laboratory); appendices.

  19. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  20. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Norman, Bourassa; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshfumi; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Wang, Duo

    2008-04-04

    removal of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, on average lowering the concentrations by 57 percent relative to the levels in the 10 SEER classrooms. The average IHPAC to 10 SEER formaldehyde ratio was about 67 percent, indicating only a 33 percent reduction of this compound in indoor air. The IHPAC thermal control system provided less variability in occupied classroom temperature than the 10 SEER thermostats. The average room temperatures in all seasons tended to be slightly lower in the IHPAC classrooms, often below the lower limit of the ASHRAE 55 thermal comfort band. State-wide and national energy modeling provided conservative estimates of potential energy savings by use of the IHPAC system that would provide payback a the range of time far lower than the lifetime of the equipment. Assuming electricity costs of $0.15/kWh, the perclassroom range of savings is from about $85 to $195 per year in California, and about $89 to $250 per year in the U.S., depending upon the city. These modelsdid not include the non-energy benefits to the classrooms including better air quality and acoustic conditions that could lead to improved health and learning in school. Market connection efforts that were part of the study give all indication that this has been a very successful project. The successes include the specification of the IHPAC equipment in the CHPS portable classroom standards, the release of a commercial product based on the standards that is now being installed in schools around the U.S., and the fact that a public utility company is currently considering the addition of the technology to its customer incentive program. These successes indicate that the IHPAC may reach its potential to improve ventilation and save energy in classrooms.

  1. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer J. C. Liljegren Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Radiometrics Corporation has developed a twelve-channel microwave radiometer capable of providing continuous, real-time vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and limited-resolution cloud liquid water from the surface to 10 km in nearly all weather conditions (Solheim et al. 1998a). Since

  2. Riding the Clean Energy Wave: New Projects Aim to Improve Water Power Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department announces two projects as part of a larger effort to deploy innovative technologies for clean, domestic power generation from water power resources.

  3. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  4. Image quality improvement in megavoltage cone beam CT using an imaging beam line and a sintered pixelated array system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Maltz, Jonathan S.; Gangadharan, Bijumon; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Anderson, Carryn M.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Stiles, Jared; Edwards, Drake S.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To quantify the improvement in megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) image quality enabled by the combination of a 4.2 MV imaging beam line (IBL) with a carbon electron target and a detector system equipped with a novel sintered pixelated array (SPA) of translucent Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S ceramic scintillator. Clinical MVCBCT images are traditionally acquired with the same 6 MV treatment beam line (TBL) that is used for cancer treatment, a standard amorphous Si (a-Si) flat panel imager, and the Kodak Lanex Fast-B (LFB) scintillator. The IBL produces a greater fluence of keV-range photons than the TBL, to which the detector response is more optimal, and the SPA is a more efficient scintillator than the LFB. Methods: A prototype IBL + SPA system was installed on a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator equipped with the MVision{sup TM} image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. A SPA strip consisting of four neighboring tiles and measuring 40 cm by 10.96 cm in the crossplane and inplane directions, respectively, was installed in the flat panel imager. Head- and pelvis-sized phantom images were acquired at doses ranging from 3 to 60 cGy with three MVCBCT configurations: TBL + LFB, IBL + LFB, and IBL + SPA. Phantom image quality at each dose was quantified using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) metrics. Head and neck, thoracic, and pelvic (prostate) cancer patients were imaged with the three imaging system configurations at multiple doses ranging from 3 to 15 cGy. The systems were assessed qualitatively from the patient image data. Results: For head and neck and pelvis-sized phantom images, imaging doses of 3 cGy or greater, and relative electron densities of 1.09 and 1.48, the CNR average improvement factors for imaging system change of TBL + LFB to IBL + LFB, IBL + LFB to IBL + SPA, and TBL + LFB to IBL + SPA were 1.63 (p < 10{sup -8}), 1.64 (p < 10{sup -13}), 2.66 (p < 10{sup -9}), respectively. For all imaging

  5. Quality indexes based on water measurements for low and medium energy x-ray beams: A theoretical study with PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chica, U.; Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Vilches, M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose : To study the use of quality indexes based on ratios of absorbed doses in water at two different depths to characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies. Methods : A total of 55 x-ray beam spectra were generated with the codes XCOMP5R and SPEKCALC and used as input of a series of Monte Carlo simulations performed with PENELOPE, in which the percentage depth doses in water and thek{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} factors, defined in the TRS-398 protocol, were determined for each beam. Some of these calculations were performed by simulating the ionization chamber PTW 30010. Results : The authors found that the relation betweenk{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} and the ratios of absorbed doses at two depths is almost linear. A set of ratios statistically compatible with that showing the best fit has been determined. Conclusions : The results of this study point out which of these ratios of absorbed doses in water could be used to better characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies.

