National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for imposed mitigation air

  1. Property:NEPA Resource Imposed Mitigation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Protection) for applicable mitigation measures. Antelope Valley NesetNEPAImpactwithAirQuality + See http:ww2.wapa.govsiteswesternbusinesssellingDocuments...

  2. Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Ho Oh; Eung Soo Kim; Hee Cheon No; Nam Zin Cho

    2008-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is performing research and development (R&D) that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program / GEN-IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Phenomena identification and ranking studies (PIRT) to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important (Schultz et al., 2006). Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation (V&V) are very high priority for the NGNP program. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization, air will enter the core through the break. Air ingress leads to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. The oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will cause the release of fission products eventually. The potential collapse of the bottom reflector because of burn-off and the release of CO lead to serious safety problems. For estimation of the proper safety margin we need experimental data and tools, including accurate multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. We also need to develop effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods R&D project. This project is focused on (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the bottom reflector, (d) structural tests of the burnt-off bottom reflector, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i

  3. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zacariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation in the RCP4.5 scenario avoids 0.50.2, 1.30.6, and 2.21.6 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100, from changes in fine particulate matter and ozone. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $40-400 (ton CO2)-1, exceeding marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-80 times the marginal cost in 2030. These results indicate that transitioning to a low-carbon future might be justified by air quality and health co-benefits.

  4. FINAL REPORT on Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Hee C. NO; Nam Z. Cho

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena that are important during challenging scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Generation IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking studies to date have identified the air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as very important. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification & validation are of very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air ingress will occur through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. This study indicates that depending on the location and the size of the pipe break, the air ingress phenomena are different. In an effort to estimate the proper safety margin, experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model are required. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation, eventually. This 3-year project (FY 2008–FY 2010) is focused on various issues related to the VHTR air-ingress accident, including (a) analytical and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow, (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments, (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) structural tests of the oxidized core bottom structures, (e) implementation of advanced models developed during the previous tasks into the GAMMA code, (f) full air ingress and oxidation mitigation analyses, (g) development of core neutronic models, (h) coupling of the core neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, and (i) verification and validation of the coupled models.

  5. Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

  6. FY-09 Report: Experimental Validation of Stratified Flow Phenomena, Graphite Oxidation, and Mitigation Strategies of Air Ingress Accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)/Gen-IV very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have identified that an air ingress event following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization is a very important incident. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority for the NGNP Project. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core through the break, leading to oxidation of the in-core graphite structure and fuel. If this accident occurs, the oxidation will accelerate heat-up of the bottom reflector and the reactor core and will eventually cause the release of fission products. The potential collapse of the core bottom structures causing the release of CO and fission products is one of the concerns. Therefore, experimental validation with the analytical model and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model developed in this study is very important. Estimating the proper safety margin will require experimental data and tools, including accurate multidimensional thermal-hydraulic and reactor physics models, a burn-off model, and a fracture model. It will also require effective strategies to mitigate the effects of oxidation. The results from this research will provide crucial inputs to the INL NGNP/VHTR Methods Research and Development project. The second year of this three-year project (FY-08 to FY-10) was focused on (a) the analytical, CFD, and experimental study of air ingress caused by density-driven, stratified, countercurrent flow; (b) advanced graphite oxidation experiments and modeling; (c) experimental study of burn-off in the core bottom structures, (d) implementation of advanced

  7. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction 241-SY-101 crust growth near term mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-04-12

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health, Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of the information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-110), lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide less than 0.1 mrem/year total effective dose equivalent to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual, and commencement is needed within a short time frame. Therefore, this application is also intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of this 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1) notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided at a later date.

  8. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  9. Supplemental Environmental Projects Using Renewable Energy: A New Approach to Addressing Air Quality Violation Penalties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-08-09

    Supplemental environmental projects, or SEPs, are environmentally beneficial projects that offer pollution prevention, energy efficiency, green energy, and community-based programs that may include investment in cost-effective alternative energy technologies, such as wind energy. This fact sheet explains how SEPs can help companies mitigate all or part of penalties imposed as a result of air pollution violations.

  10. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials Citation Details ... and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. ...

  11. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  12. Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, Jim; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-10-09

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  13. Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, Jim; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-10-07

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  14. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; et al

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effectsmore » of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.« less

  15. Neutralize & Mitigate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities » Neutralize & Mitigate Neutralize & Mitigate Scientists are developing technologies designed to mitigate the effects of IEDs, protecting personnel and equipment from the detonation effects of these and other types of explosives. v Protecting personnel and equipment from the detonation effects At Los Alamos, scientists are developing technologies designed to mitigate the effects of IEDs, protecting personnel and equipment from the detonation effects of these and other types

  16. Mitigating Wildland Fires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitigating Wildland Fires Mitigating Wildland Fires Our interactive wildland fire map displays the locations of wildland fire mitigation activities. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email View in Google Maps What we are doing to mitigate wildland fires Recent large wildfires in the area, including the La Mesa Fire (1977), the Dome Fire (1996), the Oso Fire (1998), the Cerro Grande Fire (2000), and the Las

  17. Mitigation Action Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitigation Action Plan FutureGen 2.0 Project DOE/EIS-0460 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory March 2014 DOE/EIS-0460 FUTUREGEN 2.0 PROJECT MITIGATION ACTION PLAN INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK DOE/EIS-0460 FUTUREGEN 2.0 PROJECT MITIGATION ACTION PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 1 Purpose

  18. Mitigation Action Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan FutureGen 2.0 Project DOE/EIS-0460 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory March 2014 DOE/EIS-0460 FUTUREGEN 2.0 PROJECT MITIGATION ACTION PLAN INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK DOE/EIS-0460 FUTUREGEN 2.0 PROJECT MITIGATION ACTION PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 1 Purpose

  19. Method to amplify variable sequences without imposing primer sequences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Zeytun, Ahmet

    2006-11-14

    The present invention provides methods of amplifying target sequences without including regions flanking the target sequence in the amplified product or imposing amplification primer sequences on the amplified product. Also provided are methods of preparing a library from such amplified target sequences.

  20. WREP Mitigation Action Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical Interconnection of the Whistling Ridge Energy Project 1 Mitigation Action Plan June 2015 Mitigation Action Plan for the Whistling Ridge Energy Project Measure Implementation Timeline Implementation Responsibility Earth (geology, soils, topography, and geologic hazards) Prior to Project construction, confirm subsurface soil and rock types and strength properties through a detailed geotechnical investigation of the specific locations of all wind Project elements, including wind

  1. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  2. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality ...

  3. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current ...

  4. Making the Most of Mitigation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Los Alamos Field Office uses a comprehensive Mitigation Action Plan to monitor and manage commitments to mitigate adverse environmental impacts associated with the 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and multiple project-specific EISs and environmental assessments (EAs). The DOE NEPA Order requires a publicly available annual report on progress made in implementing mitigation commitments and the effectiveness of the mitigation.

  5. Siting and Barrier Mitigation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Siting and Barrier Mitigation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs

  6. BIAS MITIGATION | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diversity and Inclusion » BIAS MITIGATION BIAS MITIGATION BIAS MITIGATION The DOE has focused its efforts on eliminating implicit bias at the individual and institutional levels. At the individual level, the DOE's efforts to eliminate implicit bias include: conflict prevention and resolution; Ombudsman - which promotes the early identification and resolution of issues in order to promote morale and productivity through an informal process; workplace improvement forums; and an anti-harassment

  7. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in ...

  8. Wildfre Mitigation at Los Alamos ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine crews, Helo Crews, and light air resources are stationed on site during wildfre season. Large air tankers are stationed within two hours of Laboratory property in Durango, ...

  9. Federal Interagency Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Interagency Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation Strategy Federal Interagency Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation Strategy Cover of the Federal Interagency ...

  10. Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector...

  11. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current research is to assess differences in NOx emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels, resulting from fundamental issues and system-response issues. deer09_jacobs.pdf (775.62 KB) More Documents & Publications Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature

  13. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on class I areas: part II. Mitigation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-08-01

    This is the second of two articles describing a plan that was developed to mitigate the effects of acid deposition and visibility impairment in four Class I areas from the proposed Longview Power Project. Part I (published in July 2005) discussed the air quality impacts of the proposed coal-fired power plant. Part II discusses the mitigation plan. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Enhanced Separation and Mitigated Plasticization in Membranes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Separation and Mitigated Plasticization in Membranes using Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles

  15. DOE-EA-1621 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affected Not Indicated Comment Applicant Proposed Mitigation Agency Imposed Mitigation Air Quality "NEPAResourceAnalysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present,...

  16. EA-NV-030-07-006 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affected Not Indicated Comment Applicant Proposed Mitigation Agency Imposed Mitigation Air Quality "NEPAResourceAnalysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present,...

  17. DOI-BLM-NV-W010-2012-0005-EA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affected Not Indicated Comment Applicant Proposed Mitigation Agency Imposed Mitigation Air Quality "NEPAResourceAnalysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present,...

  18. DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2009-0018-EA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affected Not Indicated Comment Applicant Proposed Mitigation Agency Imposed Mitigation Air Quality "NEPAResourceAnalysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present,...

  19. BLM-NV-WN-ES-08-01-1310, NV-020-08-01 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affected Not Indicated Comment Applicant Proposed Mitigation Agency Imposed Mitigation Air Quality "NEPAResourceAnalysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present,...

  20. DOI-BLM-CA-ES-2007-017-3200 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affected Not Indicated Comment Applicant Proposed Mitigation Agency Imposed Mitigation Air Quality "NEPAResourceAnalysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present,...

  1. DOI-BLM-NV-C010-2012-0050-EA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affected Not Indicated Comment Applicant Proposed Mitigation Agency Imposed Mitigation Air Quality "NEPAResourceAnalysis" is not in the list of possible values (Not Present,...

  2. Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Colley, Michelle ; Patel, Pralit L. ; Eom, Jiyong ; Kim, Son H. ; Kyle, G. Page ; Schultz, Peter ; Venkatesh, Boddu ; Haydel, Juanita ; Mack, Charlotte ; Creason, Jared ...

  3. Fast-ignition transport studies: Realistic electron source, integrated particle-in-cell and hydrodynamic modeling, imposed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strozzi, D. J.; Tabak, M.; Larson, D. J.; Divol, L.; Kemp, A. J.; Bellei, C.; Marinak, M. M.; Key, M. H.

    2012-07-15

    Transport modeling of idealized, cone-guided fast ignition targets indicates the severe challenge posed by fast-electron source divergence. The hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) code Zuma is run in tandem with the radiation-hydrodynamics code Hydra to model fast-electron propagation, fuel heating, and thermonuclear burn. The fast electron source is based on a 3D explicit-PIC laser-plasma simulation with the PSC code. This shows a quasi two-temperature energy spectrum and a divergent angle spectrum (average velocity-space polar angle of 52 Degree-Sign ). Transport simulations with the PIC-based divergence do not ignite for >1 MJ of fast-electron energy, for a modest (70 {mu}m) standoff distance from fast-electron injection to the dense fuel. However, artificially collimating the source gives an ignition energy of 132 kJ. To mitigate the divergence, we consider imposed axial magnetic fields. Uniform fields {approx}50 MG are sufficient to recover the artificially collimated ignition energy. Experiments at the Omega laser facility have generated fields of this magnitude by imploding a capsule in seed fields of 50-100 kG. Such imploded fields will likely be more compressed in the transport region than in the laser absorption region. When fast electrons encounter increasing field strength, magnetic mirroring can reflect a substantial fraction of them and reduce coupling to the fuel. A hollow magnetic pipe, which peaks at a finite radius, is presented as one field configuration which circumvents mirroring.

  4. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  5. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (1.4 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.

    1981-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.4 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a stainless steel canister representative of actual fuel canisters, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel near-surface drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD, the spent fuel deep geologic storage test being conducted in Climax granite on the Nevada Test Site, and for five constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  6. Compressed Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Compressed Air ESUE Motors Federal Agriculture Compressed Air Compressed Air Roadmap The Bonneville Power Administration created the roadmap to help utilities find energy...

  7. EIS-0380: Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement Fiscal Year 2012 Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report

  8. Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) (Redirected from GCOMAP) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Generalized Comprehensive...

  9. Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Generalized Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (GCOMAP) AgencyCompany Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory...

  10. Mitigation Measures for Distributed PV Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitigation Action Plans (MAP) and Related Documents Mitigation Action Plans (MAP) and Related Documents Mitigation Action Plans are documents DOE prepares in accordance with DOE NEPA regulations (10 CFR 1021.331) that describes the plan for implementing commitments made in a DOE environmental impact statement and its associated record of decision, or, when appropriate, an EA or FONSI, to mitigate adverse environmental impacts associated with an action. If you have any trouble finding a specific

  11. EIS-0422: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mitigation measures and estimated time of implementation within the Mitigation Action Plan for the Central Ferry-Lower Monumental 500-kilovolt Transmission Line Project. Mitigation...

  12. EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Annual Mitigation Report EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Mitigation Action Plan was prepared to address commitments made in the RODs for...

  13. EIS-0026: 2009 Annual Mitigation Report | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Annual Mitigation Report (AMR) addresses those WIPP-related mitigation activities undertaken from the time of submittal of the 1994 Annual Mitigation Report in July 1994 through...

  14. EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Annual Mitigation Report addresses those WIPP Project-related mitigation activities undertaken from the time of submittal of the 1994 Annual Mitigation Report in July 1994 through...

  15. EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7 Annual Mitigation Report (2007 AMR) addresses those WIPP- related mitigation activities undertaken from the time of submittal of the 1994 Annual Mitigation Report in July 1994...

  16. EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8 Annual Mitigation Report (AMR) addresses those WIPP-related mitigation activities undertaken from the time of submittal of the 1994 Annual Mitigation Report in July 1994 through...

  17. EIS-0397: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EIS-0397: Mitigation Action Plan Lyle Falls Fish Passage Project This Mitigation Action Plan identifies measures that are intended to avoid, reduce, or...

  18. Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the Appropriate Use of Mitigated Findings of No Significant Impact Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and ...

  19. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonietz, Karl K; Dimotakis, Paul E; Walker, Bruce C

    2011-09-26

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a

  20. EA-1628: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lignocellulosic Biorefinery, Emmetsburg, Iowa This Mitigation Action Plan specifieis the methods for implementing mitigation measures that address the potential environmental...

  1. EA-1508: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and dewatering, landscape engineering, borrow pits and recommended procedures for Raptors and powerline construction. Mitigation Action Plan to Implement Mitigation...

  2. EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Annual Mitigation Report addresses those WIPP Project-related mitigation activities undertaken from the time of submittal of the 1994 Annual Mitigation Report in July 1994 through June 2014. EIS-0026-MAP-2014.pdf (1.05 MB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report EIS-0026: Mitigation Action Plan

  3. EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Annual Mitigation Report addresses those WIPP Project-related mitigation activities undertaken since time of submittal of the 1994 Annual Mitigation Report in July 1994 through June 2016. Download Document EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report - 2016 (139.49 KB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report EIS-0026: 2010

  4. EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Annual Mitigation Report addresses those WIPP Project-related mitigation activities undertaken since time of submittal of the 1994 Annual Mitigation Report in July 1994 through June 2015. EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report - 2015 (133.54 KB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report EIS-0026:

  5. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public.

  6. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public. Open full...

  7. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public.

  8. Environmental Mitigation Technology (Innovative System Testing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fish-Friendly Turbine Environmental Mitigation Technology (Innovative System Testing)-Deployment and Testing of the Alden Hydropower Fish-Friendly Turbine Environmental ...

  9. Federal Interagency Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interagency Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation Strategy January 2016 This report ... First, the authors would like to thank the entire Wind Turbine Radar Interference Working ...

  10. Implantation, Activation, Characterization and Prevention/Mitigation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells Implantation, Activation, Characterization and PreventionMitigation of Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells 2012 ...

  11. Federal Interagency Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interagency Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation Strategy January 2016 This report ... from the advice and comments of two wind industry and trade association ...

  12. Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and Low-Carbon Development (LCD) strategies in developing countries through regionally based dialogues, web-based...

  13. Advanced Technology Development and Mitigation | National Nuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Advanced Technology Development and Mitigation (ATDM) subprogram includes laboratory code and computer engineering and science projects that pursue long-term simulation and ...

  14. Taxonomy for Common-Cause Failure Vulnerability and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Mullens, James Allen; Pullum, Laura L.

    2015-09-01

    Applying current guidance and practices for common-cause failure (CCF) mitigation to digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems has proven problematic, and the regulatory environment has been unpredictable. The potential for CCF vulnerability inhibits I&C modernization, thereby challenging the long-term sustainability of existing plants. For new plants and advanced reactor concepts, concern about CCF vulnerability in highly integrated digital I&C systems imposes a design burden that results in higher costs and increased complexity. The regulatory uncertainty in determining which mitigation strategies will be acceptable (e.g., what diversity is needed and how much is sufficient) drives designers to adopt complicated, costly solutions devised for existing plants. To address the conditions that constrain the transition to digital I&C technology by the US nuclear industry, crosscutting research is needed to resolve uncertainty, demonstrate necessary characteristics, and establish an objective basis for qualification of digital technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) I&C applications. To fulfill this research need, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating mitigation of CCF vulnerability for nuclear-qualified applications. The outcome of this research is expected to contribute to a fundamentally sound, comprehensive basis to qualify digital technology for nuclear power applications. This report documents the development of a CCF taxonomy. The basis for the CCF taxonomy was generated by determining consistent terminology and establishing a classification approach. The terminology is based on definitions from standards, guides, and relevant nuclear power industry technical reports. The classification approach is derived from identified classification schemes focused on I&C systems and key characteristics, including failure modes. The CCF taxonomy provides the basis for a systematic organization of key systems aspects relevant to analyzing the potential for

  15. INTERAGENCY FIELD TEST & EVALUATION OF WIND TURBINE – RADAR INTERFERENCE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents include a final report on the Interagency Field Test & Evaluation (IFT&E) program and summaries of three field tests designed to measure the impact of wind turbines on current air surveillance radars and the effectiveness of private sector technologies in mitigating that interference.

  16. Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-02-01

    This fact sheet describes ventilation and the importance of sealing air leaks and providing controlled ventilation.

  17. Mitigation Measures for Distributed PV Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitigation Measures for Distributed Interconnection" Michael Coddington with National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Robert Broderick with Sandia National Laboratories July 9, 2014 2 Speakers Michael Coddington Principal Investigator Distributed Grid Integration NREL Robert Broderick Technical Lead Distributed Grid Integration Programs Sandia National Laboratories Kristen Ardani Solar Analyst, (today's moderator) NREL 3 INTERCONNECTION, SCREENING & MITIGATION PRACTICES OF 21 UTILITIES

  18. Mitigation assessment results and priorities in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Zongxin; Wei Zhihong

    1996-12-31

    In this paper energy related CO2 emission projections of China by 2030 are given. CO2 mitigation potential and technology options in main fields of energy conservation and energy substitution are analyzed. CO2 reduction costs of main mitigation technologies are estimated and the AHP approach is used for helping assessment of priority technologies.

  19. Imposed magnetic field and hot electron propagation in inertial fusion hohlraums

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Strozzi, David J.; Perkins, L. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Larson, D. J.; Koning, J. M.; Logan, B. G.

    2015-12-02

    The effects of an imposed, axial magnetic fieldmore » $$B_{z0}$$ on hydrodynamics and energetic electrons in inertial confinement fusion indirect-drive hohlraums are studied. We present simulations from the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA of a low-adiabat ignition design for the National Ignition Facility, with and without $$B_{z0}=70~\\text{T}$$. The field’s main hydrodynamic effect is to significantly reduce electron thermal conduction perpendicular to the field. This results in hotter and less dense plasma on the equator between the capsule and hohlraum wall. The inner laser beams experience less inverse bremsstrahlung absorption before reaching the wall. The X-ray drive is thus stronger from the equator with the imposed field. We study superthermal, or ‘hot’, electron dynamics with the particle-in-cell code ZUMA, using plasma conditions from HYDRA. During the early-time laser picket, hot electrons based on two-plasmon decay in the laser entrance hole (Regan et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 17(2), 2010, 020703) are guided to the capsule by a 70 T field. Twelve times more energy deposits in the deuterium–tritium fuel. For plasma conditions early in peak laser power, we present mono-energetic test-case studies with ZUMA as well as sources based on inner-beam stimulated Raman scattering. Furthermore, the effect of the field on deuterium–tritium deposition depends strongly on the source location, namely whether hot electrons are generated on field lines that connect to the capsule.« less

  20. Imposed magnetic field and hot electron propagation in inertial fusion hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strozzi, David J.; Perkins, L. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Larson, D. J.; Koning, J. M.; Logan, B. G.

    2015-12-02

    The effects of an imposed, axial magnetic field $B_{z0}$ on hydrodynamics and energetic electrons in inertial confinement fusion indirect-drive hohlraums are studied. We present simulations from the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA of a low-adiabat ignition design for the National Ignition Facility, with and without $B_{z0}=70~\\text{T}$. The field’s main hydrodynamic effect is to significantly reduce electron thermal conduction perpendicular to the field. This results in hotter and less dense plasma on the equator between the capsule and hohlraum wall. The inner laser beams experience less inverse bremsstrahlung absorption before reaching the wall. The X-ray drive is thus stronger from the equator with the imposed field. We study superthermal, or ‘hot’, electron dynamics with the particle-in-cell code ZUMA, using plasma conditions from HYDRA. During the early-time laser picket, hot electrons based on two-plasmon decay in the laser entrance hole (Regan et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 17(2), 2010, 020703) are guided to the capsule by a 70 T field. Twelve times more energy deposits in the deuterium–tritium fuel. For plasma conditions early in peak laser power, we present mono-energetic test-case studies with ZUMA as well as sources based on inner-beam stimulated Raman scattering. Furthermore, the effect of the field on deuterium–tritium deposition depends strongly on the source location, namely whether hot electrons are generated on field lines that connect to the capsule.

  1. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Air Conditioning Air Conditioning Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Two-thirds of all homes in the

  2. Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility mitigation action plan. Annual report for 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haagenstad, H.T.

    1998-01-15

    This Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report (MAPAR) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of implementing the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP). This MAPAR provides a status on specific DARHT facility design- and construction-related mitigation actions that have been initiated in order to fulfill DOE`s commitments under the DARHT MAP. The functions of the DARHT MAP are to (1) document potentially adverse environmental impacts of the Phased Containment Option delineated in the Final EIS, (2) identify commitments made in the Final EIS and ROD to mitigate those potential impacts, and (3) establish Action Plans to carry out each commitment (DOE 1996). The DARHT MAP is divided into eight sections. Sections 1--5 provide background information regarding the NEPA review of the DARHT project and an introduction to the associated MAP. Section 6 references the Mitigation Action Summary Table which summaries the potential impacts and mitigation measures; indicates whether the mitigation is design-, construction-, or operational-related; the organization responsible for the mitigation measure; and the projected or actual completion data for each mitigation measure. Sections 7 and 8 discuss the Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report and Tracking System commitment and the Potential Impacts, Commitments, and Action Plans respectively. Under Section 8, potential impacts are categorized into five areas of concern: General Environment, including impacts to air and water; Soils, especially impacts affecting soil loss and contamination; Biotic Resources, especially impacts affecting threatened and endangered species; Cultural/Paleontological Resources, especially impacts affecting the archeological site known as Nake`muu; and Human Health and Safety, especially impacts pertaining to noise and radiation. Each potential impact includes a brief statement of the nature of the impact and its cause(s). The commitment

  3. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  4. EIS-0419: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EIS-0419: Mitigation Action Plan Whistling Ridge Energy Project; Skamania County, Washington Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) adopted all the mitigation measures described in the Whistling Ridge Energy Project EIS and prepared a mitigation action plan. The applicant will be responsible for executing the mitigation measures for the wind project, and BPA will be responsible for executing the mitigation measures for the BPA interconnection facilities. For more

  5. EIS-0486: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EIS-0486: Mitigation Action Plan Plains & Eastern Clean Line Transmission Project DOE issued a Mitigation Action Plan that explains how mitigation measures, which have been designed to mitigate adverse environmental impacts associated with the course of action directed by the Record of Decision, will be planned and implemented. For more information visit the project page: http://energy.gov/node/583039. Download Document EIS-0486: Mitigation Action Plan (12.85 MB) More

  6. Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS) (Redirected from CIFF-Chile-Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS)) Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:...

  7. Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design Basis Events Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design Basis Events April ...

  8. EIS-0350-S1: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Los Alamos, NM This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) describes mitigation and monitoring commitments for constructing and operating the Modified CMRR-NF. The commitments made in this ...

  9. Oregon Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Policy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Policy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: Oregon Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Policy Published Publisher Not...

  10. Recent Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime Administration Energy Technologies Program Recent Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime ...

  11. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012 ...

  12. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A...

  13. EA-1595: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EA-1595: Mitigation Action Plan Davis-Mead 230-kV Transmission Line Reconductor Project Western Area Power Administration proposes to reconductor ...

  14. Mitigation Action Plans (MAP) and Related Documents | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    November 25, 2014 EIS-0472: Mitigation Action Plan Uranium Leasing Program Mitigation Action Plan for the Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement ...

  15. EA-1923: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EA-1923: Mitigation Action Plan Green Energy School Wind Turbine Project on Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands This Mitgation Action Plan ...

  16. EA-1923: Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1923: Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact Green Energy School Wind Turbine Project on Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern ...

  17. EA-1706: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EA-1706: Mitigation Action Plan West Tennessee Solar Farm Project Haywood County, Tennessee Based on the analyses in the Environmental Assessment, DOE...

  18. Nanoparticles to Mitigate Biofilm Growth. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoparticles to Mitigate Biofilm Growth. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoparticles to Mitigate Biofilm Growth. Abstract not provided. Authors: Altman, Susan Jeanne ...

  19. EIS-0380: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    : Mitigation Action Plan EIS-0380: Mitigation Action Plan Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico PDF icon Site-Wide Environmental Impact ...

  20. EIS-0380: Fiscal Year 2011 Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fiscal Year 2011 Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report for the 2008 Los Alamos Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0380: Fiscal Year 2011 Mitigation Action Plan Annual ...

  1. Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin Jump to: navigation, search Name Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo...

  2. National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review paper This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector has two...

  3. Property:Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts Property Type String Retrieved from...

  4. DOE Uranium Leasing Program 2015 Mitigation Action Plan Activity...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Uranium Leasing Program 2015 Mitigation Action Plan Activity Summary Report DOE Uranium Leasing Program 2015 Mitigation Action Plan Activity Summary Report DOE Uranium Leasing ...

  5. Exploring changes in solar model physics to mitigate the solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Exploring changes in solar model physics to mitigate the solar abundance problem Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring changes in solar model physics to mitigate the ...

  6. Procedures for Interagency Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or Mitigate Adverse Effects on Rivers in the Nationwide Inventory (CEQ, 1980) Procedures for Interagency Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate Adverse Effects on Rivers in the ...

  7. EA-1917: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7: Mitigation Action Plan EA-1917: Mitigation Action Plan Wave Energy Test Facility Project, Newport, OR Through the environmental review process, DOE determined, via consultations ...

  8. EIS-0218: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EIS-0218: Mitigation Action Plan Implementation of a Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel The ...

  9. Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

  10. Financing Global Climate Change Mitigation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Climate Change Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Financing Global Climate Change Mitigation AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations...

  11. Information Needs for Energy Mitigation and Siting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    esources University o f W yoming QUADRENNIAL ENERGY REVIEW - Aug. 21,2014 1. A shared language 2. Solid baseline data to guide planning and siting 3. Mitigation best practices -...

  12. Mitigating the Impacts of Glint and Glare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillesheim, Michael; Kandt, Alicen; Phillips, Steven

    2015-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, supporting the Department of the Navy Renewable Energy Program Office, has developed an innovative glint/glare analysis and visualization methodology to understand and mitigate the possible impacts of light reflecting off solar photovoltaic arrays.

  13. Air filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.E.; Sparks, J.E.

    1981-03-03

    An air filter is described that has a counter rotating drum, i.e., the rotation of the drum is opposite the tangential intake of air. The intake air has about 1 lb of rock wool fibers per 107 cu. ft. of air sometimes at about 100% relative humidity. The fibers are doffed from the drum by suction nozzle which are adjacent to the drum at the bottom of the filter housing. The drum screen is cleaned by periodically jetting hot dry air at 120 psig through the screen into the suction nozzles.

  14. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: A legally imposed challenge to science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauwels, M.; Rogiers, V.

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  15. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  16. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  17. air force

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    en NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleases...

  18. Advanced Mitigating Measures for the Cell Internal Short Risk (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darcy, E.; Smith, K.

    2010-04-01

    This presentation describes mitigation measures for internal short circuits in lithium-ion battery cells.

  19. Radiant cooling in US office buildings: Towards eliminating the perception of climate-imposed barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetiu, C.

    1998-01-01

    Much attention is being given to improving the efficiency of air-conditioning systems through the promotion of more efficient cooling technologies. One such alternative, radiant cooling, is the subject of this thesis. Performance information from Western European buildings equipped with radiant cooling systems indicates that these systems not only reduce the building energy consumption but also provide additional economic and comfort-related benefits. Their potential in other markets such as the US has been largely overlooked due to lack of practical demonstration, and to the absence of simulation tools capable of predicting system performance in different climates. This thesis describes the development of RADCOOL, a simulation tool that models thermal and moisture-related effects in spaces equipped with radiant cooling systems. The thesis then conducts the first in-depth investigation of the climate-related aspects of the performance of radiant cooling systems in office buildings. The results of the investigation show that a building equipped with a radiant cooling system can be operated in any US climate with small risk of condensation. For the office space examined in the thesis, employing a radiant cooling system instead of a traditional all-air system can save on average 30% of the energy consumption and 27% of the peak power demand due to space conditioning. The savings potential is climate-dependent, and is larger in retrofitted buildings than in new construction. This thesis demonstrates the high performance potential of radiant cooling systems across a broad range of US climates. It further discusses the economics governing the US air-conditioning market and identifies the type of policy interventions and other measures that could encourage the adoption of radiant cooling in this market.

  20. On the road to HF mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanZele, R.L.; Diener, R. )

    1990-06-01

    The hazards of hydrogen fluoride (HF) have long been recognized and industry performance reflects sound operating practices. However, full-scale industry-sponsored HF release test conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test site in 1986 caused concern in view of HF's toxicity. Ambient impacts were greater than anticipated. And diking, a primary mitigation technique, proved ineffective for releases of pressurized superheated HF. In partial response to these new technical data, an ad-hoc three-component Industry Cooperative Hydrogen Fluoride Mitigation Assessment Program (ICHMAP) was begun in late 1987 to study and test techniques for mitigating accidental releases of HF and alkylation unit acid (AUA) and to enhance capabilities to estimate ambient impacts from such releases. AUA is a mixture of HF and hydrocarbons. The program's mitigation components have recently been completed while work on the impact assessment component is nearing completion. This article describes the program and summarizes the objective, scope of work, structure, and conclusions from the program's two mitigation components. In addition, the objectives and scope of work of the impact assessment components are described.

  1. Disruption mitigation using high pressure gas jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis G. Whyte

    2007-10-11

    The goal of this research is to establish credible disruption mitigation scenarios based on the technique of massive gas injection. Disruption mitigation seeks to minimize or eliminate damage to internal components that can occur due to the rapid dissipation of thermal and magnetic energy during a tokamak disruption. In particular, the focus of present research is extrapolating mitigation techniques to burning plasma experiments such as ITER, where disruption-caused damage poses a serious threat to the lifetime of internal vessel components. A majority of effort has focused on national and international collaborative research with large tokamaks: DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, JET, and ASDEX Upgrade. The research was oriented towards empirical trials of gas-jet mitigation on several tokamaks, with the goal of developing and applying cohesive models to the data across devices. Disruption mitigation using gas jet injection has proven to be a viable candidate for avoiding or minimizing damage to internal components in burning plasma experiments like ITER. The physics understanding is progress towards a technological design for the required gas injection system in ITER.

  2. Platelet composite coatings for tin whisker mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results for several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.

  3. Platelet composite coatings for tin whisker mitigation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results formore » several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.« less

  4. Air quality VI details environmental progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-12-31

    A report is given of the International Conference on Air Quality VI where key topics discussed were control of mercury, trace elements, sulphur trioxide and particulates. This year a separate track was added on greenhouse gas reduction, with panels on greenhouse gas policy and markets, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, and monitoring, mitigation and verification. In keynote remarks, NETL Director Carl Bauer noted that emissions have gone down since 1990 even though coal consumption has increased. The conference provided an overview of the state-of-the-science regarding key pollutants and CO{sub 2}, the corresponding regulatory environment, and the technology readiness of mitigation techniques. 1 photo.

  5. EIS-0472: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EIS-0472: Mitigation Action Plan Uranium Leasing Program Mitigation Action Plan for the Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement DOE LM issued the Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0472) in March 2014 and issued the associated Record of Decision (ROD) on May 6, 2014; the ROD was published in the Federal Register on May 12, 2014. This Mitigation Action Plan addresses the mitigation commitments

  6. Ray Effect Mitigation Through Reference Frame Rotation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tencer, John

    2016-06-14

    The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. Moreover, when ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. It is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.

  7. Mitigating PQ Problems in Legacy Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilinets, Boris; /SLAC

    2011-06-01

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Problems with PQ in legacy data centers still exist and need to be mitigated; (2) Harmonics generated by non-linear IT load can be lowered by passive, active and hybrid cancellation methods; (3) Harmonic study is necessary to find the best way to treat PQ problems; (4) AHF's and harmonic cancellation transformers proved to be very efficient in mitigating PQ problems; and (5) It is important that IT leaders partner with electrical engineering to appropriate ROI statements, justifying many of these expenditures.

  8. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  9. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  10. RAPID/NEPA/About | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and potential application of future tiered NEPA analyses such as DNAs. Resource (e.g. Air Quality) Users can look at mitigation measures proposed and imposed on previous...

  11. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  12. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

  13. Quasi-discrete particle motion in an externally imposed, ordered structure in a dusty plasma at high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Edward Konopka, Uwe; Lynch, Brian; Adams, Stephen; LeBlanc, Spencer; Merlino, Robert L.; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2015-11-15

    Dusty plasmas have been studied in argon, radio frequency (rf) glow discharge plasmas at magnetic fields up to 2.5 T where the electrons and ions are strongly magnetized. Plasmas are generated between two parallel plate electrodes where the lower, powered electrode is solid and the upper electrode supports a dual mesh consisting of #24 brass and #30 aluminum wire cloth. In this experiment, we study the formation of imposed ordered structures and particle dynamics as a function of magnetic field. Through observations of trapped particles and the quasi-discrete (i.e., “hopping”) motion of particles between the trapping locations, it is possible to make a preliminary estimate of the potential structure that confines the particles to a grid structure in the plasma. This information is used to gain insight into the formation of the imposed grid pattern of the dust particles in the plasma.

  14. Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Full Document and ...

  15. Market-Based Wildlife Mitigation in Wyoming | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Wyoming Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Market-Based Wildlife Mitigation in Wyoming Abstract Covers the basics of mitigation...

  16. Siting: Wind Turbine/Radar Interference Mitigation (TSPEAR &...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Wind TurbineRadar Interference Mitigation (TSPEAR & IFT&E) HomeStationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWind EnergySiting and Barrier MitigationSiting: Wind TurbineRadar ...

  17. EA-1440-S1: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EA-1440-S1: Mitigation Action Plan National Renewable Energy ... Biorefinery Pilot Plant (TBPP). EA-1440-S1-MAP-2008.pdf (3.04 MB) More Documents & ...

  18. First results on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Yaowei; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Hak-Kun; Kim, Hong-Tack; Kim, Woong-Chae; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Son, Soo-Hyun; Bang, Eun-Nam; Hong, Suk-Ho; Yoon, Si-Woo; Zhuang Huidong; Chen Zhongyong

    2012-12-15

    Massive gas injection (MGI) system was developed on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) in 2011 campaign for disruption studies. The MGI valve has a volume of 80 ml and maximum injection pressure of 50 bar, the diameter of valve orifice to vacuum vessel is 18.4 mm, the distance between MGI valve and plasma edge is {approx}3.4 m. The MGI power supply employs a large capacitor of 1 mF with the maximum voltage of 3 kV, the valve can be opened in less than 0.1 ms, and the amount of MGI can be controlled by the imposed voltage. During KSTAR 2011 campaign, MGI disruptions are carried out by triggering MGI during the flat top of circular and limiter discharges with plasma current 400 kA and magnetic field 2-3.5 T, deuterium injection pressure 39.7 bar, and imposed voltage 1.1-1.4 kV. The results show that MGI could mitigate the heat load and prevent runaway electrons with proper MGI amount, and MGI penetration is deeper under higher amount of MGI or lower magnetic field. However, plasma start-up is difficult after some of D{sub 2} MGI disruptions due to the high deuterium retention and consequently strong outgassing of deuterium in next shot, special effort should be made to get successful plasma start-up after deuterium MGI under the graphite first wall.

  19. Wildfire Mitigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Wildfire Mitigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory Wildfire Mitigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory The Laboratory's Fire Mitigation program is closely integrated with Los Alamos County, the U.S. Forest Service and the National Park Service to fight any wildfire in the region. The Laboratory's Fire Management posts daily Fire Danger Ratings on their website. Wildfire-Mitigation-at-Los-Alamos-National-Laboratory.pdf (2.69 MB) More Documents & Publications Remediated Nitrate

  20. EIS-0425: Record of Decision and Mitigation Action Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration Record of Decision and Mitigation Action Plan for the Mid-Columbia Restoration Project

  1. Peru-GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from UNDP-Peru GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy Generation and End-Use Sectors)...

  2. Recommendation 195: Mitigation of Contamination in Bear Creek Burial Grounds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB requests DOE provide possible remedial actions to mitigate releases of contamination from Bear Creek Burial Grounds.

  3. 2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

  4. 2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

    2007-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  5. EIS-0026: Annual Mitigation Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2010 Annual Mitigation Report EIS-0026: 2010 Annual Mitigation Report Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Guidance for the development of a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) is contained in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 451.1B, National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Program, and 10 CFR 1021, National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures. These documents specify that a MAP be prepared to mitigate environmental impacts resulting from the implementation of commitments made in the Record of

  6. EA-1704: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: Mitigation Action Plan EA-1704: Mitigation Action Plan Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, BlueFire Fulton Renewable Energy, LLC, Fulton, Mississippi This Mitigation Action Plan specifies the methods for implementing mitigation measures that address the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a lignocellulosic ethanol refinery, BlueFire Fulton Renewable Energy, LLC in Fulton, Mississippi. EA-1704-MAP-2010.pdf (2.11 MB)

  7. EIS-0464: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EIS-0464: Mitigation Action Plan Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project, Lake Charles, Louisiana and Brazoria County, Texas This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) briefly describes the mitigation actions and monitoring and reporting requirements the recipient must implement during the design, construction, and demonstration of the Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project. DOE prepared this MAP in accordance with 10 CFR 1021.331. EIS-0464-MAP-2014.pdf

  8. DOE Uranium Leasing Program 2015 Mitigation Action Plan Activity Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report | Department of Energy Uranium Leasing Program 2015 Mitigation Action Plan Activity Summary Report DOE Uranium Leasing Program 2015 Mitigation Action Plan Activity Summary Report DOE Uranium Leasing Program 2015 Mitigation Action Plan Activity Summary Report (447.33 KB) More Documents & Publications LM Annual NEPA Planning Summary 2014 EA-1535: Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment EA-1934: 2015 Annual Report for Mitigation Action

  9. EIS-0380: Annual Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement Fiscal Year 2013 Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report

  10. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molnar, S.

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  11. Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.

  12. 300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. J. McBride

    2007-07-03

    Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

  13. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sparks, Michael H.

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  14. Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2001-03-01

    This report covers calendar year 2000 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  15. Southern idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2000-04-01

    This report is for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by IDFG and SBT wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  16. Wildfre Mitigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wildfre Mitigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory Background Established in 1943, Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of 1,280 buildings in 47 technical areas spread out over 37 square miles. The complex includes 11 nuclear facilities and more than 10,000 workers. In the past, large wildfres in the area, including the La Mesa Fire (1977), the Dome Fire (1996), the Oso Fire (1998), the Cerro Grande Fire (2000), and the Las Conchas Fire (2011) demonstrate that forests on and surrounding the

  17. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  18. Global climate change and the mitigation challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Princiotta

    2009-10-15

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, very likely the primary cause of the 0.8{sup o}C warming the Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. This paper examines forces driving CO{sub 2} emissions, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and research and development (R&D) priorities. To constrain warming to below approximately 2.5{sup o}C in 2100, the recent annual 3% CO{sub 2} emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Furthermore, the current generation of energy generation and end-use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs fall far short of what is required. 20 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and Fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockelie, Michael J.

    2015-06-29

    This Final Report summarizes research performed to develop a technology to mitigate the plugging and fouling that occurs in the syngas cooler used in many Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. The syngas cooler is a firetube heat exchanger located downstream of the gasifier. It offers high thermal efficiency, but its’ reliability has generally been lower than other process equipment in the gasification island. The buildup of ash deposits that form on the fireside surfaces in the syngas cooler (i.e., fouling) lead to reduced equipment life and increased maintenance costs. Our approach to address this problem is that fouling of the syngas cooler cannot be eliminated, but it can be better managed. The research program was funded by DOE using two budget periods: Budget Period 1 (BP1) and Budget Period 2 (BP2). The project used a combination of laboratory scale experiments, analysis of syngas cooler deposits, modeling and guidance from industry to develop a better understanding of fouling mechanisms and to develop and evaluate strategies to mitigate syngas cooler fouling and thereby improve syngas cooler performance. The work effort in BP 1 and BP 2 focused on developing a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to syngas cooler plugging and fouling and investigating promising concepts to mitigate syngas cooler plugging and fouling. The work effort focused on the following: • analysis of syngas cooler deposits and fuels provided by an IGCC plant collaborating with this project; • performing Jet cleaning tests in the University of Utah Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor to determine the bond strength between an ash deposit to a metal plate, as well as implementing planned equipment modifications to the University of Utah Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor and the one ton per day, pressurized Pilot Scale Gasifier; • performing Computational Fluid Dynamic modeling of industrially relevant syngas cooler configurations to develop a better

  20. EA-1915: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EA-1915: Mitigation Action Plan Proposed Conveyance of Land at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington DOE prepared a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) as an integral part of the Finding of No Significant Impact for DOE's EA. For more information on this project, see the project webpage: http://energy.gov/nepa/ea-1915-proposed-conveyance-land-hanford-site-ric... EA-1915-MAP-2015.pdf (86.09 KB) More Documents & Publications EA-1915: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1915:

  1. EA-1934: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan EA-1934: Mitigation Action Plan Expansion of Active Borrow Areas, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington This Mitigation Action Plan is an integral part of the Finding of No Significant Impact for the proposed action within the Expansion of Active Borrow Areas, Hanford Site. The proposed action would expand 11active borrow pits on the Hanford Site that were included in the previous Environmental Assessments (DOE/EA-1403, DOE/EA-1454), and establish 1 new borrow source. This

  2. TOP 10 VULNERABILITIES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED MITIGATIONS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy TOP 10 VULNERABILITIES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED MITIGATIONS TOP 10 VULNERABILITIES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED MITIGATIONS This document provides practices that can help mitigate the potential risks that can occur to some electricity sector organizations. Each organization decides for itself the risks it can accept and the practices it deems appropriate to manage those risks. TOP 10 VULNERABILITIES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED

  3. Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basis Events | Department of Energy Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design Basis Events Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design Basis Events April 2013 OE-1: 2013-01 Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design Basis Events The purpose of this Operating Experience (OE) document is to: provide results from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration,

  4. Buildings Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Estimator Worksheet | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Buildings Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Estimator Worksheet Buildings Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Estimator Worksheet Excel tool helps agencies estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings. For example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office

  5. International perspectives on mitigating laboratory biorisks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinard, William J.; Salazar, Carlos A.

    2010-11-01

    The International Perspectives on Mitigating Laboratory Biorisks workshop, held at the Renaissance Polat Istanbul Hotel in Istanbul, Republic of Turkey, from October 25 to 27, 2010, sought to promote discussion between experts and stakeholders from around the world on issues related to the management of biological risk in laboratories. The event was organized by Sandia National Laboratories International Biological Threat Reduction program, on behalf of the US Department of State Biosecurity Engagement Program and the US Department of Defense Cooperative Biological Engagement Program. The workshop came about as a response to US Under Secretary of State Ellen O. Tauscher's statements in Geneva on December 9, 2009, during the Annual Meeting of the States Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). Pursuant to those remarks, the workshop was intended to provide a forum for interested countries to share information on biorisk management training, standards, and needs. Over the course of the meeting's three days, participants discussed diverse topics such as the role of risk assessment in laboratory biorisk management, strategies for mitigating risk, measurement of performance and upkeep, international standards, training and building workforce competence, and the important role of government and regulation. The meeting concluded with affirmations of the utility of international cooperation in this sphere and recognition of positive prospects for the future. The workshop was organized as a series of short presentations by international experts on the field of biorisk management, followed by breakout sessions in which participants were divided into four groups and urged to discuss a particular topic with the aid of a facilitator and a set of guiding questions. Rapporteurs were present during the plenary session as well as breakout sessions and in particular were tasked with taking notes during discussions and reporting back to the assembled participants a brief

  6. Maintaining System Air Quality

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This tip sheet discusses how to maintain air quality in compressed air systems through proper use of equipment.

  7. Tips: Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How to operate your air conditioner efficiently, or consider alternatives to air conditioning that can cool effectively in many climates.

  8. EA-1855: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lincoln and Spokane Counties, Washington (aka DOEEA-4406) This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) is part of the Finding of No Significant Impact for the Creston-Bell...

  9. EA-1591: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plan Palisades-Goshen Transmission Line Reconstruction Project This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) is part of the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the...

  10. EA-1731: Mitigation Acton Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plan Walla Walla-Tucannon River Transmission Line Rebuild Project This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) is part of the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Walla...

  11. MCA 22-3-430 - Montana Antiquities Avoidance and Mitigation ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MCA 22-3-430 - Montana Antiquities Avoidance and MitigationLegal Abstract Sets forth a principle of preferred avoidance of heritage properties or paleontological remains,...

  12. RAPID/Best Practices/Landscape-Scale Mitigation | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    features that minimize impacts (for example, the best types of materials and structure types for visual mitigation or avian-safe structure design) would have been identified...

  13. Mitigations for Security Vulnerabilities Found in Control System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigations for Security Vulnerabilities Found in Control System Networks (425.98 KB) More Documents & Publications Cyber Assessment Methods for SCADA Security Introduction SCADA ...

  14. Oregon Willamette River Basin Mitigation Agreement | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River Basin Mitigation Agreement Author State of Oregon Recipient Bonneville Power Administration Published Publisher Not Provided, 10222010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  15. Mitigation Action Plans (MAP) and Related Documents | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    EA-1704: Mitigation Action Plan Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, BlueFire Fulton Renewable Energy, LLC, Fulton, Mississippi March 10, 2010...

  16. Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas...

  17. UNEP-Ethiopia-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNEP-Ethiopia-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for...

  18. Exploring changes in solar model physics to mitigate the solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Exploring changes in solar model physics to mitigate the solar abundance problem Citation ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  19. Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation Working Group Releases...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation Working Group to address these challenges. This new report lays out the plan for how the working group will address wind turbine radar ...

  20. EA-1858: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    boiler and a 20-megawatt steam turbine at its existing paper mill in Port Angeles, Washington. PDF icon Mitigation Action Plan for the Environmental Assessment for the...

  1. Game-Changing Process Mitigates CO2 Emissions Using Renewable...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Game-Changing Process Mitigates CO2 Emissions Using Renewable Energy Gold nanoparticles ... Researchers developed a special form of gold nanoparticle that contains exactly 25 gold ...

  2. EIS-0323: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation Action Plan for the Sacramento Area Voltage Support Project which is prepared to accompany the Sacramento Area Voltage Support Project Supplement Environmental Impact...

  3. EIS-0323: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    approval is implemented. PDF icon Mitigation Action Plan for the Sacramento Area Voltage Support Project Prepared to Accompany The Sacramento Area Voltage Support Project...

  4. Mitigation Action Plans (MAP) and Related Documents | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project, Grant and Okanogon Counties, Washington November 1, 2011 EIS-0350-S1: Mitigation Action Plan Nuclear Facility Portion of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building...

  5. Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage Mitigation of Vehicle Fast ... AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results

  6. Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the Tourism Sector...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    their decision making processes and operations. It presents an overview of the current science and policy of climate change, followed by self-guidance material on mitigation and...

  7. Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

  8. Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells held on November 19, 2013.

  9. EA-1901: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    White Sturgeon and Burbot Hatcheries Project, Bonners Ferry, Boundary County, Idaho This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) is referenced in the Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

  10. International Partnership on Mitigation and MRV | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    climate experts from a variety of countries, the Partnership seeks to: foster mutual learning between peers identify best practices establish a shared mitigation-related knowledge...

  11. Webinar: Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells, originally presented on November 19, 2013.

  12. Democratic Republic of Congo-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  13. Central African Republic-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  14. Burundi-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  15. Rwanda-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  16. Cameroon-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - Financial Plan Risk Mitigation Master...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    within acceptable bounds BPA Financial Plan Workshop 5 Financial Plan Risk Metrics Agenda Origin of the Risk Metrics Issue History of risk mitigation measures and origin of...

  18. Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the MAGHG project is to support developing countries assess and report their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including assessment of mitigation options for...

  19. Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    divisionsfuture-perfect Country: South Korea Eastern Asia Language: English References: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling1...

  20. EIS-0332: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    transmission line between Bonneville Power Administration's existing McNary and John Day substations. PDF icon Mitigation Action Plan for the McNary-John Day Transmission...

  1. Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage Mike Simpson National Renewable Energy ... Grid Impact Mitigation * Identify system benefits - Add efficient, electric ...

  2. EA-1739: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications EA-1951: Finding of No Significant Impact and Mitigation Action Plan EA-1739: Finding of No Significant Impact EIS-0285-SA-117: Supplement Analysis

  3. EIS-0389: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Action Plan EIS-0389: Mitigation Action Plan Trinity Public Utilities District Direct Interconnection Project Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to...

  4. Mitigation Action Plans (MAP) and Related Documents | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIS-0218: Mitigation Action Plan Implementation of a Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel May 1, 1994 EIS-0186:...

  5. Chile-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin America...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Chile-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean Name...

  6. Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries...

  7. Development based climate change adaptation and mitigation-conceptual...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    based climate change adaptation and mitigation-conceptual issues and lessons learned in studies in developing countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  8. Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Developing Countries: Policy Options for Innovations and Technology Diffusion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary...

  9. Site mitigation issues along the Alameda Corridor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripaldi, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Alameda Corridor is a consolidated railroad link between the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach and the regional and national rail systems linking the nation. A joint Environmental Impacts Report/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS) was prepared for the project. The Final EIS was issued in February 1996, and a record of decision was issued in May, 1996. Various Phase 1 and Phase 2 Environmental Site Assessments have provided extensive historical documentation of environmental contamination in the vicinity of the Alameda Corridor Transportation Project. A Site Mitigation Master Plan provides guidance and direction for the clean-up activities. Samples will be analyzed for metals, PCB`s TRPH, BTEX, and VOCs.

  10. Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

  11. Mitigation for one & all: An integrated framework for mitigation of development impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tallis, Heather; Kennedy, Christina M.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Goldstein, Joshua; Kiesecker, Joseph M.

    2015-11-15

    Emerging development policies and lending standards call for consideration of ecosystem services when mitigating impacts from development, yet little guidance exists to inform this process. Here we propose a comprehensive framework for advancing both biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. We have clarified a means for choosing representative ecosystem service targets alongside biodiversity targets, identified servicesheds as a useful spatial unit for assessing ecosystem service avoidance, impact, and offset options, and discuss methods for consistent calculation of biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation ratios. We emphasize the need to move away from area- and habitat-based assessment methods for both biodiversity and ecosystem services towards functional assessments at landscape or seascape scales. Such comprehensive assessments more accurately reflect cumulative impacts and variation in environmental quality, social needs and value preferences. The integrated framework builds on the experience of biodiversity mitigation while addressing the unique opportunities and challenges presented by ecosystem service mitigation. These advances contribute to growing potential for economic development planning and execution that will minimize impacts on nature and maximize human wellbeing. - Highlights: • This is the first framework for biodiversity and ecosystem service mitigation. • Functional, landscape scale assessments are ideal for avoidance and offsets. • Servicesheds define the appropriate spatial extent for ecosystem service mitigation. • Mitigation ratios should be calculated consistently and based on standard factors. • Our framework meets the needs of integrated mitigation assessment requirements.

  12. Libby Mitigation Program, 2007 Annual Progress Report: Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, J.; Garrow, L.

    2009-05-26

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to 'protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to restore the fisheries and fish habitat in

  13. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T.

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  14. NEPA mitigation and monitoring activities on Army installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinke, D.C.; Robitaille, P.

    1995-12-01

    The Army National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementation regulation AR 200-2 (Army Regulation) requires only mitigation measures that can reasonably be accompanied as part of a proposed alternative be identified in the NEPA document. Failure of the identified mitigation actions to be executed or to perform as expected leads to a required reevaluation of the project and the significance of its impacts. The USAEC has undertaken a study of mitigation and monitoring actions listed in Army NEPA documents. As part of the USAEC NEPA program the study has outlined three major tasks (1) collection of a significant sample of Army NEPA documents, (2) review environmental documentation management and retention, and (3) review in detail a subsample of documents and follow-up with site visits. Some 242 Army NEPA documents, Environmental Assessments (EA) and Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) were collected and evaluated for mitigation requirements. Ninety seven of the 242 NEPA documents committed to one or more mitigation actions. While a wide array of mitigating activities have been identified in these documents, the four most common are (1) management plans and practices, (2) training actions, (3) revegetation actions, and (4) construction practices. Site visits to selected Army installations showed that mitigation practices were for the most part being done, but were poorly documented. No installation visited had a mitigation monitoring plan in place as required by AR 200-2.

  15. Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitin Padture

    2011-12-31

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used in gas-turbine engines afford higher operating temperatures, resulting in enhanced efficiencies and performance. However, in the case of syngas-fired engines, fly ash particulate impurities that may be present in syngas can melt on the hotter TBC surfaces and form glassy deposits. These deposits can penetrate the TBCs leading to their failure. In experiments using lignite fly ash to simulate these conditions we show that conventional TBCs of composition 93wt% ZrO{sub 2} + 7wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (7YSZ) fabricated using the air plasma spray (APS) process are completely destroyed by the molten fly ash. The molten fly ash is found to penetrate the full thickness of the TBC. The mechanisms by which this occurs appear to be similar to those observed in degradation of 7YSZ TBCs by molten calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) sand and by molten volcanic ash in aircraft engines. In contrast, APS TBCs of Gd{sub 2Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composition are highly resistant to attack by molten lignite fly ash under identical conditions, where the molten ash penetrates ~25% of TBC thickness. This damage mitigation appears to be due to the formation of an impervious, stable crystalline layer at the fly ash/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} TBC interface arresting the penetrating moltenfly- ash front. Additionally, these TBCs were tested using a rig with thermal gradient and simultaneous accumulation of ash. Modeling using an established mechanics model has been performed to illustrate the modes of delamination, as well as further opportunities to optimize coating microstructure. Transfer of the technology was developed in this program to all interested parties.

  16. Dome load control and crane land path evaluation for Tank 241-SY-101 during hydrogen mitigation pump removal and installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weis, M.P.; Lawler, D.M.

    1994-08-01

    This report revisits and consolidates two analyses previously performed for the installation of the Hydrogen Mitigation Pump (HMT) pump. The first report determines, as a function of the crane-imposed dome load, the point to which the crane can encroach into the exclusion zone without exceeding the 50-ton limit. The second performs a load evaluation for the crane and the components in the load path (crane lift accessories and pump). In doing so, it determines the weakest component in the load path and the effect of this component on the allowable encroachment distance. Furthermore, the second report sets operational limits on the allowable load decrease (unload) during installation in the event the pump sticks in the riser. The analysis presented here expands on the latter subject by setting an operational limit on the amount of allowable load increase (overload) during pump removal in the event the pump sticks in the riser.

  17. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  19. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation, 1992-1993 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DosSantos, Joe; Vashro, Jim; Lockard, Larry

    1994-06-01

    In February of 1900, over forty agency representatives and interested citizens began development of the 1991 Mitigation Plan. This effort culminated in the 1993 Implementation Plan for mitigation of fish losses attributable to the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The primary purpose of this biennial report is to inform the public of the status of ongoing mitigation activities resulting from those planning efforts. A habitat improvement project is underway to benefit bull trout in Big Creek in the North Fork drainage of the Flathead River and work is planned in Hay Creek, another North Fork tributary. Bull trout redd counts have been expanded and experimental programs involving genetic evaluation, outmigrant monitoring, and hatchery studies have been initiated, Cutthroat mitigation efforts have focused on habitat improvements in Elliott Creek and Taylor`s Outflow and improvements have been followed by imprint plants of hatchery fish and/or eyed eggs in those streams. Rogers Lake west of Kalispell and Lion Lake, near Hungry Horse, were chemically rehabilitated. Cool and warm water fish habitat has been improved in Halfmoon Lake and Echo Lake. Public education and public interest is important to the future success of mitigation activities. As part of the mitigation team`s public awareness responsibility we have worked with numerous volunteer groups, public agencies, and private landowners to stimulate interest and awareness of mitigation activities and the aquatic ecosystem. The purpose of this biennial report is to foster public awareness of, and support for, mitigation activities as we move forward in implementing the Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan.

  20. A Guide to the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

  1. Mitigating Wind-Radar Interference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigating Wind-Radar Interference Mitigating Wind-Radar Interference April 1, 2013 - 12:54pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the First Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and federal agency partners recently completed the final operational field test in a 2-year initiative to accelerate the deployment of the most promising new technologies for mitigating radar interference caused by the physical and electromagnetic effects of wind

  2. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    compensating mitigation can decrease the risk of an insider performing a malicious act without detection.

  3. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    122011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring ...

  4. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  5. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  6. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Plan for Libby Hydroelectric Project, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mundinger, John

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the proposed mitigation plan for wildlife losses attributable to the construction of the Libby hydroelectric project. Mitigation objectives and alternatives, the recommended mitigation projects, and the crediting system for each project are described by each target species. The report describes mitigation that has already taken place and 8 recommended mitigation projects designed to complete total wildlife mitigation. 8 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation Working Group Releases New Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    While wind energy presents many benefits, spinning wind turbines can interfere with weather, air traffic control, and air surveillance radar systems. As advances in wind technology enable turbines...

  8. Appropriate Use of Mitigation and Monitoring and Clarifying the Appropriate Use of Mitigated Findings of No Significant Impact (CEQ, 2011)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Council on Environmental Quality is issuing this guidance for Federal departments and agencies on establishing, implementing, and monitoring mitigation commitments identified and analyzed in Environmental Assessments, Environmental Impact Statements, and adopted in the final decision documents. This guidance also clarifies the appropriate use of mitigated "Findings of No Significant Impact" under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The guidance explains the requirements of NEPA and the CEQ Regulations, describes CEQ policies, and recommends procedures for agencies to use to help them comply with the requirements of NEPA and the CEQ Regulations when they establish mitigation planning and implementation procedures

  9. EA-1636: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Burnt Woods and Santiam-Toledo Pole Replacement Project This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) is part of the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Albany-Burnt Woods and...

  10. EIS-0473: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EIS-0473: Mitigation Action Plan W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration ... demonstration of the W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project. ...

  11. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  12. Market-based Wildlife Mitigation in Wyoming: A Primer | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Primer Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Market-based Wildlife Mitigation in Wyoming: A Primer Abstract Covers the basics of...

  13. EIS-0460: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FutureGen 2.0 Project, Morgan County, Illinois This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) briefly ... DOE prepared this MAP in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1021.331. ...

  14. EIS-0026: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIS-0026: Mitigation Action Plan Waste Isolation Pilot Plant This MAP focuses on ... Action Plan, is the central focus of this MAP and will be updated as needed to allow for ...

  15. Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

    2012-09-01

    This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

  16. National Mitigation Planning in Agriculture: Review and Guidelines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Simple Website: www.fao.orgdocrep017i3237ei3237e.pdf Language: English This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector provides...

  17. EA-1096: Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects (Programmatic), Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal for the U.S. Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement...

  18. EIS-0332: Mitigation Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kV transmission line between Bonneville Power Administration's existing McNary and John Day substations. PDF icon DOEEIS-0332: Mitigation Action Plan for the McNary-John Day...

  19. EA-1934: 2014 Annual Report for Mitigation Action Plan | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hanford Site, Richland, Washington This annual report provides a summary of DOEEA-1934 Mitigation Action Plan implementation in calendar year 2014. PDF icon EA-1934-FEA-MAP-2014...

  20. Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

    2009-07-10

    Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

  1. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, M. )

    1992-02-01

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions.

  2. Recent Developments in Field Response for Mitigation of Radiological

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Incidents | Department of Energy Developments in Field Response for Mitigation of Radiological Incidents Recent Developments in Field Response for Mitigation of Radiological Incidents Carlos Corredor*, Department of Energy; Charley Yu, Argonne National Labs Abstract: Since September 11, 2001, there has been a large effort by the government to develop new methods to reduce the consequence of potential radiological incidents. This is evident in the enhancement of technologies and methods to

  3. Recent Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration Energy Technologies Program | Department of Energy Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime Administration Energy Technologies Program Recent Diesel Engine Emission Mitigation Activities of the Maritime Administration Energy Technologies Program 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Maritime Administration 2003_deer_gore.pdf (759.73 KB) More Documents & Publications The Maritime Administration's Energy and Emissions Program - Part 2 Reduction of Emissions

  4. EERE Success Story-Mitigating Potential Environmental Impacts of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development | Department of Energy Mitigating Potential Environmental Impacts of Energy Development EERE Success Story-Mitigating Potential Environmental Impacts of Energy Development April 15, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Partnering with EERE, Normandeau Associates of Bedford, New Hampshire, developed a tool that characterizes the risk for bird and bat species that may be susceptible to collisions with wind turbines. This tool will be used in environmental decision-making for the planning,

  5. 2011 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, W. J.; Lucas, J. G.; Gano, K. A.

    2011-11-14

    This report documents the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains the vegetation monitoring data that was collected in the spring and summer of 2011 from the River Corridor Closure Contractors revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  6. Advanced Technology Development and Mitigation | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) Advanced Technology Development and Mitigation The Advanced Technology Development and Mitigation (ATDM) subprogram includes laboratory code and computer engineering and science projects that pursue long-term simulation and computing goals relevant to the broad national security missions of the NNSA. It addresses the need to adapt current integrated design codes and build new codes that are attuned to emerging computing technologies. Performing this work within the

  7. 2010 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. T. Lindsey, A. L. Johnson

    2010-09-30

    This report documents eh status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with CERLA cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2010 from the River Corridor Closure Contract’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  8. 2014 WIND POWER PROGRAM PEER REVIEW-MARKET BARRIER MITIGATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Barrier Mitigation March 6-27, 2014 Wind Energy Technologies PR-5000-62152 2 Contents Market Barrier Mitigation Siting, Environmental and Permitting- Karin Sinclair, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Developing high-resolution spatial data of migration corridors for avian species of concern in regions of high potential wind development- Todd Katzner, West Virginia University Deepwater Offshore Bat Monitoring Program-Steven K Pelletier, Stantec Consulting Services, Inc. A Synchronized

  9. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  10. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, R.L.; Bezdek, Roger; Wendling, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  11. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced ac voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines collocated with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by means of grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed at discrete locations along the pipeline where the peak induced voltages occur. The degree of mitigation achieved is dependent upon the local soil resistivity at these locations. On occasion it may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system, for example, a parallel buried wire connected to the pipe at periodic intervals. In this situation the a priori calculation of mitigated voltage levels is sometimes made assuming an average value for the soil resistivity. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability upon the predicted mitigated voltage levels is examined. It is found that the predicted levels exhibit a statistical variability which precludes a precise determination of the mitigated voltage levels. Thus, post commissioning testing of the emplaced mitigation system is advisable.

  12. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  13. Clean Air Act

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The primary law governing the Department of Energy (DOE) air pollution control activities is the Clean Air Act (CAA). This law defines the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state, local and tribal air programs in protecting and improving the nation’s air quality and stratospheric ozone layer by regulating emissions from mobile and stationary sources.

  14. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-01-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/3/2001 through 1/02/2002. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. Our research team has made significant progress towards completion of our Phase I objectives, and our current efforts remain focused on fulfilling these research objectives in accordance with the project timeline. Overall, we believe that we are on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, which is the milestone date from the original project timeline. Specific results and accomplishments for the fourth quarter of 2001 include: (1) New procedures and protocols have been developed to increase the chances of successful implementation in the bioreactor of organisms that perform well in the lab. The new procedures include pre-screening of organisms for adhesion characteristics and a focus on identifying the organisms with maximum growth rate potential. (2) Preliminary results show an increase in adhesion to glass and a decrease in overall growth rates when using growth media prepared with tap water rather than distilled water. (3) Several of the organisms collected from Yellowstone National Park using the new procedures are currently being cultured in preparation for bioreactor tests. (4) One important result from a test of growth surface temperature distribution as a function of gas stream and drip-fluid temperatures showed a high dependence of membrane temperature on fluid temperature, with gas stream temperature having minimal effect. This result indicates that bioreactor growth surface temperatures can be controlled using fluid delivery temperature. The possible implications for implementation of the bioreactor concept are encouraging, since it may be possible to use the bioreactor with very high gas stream temperatures by controlling the temperature

  15. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  16. Clean Air Mercury Rule (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    On February 8, 2008, a three-judge panel on the D.C. Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals issued a decision to vacate the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). In its ruling, the panel cited the history of hazardous air pollutant regulation under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Section 112, as written by Congress, listed emitted mercury as a hazardous air pollutant that must be subject to regulation unless it can be proved harmless to public welfare and the environment. In 2000, the Environmental Protection Agency ruled that mercury was indeed hazardous and must be regulated under Section 112 and, therefore, subjected to the best available control technology for mitigation.

  17. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  18. Independent Review of Mitigating System Performance Indicator Reporting in the EPIX Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wierman, Thomas Edward

    2009-05-01

    This report summarizes work done to verify the component, failure mode, and method of detection information provided in the Equipment Performance Information Exchange (EPIX) to support implementation of Mitigating Systems Performance Indices. This task is to select reports from EPIX and determine if their categorization as MSPI or non-MSPI failures is consistent with the development of unreliability baseline failure rates, and whether this significantly affects estimates of plant risk. This review is of all MSPI devices in EPIX that were reported as failures. The components include emergency generators; motor-driven, turbine-driven, and enginedriven pumps; and air and motor-operated valves. The date range for this report includes all MSPI device reported failures from 2003 to the most current EPIX data at the INL (up to the 3rd quarter 2008).

  19. Probability, consequences, and mitigation for lightning strikes to Hanford site high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zach, J.J.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize selected lightning issues concerning the Hanford Waste Tanks. These issues include the probability of lightning discharge striking the area immediately adjacent to a tank including a riser, the consequences of significant energy deposition from a lightning strike in a tank, and mitigating actions that have been or are being taken. The major conclusion of this report is that the probability of a lightning strike depositing sufficient energy in a tank to cause an effect on employees or the public is unlikely;but there are insufficient, quantitative data on the tanks and waste to prove that. Protection, such as grounding of risers and air terminals on existing light poles, is recommended.

  20. Probability, consequences, and mitigation for lightning strikes of Hanford high level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zach, J.J.

    1996-06-05

    The purpose of this report is to summarize selected lightning issues concerning the Hanford Waste Tanks. These issues include the probability of a lightning discharge striking the area immediately adjacent to a tank including a riser, the consequences of significant energy deposition from a lightning strike in a tank, and mitigating actions that have been or are being taken. The major conclusion of this report is that the probability of a lightning strike deposition sufficient energy in a tank to cause an effect on employees or the public is unlikely;but there are insufficient, quantitative data on the tanks and waste to prove that. Protection, such as grounding of risers and air terminals on existing light poles, is recommended.

  1. Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Site Specific Management Plan for the Hellsgate Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, Matthew T.; Judd, Steven L.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a detailed site-specific management plan for the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project. The report provides background information about the mitigation process, the review process, mitigation acquisitions, Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and mitigation crediting, current habitat conditions, desired future habitat conditions, restoration/enhancements efforts and maps.

  2. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

  3. Estimating the potential of greenhouse gas mitigation in Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monacrovich, E.; Pilifosova, O.; Danchuck, D.

    1996-09-01

    As part of the studies related to the obligations of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Republic of Kazakhstan started activities to inventory greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and assess of GHG mitigation options, The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the possibility of mitigating GHG emissions and determine the mitigation priorities. It presents a compilation of the possible options and their assessment in terms of major criteria and implementation feasibility. Taking into account the structure of GHG emissions in Kazakhstan in 1990, preliminary estimates of the potential for mitigation are presented for eight options for the energy sector and agriculture and forestry sector. The reference scenario prepared by expert assessments assumes a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in 1996-1998 by about 26% from the 1990 level due to general economic decline, but then emissions increase. It is estimated that the total potential for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions for the year 2000 is 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the reference scenario. The annual reduction in methane emissions due to the estimated options can amount to 5%-6% of the 1990 level. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the state of Nevada: Mitigation action plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The DOE Notice of Availability for this environmental impact statement was published in the Federal Register on Friday, October 18, 1996 (61 FR 54437). The final environmental impact statement identifies potential adverse effects resulting from the four use alternatives evaluated and discusses measures that DOE considered for the mitigation of these potential adverse effects. The Secretary of Energy signed the Record of Decision on the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site and other DOE sites in the state of Nevada on December 9, 1996. These decisions will result in the continuation of the multipurpose, multi-program use of the Nevada Test Site, under which DOE will pursue a further diversification of interagency, private industry, and public-education uses while meeting its Defense Program, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration mission requirements at the Nevada Test Site and other Nevada sites, including the Tonopah Test Range, the Project Shoal Site, the Central Nevada Test Area, and on the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. The Record of Decision also identifies specific mitigation actions beyond the routine day-to-day physical and administrative controls needed for implementation of the decisions. These specific mitigation actions are focused on the transportation of waste and on groundwater availability. This Mitigation Action Plan elaborates on these mitigation commitments.

  5. Status of research toward the ITER disruption mitigation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Izzo, V. A.; Aleynikov, P. B.; Lehnen, M.; Snipes, J. A.; Fülöp, T.; Humphreys, D. A.; Lukash, V. E.; Papp, G.; Pautasso, G.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    2015-02-15

    An overview of the present status of research toward the final design of the ITER disruption mitigation system (DMS) is given. The ITER DMS is based on massive injection of impurities, in order to radiate the plasma stored energy and mitigate the potentially damaging effects of disruptions. The design of this system will be extremely challenging due to many physics and engineering constraints such as limitations on port access and the amount and species of injected impurities. Additionally, many physics questions relevant to the design of the ITER disruption mitigation system remain unsolved such as the mechanisms for mixing and assimilation of injected impurities during the rapid shutdown and the mechanisms for the subsequent formation and dissipation of runaway electron current.

  6. Fuel Flexibility: Landfill Gas Contaminant Mitigation for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Kass, Michael D; FINNEY, Charles E A; Lewis, Samuel; Kaul, Brian C; Besmann, Theodore M; Thomas, John F; Rogers, Hiram; Sepaniak, Michael

    2014-04-01

    This research project focused on the mitigation of silica damage to engine-based renewable landfill gas energy systems. Characterization of the landfill gas siloxane contamination, combined with characterization of the silica deposits in engines, led to development of two new mitigation strategies. The first involved a novel method for removing the siloxanes and other heavy contaminants from the landfill gas prior to use by the engines. The second strategy sought to interrupt the formation of hard silica deposits in the engine itself, based on inspection of failed landfill gas engine parts. In addition to mitigation, the project had a third task to develop a robust sensor for siloxanes that could be used to control existing and/or future removal processes.

  7. Simple Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Simple Interactive Models (SIM-air) AgencyCompany Organization:...

  8. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Regular maintenance extends the life of your air conditioner and helps it run as efficiently as possible.

  9. Minimize Compressed Air Leaks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This tip sheet outlines a strategy for compressed air leak detection and provides a formula for cost savings calculations.

  10. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1996-12-24

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water. 3 figs.

  11. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    1996-01-01

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  12. EIS-0246: Wildlife Mitigation Program, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Washington, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BPA has decided to adopt the set of prescriptions (goals, strategies, and procedural requirements) identified in the final EIS as “Alternative 6, Balanced Action (BPA’s Preferred Alternative).” This decision will standardize the planning and implementation process, while achieving balance among all decision factors: (1) meeting the biological objectives of wildlife mitigation projects, (2) achievement of cost and administrative efficiency, (3) compliance with all applicable laws and regulations, and (4) protection and improvement of other environmental resources when such actions would support wildlife mitigation.

  13. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les

    2005-06-01

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research. Monitoring

  14. Air Sparging Decision Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-06-10

    The Air Sparging Decision Tool is a computer decision aid to help environmental managers and field practitioners in evaluating the applicability of air sparging to a wide range of sites and for refining the operation of air sparging systems. The program provides tools for the practitioner to develop the conceptual design for an air sparging system suitable for the identified site. The Tool provides a model of the decision making process, not a detailed designmore » of air sparging systems. The Tool will quickly and cost effectively assist the practitioner in screening for applicability of the technology at a proposed site.« less

  15. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines the main factors for determining the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  16. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soults, Scott

    2009-08-05

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (AFIWG) was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in late 2007, but due to internal conflicts, the AFIWG members has fractionated into a smaller group. Implementation of the monitoring and evaluation program continued across protected lands. As of 2008, The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (Work Group) is a coalition comprised of wildlife managers from three tribal entities (Kalispel Tribe, Kootenai Tribe, Coeur d Alene Tribe) and the US Army Corps of Engineers. The Work Group directs where wildlife mitigation implementation occurs in the Kootenai, Pend Oreille and Coeur d Alene subbasins. The Work Group is unique in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) wildlife managers in 1995, approved what was one of the first two project proposals to implement mitigation on a programmatic basis. The maintenance of this kind of approach through time has allowed the Work Group to implement an effective and responsive habitat protection program by reducing administrative costs associated with site-specific project proposals. The core mitigation entities maintain approximately 9,335 acres of wetland/riparian habitats in 2008.

  17. Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures.

  18. DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

    2002-10-01

    OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

  19. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wente, William Baker

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  20. Sensitivity of climate mitigation strategies to natural disturbances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Page, Yannick LB; Hurtt, George; Thomson, Allison M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Patel, Pralit L.; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Janetos, Anthony C.

    2013-02-19

    The present and future concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide depends on both anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks of carbon. Most proposed climate mitigation strategies rely on a progressive transition to carbon12 efficient technologies to reduce industrial emissions, substantially supported by policies to maintain or enhance the terrestrial carbon stock in forests and other ecosystems. This strategy may be challenged if terrestrial sequestration capacity is affected by future climate feedbacks, but how and to what extent is little understood. Here, we show that climate mitigation strategies are highly sensitive to future natural disturbance rates (e.g. fires, hurricanes, droughts), because of potential effect of disturbances on the terrestrial carbon balance. Generally, altered disturbance rates affect the pace of societal and technological transitions required to achieve the mitigation target, with substantial consequences on the energy sector and on the global economy. Understanding the future dynamics and consequences of natural disturbances on terrestrial carbon balance is thus essential for developing robust climate mitigation strategies and policies

  1. Planning Tools For Seismic Risk Mitigation. Rules And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Paoli, Rosa Grazia

    2008-07-08

    Recently, Italian urban planning research in the field of seismic risk mitigation are renewing. In particular, it promotes strategies that integrate urban rehabilitation and aseismic objectives, and also politicizes that are directed to revitalizes urban systems, coupling physical renewal and socio-economic development.In Italy the first law concerning planning for seismic mitigation dates back 1974, the law n. 64 'Regulation for buildings with particular rules for the seismic areas' where the rules for buildings in seismic areas concerning also the local hazard. This law, in fact, forced the municipalities to acquire, during the formation of the plans, a preventive opinion of compatibility between planning conditions and geomorphology conditions of the territory. From this date the conviction that the seismic risk must be considered inside the territorial planning especially in terms of strategies of mitigation has been strengthened.The town planners have started to take an interest in seismic risk in the [80]s when the Irpinia's earthquake took place. The researches developed after this earthquake have established that the principal cause of the collapse of buildings are due to from the wrong location of urban settlements (on slopes or crowns) After Irpinia's earthquake the first researches on seismic risk mitigation, in particular on the aspects related to the hazards and to the urban vulnerability were made.

  2. Exploring Complex Systems Aspects of Blackout Risk and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, David E; Carreras, Benjamin A; Lynch, Vickie E; Dobson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Electric power transmission systems are a key infrastructure, and blackouts of these systems have major consequences for the economy and national security. Analyses of blackout data suggest that blackout size distributions have a power law form over much of their range. This result is an indication that blackouts behave as a complex dynamical system. We use a simulation of an upgrading power transmission system to investigate how these complex system dynamics impact the assessment and mitigation of blackout risk. The mitigation of failures in complex systems needs to be approached with care. The mitigation efforts can move the system to a new dynamic equilibrium while remaining near criticality and preserving the power law region. Thus, while the absolute frequency of blackouts of all sizes may be reduced, the underlying forces can still cause the relative frequency of large blackouts to small blackouts to remain the same. Moreover, in some cases, efforts to mitigate small blackouts can even increase the frequency of large blackouts. This result occurs because the large and small blackouts are not mutually independent, but are strongly coupled by the complex dynamics.

  3. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tichy, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  4. Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the Cement Sector Mexico-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) Pakistan-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) Panama-The Mitigation Action...

  5. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  6. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System - Compressed Air Tip Sheet #5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing how to determine the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  7. Common Air Conditioner Problems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When your air conditioner is not operating properly, there are a few things you can check before calling a service professional.

  8. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  9. Adsorption air conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rousseau, Jean L. I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar powered air conditioner using the adsorption process is constructed with its components in a nested cylindrical array for compactness and ease of operation.

  10. Hill Air Force Base

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy savings performance contracting at Hill Air Force Base generated much interest during a recent training session on energy management that downlinked 12 Department of Defense sites. Energy...

  11. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  12. Enduse Global Emissions Mitigation Scenarios (EGEMS): A New Generation of Energy Efficiency Policy Planning Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McMahon, James E.

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents efforts to date and prospective goals towards development of a modelling and analysis framework which is comprehensive enough to address the global climate crisis, and detailed enough to provide policymakers with concrete targets and achievable outcomes. In terms of energy efficiency policy, this requires coverage of the entire world, with emphasis on countries and regions with large and/or rapidly growing energy-related emissions, and analysis at the 'technology' level-building end use, transport mode or industrial process. These elements have not been fully addressed by existing modelling efforts, which usually take either a top-down approach, or concentrate on a few fully industrialized countries where energy demand is well-understood. Inclusion of details such as appliance ownership rates, use patterns and efficiency levels throughout the world allows for a deeper understanding of the demand for energy today and, more importantly, over the coming decades. This is a necessary next step for energy analysts and policy makers in assessment of mitigation potentials. The modelling system developed at LBNL over the past 3 years takes advantage of experience in end use demand and in forecasting markets for energy-consuming equipment, in combination with known technology-based efficiency opportunities and policy types. A particular emphasis has been placed on modelling energy growth in developing countries. Experiences to date include analyses covering individual countries (China and India), end uses (refrigerators and air conditioners) and policy types (standards and labelling). Each of these studies required a particular effort in data collection and model refinement--they share, however, a consistent approach and framework which allows comparison, and forms the foundation of a comprehensive analysis system leading to a roadmap to address the greenhouse gas mitigation targetslikely to be set in the coming years.

  13. Project Title: Tin Whisker Mitigation (4532) Program or Program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exercises and simulation OBI.3 - Routine maintenance and custodial services DB 1.4 - Air conditioning installation for existing equipment DB 1.5 Cooling water system...

  14. EA-2006: Finding of No Significant Impact and Mitigation Action Plan |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Finding of No Significant Impact and Mitigation Action Plan EA-2006: Finding of No Significant Impact and Mitigation Action Plan Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Bonneville Power Administration issued a FONSI and a floodplain and wetland statement of findings for a proposed program of actions to help restore ecological structure, function, and biodiversity within the Columbia River estuary. The mitigation measures listed in the Mitigation Action Plan and

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Grand Coulee Dam Mitigation, 1996-1999 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kieffer, B.; Singer, Kelly; Abrahamson, Twa-le

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) study was to determine baseline habitat units and to estimate future habitat units for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation projects on the Spokane Indian Reservation. The mitigation between BPA and the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI) is for wildlife habitat losses on account of the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the HEP survey data will assist in mitigation crediting and appropriate management of the mitigation lands.

  16. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  17. Ocean Fertilization and Other Climate Change Mitigation Strategies: An Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2008-07-29

    In order to evaluate ocean fertilization in the larger context of other proposed strategies for reducing the threat of the global warming, a wide range of different climate change mitigation approaches are compared in terms of their long-term potential, stage of development, relative costs and potential risks, as well as public acceptance. This broad comparative analysis is carried out for the following climate change mitigation strategies: supply-side and end-use efficiency improvements, terrestrial and geological carbon sequestration, CO2 ocean disposal and iron fertilization, nuclear power, and renewable energy generation from biomass, passive solar, solar thermal, photovoltaics, hydroelectric and wind. In addition, because of the inherent problems of conducting an objective comparative cost-benefit analysis, two non-technological solutions to global warming are also discussed: curbing population growth and transitioning to a steady-state economy.

  18. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  19. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H.

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  20. EA-1440-S-I: Mitigation Action Plan Completion Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report presents the U.S. Department of Energy’s completion of the May 2008 Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for the Supplement to the Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s South Table Mountain Complex (DOE/EA-1440-S-I) . Since May 2008, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have implemented various traffic mitigation measures and routinely monitored traffic at the NREL South Table Mountain (STM) campus in Golden, Colorado in accordance with the MAP. With the completion and occupancy of the new Research Support Facility (RSF) and Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) and with offsite traffic impacts maintained below threshold levels, implementation of the MAP is hereby complete. NREL and DOE will continue to implement current traffic control measures and conduct informal traffic monitoring as part of standard operations and sustainability initiatives.

  1. Multifunctional Platelet Composites for Tin Whisker Mitigation - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Multifunctional Platelet Composites for Tin Whisker Mitigation Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (555 KB) <br type="_moz" /> SEM image showing in-plane orientation of platelets in Sandia&#39;s multifunctional platelet composite SEM image showing in-plane orientation of platelets in Sandia's multifunctional platelet composite Technology Marketing Summary In order to comply

  2. Federal Interagency Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation Strategy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interagency Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation Strategy January 2016 This report is being disseminated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As such, this document was prepared in compliance with Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for fiscal year 2001 (public law 106-554) and information quality guidelines issued by DOE. Though this report does not constitute "influential" information, as that term is defined in DOE's information quality

  3. Experts assemble at PPPL to discuss mitigation of tokamak disruptions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Experts assemble at PPPL to discuss mitigation of tokamak disruptions By John Greenwald July 15, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Amitava Bhattacharjee, left, and John Mandrekas, a program manager in the U.S. Department of Energy's office of Fusion Energy Sciences. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Princeton Office of Communications ) Amitava Bhattacharjee, left, and John Mandrekas, a program manager in the U.S. Department of Energy's office of Fusion

  4. Experts assemble at PPPL to discuss mitigation of tokamak disruptions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Experts assemble at PPPL to discuss mitigation of tokamak disruptions By John Greenwald July 15, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Amitava Bhattacharjee, left, and John Mandrekas, a program manager in the U.S. Department of Energy's office of Fusion Energy Sciences. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Princeton Office of Communications ) Amitava Bhattacharjee, left, and John Mandrekas, a program manager in the U.S. Department of Energy's office of Fusion

  5. Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature versus sea-level rise | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global temperature versus sea-level rise Authors: Gerald A. Meehl, Aixue Hu, Claudia Tebaldi, Julie M. Arblaster, Warren M. Washington, Haiyan Teng, Benjamin M. Sanderson, Toby Ault, Warren G. Strand & James B. White III There is a common perception that, if human societies make the significant adjustments necessary to substantively cut emissions of

  6. Microsoft Word - MitigationsForVulnerabilitiesInCSNetworks.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 by ISA - The Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society. Presented at 16th Annual Joint ISA POWID/EPRI Controls and Instrumentation Conference; http://www.isa.org Mitigations for Security Vulnerabilities Found in Control System Networks May Permann John Hammer Computer Security Researcher Computer Security Researcher Communications & Cyber Security Communications & Cyber Security Idaho National Laboratory Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID 83415 Idaho Falls, ID 83415 Kathy

  7. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    This preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities are analyzed: Habitat protection; Habitat enhancement; Operation and maintenance; and Monitoring and evaluation. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  8. Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mitigation Action Plan FutureGen 2.0 Project DOE/EIS-0460 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory March 2014 DOE/EIS-0460 FUTUREGEN 2.0 PROJECT MITIGATION ACTION PLAN INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK DOE/EIS-0460 FUTUREGEN 2.0 PROJECT MITIGATION ACTION PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 1 Purpose

  9. Portable oven air circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  10. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  11. History of Air Conditioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  12. Protective air lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Herbert W.

    1976-03-30

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases comprising an enclosure which is sealed by a surrounding air lock, automatic means for partially evacuating said enclosure and said air lock and for ventilating said enclosure and means for disconnecting said enclosure ventilating means, whereby a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in said enclosure.

  13. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  14. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  15. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested

  16. Can land management and biomass utilization help mitigate global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlamadinger, B.; Lauer, M.

    1996-12-31

    With rising concern about the increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration in the earth`s atmosphere there is considerable interest in various land-use based mitigation options, like afforestation of surplus agricultural land with or without subsequent harvest; improved forest management; strategies that rely on wood plantations managed in short rotation or agricultural crops with high yields to produce bioenergy, timber and other biomass products. In the first step of this study, the net carbon benefits of such strategies will be calculated per unit of land, i.e., per hectare, because it is assumed that land is the limiting resource for such strategies in the future, and thus, the benefits per unit land need to be optimized. For these calculations a computer model has been developed. The results take into account the time dependence of carbon storage in the biosphere and are shown graphically both for land and for plantation systems with constant output of biomass over time. In the second step, these results will be combined with data on available land for Austria. The potential contribution of each of the above strategies towards mitigating the Austrian CO{sub 2} emissions will be demonstrated. A comparison to other renewable mitigation options, like solar thermal or photovoltaics, will be drawn in terms of available land resources and overall CO{sub 2} reductions.

  17. Comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) - Description and instruction manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy; Sathaye, Jayant

    2001-11-09

    In order to prepare policies and plans to reduce GHG emissions, national policy-makers need information on the costs and benefits of different mitigation options in addition to their carbon implications. Policy-makers must weigh the costs, benefits, and impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation options, in the face of competition for limited resources. The policy goal for mitigation options in the land use sector is to identify which mix of options is likely to best achieve the desired forestry service and production objectives at the least cost, while attempting to maximize economic and social benefits, and minimize negative environmental and social impacts. Improved national-level cost estimates of response options in the land use sector can be generated by estimating the costs and benefits of different forest management practices appropriate for specific country conditions which can be undertaken within the constraint of land availability and its opportunity cost. These co st and land use estimates can be combined to develop cost curves, which would assist policy-makers in constructing policies and programs to implement forest responses.

  18. Implementing mitigative actions on the Superconducting Super Collider project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, T.L. )

    1993-01-01

    The Super Collider is the first project for which a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) was prepared under a DOE Order that became effective in 1990. The policy requires a MAP for any project where environmental findings were predicated on taking mitigative actions. The MAP must be approved prior to the start of preliminary design and thus cannot be site or facility-specific because the requisite level of detail would not be available. This gap is filled by a series of environmental compliance plans (ECP) that are prepared by the architect-engineer/constructions manager under the direction of the DOE Management and Operations Contractor for the Super Collider. A given ECP identifies the environmental protection measures applicable to the respective contract package. The designated design team uses the ECP as one of its requirements documents and the environmental staff uses it during design reviews to verify compliance with the MAP. Site audits and monitoring data are used to document compliance and verify the effectiveness of mitigative actions, or identify required corrective actions. The applicability of this process to other projects falling within the scope of the National Environmental Policy Act is discussed.

  19. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  20. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  1. air.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air force NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range WASHINGTON - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and United States Air Force completed the third development flight test of a non-nuclear B61-12 nuclear gravity bomb at Tonopah Test Range in Nevada on October 20, 2015. "This demonstration of effective end-to-end system... The man who trains everyone on the bombs Mark Meyer, training coordinator and field

  2. Air Shower Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro; Araya, Ignacio J.; Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra; Knapp, Johannes

    2009-04-30

    Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

  3. Implications of simultaneously mitigating and adapting to climate change: Initial experiments using GCAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2013-04-01

    Historically climate impacts research and climate mitigation research have been two separate and independent domains of inquiry. Climate mitigation research has investigated greenhouse gas emissions assuming that climate is unchanging. At the same time climate mitigation research has investigated the implications of climate change on the assumption that climate mitigation will proceed without affecting the degree of climate impacts or the ability of human and natural systems to adapt. The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has largely been employed to study climate mitigation. Here we explore the development of capabilities to assess climate change impacts and adaptation within the GCAM model. These capabilities are being developed so as to be able to simultaneously reconcile the joint implications of climate change mitigation, impacts and adaptive potential. This is an important step forward in that it enables direct comparison between climate mitigation activities and climate impacts and the opportunity to understand interactions between the two.

  4. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  5. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  6. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  7. Air Sealing Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-14

    This information sheet addresses windows and may also be applied to doors and other pre-assembled elements installed in building enclosures that also perform an air barrier function.

  8. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  9. Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss...

  10. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  11. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  12. Guide to Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Air sealing is one of the most cost-effective ways to improve the comfort and energy efficiency of your home. Hire a certified professional contractor for best results.

  13. Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  14. Assessment of GHG mitigation technology measures in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raptsoun, N.; Parasiouk, N.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992 the representatives of 176 countries including Ukraine met in Rio de Janeiro at the UN Conference to coordinate its efforts in protecting and guarding the environment. Signature of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change by around 150 countries indicates that climate change is potentially a major threat to the world`s environment and economic development. The project {open_quotes}Country Study on Climate Change in Ukraine{close_quotes} coordinated by the Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENIA-ECO) and supported by the US Country Studies Program Support for Climate Change Studies. The aim of the project is to make the information related to climate change in Ukraine available for the world community by using the potential of Ukrainian research institutes for further concerted actions to solve the problem of climate change on the global scale. The project consists of four elements: (1) the development of the GHG Inventory in Ukraine; (2) assessments of ecosystems-vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options; and (3) mitigation options analysis; (4) public education and outreach activities. This paper contains the main results of the third element for the energy and non-energy sectors. Main tasks of the third element were: (1) to select, test and describe or develop the methodology for mitigation options assessment; (2) to analyze the main sources of GHG emissions in Ukraine; (3) to give the macro economic analysis of Ukrainian development and the development of main economical sectors industry, energy, transport, residential, forestry and agriculture; (4) to forecast GHG emissions for different scenarios of the economic development; and (5) to analyze the main measures to mitigate climate change.

  15. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Pressure Objective The objective of this ... Important Points to Understand Air has weight and exerts pressure on everything with which ...

  16. Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAirQuality&oldid612070" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  17. Combination pipe rupture mitigator and in-vessel core catcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tilbrook, Roger W.; Markowski, Franz J.

    1983-01-01

    A device which mitigates against the effects of a failed coolant loop in a nuclear reactor by restricting the outflow of coolant from the reactor through the failed loop and by retaining any particulated debris from a molten core which may result from coolant loss or other cause. The device reduces the reverse pressure drop through the failed loop by limiting the access of coolant in the reactor to the inlet of the failed loop. The device also spreads any particulated core debris over a large area to promote cooling.

  18. PPPL successfully tests system for mitigating instabilities called

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "ELMs" | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL successfully tests system for mitigating instabilities called "ELMs" By John Greenwald September 29, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Close-up view of the high-speed propellor inside the injector. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Princeton Office of Communications ) Close-up view of the high-speed propellor inside the injector. PPPL has successfully tested a Laboratory-designed device to be used to diminish the size of

  19. PPPL successfully tests system for mitigating instabilities called

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "ELMs" | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL successfully tests system for mitigating instabilities called "ELMs" By John Greenwald September 29, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Close-up view of the high-speed propellor inside the injector. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Princeton Office of Communications ) Close-up view of the high-speed propellor inside the injector. PPPL has successfully tested a Laboratory-designed device to be used to diminish the size of

  20. Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-08-22

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which values terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to lead to increased demand for water for agricultural systems (+200%), even in the absence of climate change. In general policies to mitigate climate change will increase agricultural demands for water, regardless of whether or not terrestrial carbon is valued or not. Burgeoning demands for water are driven by the demand for bioenergy in response to emissions mitigation policies. We also find that the policy matters. Increases in the demand for water when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-prices are vastly larger than when terrestrial system carbon emissions are prices at the same rate as fossil fuel and industrial emissions. Our estimates for increased water demands when terrestrial carbon systems go un-priced are larger than earlier studies. We find that the deployment of improved irrigation delivery systems could mitigate some of the increase in water demands, but cannot reverse the increases in water demands when terrestrial carbon

  1. Compensatory mitigation and screening rules in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macintosh, Andrew Waugh, Lauren

    2014-11-15

    Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the screening process under the Australian government's EIA regime from its introduction on 16 July 2000 to 30 June 2013 (study period). Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions—a type of screening decision under the regime—were found to be unlawful. The extent of non-compliance is explained on the basis of convenience. The department was required to assess a large number of projects under tight timeframes and with limited resources, while being pressured by proponents to allow their projects to bypass EIA. These pressures resulted in the development of an informal custom whereby the formal compensatory mitigation restrictions were frequently ignored. The results highlight the relative significance of formal and informal institutions in EIA. Formal EIA rules typically provide a mere outline of the process. The informal institutions adopted by administrators often have a greater influence on how the process operates and what it achieves. - Highlights: • Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. • To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the Australian government's screening process, looking at the extent of compliance with a formal prohibition on the consideration of compensatory mitigation. • Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions – a type of screening decision under the regime – were found to be unlawful (with a 95% confidence interval of between 1:4 and 1:7) because of a failure to abide by the compensatory mitigation restrictions

  2. Measuring and Mitigating Urban Warming in a Northern Metropolitan Area |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Measuring and Mitigating Urban Warming in a Northern Metropolitan Area Event Sponsor: Environmental Science Seminar Start Date: Aug 25 2016 - 11:00am Building/Room: Building 240/Room 4301 Location: Argonne National Laboratory Speaker(s): Peter Snyder Speaker(s) Title: University of Minnesota In the United States and much of the rest of the world, cities are warming at twice the rate of outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. While the warming can

  3. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-10-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  4. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Hans A. Schmutz

    2013-03-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  5. Computation of Electron Cloud Diagnostics and Mitigation in the Main

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Injector | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Computation of Electron Cloud Diagnostics and Mitigation in the Main Injector Authors: Veitzer, S.A., LeBrun, P., Cary, J.R., Spentzouris, P., Stoltz, P.H., Amundson, J.F. High-performance computations on Blue Gene/P at Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility have been used to determine phase shifts induced in injected RF diagnostics as a function of electron cloud density in the Main Injector. Inversion of the relationship between electron

  6. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  7. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  8. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The proposed action would allow the sponsors to secure property and conduct wildlife management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. This area consists of several separated land parcels, of which 2,000 hectares (4,943 acres) have been purchased by BPA and an additional 4,640 hectares (11,466 acres) have been identified by the Colville Confederated Tribes for inclusion in the Project. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  9. Role of Biochar in Mitigation of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehmann, Johannes C.; Amonette, James E.; Roberts, Kelli G.

    2010-09-30

    By virtue of the large fraction of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle controlled by human activities, agroecosystems are both sources and sinks for greenhouse gases. Their potential role in mitigation of climate change thus depends on a dual strategy of decreasing greenhouse gas emissions while increasing sinks so that the net impact on climate warming is less than at present. Emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide arise from various agricultural activities, ranging from land clearing to ploughing, fertilization, and animal husbandry. Reductions in these emissions can be achieved by decreasing the heterotrophic conversion of organic C to carbon dioxide, and by better management of agricultural waste streams to minimize release of methane and nitrous oxide. Current sinks include C stored in standing biomass and soil organic matter, and the oxidation of atmospheric methane by soil bacteria. These sinks can be enhanced by increasing net primary productivity, thereby actively withdrawing more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and by promoting more oxidation of methane by soils. Judicious biochar management may contribute to both strategies, reductions of emissions by agriculture and active withdrawal of atmospheric carbon dioxide, as part of a comprehensive scheme in agricultural and forestry watersheds. Biochar is a carbon-rich organic material generated by heating biomass in the absence, or under a limited supply, of oxygen. This so-called charring or pyrolysis process has been used to produce charcoal as a source of fuel for millennia. Recently, interest has grown in understanding the potential of this process to improve soil health by adding biochar as an amendment to soil, to manage agricultural and forestry wastes, to generate energy, to decrease net emissions of nitrous oxide and methane, and to store carbon (C). The main incentive of biochar systems for mitigation of climate change is to increase the stability of organic matter or biomass. This

  10. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan, 1990-2003 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    1993-03-10

    In this document the authors present mitigation implementation activities to protect and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan only addresses non-operational actions (mitigation measures that do not affect dam operation) described in the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' (Mitigation Plan) submitted to the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in March 1991 and in accordance with subsequent Council action on that Mitigation Plan. Operational mitigation was deferred for consideration under the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR) process. This document represents an implementation plan considered and conditionally approved by the Council in March of 1993.

  11. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  12. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani E-mail: alvanov@fsrd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  13. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  14. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  15. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  16. EA-1950: Finding of No Significant Impact and Mitigation Action Plan |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0: Finding of No Significant Impact and Mitigation Action Plan EA-1950: Finding of No Significant Impact and Mitigation Action Plan Grand Coulee-Creston Transmission Line Rebuild; Grant and Lincoln Counties, Washington Bonneville Power Administration issued a finding of no significant impact and a mitigation action plan for rebuilding approximately 28 miles of the Grand Coulee-Creston No. 1 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between Coulee Dam in Grant County and

  17. Addendum to 2010 NREL Environmental Performance Report … Traffic Mitigation Action Plan Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addendum to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Environmental Performance Report for 2010 (Annual Site Environmental Report per the U.S. Department of Energy Order 231.1-1A Chg 2) Traffic Mitigation Action Plan Update November 2011 Page 1 of 4 Traffic Mitigation Action Plan 2010 Update Traffic Management A Mitigation Action Plan (MAP), finalized in May 2008, was developed to address potential environmental impacts from changes in traffic at NREL and to support a Finding of No Significant

  18. Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop November 12-13, 2014 Advanced Materials Manufacturing and Innovative Technologies for Natural Gas Pipeline Systems and Components Panel > November 12, 2014 > Pittsburgh, PA > By Daniel Ersoy, GTI Nat. Gas Infrastructure R&D /Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop, Nov. 2014, Pittsburgh, PA 2 Nat. Gas Infrastructure R&D /Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop, Nov. 2014, Pittsburgh, PA 2 GTI Company Overview

  19. MITIGATION ACTION PLAN FOR THE PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION PROJECT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MITIGATION ACTION PLAN FOR THE PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION PROJECT DOE/EIS-0486 MARCH 2016 3 1 INTRODUCTION The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1021.331) require completion of a mitigation action plan (MAP) following each Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and its associated Record of Decision (ROD) to address mitigation commitments expressed in the ROD. The DOE Notice

  20. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  1. Recruiting a Local and Diverse Workforce and Mitigating Barriers to Entry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Recruiting a Local and Diverse Workforce and Mitigating Barriers to Entry Recruiting a Local and Diverse Workforce and Mitigating Barriers to Entry Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Recruiting a Local and Diverse Workforce and Mitigating Barriers to Entry, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, August 25, 2011. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (879.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Call:

  2. EIS-0380: Fiscal Year 2011 Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report for the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2008 Los Alamos Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy Fiscal Year 2011 Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report for the 2008 Los Alamos Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0380: Fiscal Year 2011 Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report for the 2008 Los Alamos Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement Fiscal Year 2011 Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report for the 2008 Los Alamos Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement This Annual Report summarizes the activities that

  3. Bonneville’s “Balanced Scorecard” Approach to Mitigation, Monitoring, and Adaptive Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This year Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), DOE’s power marketing organization in the Pacific Northwest, will spend more than $300 million on mitigation projects to meet its mandate under the 1980 Northwest Power Act to “protect, mitigate and enhance” fish and wildlife affected by construction and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. How is BPA meeting its responsibility to ratepayers to ensure that these mitigation funds are spent effectively?

  4. Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Hydropower development within the Columbia and Snake River Basins has significantly affected riparian, riverine, and adjacent upland habitats and the fish and wildlife species dependent upon them. Hydroelectric dams played a major role in the extinction or major loss of both anadromous and resident salmonid populations and altered instream and adjacent upland habitats, water quality, and riparian/riverine function. Hydroelectric facility construction and inundation directly affected fish and wildlife species and habitats. Secondary and tertiary impacts including road construction, urban development, irrigation, and conversion of native habitats to agriculture, due in part to the availability of irrigation water, continue to affect wildlife and fish populations throughout the Columbia and Snake River Basins. Fluctuating water levels resulting from facility operations have created exposed sand, cobble, and/or rock zones. These zones are generally devoid of vegetation with little opportunity to re-establish riparian plant communities. To address the habitat and wildlife losses, the United States Congress in 1980 passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act) (P.L. 96-501), which authorized the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington to create the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The Act directed the Council to prepare a program in conjunction with federal, state, and tribal wildlife resource authorities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife species affected by the construction, inundation and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin (NPPC 2000). Under the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program), the region's fish and wildlife agencies, tribes, non-government organizations (NGOs), and the public propose fish and wildlife projects that address wildlife and fish losses resulting from dam construction and subsequent inundation. As directed by the Council, project proposals are

  5. EA-1934: 2015 Annual Report for Mitigation Action Plan | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2015 Annual Report for Mitigation Action Plan EA-1934: 2015 Annual Report for Mitigation Action Plan Expansion of Active Borrow Areas, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington This annual report provides a summary of DOE/EA-1934 Mitigation Action Plan implementation in calendar year 2015. For more information, see http://energy.gov/node/381343. EA-1934_FEA_MAP_2015 (1.33 MB) More Documents & Publications EA-1934: 2014 Annual Report for Mitigation Action Plan EA-1934: Final Environmental

  6. Thailand-National Energy Efficiency Plan and Evidence-based Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Energy Efficiency Plan and Evidence-based Mitigation Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name GIZ-Thailand-National energy efficiency plan as a core element for an...

  7. Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Performance Investigates operating conditions under which PGM elements get volatilized and transferred onto ...

  8. Peru-Bringing a Range of Supported Mitigation Activities in Selected...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ECN and Ecofys on supported mitigation activities such as NAMAs, low carbon development (LCD) strategies and technology innovation centers to bring a portfolio of projects from the...

  9. South Africa-Integrating Sub-national Actors into National Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Actors into National Mitigation Strategies Through Vertically Integrated NAMAs (V-NAMAs) Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Integrating Sub-national Actors...

  10. Upcoming Webinar November 19: Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 19, the Energy Department will present a webinar on micro-structural mitigation strategies for PEM fuel cells focusing on morphological simulations and experimental approaches.

  11. Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Forestry Sectors Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture and Forestry...

  12. JICA's Assistance for Mitigation to Climate Change - The Co-Benefits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    JICA's Assistance for Mitigation to Climate Change - The Co-Benefits Approach to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: JICA's Assistance for...

  13. Mitigation of substrate defects in reticles using multilayer buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Bajt, Sasa; Stearns, Daniel G.

    2001-01-01

    A multilayer film is used as a buffer layer to minimize the size of defects on a reticle substrate prior to deposition of a reflective coating on the substrate. The multilayer buffer layer deposited intermediate the reticle substrate and the reflective coating produces a smoothing of small particles and other defects on the reticle substrate. The reduction in defect size is controlled by surface relaxation during the buffer layer growth process and by the degree of intermixing and volume contraction of the materials at the multilayer interfaces. The buffer layers are deposited at near-normal incidence via a low particulate ion beam sputtering process. The growth surface of the buffer layer may also be heated by a secondary ion source to increase the degree of intermixing and improve the mitigation of defects.

  14. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  15. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  16. Pressurized water nuclear reactor system with hot leg vortex mitigator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, Louis K. S.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor system includes a vortex mitigator in the form of a cylindrical conduit between the hot leg conduit and a first section of residual heat removal conduit, which conduit leads to a pump and a second section of residual heat removal conduit leading back to the reactor pressure vessel. The cylindrical conduit is of such a size that where the hot leg has an inner diameter D.sub.1, the first section has an inner diameter D.sub.2, and the cylindrical conduit or step nozzle has a length L and an inner diameter of D.sub.3 ; D.sub.3 /D.sub.1 is at least 0.55, D.sub.2 is at least 1.9, and L/D.sub.3 is at least 1.44, whereby cavitation of the pump by a vortex formed in the hot leg is prevented.

  17. Electrodes mitigating effects of defects in organic electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heller, Christian Maria Anton

    2008-05-06

    A compound electrode for organic electronic devices comprises a thin first layer of a first electrically conducting material and a second electrically conducting material disposed on the first layer. In one embodiment, the second electrically conducting material is formed into a plurality of elongated members. In another embodiment, the second material is formed into a second layer. The elongated members or the second layer has a thickness greater than that of the first layer. The second layer is separated from the first layer by a conducting material having conductivity less than at least the material of the first layer. The compound electrode is capable of mitigating adverse effects of defects, such as short circuits, in the construction of the organic electronic devices, and can be included in light-emitting or photovoltaic devices.

  18. Imaging an event horizon: mitigation of scattering toward Sagittarius A*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Lu, Ru-Sen; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Pankratius, Victor; Johnson, Michael D.; Narayan, Ramesh; Vertatschitsch, Laura E.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Zoran, Daniel; Freeman, William T.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Broderick, Avery E.; Gwinn, Carl R.

    2014-11-10

    The image of the emission surrounding the black hole in the center of the Milky Way is predicted to exhibit the imprint of general relativistic (GR) effects, including the existence of a shadow feature and a photon ring of diameter ∼50 μas. Structure on these scales can be resolved by millimeter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry. However, strong-field GR features of interest will be blurred at λ ≥ 1.3 mm due to scattering by interstellar electrons. The scattering properties are well understood over most of the relevant range of baseline lengths, suggesting that the scattering may be (mostly) invertible. We simulate observations of a model image of Sgr A* and demonstrate that the effects of scattering can indeed be mitigated by correcting the visibilities before reconstructing the image. This technique is also applicable to Sgr A* at longer wavelengths.

  19. Characterizing and Mitigating Work Time Inflation in Task Parallel Programs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olivier, Stephen L.; de Supinski, Bronis R.; Schulz, Martin; Prins, Jan F.

    2013-01-01

    Task parallelism raises the level of abstraction in shared memory parallel programming to simplify the development of complex applications. However, task parallel applications can exhibit poor performance due to thread idleness, scheduling overheads, and work time inflation – additional time spent by threads in a multithreaded computation beyond the time required to perform the same work in a sequential computation. We identify the contributions of each factor to lost efficiency in various task parallel OpenMP applications and diagnose the causes of work time inflation in those applications. Increased data access latency can cause significant work time inflation in NUMAmore » systems. Our locality framework for task parallel OpenMP programs mitigates this cause of work time inflation. Our extensions to the Qthreads library demonstrate that locality-aware scheduling can improve performance up to 3X compared to the Intel OpenMP task scheduler.« less

  20. Air Proportional Counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, J.A. Jr.

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  1. Update on Common-Cause Failure Experience and Mitigation Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Muhlheim, Michael David; Pullum, Laura L; Smith, Cyrus M; Holcomb, David Eugene; Korsah, Kofi

    2014-04-01

    Experience in other industries has shown that digital technology can provide substantial benefits in terms of performance and reliability. However, the U.S. nuclear power industry has been slow to adopt the technology extensively in its instrumentation and control (I&C) applications because of inhibiting factors such as regulatory uncertainty, insufficient technological experience base, implementation complexity, limited availability of nuclear-qualified products and vendors, and inadequate definition of modernization cost recapture. Although there have been examples of digital technology usage in the nuclear power industry, challenges to the qualification of digital technology for high-integrity nuclear power plant (NPP) applications have severely constrained more widespread progress in achieving the benefits that are possible through the transition to digital. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) established the Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (ASI) technology area under the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Program to coordinate the instrumentation and controls (I&C) research across DOE NE and to identify and lead efforts to address common needs. As part of the NEET ASI research program, the Digital Technology Qualification project was established. Under this project, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading the investigation into mitigation of digital common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities for nuclear-qualified applications. This technical report documents updated and expanded findings from research activities by ORNL. Specifically, the report describes CCF experience in the nuclear and nonnuclear industries, identifies the state of the practice for CCF mitigation through key examples, and presents conclusions from the determination of knowledge gaps.

  2. Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project : 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesling, Jason; Abel, Chad; Schwabe, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, the Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT) submitted a proposal to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for the acquisition of the Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project). The proposed mitigation site was for the Denny Jones Ranch and included Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Oregon Division of State Lands (DSL) leases and grazing allotments. The Project approval process and acquisition negotiations continued for several years until the BPT and BPA entered into a Memorandum of Agreement, which allowed for purchase of the Project in November 2000. The 31,781 acre Project is located seven miles east of Juntura, Oregon and is adjacent to the Malheur River (Figure 1). Six thousand three hundred eighty-five acres are deeded to BPT, 4,154 acres are leased from DSL, and 21,242 acres are leased from BLM (Figure 2). In total 11 grazing allotments are leased between the two agencies. Deeded land stretches for seven miles along the Malheur River. It is the largest private landholding on the river between Riverside and Harper, Oregon. Approximately 938 acres of senior water rights are included with the Ranch. The Project is comprised of meadow, wetland, riparian and shrub-steppe habitats. The BLM grazing allotment, located south of the ranch, is largely shrub-steppe habitat punctuated by springs and seeps. Hunter Creek, a perennial stream, flows through both private and BLM lands. Similarly, the DSL grazing allotment, which lies north of the Ranch, is predominantly shrub/juniper steppe habitat with springs and seeps dispersed throughout the upper end of draws (Figure 2).

  3. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  4. Foaming/antifoaming in WTP Tanks Equipped with Pulse Jet Mixer and Air Spargers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HASSAN, NEGUIB

    2004-06-29

    The River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct small-scale foaming and antifoam testing using actual Hanford waste and simulants subjected to air sparging. The foaminess of Hanford tank waste solutions was previously demonstrated in SRNL during WTP evaporator foaming and ultrafiltration studies and commercial antifoam DOW Q2-3183A was recommended to mitigate the foam in the evaporators. Currently, WTP is planning to use air spargers in the HLW Lag Storage Vessels, HLW Concentrate Receipt Vessel, and the Ultrafiltration Vessels to assist the performance of the Jet Pulse Mixers (JPM). Sparging of air into WTP tanks will induce a foam layer within the process vessels. The air dispersion in the waste slurries and generated foams could present problems during plant operation. Foam in the tanks could also adversely impact hydrogen removal and mitigation. Antifoam (DOW Q2-3183A) will be used to control foaming in Hanford sparged waste processing tanks. These tanks will be mixed by a combination of pulse-jet mixers and air spargers. The percent allowable foaminess or freeboard in WTP tanks are shown in tables.

  5. THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E.

    2010-07-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) presently is in the process to determine means to reduce water utilization in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process, thus reducing effluent and processing times. The frit slurry addition system mixes the dry frit with water, yielding approximately a 50 weight percent slurry containing frit and the other fraction water. This slurry is discharged into the SME and excess water is removed via boiling. To reduce this water load to the SME, DWPF has proposed using a pneumatic system in conveying the frit to the SME, in essence a dry delivery system. The problem associated with utilizing a dry delivery system with the existing frit is the generation of dust when discharged into the SME. The use of water has been shown to be effective in the mining industry as well in the DOE complex to mitigate dusting. The method employed by SRNL to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting in dry powders was effective, between a lab and bench scale tests. In those tests, it was shown that as high as five weight percent (wt%) of water addition was required to mitigate dust from batches of glass forming minerals used by the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, Washington. The same method used to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting was used in this task to determine the quantity of water to mitigate this dusting using as-received frit. The ability for water to mitigate dusting is due to its adhesive properties as shown in Figure 1-1. Wetting the frit particles allows for the smaller frit particles (including dust) to adhere to the larger frit particles or to agglomerate into large particles. Fluids other than water can also be used, but their adhesive properties are different than water and the quantity required to mitigate dusting is different, as was observed in reference 1. Excessive water, a few weight percentages greater than that required to mitigate dusting can cause the resulting material not to flow. The primary

  6. Hungry Horse Mitigation Plan; Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, 1990-2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraley, John J.; Marotz, Brian L.; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    2003-04-01

    In this document we present fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives, and recommendations to protect, mitigate, and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan addresses six separate program measures in the 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. We designed the plan to be closely coordinated in terms of dam operations, funding, and activities with the Kerr Mitigation Plan presently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. This document represents a mitigation plan for consideration by the Northwest Power Planning Council process; it is not an implementation plan. Flathead Lake is one of the cleanest lakes of its size in the world. The exceptional water quality and unique native fisheries make the Flathead Lake/River system extremely valuable to the economy and quality of life in the basin. The recreational fishery in Flathead Lake has an estimated value of nearly eight million dollars annually. This mitigation process represents our best opportunity to reduce the impacts of hydropower in this valuable aquatic system and increase angling opportunity. We based loss estimates and mitigation alternatives on an extensive data base, agency reports, nationally and internationally peer-reviewed scientific articles, and an innovative biological model for Hungry Horse Reservoir and the Flathead River. We conducted an extensive, 14-month scoping and consultation process with agency representatives, representatives of citizen groups, and the general public. This consultation process helped identify issues, areas of agreement, areas of conflict, and advantages and disadvantages of mitigation alternatives. The results of the scoping and consultation process helped shape our mitigation plan. Our recommended plan is based firmly on principles of adaptive management and recognition of biological uncertainty. After we receive direction from the NPPC, we will add more detailed hypotheses and

  7. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Air Conditioning Air Conditioning Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Two-thirds of all homes in the

  8. Tolerance of Three-Stage CIGS Deposition to Variations Imposed by Roll-to-Roll Processing: Final Technical Report, May 2003 - September 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, M. E.; Britt, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Three-stage co-evaporation of CIGS imposes stringent limits on the parameter space if high-efficient devices are to result. Substrate temperatures during the 1st stage (as well as during the 2nd and 3rd stage), Se partial pressure, and amount of Na supplied are critical for good nucleation, proper In-Ga-selenide precursor phase, and diffusion of Cu into the precursor, as well as diffusion of Ga through the film. In addition, the degree of Cu-rich excursion impacts maximum performance and process tolerance. Enveloping the above is the basic time-temperature profile inextricably linked to the metals delivery rates. Although high-efficiency, three-stage deposited CIGS devices on the R&D scale are grown at about 20-45 minutes to thicknesses of 2 to 2.5 m, the latter is not a viable approach for an economic manufacturing process. At Global Solar Energy, Inc., CIGS films are typically grown in about 6 minutes to thicknesses of less than 2 m. At the same time, the emissivity and thermal conductivity of stainless steel is vastly different from that of glass, and the reduced growth time poses restrictions on the substrate temperature ramp rates and diffusion of species (reaction kinetics). Material compatibility in the highly corrosive Se environment places limitations on the substrate heaters; i.e., substrate temperatures. Finally, one key advantage of a RTR deposition approach (compact equipment) restricts post CIGS Se exposure and cool-down rates to be vastly different than those practiced in the laboratory.

  9. Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged Air ...,2354,2114,2054,"Q","Q" "District Chilled Water ......",2750,2750,"Q",336,359,2750,386,72...

  10. Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged Air ..."Q",21,43,16,43,"Q","Q" "District Chilled Water ......",50,50,"Q",4,"Q",50,1,"Q","Q","Q" ...

  11. Air modeling of industrial area in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, A.

    1996-12-31

    With privatization of power sector to fulfill power demand in India, fossil based power projects are proposed at different locations by Indian and foreign companies. As power industry occupies key role in the economic liberalization, the siting and technology for power plant are relevant in the Indian context, and modeling exercise is wanted for the design of stacks and pollution control measures. A case history is included to demonstrate the use of air quality modeling in prediction, and to delineate mitigation measures. Study has been conducted with Gaussian dispersion model to assess the incremental 24 hour maximum Ground Level Concentrations (GLCs) of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SPM due to proposed power plant. Stack and emission data, wind velocity, wind direction, temperature, mixing height, and stability classes are used as input parameters to the dispersion model. Maximum 24 hour GLCs of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and SPM are 30, 53, 2.5 {mu}g/m at 2 km east as down wind direction is from west (35%), south-southwest (25%), and west-northwest (15%). Northeast is the most affected quadrant during summer. Plume loopings are assessed from southeast to northeast directions, with maximum concentration in the east with respect to the site. First plume loop is assessed at 2 km distance, and subsequent loops are assessed with less pollutants concentration under atmospheric stability classes (B-E). High concentration of NO{sub x} has been assessed, which may cause hazardous effect like dense fog, particulate droplets, whereas SO{sub 2} concentration may cause acid raining, acid deposition to the surrounding. Proper air pollution control measures are required to minimize NO{sub x} levels.

  12. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Planning Phase II, Dworshak Reservoir, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, H. Jerome; Martin, Robert C.

    1989-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 directed that measures be implemented to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by development and operation of hydropower projects on the Columbia River System. This Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council, which in turn developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This program established a four-part process: wildlife mitigation status reports; wildlife impact assessments; wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement plans; and implementation of protection, mitigation, and enhancement projects. This mitigation plan for the Dworshak Reservoir Hydroelectric Facility was developed to fulfill requirements of Sections 1003(b)(2) and (3) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement planning for Dworshak Reservoir included: quantify net impacts to target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation of Dworshak Dam and Reservoir; develop protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals and objectives for the target wildlife species; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement actions for the target wildlife species; and coordination of project activities. 46 refs., 4 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Program for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    A Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Program, required by the California Environmental Quality Act, was developed by UC as part of the Final EIS/EIR process. This document describing the program is a companion to the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL, Livermore). The Final EIS/EIR analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed action, which for the purposes of NEPA is: continued operation, including near-term (within 5 to 1 0 years) proposed projects, of LLNL and SNL, Livermore. The proposed action for the EIR is the renewal of the contract between DOE and UC for UC`s continued operation and management of LLNL. The Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Program is for implementing and monitoring progress of measures taken to mitigate the significant impacts of the proposed action. A complete description of the impacts and proposed mitigations is in Section 5 of Volume I of the Final EIS/EIR. This report summarizes the mitigation measures, identifies the responsible party at the Laboratory for implementing the mitigation measure, states when monitoring will be implemented, when the mitigation measure will be in place and monitoring completed, and who will verify that the mitigation measure was implemented.

  14. Flight path-driven mitigation of wavefront curvature effects in SAR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2009-06-23

    A wavefront curvature effect associated with a complex image produced by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be mitigated based on which of a plurality of possible flight paths is taken by the SAR when capturing the image. The mitigation can be performed differently for different ones of the flight paths.

  15. Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility mitigation action plan. Annual report for 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haagenstad, T.

    1999-01-15

    This Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report (MAPAR) has been prepared as part of implementing the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) to protect workers, soils, water, and biotic and cultural resources in and around the facility.

  16. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  17. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  18. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  19. Fresh air indoors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kull, K.

    1988-09-01

    This article describes and compares ventilation systems for the control of indoor air pollution in residential housing. These include: local exhaust fans, whole-house fans, central exhaust with wall ports, and heat-recovery central ventilation (HRV). HRV's have a higher initial cost than the other systems but they are the only ones that save energy. Homeowners are given guidelines for choosing the system best suited for their homes in terms of efficiency and payback period.

  20. Membrane Based Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Based Air Conditioning 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Brian Johnson, brian.johnson@daisanalytic.com Dais Analytic Corporation INSERT PROJECT SPECIFIC PHOTO (replacing this shape) 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2015 NEW PROJECT Planned end date: September 30, 2017 Key Milestones 1. System Design Review; March 2016 2. Compressor testing review; September 2016 3. Go/No-Go based on bench testing; September 2016 4. Experimental evaluation of V1 prototype;

  1. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  2. ARM - Instrument - ccn-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsccn-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "ccn-air" does not exist.

  3. ARM - Instrument - cpc-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentscpc-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "cpc-air" does not exist.

  4. ARM - Instrument - hk-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentshk-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "hk-air" does not exist.

  5. ARM - Instrument - met-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsmet-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "met-air" does not exist.

  6. ARM - Instrument - pcasp-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentspcasp-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "pcasp-air" does not exist.

  7. ARM - Instrument - tracegas-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentstracegas-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "tracegas-air" does not exist.

  8. ARM - Instrument - uhsas-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsuhsas-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "uhsas-air" does not exist.

  9. UNDERSTANDING THE AIR SAMPLING DATA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For more comparisons, see the millirem comparisons poster. Dose estimates have been calculated based on the low-volume air sampler results. Low-volume air samplers collect samples ...

  10. Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  11. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  12. Air quality committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Committees on air quality, coal, forest resources, and public lands and land use report on legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1979. There was no new significant air quality legislation, but a number of lawsuits raised questions about State Implementation Plans, prevention of significant deterioration, the Clean Air Act Amendments, new source performance standards, and motor vehicle emissions. Efforts to increase coal utilization emphasized implementation of the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 and the Surface Mining Program. New legislation protects certain forest products from exploitation and exportation. Forest-related lawsuits focused on the RARE II process. Land-use legislation modified credit assistance to coastal zones and the language of interstate land sales, established a new agency to consolidate flood-insurance programs, and added protection to archaeological resources. Land-use-related lawsuits covered coastal zone management, interstate land sales, Indian reservations, and land-use planning in the context of civil rights, antitrust action, exclusionary zoning, comprehensive planning, and regional general welfare. Other suits addressed grants, leasing, claims, grazing rights, surveys, and other matters of public lands concern. Administrative actions centered on implementing the Coastal Zone Management Act, establishing the Council of Energy Resource Tribes, and developing guidelines for energy development. 147 references. (DCK)

  13. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  14. Combustion air preheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, T.A.; Petterson, W.C.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a process for steam cracking hydrocarbons to cracked gases in a tubular furnace heated by burning a mixture of fuel and combustion air and subsequently quenching the cracked gases. Waste heat is recovered in the form of high pressure steam and the combustion air is preheated prior to introduction into the furnace. The improvement described here comprises: (a) superheating the high pressure steam and expanding at least a portion of the superheated high pressure steam through a first turbine to produce shaft work and superheated medium pressure steam at a temperature between 260/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/ C.; (b) expanding at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure steam through a second turbine to produce shaft work and low pressure steam at a temperature between 120/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/ C.; and (c) preheating the combustion air by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure stream and at least a portion of the low pressure steam.

  15. Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences Using Inherent Safety Principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Wigeland; J. E. Cahalan

    2009-12-01

    Sodium-cooled fast reactors are designed to have a high level of safety. Events of high probability of occurrence are typically handled without consequence through reliable engineering systems and good design practices. For accidents of lower probability, the initiating events are characterized by larger and more numerous challenges to the reactor system, such as failure of one or more major engineered systems and can also include a failure to scram the reactor in response. As the initiating conditions become more severe, they have the potential for creating serious consequences of potential safety significance, including fuel melting, fuel pin disruption and recriticality. If the progression of such accidents is not mitigated by design features of the reactor, energetic events and dispersal of radioactive materials may result. For severe accidents, there are several approaches that can be used to mitigate the consequences of such severe accident initiators, which typically include fuel pin failures and core disruption. One approach is to increase the reliability of the reactor protection system so that the probability of an ATWS event is reduced to less than 1 x 10-6 per reactor year, where larger accident consequences are allowed, meeting the U.S. NRC goal of relegating such accident consequences as core disruption to these extremely low probabilities. The main difficulty with this approach is to convincingly test and guarantee such increased reliability. Another approach is to increase the redundancy of the reactor scram system, which can also reduce the probability of an ATWS event to a frequency of less than 1 x 10-6 per reactor year or lower. The issues with this approach are more related to reactor core design, with the need for a greater number of control rod positions in the reactor core and the associated increase in complexity of the reactor protection system. A third approach is to use the inherent reactivity feedback that occurs in a fast reactor to

  16. Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  17. Compressed Air System Control Strategies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This tip sheet briefly discusses compressed air system control strategies as a means to improving and maintaining system performance.

  18. Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project will identify and analyze advanced air cooling strategies thatallow air-cooled geothermal power plants to maintain a high electric power output during periods of high air dry bulb temperatures while minimizing water consumption.

  19. California Air Resources Board | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Resources Board Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Air Resources Board Name: California Air Resources Board Place: Sacramento, California Website: www.arb.ca.gov...

  20. Aire Valley Environmental | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aire Valley Environmental Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aire Valley Environmental Place: United Kingdom Product: Leeds-based waste-to-energy project developer. References: Aire...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo; V. Trbovic

    2003-01-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples, optimizing parameters in the laboratory-scale corrosion test loop system and testing the effective concentrations of Capsicum sp. extracts to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons by batch culture method. A total of 22 strains from the group of heterotrophic, acid producing, denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the gas pipeline samples obtained from Northern Indiana Public Service Company in Trenton, Indiana. They were purified and will be sent out for identification. Bacterial strains of interest were used in antimicrobial screenings and test loop experiments. Parameters for the laboratory-scale test loop system such as gas and culture medium flow rate; temperature; inoculation period; and length of incubation were established. Batch culture corrosion study against Desulfovibrio vulgaris showed that one (S{sub 1}M) out of the four Capsicum sp. extracts tested was effective in controlling the corrosion rate in metal coupons by 33.33% when compared to the untreated group.

  2. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  3. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavitytunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.60.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, an acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.

  4. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, an acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.

  5. Sustainable biofuel contributions to carbon mitigation and energy independence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lippke, Bruce; Gustafson, Richard; Venditti, Richard; Volk, Timothy; Oneil, Elaine; Johnson, Leonard; Puettmann, Maureen; Steele, Phillip

    2011-10-19

    The growing interest in US biofuels has been motivated by two primary national policy goals, (1) to reduce carbon emissions and (2) to achieve energy independence. However, the current low cost of fossil fuels is a key barrier to investments in woody biofuel production capacity. The effectiveness of wood derived biofuels must consider not only the feedstock competition with low cost fossil fuels but also the wide range of wood products uses that displace different fossil intensive products. Alternative uses of wood result in substantially different unit processes and carbon impacts over product life cycles. We developed life cycle datamore » for new bioprocessing and feedstock collection models in order to make life cycle comparisons of effectiveness when biofuels displace gasoline and wood products displace fossil intensive building materials. Wood products and biofuels can be joint products from the same forestland. Furthermore, substantial differences in effectiveness measures are revealed as well as difficulties in valuing tradeoffs between carbon mitigation and energy independence.« less

  6. Potential GHG mitigation options for agriculture in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erda, Lin; Yue, Li; Hongmin, Dong

    1996-12-31

    Agriculture contributes more or less to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). China`s agriculture accounts for about 5-15% of total emissions for these gases. Land-use changes related to agriculture are not major contributors in China. Mitigation options are available that could result in significant decrease in CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural systems. If implemented, they are likely to increase crop and animal productivity. Implementation has the potential to decrease CH{sub 4} emissions from rice, ruminants, and animal waste by 4-40%. The key to decreasing N{sub 2}O emissions is improving the efficiency of plant utilization of fertilizer N. This could decrease N{sub 2}O emissions from agriculture by almost 20%. Using animal waste to produce CH{sub 4} for energy and digested manure for fertilizer may at some time be cost effective. Economic analyses of options proposed should show positive economic as well as environmental benefits.

  7. Overview of mitigation policies and measures in the forestry sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the author addresses questions on how the forestry sector can make a contribution to the general problem of greenhouse gases in the environment. Primarily this is in the form of carbon conservation and sequestering. There is a potential land area for conservation and sequestration estimated to be 700 Mha. The total carbon that could be sequestered and conserved globally by 2050 on this land is 60 - 87 GtC. Slowing deforestation, assisting regeneration, forestation and agroforestry are the primary mitigation measures for carbon conservation and sequestration. For long term success, enforcement to halt deforestation has to be accompained by economic and/or other benefits to the deforesters that equal or exceed their current remuneration. Making plantations a significant fuel for utility electricity generation will require higher biomass yields and thermal efficiency matching that of conventional plants. Significant reduction of global carbon emissions requires national governments to institute measures that provide local, national, economic and other benefits while conserving and sequestering carbon.

  8. Electron cloud experiments at Fermilab: Formation and mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    We have performed a series of experiments at Fermilab to explore the electron cloud phenomenon. The Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased four-fold in the Project X upgrade, and would be subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. We present measurements of the cloud formation in the Main Injector and experiments with materials for the mitigation of the Cloud. An experimental installation of Titanium-Nitride (TiN) coated beam pipes has been under study in the Main Injector since 2009; this material was directly compared to an adjacent stainless chamber through electron cloud measurement with Retarding Field Analyzers (RFAs). Over the long period of running we were able to observe the secondary electron yield (SEY) change and correlate it with electron fluence, establishing a conditioning history. Additionally, the installation has allowed measurement of the electron energy spectrum, comparison of instrumentation techniques, and energydependent behavior of the electron cloud. Finally, a new installation, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, will allow direct SEY measurement of material samples irradiated in the accelerator.

  9. Mitigation of wind tunnel wall interactions in subsonic cavity flows

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-03-06

    In this study, the flow over an open aircraft bay is often represented in a wind tunnel with a cavity. In flight, this flow is unconfined, though in experiments, the cavity is surrounded by wind tunnel walls. If untreated, wind tunnel wall effects can lead to significant distortions of cavity acoustics in subsonic flows. To understand and mitigate these cavity–tunnel interactions, a parametric approach was taken for flow over an L/D = 7 cavity at Mach numbers 0.6–0.8. With solid tunnel walls, a dominant cavity tone was observed, likely due to an interaction with a tunnel duct mode. Furthermore, anmore » acoustic liner opposite the cavity decreased the amplitude of the dominant mode and its harmonics, a result observed by previous researchers. Acoustic dampeners were also placed in the tunnel sidewalls, which further decreased the dominant mode amplitudes and peak amplitudes associated with nonlinear interactions between cavity modes. This then indicates that cavity resonance can be altered by tunnel sidewalls and that spanwise coupling should be addressed when conducting subsonic cavity experiments. Though mechanisms for dominant modes and nonlinear interactions likely exist in unconfined cavity flows, these effects can be amplified by the wind tunnel walls.« less

  10. Security Informatics Research Challenges for Mitigating Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2014-09-30

    This paper addresses cognitive implications and research needs surrounding the problem of cyber friendly re (FF). We dene cyber FF as intentional o*ensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission e*ectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. We describe examples of cyber FF and discuss how it ts within a general conceptual framework for cyber security failures. Because it involves human failure, cyber FF may be considered to belong to a sub-class of cyber security failures characterized as unintentional insider threats. Cyber FF is closely related to combat friendly re in that maintaining situation awareness (SA) is paramount to avoiding unintended consequences. Cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system and its nodes, the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive and o*ensive countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. We describe a test bed designed to support empirical research on factors a*ecting cyber FF. Finally, we discuss mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF, including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches.

  11. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  12. State air pollution permit program under subchapter 5 of the Clean Air Act as of August 8, 1995. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.M.

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 imposed the requirement for a comprehensive set of state air pollution permit programs on a nationwide basis for the first time. Prior to the passage of this law, there were about thirty-five state permit programs, and they were not subject to Federal supervision. During the debate in the House of Representives it was stated that the purpose of the permit program was to clarify and make more enforceable a source`s pollution control requirements. In addition, the Congress wanted to encourage public involvement in the process so that interested citizens will be able to review and help enforce a source`s obligations under the Act.

  13. Annual Adaptive Management Report for Compensatory Mitigation at Keyport Lagoon: Mitigation of Pier B Development at the Bremerton Naval Facilities - Compensatory Mitigation at Keyport Lagoon - Naval Underwater Warfare Center Division - Keyport, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vavrinec, John; Borde, Amy B.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Thom, Ronald M.; Wright, Cynthia L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2012-06-01

    Unites States Navy capital improvement projects are designed to modernize and improve mission capacity. Such capital improvement projects often result in unavoidable environmental impacts by increasing over-water structures, which results in a loss of subtidal habitat within industrial areas of Navy bases. In the Pacific Northwest, compensatory mitigation often targets alleviating impacts to Endangered Species Act-listed salmon species. The complexity of restoring large systems requires limited resources to target successful and more coordinated mitigation efforts to address habitat loss and improvements in water quality that will clearly contribute to an improvement at the site scale and can then be linked to a cumulative net ecosystem improvement.

  14. Simplified air change effectiveness modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rock, B.A.; Anderson, R.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes recent progress in developing practical air change effectiveness modeling techniques for the design and analysis of air diffusion in occupied rooms. The ultimate goal of this continuing work is to develop a simple and reliable method for determining heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system compliance with ventilation standards. In the current work, simplified two-region models of rooms are used with six occupancy patterns to find the air change effectiveness. A new measure, the apparent ACH effectiveness, yields the relative ventilation performance of an air diffusion system. This measure can be used for the prediction or evaluation of outside air delivery to the occupants. The required outside air can be greater or less than that specified by ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62-89.

  15. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  16. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  17. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  18. AIR M A IL

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MEMORlAL DRIVE AIR M A IL ._~ AtFx=b.-zf .7.-i- M r. s. .II. Gown -~ Gentlemen: Re: A.E.C. Contract No. We assume the weight of the 9-l/2" biscuits will:be 107'poutids approximately; i.e. 100 pounds of thorium per biscuit. A four biscuit charge is not feasible because of crucible dimensions, availability, etc. A three biscuit charge will, when molten, fill the proposed crucible half full. This condition is un- desirable because, due to the low heat of fusion of thorium and the

  19. Mitigation Monitoring Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory FY00 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcguff, R R

    2003-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has completed eight years of implementing the mitigation measures from the Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the Continued Operation of LLNL and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Livermore. This eighth annual report documents LLNL's implementation of the mitigation measures during the fiscal year ending September 30, 2000 (FY00). It provides background information on the mitigation measures, describes activities undertaken during FY00, and documents changes in the monitoring program. Table 1 on page 12, provides a numerical listing of each mitigation measure, the department responsible for implementing it, and the location within this report where the status is discussed. The discussion of the mitigation measures is organized by the University of California (UC)'s three categories of approaches to implementation: project-specific, service-level and administrative. Table 2 on page 19, Table 6 on page 55, and Table 7 on page 63 provide a detailed discussion of each mitigation measure, including LLNL's implementation strategy and the status as of the end of the fiscal year. Table 3 on page 37, Table 4 on page 46, and Table 5 on page 47 list each construction project undertaken in FY00 and the mitigation measures implemented.

  20. Environmental Mitigation Technology (Innovative System Testing)-Deployment and Testing of the Alden Hydropower Fish-Friendly Turbine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Environmental Mitigation Technology (Innovative System Testing)-Deployment and Testing of the Alden Hydropower Fish-Friendly Turbine

  1. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tips: Air Ducts Tips: Air Ducts Air ducts: out of sight, out of mind. The unsealed ducts in your attic and crawlspaces lose air, and uninsulated ducts lose heat -- wasting energy ...

  2. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Ducts Tips: Air Ducts Air ducts: out of sight, out of mind. The unsealed ducts in your attic and crawlspaces lose air, and uninsulated ducts lose heat -- wasting energy and ...

  3. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project; Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2007 Final Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousins, Katherine

    2009-04-03

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game maintained a total of about 2,743 acres of wildlife mitigation habitat in 2007, and protected another 921 acres. The total wildlife habitat mitigation debt has been reduced by approximately two percent (598.22 HU) through the Department's mitigation activities in 2007. Implementation of the vegetative monitoring and evaluation program continued across protected lands. For the next funding cycle, the IDFG is considering a package of restoration projects and habitat improvements, conservation easements, and land acquisitions in the project area.

  4. Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-09-01

    It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming and water gas shift mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRM and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

  5. Modeling the dynamic crush of impact mitigating materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.; McMichael, L.D.

    1995-05-12

    Crushable materials are commonly utilized in the design of structural components to absorb energy and mitigate shock during the dynamic impact of a complex structure, such as an automobile chassis or drum-type shipping container. The development and application of several finite-element material models which have been developed at various times at LLNL for DYNA3D will be discussed. Between the models, they are able to account for several of the predominant mechanisms which typically influence the dynamic mechanical behavior of crushable materials. One issue we addressed was that no single existing model would account for the entire gambit of constitutive features which are important for crushable materials. Thus, we describe the implementation and use of an additional material model which attempts to provide a more comprehensive model of the mechanics of crushable material behavior. This model combines features of the pre-existing DYNA models and incorporates some new features as well in an invariant large-strain formulation. In addition to examining the behavior of a unit cell in uniaxial compression, two cases were chosen to evaluate the capabilities and accuracy of the various material models in DYNA. In the first case, a model for foam filled box beams was developed and compared to test data from a 4-point bend test. The model was subsequently used to study its effectiveness in energy absorption in an aluminum extrusion, spaceframe, vehicle chassis. The second case examined the response of the AT-400A shipping container and the performance of the overpack material during accident environments selected from 10CFR71 and IAEA regulations.

  6. Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-07-01

    It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming and water gas shift mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or in or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRB and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

  7. Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-04-01

    It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming process, mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or in or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRM and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

  8. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asaduzzaman, M.

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  9. Chemiluminescent detection of organic air pollutants (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; POLLUTANTS; CHEMILUMINESCENCE; AIR POLLUTION; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; AIR POLLUTION MONITORING; OZONE; ...

  10. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. Supply ducts and registers (i.e., openings in the walls, floors, or ceilings covered by

  11. Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This tip sheet outlines several condensate removal methods as part of maintaining compressed air system air quality.

  12. Acceptance Test Procedure: SY101 air pallet system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-05-30

    The purpose of this test procedure is to verify that the system(s) procured to load the SY-101 Mitigation Test Pump package fulfills its functional requirements. It will also help determine the man dose expected due to handling of the package during the actual event. The scope of this procedure focuses on the ability of the air pallets and container saddles to carry the container package from the new 100 foot concrete pad into 2403-WD where it will be stored awaiting final disposition. This test attempts to simulate the actual event of depositing the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test pump into the 2403-WD building. However, at the time of testing road modifications required to drive the 100 ton trailer into CWC were not performed. Therefore a flatbed trailer will be use to transport the container to CWC. The time required to off load the container from the 100 ton trailer will be recorded for man dose evaluation on location. The cranes used for this test will also be different than the actual event. This is not considered to be an issue due to minimal effects on man dose.

  13. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  14. Siting-selection study for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. , compressed-air energy-storage system (CAES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A method used for siting a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system using geotechnical and environmental criteria is explained using the siting of a proposed 220 MW water-compensated CAES plant in Illinois as an example. Information is included on the identification and comparative ranking of 28 geotechnically and environmental sites in Illinois, the examination of fatal flaws, e.g., mitigation, intensive studies, costly studies, permit denials, at 7 sites; and the selection of 3 sites for further geological surveying. (LCL)

  15. OAR 635-415 - Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Policy | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OAR 635-415 - Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation Policy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: OAR 635-415 -...

  16. Monitoring and Mitigation Alternatives for Protection of North Atlantic Right Whales during Offshore Wind Farm Installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Matzner, Shari; Copping, Andrea E.; Stavole, Jessica

    2012-09-01

    Progress report on defining and determining monitoring and mitigation measures for protecting North Atlantic Right Whales from the effects of pile driving and other activities associated with installation of offshore wind farms.

  17. PPPL and Princeton help lead a new center to understand and mitigate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Also under study will be the primary methods for mitigating runaway electrons. These methods inject impurities in the form of massive gas or shattered pellets to cool the plasma ...

  18. Evaluating the implementation of environmental review mitigation in local planning and development processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slotterback, Carissa Schively

    2008-11-15

    The implementation of mitigation strategies and outcomes of environmental review remains a challenge for planners and regulators. While the process and content of environmental review is clearly defined, there is often little attention to what happens after the review is completed. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the implementation of the outcomes of environmental review, specifically mitigation measures designed to respond to environmental impacts identified in the environmental impact analysis. Drawing on previous evaluations of environmental review outcomes and plan implementation, the research provides a methodology for evaluating the implementation of mitigation efforts, points to the challenges associated with implementing the mitigation outcomes of local environmental review in planning and development processes, and identifies opportunities to integrate planning and environmental review processes.

  19. Fiscal Year 2013 Trails Management Program Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report, October 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pava, Daniel S.

    2015-03-25

    This Trails Management Program Mitigation Action Plan Annual Report (Trails MAPAR) has been prepared for the Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) as part of implementing the 2003 Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Trails Management Program (DOE 2003). The Trails Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) is now a part of the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (DOE/EIS 0380) Mitigation Action Plan (2008 SWEIS MAP) (DOE 2008). The MAP provides guidance for the continued implementation of the Trails Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and integration of future mitigation actions into the 2008 SWEIS MAP to decrease impacts associated with recreational trails use at LANL. This eighth MAPAR includes a summary of Trails Management Program activities and actions during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013, from October 2012 through September 2013.

  20. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Greg; Marotz, Brian L.; Dunnigan, James

    2002-09-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness.

  1. Colville Confederated Tribes' Performance Project Wildlife Mitigation Acquisitions, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, Richard; Berger, Matthew; Tonasket, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    The Colville Confederated Tribes Wildlife Mitigation Project is protecting lands as partial mitigation for hydropower's share of the wildlife losses resulting from Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. The Mitigation Project protects and manages 54,606 acres for the biological requirements of managed wildlife species that are important to the Colville Tribes. With the inclusion of 2006 acquisitions, the Colville Tribes have acquired approximately 32,018 habitat units (HUs) towards a total 35,819 HUs lost from original inundation due to hydropower development. This annual report for 2006 briefly describes that four priority land acquisitions that were considered for enrollment into the Colville Tribes Mitigation Project during the 2006 contract period.

  2. Supplement Analysis for the Wildlife Mitigation Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0246/SA-39)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-02-02

    BPA funds the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program, which is tasked with the acquisition and restoration of key habitats within the Pend Oreille Watershed. This mitigation program purchases private land to be owned and managed by program participants for the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of wildlife affected by the construction and operation of the Federal hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. BPA is currently working with the Kalispel Tribe of Indians to acquire and manage three parcels that total approximately 890 acres of land within Pend Oreille County, Washington. The properties proposed for acquisition contain habitats or potential habitats that will provide BPA with credits for partial mitigation of wildlife habitat losses due to the construction of Albeni Falls Dam. The current proposal includes only the fee title acquisition of these parcels; habitat enhancement activities will likely be carried out by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in the future following the development of a management plan(s) for the lands.

  3. Ramping Effect on Forecast Use: Integrated Ramping as a Mitigation Strategy; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, Victor; Barrows, Clayton; Brinkman, Gregory; Bloom, Aaron; Denholm, Paul

    2015-06-23

    Power generation ramping between forecasted (net) load set-points shift the generation (MWh) from its scheduled values. The Integrated Ramping is described as a method that mitigates this problem.

  4. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  5. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

    2005-12-13

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  6. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Mulligan, Anthony C.; Popovich, Dragan

    2004-03-23

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  7. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

    2009-04-14

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  8. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in High-Performance H-mode Plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in High-Performance H-mode Plasmas ...

  9. The Role of Asia in Mitigating Climate Change: Results from the Asia Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Krey, Volker; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Jiang, Kejun; Kainuma, M.; Kriegler, Elmar; Luderer, Gunnar; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, Asia accounted for 60% of global population, 39% of Gross World Product, 44% of global energy consumption and nearly half of the worlds energy system CO2 emissions. Thus, Asia is an important region to consider in any discussion of climate change or climate change mitigation. This paper explores the role of Asia in mitigating climate change, by comparing the results of 23 energy-economy and integrated assessment models. We focus our analysis on seven key areas: base year data, future energy use and emissions absent climate policy, the effect of urban and rural development on future energy use and emissions, the role of technology in emissions mitigation, regional emissions mitigation, and national climate policies

  10. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  11. Solid State Magnetocaloric Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory 2 Cooling Effect: Solid State Magnetocaloric Air Conditioner T cold T ... and fabricate permanent magnets Communications: * Abstract accepted for the Purdue ...

  12. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  13. Clean Air Act, Section 309

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CLEAN AIR ACT 309* 7609. Policy review (a) The Administrator shall review and comment in writing on the environmental impact of any matter relating to duties and ...

  14. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  15. Air Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a larger footprint than Water Cooling, but when water restrictions are great enough to prevent the...

  16. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An air conditioner cools your home with a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and ...

  17. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: Final Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, Robin E.; Becker, James M.

    2013-09-26

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor), now Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades (2007). Three plantings have been installed on a 4.5-hectare mitigation area to date. This review provides a description and chronology of events, monitoring results, and mitigative actions through fiscal year (FY) 2012. Also provided is a review of the monitoring methods, transect layout, and FY 2012 monitoring activities and results for all planting years. Planting densities and performance criteria stipulated in the MAP were aimed at a desired future condition (DFC) of 10 percent mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis) cover. Current recommendations for yielding this DFC are based upon a conceptual model planting of 1000 plants/ha (400/ac) exhibiting a 60-percent survival rate after 5 monitoring years (DOE 2003). Accordingly, a DFC after 5 monitoring years would not be less than 600 plants/ha (240/ac). To date, about 8700 sagebrush plants have been grown and transplanted onto the mitigation site. Harsh site conditions and low seedling survival have resulted in an estimated 489 transplants/ha on the mitigation site, which is 111 plants/ha short of the target DFC. Despite this apparent shortcoming, 71, 91, and 24 percent of the surviving seedlings planted in FY 2007 and FY 2008 and FY 2010, respectively, showed signs of blooming in FY 2012. Blooming status may be a positive indication of future sagebrush recruitment, and is therefore a potential source for reaching the target DFC of 600 plants/ha on this mitigation site over time. Because of the difficulty establishing small transplants on this site, we propose that no additional plantings be considered for this mitigation area and to rely upon the potential recruitment by established seedlings to achieve the mitigation commitment set forth in the MAP of 600 plants/ha.

  18. EA-1945: Finding of No Significant Impact and Mitigation Action Plan |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Finding of No Significant Impact and Mitigation Action Plan EA-1945: Finding of No Significant Impact and Mitigation Action Plan Northern Mid-Columbia Joint Project; Grant, Douglas, and Chelan Counties, Washington Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) issued a finding of no significant impact, which includes a floodplain statement of findings, for the proposed Northern Mid-Columbia Joint Project, a 230-kilvolt transmission line proposed by BPA and the Public Utility

  19. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  20. Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance | Department of Energy Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Performance Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Performance Investigates operating conditions under which PGM elements get volatilized and transferred onto the downstream SCR catalyst, resulting in loss of NOx reduction performance deer12_chen.pdf (856.01 KB) More Documents & Publications The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR

  1. A statistical approach to designing mitigation for induced AC voltages on pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J. [Electro Sciences Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Induced voltage levels on buried pipelines co-located with overhead electric power transmission lines are usually mitigated by grounding the pipeline. Maximum effectiveness is obtained when grounds are placed where the peak induced voltages occur. Mitigation depends on the local soil resistivity. It may be necessary to employ an extensive distributed grounding system. Over long distances, however, the soil resistivity generally varies as a log-normally distributed random variable. The effect of this variability is examined.

  2. Theory of runaway electrons in ITER: Equations, important parameters, and implications for mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2015-03-15

    The plasma current in ITER cannot be allowed to transfer from thermal to relativistic electron carriers. The potential for damage is too great. Before the final design is chosen for the mitigation system to prevent such a transfer, it is important that the parameters that control the physics be understood. Equations that determine these parameters and their characteristic values are derived. The mitigation benefits of the injection of impurities with the highest possible atomic number Z and the slowing plasma cooling during halo current mitigation to ≳40 ms in ITER are discussed. The highest possible Z increases the poloidal flux consumption required for each e-fold in the number of relativistic electrons and reduces the number of high energy seed electrons from which exponentiation builds. Slow cooling of the plasma during halo current mitigation also reduces the electron seed. Existing experiments could test physics elements required for mitigation but cannot carry out an integrated demonstration. ITER itself cannot carry out an integrated demonstration without excessive danger of damage unless the probability of successful mitigation is extremely high. The probability of success depends on the reliability of the theory. Equations required for a reliable Monte Carlo simulation are derived.

  3. Study of Air Ingress Across the Duct During the Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Yassin

    2013-05-06

    The goal of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenomena associated with air ingress in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Air ingress may occur due to a rupture of primary piping and a subsequent breach in the primary pressure boundary in helium-cooled and graphite-moderated VHTRs. Significant air ingress is a concern because it introduces potential to expose the fuel, graphite support rods, and core to a risk of severe graphite oxidation. Two of the most probable air ingress scenarios involve rupture of a control rod or fuel access standpipe, and rupture in the main coolant pipe on the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefore, establishing a fundamental understanding of air ingress phenomena is critical in order to rationally evaluate safety of existing VHTRs and develop new designs that minimize these risks. But despite this importance, progress toward development these predictive capabilities has been slowed by the complex nature of the underlying phenomena. The combination of inter-diffusion among multiple species, molecular diffusion, natural convection, and complex geometries, as well as the multiple chemical reactions involved, impose significant roadblocks to both modeling and experiment design. The project team will employ a coordinated experimental and computational effort that will help gain a deeper understanding of multiphased air ingress phenomena. This project will enhance advanced modeling and simulation methods, enabling calculation of nuclear power plant transients and accident scenarios with a high degree of confidence. The following are the project tasks: Perform particle image velocimetry measurement of multiphase air ingresses; and, Perform computational fluid dynamics analysis of air ingress phenomena.

  4. S. 42: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, January 25, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    S. 42 is a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose a fee on the importation of crude oil and refined petroleum products.

  5. Why does LANL sample the air?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why does LANL sample the air? Why does LANL sample the air? As the most significant pathway, air is monitored to ensure that any possible release is quickly detected. Diagram of air quality monitors within an exhaust stack. Nuclear facilities have three additional air sampling systems. LANL samples and analyzes air to assess effects on workers, the public, animals, and plants. As the most significant pathway, air is monitored to ensure that any possible release is quickly detected. How we do it

  6. Lithium Air Electrodes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Air Electrodes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology A comparison chart illustrates that Li-Air electrodes offer the highest energy density, second to gasoline. A comparison chart illustrates that Li-Air electrodes offer the highest energy density, second to gasoline. Comparing metal air batteries, Li-air delivers the highest specific energy. Comparing metal air batteries, Li-air delivers the highest specific energy. Technology Marketing Summary With

  7. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. One of the most common air conditioning problems is improper operation. If your air conditioner is on, be sure to close your home's windows and outside doors. For room air conditioners, isolate the room or a group of

  8. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  9. ARM - Instrument - co-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsco-air Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Carbon Monoxide- Airborne (CO-AIR) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations, Atmospheric Carbon Contact(s) Stephen Springston Brookhaven National Laboratory (631) 344-4477 srs@bnl

  10. ARM - Instrument - gustprobe-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsgustprobe-air Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Aircraft Gust Probe (GUSTPROBE-AIR) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations Contact(s) Annette Koontz Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Developer (509) 375-3609 annette.koontz@pnnl

  11. ARM - Instrument - rad-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsrad-air Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Airborne Radiometers (RAD-AIR) Instrument Categories Radiometric, Airborne Observations

  12. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  13. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  14. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Managing the analysis of air quality impacts under NEPA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Y.B.; Leslie, A.C.D.

    1995-12-31

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) mandates the analysis and evaluation of potential impacts of major Federal actions having the potential to affect the environment. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify an array of new air quality issues appropriate for analysis in compliance with NEPA. An example is emissions of the 189 hazardous air pollutants identified in Title III. The utility industry estimates that more than 2.4 billion pounds of toxic pollutants were emitted to the atmosphere in 1988, with the potential for resultant adverse health impacts such as cancer, reproductive effects, birth defects, and respiratory illness. The US Department of Energy (DOE) provides Federal funds for projects that utilize coal as the primary fuel, including the approximately 45 projects funded over the past ten years under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Provision of Federal funds brings these projects under NEPA review. While electric steam generating units greater than 25 MW are currently excluded from regulatory review for the 189 air toxics listed in Title III, they are not, due to their potential impacts, excluded from NEPA review when Federally funded, in whole or in part. The authors will discuss their experiences drawn from NEPA evaluations of coal-fired power projects, the differences between regulatory requirements and NEPA requirements, source categories, major and area sources, conformity, maximum achievable control technology, mandatory licensing, radionuclides, visibility, toxics found to be emitted from coal combustion, public involvement, citizen suits, the bounty system, and how NEPA review can result in beneficial changes to proposed projects through mitigation measures to avoid or minimize potentially adverse environmental impacts.

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  17. Radioxenon spiked air

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Watrous, Matthew G.; Delmore, James E.; Hague, Robert K.; Houghton, Tracy P.; Jenson, Douglas D.; Mann, Nick R.

    2015-08-27

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The Internationalmore » Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This study focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.« less

  18. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  19. Risk mitigation methodology for solid waste landfills. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Several recent models have attempted to simulate or assess the probability and consequences of the leakage of aqueous contaminant leakage from solid waste landfills. These models incorporate common factors, including climatological and geological characteristics. Each model, however, employs a unique approach to the problem, assigns different relative weights to factors, and relies upon extrapolated small-scale experimental data and/or subjective judgment in predicting the full-scale landfill failure mechanisms leading to contaminant migration. As a result, no two models are likely to equally assess a given landfill, and no one model has been validated as a predictor of long-term performance. The United States Air Force maintains a database for characterization of potential hazardous waste sites. Records include more than 500 landfills, providing such information as waste, soil, aquifer, monitoring location data, and the results of sample testing. Through analysis of this information, nearly 300 landfills were assessed to have sufficiently, partially, or inadequately contained hazardous constituents of the wastes placed within them.

  20. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

    2013-10-03

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with