  6. Improved methods for water shutoff. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    In the US, more than 20 billion barrels of water are produced each year during oilfield operations. There is a tremendous economic incentive to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. In an earlier project, the authors determined that the ability of blocking agents to reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil is critical to the success of these blocking treatments in production wells if zones are not protected during placement of the blocking agent. This research project has three objectives: (1) to identify chemical blocking agents that will during placement, flow readily through fractures without penetrating significantly into porous rock and without screening out or developing excessive pressure gradients and at a predictable and controllable time, become immobile and resist breakdown upon exposure to moderate to high pressure gradients; (2) to identify schemes that optimize placement of blocking agents; and (3) to explain why gels and other chemical blocking agents reduce permeability to one phase (e.g., water) more than that of another phase (e.g., oil or gas). Chapter 2 examines the validity of using water/oil ratio plots to distinguish between coning and channeling water production mechanisms. Chapter 3 develops a method to size gelant treatments in hydraulically fractured production wells. Chapter 4 identifies characteristics of naturally fractured reservoirs where gel treatments have the greatest potential. Chapter 5 reports experimental results from studies of gel properties in fractures. Finally, Chapter 6, the authors investigate the mechanism responsible for gels reducing the permeability to water more than that to oil.

  7. Influence of water quality on silver toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and water fleas (Daphnia magna)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen, D.J.; Ownby, D.R.; Forsythe, B.L.; Bills, T.P.; La Point, T.W.; Cobb, G.B.; Klaine, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Toxicity bioassays were conducted to quantify water quality conditions under which silver, as silver nitrate, is toxic to Oncorhynchus mykiss. Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna. Bioassays for P. promelas and D. magna were conducted as static replacement tests, whereas a flow-through bioassay system was modified and used for O. mykiss. Results from 96-h toxicity bioassays for O. mykiss indicated that chloride, hardness, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) protected against silver toxicosis, with DOC affording the highest protective effects. For P. promelas and D. magna, little protection was provided by increased CaCo+O{sub 3} alone, whereas DOC had a major ameliorating influence on measured silver toxicity. Lower concentrations of chloride had little effect on reducing silver nitrate toxicity. Dissolved organic carbon was more important than hardness for predicting the toxicity of ionic silver in natural waters to O. mykiss, P. promelas, and D. magna. Similarly, DOC significantly reduced silver nitrate toxicity to trout, whereas Cl{sup {minus}} and hardness had only a minor protective effect. However, Cl{sup {minus}}/DOC mixtures showed a greater-than-additive protective effect. Thus, the authors suggest that incorporating an organic carbon coefficient into the silver criterion equation will enhance the criterion values for site specificity.

  8. DOE JGI Quality Metrics; Approaches to Scaling and Improving Metagenome Assembly (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Copeland, Alex [DOE JGI]; Brown, C Titus [Michigan State University

    2013-01-22

    DOE JGI's Alex Copeland on "DOE JGI Quality Metrics" and Michigan State University's C. Titus Brown on "Approaches to Scaling and Improving Metagenome Assembly" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  9. Improved methods for water shutoff. Final technical progress report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.; Liang, J.T.; Schrader, R.; Hagstrom, J. II; Liu, J.; Wavrik, K.

    1998-10-01

    In the United States, more than 20 billion barrels of salt water are produced each year during oilfield operations. A tremendous economic incentive exists to reduce water production if that can be accomplished without significantly sacrificing hydrocarbon production. This three-year research project had three objectives. The first objective was to identify chemical blocking agents that will (a) during placement, flow readily through fractures without penetrating significantly into porous rock and with screening out or developing excessive pressure gradients and (b) at a predictable and controllable time, become immobile and resistant breakdown upon exposure to moderate to high pressure gradients. The second objective was to identify schemes that optimize placement of the above blocking agents. The third objective was to explain why gels and other chemical blocking agents reduce permeability to one phase (e.g., water) more than that to another phase (e.g., oil or gas). The authors also wanted to identify conditions that maximize this phenomenon. This project consisted of three tasks, each of which addressed one of the above objectives. This report describes work performed during the third and final period of the project. During this three-year project, they: (1) Developed a procedure and software for sizing gelant treatments in hydraulically fractured production wells; (2) Developed a method (based on interwell tracer results) to determine the potential for applying gel treatments in naturally fractured reservoirs; (3) Characterized gel properties during extrusion through fractures; (4) Developed a method to predict gel placement in naturally fractured reservoirs; (5) Made progress in elucidating the mechanism for why some gels can reduce permeability to water more than that to oil; (6) Demonstrated the limitations of using water/oil ratio diagnostic plots to distinguish between channeling and coning; and (7) Proposed a philosophy for diagnosing and attacking water

  10. Development of An Empirical Water Quality Model for Stormwater Based on Watershed Land Use in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; May, Christopher W.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Judd, Chaeli; Johnston, Robert K.

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washington’s 1998 303(d) because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for a contaminant mass balance calculation for the watershed. This paper summarizes the development of an empirical model for estimating contaminant concentrations in all streams discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets based on watershed land use, 18 storm events, and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. Stream pollutant concentrations along with estimates for outfalls and surface runoff will be used in estimating the loading and ultimately in establishing a Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) for the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed.