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Sample records for impose substantial burdens

  1. Substantial Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  2. Colloidal crystal growth at externally imposed nucleation clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sven van Teeffelen; Christos N. Likos; Hartmut Löwen

    2008-02-15

    We study the conditions under which and how an imposed cluster of fixed colloidal particles at prescribed positions triggers crystal nucleation from a metastable colloidal fluid. Dynamical density functional theory of freezing and Brownian dynamics simulations are applied to a two-dimensional colloidal system with dipolar interactions. The externally imposed nucleation clusters involve colloidal particles either on a rhombic lattice or along two linear arrays separated by a gap. Crystal growth occurs after the peaks of the nucleation cluster have first relaxed to a cutout of the stable bulk crystal.

  3. Method to amplify variable sequences without imposing primer sequences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Zeytun, Ahmet

    2006-11-14

    The present invention provides methods of amplifying target sequences without including regions flanking the target sequence in the amplified product or imposing amplification primer sequences on the amplified product. Also provided are methods of preparing a library from such amplified target sequences.

  4. Substantial improvements in methyl ketone production in E. coli...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Substantial improvements in methyl ketone production in E. coli and insights on the pathway from in vitro studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Substantial...

  5. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current...

  6. Bifurcations in annular electroconvection with an imposed shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahir A. Daya; Vatche B. Deyirmenjian; Stephen W. Morris

    2001-04-13

    We report an experimental study of the primary bifurcation in electrically-driven convection in a freely suspended film. A weakly conducting, submicron thick smectic liquid crystal film was supported by concentric circular electrodes. It electroconvected when a sufficiently large voltage $V$ was applied between its inner and outer edges. The film could sustain rapid flows and yet remain strictly two-dimensional. By rotation of the inner electrode, a circular Couette shear could be independently imposed. The control parameters were a dimensionless number ${\\cal R}$, analogous to the Rayleigh number, which is $\\propto V^2$ and the Reynolds number ${\\cal R}e$ of the azimuthal shear flow. The geometrical and material properties of the film were characterized by the radius ratio $\\alpha$, and a Prandtl-like number ${\\cal P}$. Using measurements of current-voltage characteristics of a large number of films, we examined the onset of electroconvection over a broad range of $\\alpha$, ${\\cal P}$ and ${\\cal R}e$. We compared this data quantitatively to the results of linear stability theory. This could be done with essentially no adjustable parameters. The current-voltage data above onset were then used to infer the amplitude of electroconvection in the weakly nonlinear regime by fitting them to a steady-state amplitude equation of the Landau form. We show how the primary bifurcation can be tuned between supercritical and subcritical by changing $\\alpha$ and ${\\cal R}e$.

  7. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  8. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  9. Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  10. Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial OpportunitiesofRegulatory BurdenRFI Regulatory

  11. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: A legally imposed challenge to science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauwels, M.; Rogiers, V.

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  12. Inertial confinement fusion implosions with imposed magnetic field compression using the OMEGA Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inertial confinement fusion implosions with imposed magnetic field compression using the OMEGA of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83://pop.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Inertial confinement fusion implosions with imposed magnetic field compression using the OMEGA

  13. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  14. Comments on reducing regulatory burden | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solutions, manufacturer of Trane and American Standard residential air conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, and accessories Comments on reducing regulatory burden More...

  15. Method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman-Irwin, Patricia (Altamont, NY); Feist, Thomas Paul (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-04-02

    A method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water is disclosed. The method includes providing a multilayer cell comprising two solid, non porous current collectors, separated by two porous electrodes with a separator between the two electrodes, sealing the cell with a reclosable hermetic closure. Water inside the closure is dissociated by an applied voltage to the cell and escapes in the form of hydrogen and oxygen when the closure is unmated, the closure is then mated to hermetically seal the cell which is substantially free of water.

  16. Developing and testing a framework to impose legal liability on Chinese auditors for misstatements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Yingfa

    2009-11-25

    This thesis first builds a framework to impose professional liability on Chinese auditors for misstatements and then tests the framework by field work. Auditor liability has been a recurring puzzle. This thesis intends ...

  17. Substantially Parallel Flux Uncluttered Rotor Machines (U-Machine) - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  18. Thermal Chaotic Mixing With Imposed Heat Flux In a Mixer With Alternately Rotating Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    used for heat transfer [4], especially in twisted- pipe heat exchangers [5]. Even if the flowThermal Chaotic Mixing With Imposed Heat Flux In a Mixer With Alternately Rotating Walls Kamal El.elomari@univ-pau.fr & yves.leguer@univ-pau.fr November 24, 2009 Abstract We investigated mixing and heat transfer enhancement

  19. Effects of the imposed magnetic field on the production and transport of relativistic electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hong-bo; He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China) [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Shao-ping [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-07-15

    The effects of the imposed uniform magnetic field, ranging from 1 MG up to 50 MG, on the production and transport of relativistic electron beams (REBs) in overdense plasmas irradiated by ultraintense laser pulse are investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell numerical simulations. This study gives clear evidence that the imposed magnetic field is capable of effectively confining the relativistic electrons in space even when the source is highly divergent since it forces the electrons moving helically. In comparison, the spontaneous magnetic fields, generated by the helically moving electrons interplaying with the current filamentation instability, are dominant in scattering the relativistic electrons. As the imposed magnetic field was increased from 1 MG to 50 MG, overall coupling from laser to the relativistic electrons which have the potential to heat the compressed core in fast ignition was found to increase from 6.9% to 21.3% while the divergence of the REB increases significantly from 64° to 90°. The simulations show that imposed magnetic field of the value of 3–30 MG could be more suitable to fast-ignition inertial fusion.

  20. CO? emissions limits: economic adjustments and the distribution of burdens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.; Eckaus, Richard S.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Reiner, David M.; Yang, Zili.

    Policies under consideration within the Climate Convention would impose CO? controls on only a subset of nations. A model of economic growth and emissions, coupled to an analysis of the climate system, is used to explore ...

  1. The burden of stroke and transient ischemic attacks in Pakistan: a community-based prevalence study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran; Itrat, Ahmed; Murtaza, Muhammed; Khan, Maria; Rasheed, Asif; Ali, Amin; Akber, Amna; Akber, Zainab; Iqbal, Navaid; Shoukat, Sana; Majeed, Farzin; Saleheen, Danish

    2009-12-01

    Abstract Background The burden of cerebrovascular disease in developing countries is rising sharply. The prevalence of established risk factors of stroke is exceptionally high in Pakistan. However, there is limited data on the burden of stroke...

  2. Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7,DOERTI |Service ofConditioning Filter |Burden

  3. Regulatory Burden RFI Executive Order 13563 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  4. Regulatory Burden RFI [76 FR 75798] | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  5. Regulatory Burden RFI from AHRI | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  6. Regulatory Burden RFI from HPBA | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial OpportunitiesofRegulatory Burden RFIRFI

  7. Regulatory Burden RFI: Revitalization of DOE's Role as a Regulatory

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial OpportunitiesofRegulatory BurdenRFIWatchdog |

  8. Thermal Chaotic Mixing With Imposed Heat Flux In a Mixer With Alternately Rotating Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omari, Kamal El

    2009-01-01

    We investigated mixing and heat transfer enhancement in a two-rod mixer for a highly viscous fluid. The mixer was composed of two circular rods maintained vertically in a cylindrical tank. The rods and tank could rotate around their revolution axis. Chaotic flows were obtained by imposing temporal modulations of the rotational wall velocities. We studied the effects of different stirring protocols and flow configurations leading to chaotic flows on the efficiency of mixing and heat transfer for the particular wall boundary condition of constant heat flux. One of the objectives of this work was also to compare the Neumann and Dirichlet wall boundary conditions for the thermal chaotic mixing. For this purpose, we used different statistical indicators as tools to characterize the mean value of the fluid temperature and its homogenization. The results showed a significant enhancement of the heat transfer for the case of an alternated stirring protocol.

  9. Substantial Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    create a material that has different properties than the properties of the individual raw materials." See 2 C.F.R. 176.140(a)(1). The OMB guidelines further define a "domestic...

  10. Hot Electron Propagation and Imposed Magnetic Field in Inertial Fusion Hohlraums

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strozzi, D J; Marinak, M M; Larson, D J; Koning, J M; Logan, B G

    2015-01-01

    Simulations with the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA of a low-adiabat ignition design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), with and without an imposed axial magnetic field, are presented. We also study superthermal, or "hot," electron dynamics with the hybrid-PIC code ZUMA, using plasma conditions from HYDRA. During the early-time laser picket, when hot electrons from the window are a concern, we find ~2E-3 of the hot electron energy in a source consistent with two-plasmon decay (80 keV temperature) in the laser entrance hole deposits in the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel, while most of the energy deposits in the high-Z wall. A 70 Tesla field, which may improve capsule performance, magnetizes hot electrons in the hohlraum fill gas, guides them to the capsule, and increases the DT deposition 12x. Early in peak laser power, electrons with >125 keV reach the DT fuel, and those with ~185 keV deposit the largest fraction of their energy (13%) in DT. HYDRA magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with an initial...

  11. Ducklings Exhibit Substantial Energy-Saving Mechanisms as a Response to Short-Term Food Shortage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bech, Claus

    90 Ducklings Exhibit Substantial Energy-Saving Mechanisms as a Response to Short-Term Food Shortage platyrhyncos domesticus) exhibited any energy-saving mechanisms that could lessen the detrimental effects ex- hibited substantial energy-saving mechanisms as a response to diet restriction. After 5 d of diet

  12. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF VITAL SIGNS TO IDENTIFY PATIENTS WITH SUBSTANTIAL BLEEDING BEFORE HOSPITAL ARRIVAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF VITAL SIGNS TO IDENTIFY PATIENTS WITH SUBSTANTIAL BLEEDING BEFORE HOSPITAL at a hospital. Previous analysis suggested that prehospital vital signs contained patterns indicating, a computational platform for real-time analysis of vital signs, for identification of substantial bleeding

  13. Integrated use of burden profile probe and in-burden probe for gas flow control in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordemann, F.; Hartig, W.H. [AG der Dillinger Huettenweke, Dillingen (Germany); Grisse, H.J. [Dango and Dienenthal Siegen (Germany); Speranza, B.E. [Dango and Dienenthal, Inc., Highland, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Gas flow in the blast furnace is one of the most important factors in controlling a furnace. It not only determines the production but also the fuel consumption and the campaign life. At Nos. 4 and 5 blast furnaces of ROGESA, probes are installed for detection of the burden profiles and of the gas flow distribution. For an optimum use of these probes a program system has been developed by ROGESA and Dango and Dienenthal. With this program system it is possible to analyze the operating condition of a blast furnace by means of a fuzzy logic analysis. In case of deviations from the defined desired condition, recommendations for corrective measures for the material distribution are made. Both furnaces are equipped with a bell-less top, a coal injection system, high-temperature hot blast stoves with heat recovery and a top gas pressure recovery turbine. Most of the time it is impossible to control all the required parameters. For this reason it is meaningful to measure the actual material distribution at the furnace top by means of a burden profile probe which permits quick and repeated measurements without any retroactive effects. The paper describes the instrumentation of the furnace, correlation of measuring methods, and a program system for analysis of measuring data.

  14. Abstract--In this paper we investigate effects of the mass, kinematic constraints imposed by the joint, and assistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    Abstract-- In this paper we investigate effects of the mass, kinematic constraints imposed mechanism to engage/disengage a spring in parallel with the knee. Additionally, a pair of joint-less mass-significant increase and a non-significant decrease in the total mechanical work of the body. Index Terms

  15. Abstract--In this paper, we study the limitations imposed by the laws of electromagnetism on achievable MIMO channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loyka, Sergey

    Abstract-- In this paper, we study the limitations imposed by the laws of electromagnetism electromagnetic wave combined with Nyquist sampling theorem in the spatial domain, we show that the laws of electromagnetism limit the minimum antenna spacing to half a wavelength, /2 , (in the case of 1-D antenna apertures

  16. Colloidal Crystal Growth at Externally Imposed Nucleation Clusters Sven van Teeffelen,* Christos N. Likos, and Hartmut Lowen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Likos, Christos N.

    Colloidal Crystal Growth at Externally Imposed Nucleation Clusters Sven van Teeffelen,* Christos N positions triggers crystal nucleation from a metastable colloidal fluid. Dynamical density functional theory of colloidal particles and watch directly its impact on the rest of the colloidal suspension. If the crystal

  17. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  18. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2009-07-14

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

  19. Consolidated Storage Facilities: Camel's Nose or Shared Burden? - 13112

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, James M.

    2013-07-01

    The Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) made a strong argument why the reformulated nuclear waste program should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSFs), and recommended the amendment of NWPA Section 145(b) 2 (linking 'monitored retrievable storage' to repository development) as an essential means to that end. However, other than recommending that the siting of CSFs should be 'consent-based' and that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at stranded sites should be first-in-line for removal, the Commission made few recommendations regarding how CSF development should proceed. Working with three other key Senators, Jeff Bingaman attempted in the 112. Congress to craft legislation (S. 3469) to put the BRC recommendations into legislative language. The key reason why the Nuclear Waste Administration Act of 2012 did not proceed was the inability of the four senators to agree on whether and how to amend NWPA Section 145(b). A brief review of efforts to site consolidated storage since the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 suggests a strong and consistent motivation to shift the burden to someone (anyone) else. This paper argues that modification of NWPA Section 145(b) should be accompanied by guidelines for regional development and operation of CSFs. After review of the BRC recommendations regarding CSFs, and the 'camel's nose' prospects if implementation is not accompanied by further guidelines, the paper outlines a proposal for implementation of CSFs on a regional basis, including priorities for removal from reactor sites and subsequently from CSFs to repositories. Rather than allowing repository siting to be prejudiced by the location of a single remote CSF, the regional approach limits transport for off-site acceptance and storage, increases the efficiency of removal operations, provides a useful basis for compensation to states and communities that accept CSFs, and gives states with shared circumstances a shared stake in storage and disposal in an integrated national program. (authors)

  20. A method for burden distribution estimation from probe data in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H.; Bulsari, A. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach for estimation of burden distribution in the blast furnace is presented. The proposed model makes use of only temperature measurements from an above-burden probe, and interprets the changes in temperature at charging in terms of burden distribution. In this study it is demonstrated that the temperature changes can be predicted quite accurately for all dumps in a charging sequence using neural networks., The basic structures of both an on-line and an off-line model are presented.

  1. Continuous measurement of blast furnace burden profile at SSAB Tunnplat AB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virtala, J.; Edberg, N.; Hallin, M. (SSAB Tunnplat AB, Lulea (Sweden). Ironmaking Division)

    1993-01-01

    A unique profile meter system is installed on Blast Furnace No. 2 in SSAB - Swedish Steel AB, Lulea, Sweden. This system measures the charge material burden profile across the furnace top diameter before and after each charge. The system generates real-time data, which is graphically presented by the system on a monitor and includes burden descent speed, layer thickness of the coke and ore (corrected for descent), ore to coke ratio, and burden skewing. The system is described along with operational results.

  2. Recently substantial research has been devoted to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). One of a UAV's most

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doherty, Patrick

    Abstract Recently substantial research has been devoted to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). One of a UAV's most demanding subsystem is vision. The vision subsystem must dynamically combine different algorithms as the UAV's goal and surrounding chang. To fully utilize the available hardware, a run time

  3. Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Impact on society: Sustainable energy supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thematic note to substantiate Risø's strategy ­ impact on society Bioenergy Impact on society: Sustainable energy supply Introduction Biomass (wood, energy crops, by-products and organic waste from agriculture and society) is an important resource for the sustainable energy supply of the future

  4. Evidence that solar wind fluctuations substantially affect global convection and substorm occurrence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    that this implies that solar wind ULF power may be an important contributor to the strength of coupling of solar for the connection between iono- spheric convection and solar wind ULF power. The high correlations between ULF powerEvidence that solar wind fluctuations substantially affect global convection and substorm

  5. Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Fuel cells and hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thematic note to substantiate Risø's strategy ­ impact on society Fuel cells and hydrogen Impact's efforts within the area of fuel cells and hydrogen is to contribute to establishing the necessary platform in synergy ­ electricity, wind energy, solar energy and fuel cells. Sub-themes Fuel cells The market

  6. Marine and freshwater fish support important angling industries that provide substantial benefit to local

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    Marine and freshwater fish support important angling industries that provide substantial benefit, it is important to evaluate how different stressors associated with this type of fishing affect fish survival. What follows is a brief Q & A review on the effects of air exposure. How long can a fish live out

  7. Technology and Australia's Future a summary Australia's past has been substantially shaped by technologies both old and new.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botea, Adi

    substantially shaped by technologies both old and new. Australia's future will also be substantially shaped by new technologies. The report Technology and Australia's Future,1 which is summarised here, looked at such new technologies from a broad

  8. Tackling Africa's chronic disease burden: from the local to the global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Unwin, Nigel; Agyemang, Charles; Allotey, Pascale; Campbell, Catherine; Arhinful, Daniel

    2010-04-19

    Abstract Africa faces a double burden of infectious and chronic diseases. While infectious diseases still account for at least 69% of deaths on the continent, age specific mortality rates from chronic diseases as a whole are actually higher in sub...

  9. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, R.G.; Brown, D.W.; Munir, Z.A.

    1990-12-11

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure layer of an implantable element in a substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation. 2 figs.

  10. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demas, J.N.; Jones, W.M.; Keller, R.A.

    1987-06-26

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequencies. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may be reduced to its unquenched value. 3 figs.

  11. Optimization of ferrous burden high temperature properties to meet blast furnace requirements in British Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstrand, R.

    1996-12-31

    The high temperature properties of ferrous burden materials have long been an important consideration in the operation of British Steel blast furnaces. Previous research presented at this conference has shown that the behavior of materials in the lower stack and bosh can have a significant effect on furnace permeability and stability of operation. However, with increasing levels of hydrocarbon injection via the tuyeres, the reduction conditions inside British Steel blast furnaces have significantly altered over recent years. This paper focuses on the further work that has been undertaken to study the effect on ferrous burden high temperatures properties of the widely differing reduction regimes which can be experienced in today`s blast furnaces. The implications of the findings, and how they have been used in optimizing blast furnace operation and burden quality, are discussed.

  12. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  13. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  14. Pulmonary and gastric lead burden assessment for lead-recycling plant , J.J Sauvain2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Pulmonary and gastric lead burden assessment for lead-recycling plant workers Uzu, G.1 , J Chimiques des Métaux, 30 Avenue de Fondeyre 31200 Toulouse, France Key words: bioaccessibility, DTT, lead) and origin (furnace, refining and channeled emissions), lead toxicity and bioaccessibility assessment were

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. XX, NO. X, DECEMBER 2007 1 Spatial Model for Energy Burden Balancing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    this problem we consider how one might achieve a more balanced energy burden across the network by spreading their locations to balance the energy burdens incurred across the network nodes [1]. As shown in Fig. 1IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. XX, NO. X, DECEMBER 2007 1 Spatial Model for Energy

  16. Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy and the Benefits of Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy and the Benefits and Policy Program #12;2 #12;Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large

  17. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manaktala, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Estimation of two-parameter multilevel item response models with predictor variables: simulation and substantiation for an urban school district 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2009-05-15

    IRT models. However, models such as 2-PL MLIRT models have not been studied yet. This dissertation consists of two studies, a simulation and a substantiation for an urban school district dataset. The simulation study tested the performance...

  19. Evidence for a substantial increase in gelatinous zooplankton in the Bering Sea, with possible links to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Claudia E.

    Evidence for a substantial increase in gelatinous zooplankton in the Bering Sea, with possible in biomass of gelatinous zooplankton has resulted from some anthropogenic perturbation of the Bering Sea

  20. Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Robert L.

    2008-04-01

    control statutes, in restricting greenhouse gas emissions from stationary sources such as electric power plants. The article concludes that substantial endangerment provisions provide a useful mechanism for blocking the construction and operation...

  1. NSRD-06. Computational Capability to Substantiate DOE-HDBK-3010 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louie, David L.Y.; Brown, Alexander L.

    2015-12-01

    Safety basis analysts throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex rely heavily on the information provided in the DOE Hand book, DOE-HDBK-3010, Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Resp irable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities , to determine source terms. In calcula ting source terms, analysts tend to use the DOE Handbook's bounding values on airbor ne release fractions (ARFs) and respirable fractions (RFs) for various cat egories of insults (representing potential accident release categories). This is typica lly due to both time constraints and the avoidance of regulatory critique. Unfort unately, these bounding ARFs/RFs represent extremely conservative values. Moreover, th ey were derived from very limited small- scale table-top and bench/labo ratory experiments and/or fr om engineered judgment. Thus the basis for the data may not be re presentative to the actual unique accident conditions and configura tions being evaluated. The goal of this res earch is to develop a more ac curate method to identify bounding values for the DOE Handbook using the st ate-of-art multi-physics-based high performance computer codes. This enable s us to better understand the fundamental physics and phenomena associated with the ty pes of accidents for the data described in it. This research has examined two of the DOE Handbook's liquid fire experiments to substantiate the airborne release frac tion data. We found th at additional physical phenomena (i.e., resuspension) need to be included to derive bounding values. For the specific cases of solid powder under pre ssurized condition and mechanical insult conditions the codes demonstrated that we can simulate the phenomena. This work thus provides a low-cost method to establis h physics-justified sa fety bounds by taking into account specific geometri es and conditions that may not have been previously measured and/or are too costly to do so.

  2. United States-Mexico electricity transfers: Of alien electrons and the migration of undocumented environmental burdens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gandara, A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This article intends to set forth the necessity for reform in the United States policy and procedures regarding approval of power transfers between the United States and Mexico. In order to do this, the article will review the history of electrical power transfers between the United States and Mexico (Part II), analyze recent regulatory changes in the United States and Mexico which may result in increased power exports to Mexico (Part III), evaluate the extent to which the present permit and authorization system in the United States considers the increased environmental burden of such power transfers (Part IV), and, where appropriate, propose some procedural and policy reforms that could take into account the environmental burdens generated by the production of power destined for transfer across the United States-Mexico border (Part V).

  3. Regulatory Burden RFI, 77 Fed. Reg. 28518 (May 15, 2012) | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial OpportunitiesofRegulatory BurdenRFI

  4. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  5. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (1.4 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.

    1981-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.4 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a stainless steel canister representative of actual fuel canisters, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel near-surface drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD, the spent fuel deep geologic storage test being conducted in Climax granite on the Nevada Test Site, and for five constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  6. Abstract--Health management systems have been gaining substantial attentions in power engineering areas in recent years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Mo-Yuen

    , knowledge of the managed system is the most crucial aspect [1]. Data mining, also called Knowledge Discovery and nuclear power plant showed great interest in health management systems since the failuresAbstract--Health management systems have been gaining substantial attentions in power engineering

  7. Abstract--Replacing open-heart surgical procedures with beating-heart interventions substantially decreases the trauma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dupont, Pierre

    Abstract-- Replacing open-heart surgical procedures with beating-heart interventions substantially on the beating heart is valve repair. To address this need, this paper proposes a tool for replacing mitral valve replacement and reduction of regurgitation was demonstrated in an ex-vivo heart simulator. I. INTRODUCTION UE

  8. Identification of environmentally derived cesium-137 burdens in a worker population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLellan, J.A.; Lynch, T.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    During 1990, whole body measurements of a number of workers with little probability of onsite occupational exposure showed positive evidence of {sup 137}Cs. Further investigation revealed that many of these workers supplemented their diet with a significant portion of wild game, mainly deer and elk. To validate the assumption of an environmental source, donated samples of venison and other game were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. Results ranged from less than 0.1 to almost 100 Bq kg{sup {minus}l} (0.003 to 2.7 nCi kg{sup {minus}1}) and showed a correlation with the habitat from which the game was taken. Venison samples obtained from the two workers with the highest body burdens showed the highest activity. A questionnaire is now used to identify workers with an elevated potential for environmental-intakes.

  9. Long-term changes in spatial and temporal distributions of disease and contaminant body burden in Gulf of Mexico oysters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yung-Kul

    1995-01-01

    LONG-TERM CHANGES IN SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF DISEASE AND CONTAMINANT BODY BURDEN IN GULF OF MEXICO OYSTERS A Thesis by YUNG-KUL KIM Submitted to the Olftce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1995 Major Subject: Oceanography LONG-TERM CHANGES IN SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF DISEASE AND CONTAMINANT BODY BURDEN IN GULF OF MEXICO OYSTERS A Thesis by Submitted to Texas A...

  10. FINITE SEMIGROUPS IMPOSING TRACTABLE CONSTRAINTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulatov, Andrei

    and Mechanics, Ural State University, 620083 Ekaterinburg, RUSSIA E-mail: Andrei.Bulatov@usu.ru PETER JEAVONS.Jeavons@comlab.ox.ac.uk MIKHAIL VOLKOV Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural State University, 620083 Ekaterinburg, RUSSIA

  11. Environmental burdens in the management of end-of-life cathode ray tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Beolchini, Francesca, E-mail: f.beolchini@univpm.it

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The paper deals with different management options for end-of-life CRTs. • The environmental burdens for disposal and recycling are presented. • Recycling treatments allows to gain benefits for the environment. • Further treatments for fluorescent powders determine CO{sub 2} credits. • More efforts should be directed towards recycling. - Abstract: We compared the environmental burdens in the management of end-of life cathode ray tubes (CRTs) within two frameworks according to the different technologies of the production of televisions/monitors. In the first case, CRT recycling is addressed to the recovery of the panel and funnel glass for the manufacturing of new CRT screens. In the second case, where flat screen technology has replaced that of CRT, the recycling is addressed to the recovery of the glass cullet and lead for other applications. The impacts were evaluated according to the problem-oriented methodology of the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands. Our data confirm that in both cases, the recycling treatment allows benefits to be gained for the environment through the recovery of the secondary raw materials. These benefits are higher for the “CRT technology” framework (1 kg CO{sub 2} saved per CRT) than for the “flat screen technology” (0.9 kg CO{sub 2} saved, per CRT, as the highest possible), mainly due to the high energy consumption for lead separation from the funnel glass. Furthermore, the recovery of yttrium from the fluorescent powders that are a residue of the recycling treatment would further improve the CO{sub 2} credit for both the frameworks considered, which would provide a further saving of about 0.75 kg CO{sub 2} per CRT, net of the energy and raw materials needed for the recovery. Overall, this study confirms that, even with a change in the destination of the recovered materials, the recycling processes provide a benefit for the environment: indeed the higher loads for the environment are balanced by avoiding the primary production of the recovered materials.

  12. Burden distribution tests of Siderar`s No. 2 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingiardi, O.; Partemio, C.; Burrai, O.; Etchevarne, P.

    1997-12-31

    Siderar is a company which was created through the merger of Propulsora Siderurgica and the privatized Aceros Parana (the former Somisa, a state-owned steel company). This plant manufacturers flat steel products: hot and cold rolled coils, as well as tin plate coils. After the privatization of the former Somisa in 1992, the new owners decided to modernize the Blast Furnace 2. The relining involved the following: complete furnace with bell less top; cast house with dust collection; INBA granulation system; gas cleaning system; cooling system; modern control system; and revamping of the stock house and the stoves. Burden distribution tests allowed the staff to familiarize themselves with the operation of the top under the three operation modes (manual, semiautomatic and automatic), and also to make adjustments to the top control system. In addition, the tests allowed them to see how materials behave during discharge and building up of ore and coke layers. All this information, together with the available instrumentation, such as fixed probes and heat flux monitoring system, proved to be of use for the gas flow control.

  13. Trials with a 100% pellet burden in blast furnace No. 6 at Hoogovens IJmuiden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoone, E.; Toxopeus, H.; Vos, D. [Hoogovens IJmuiden (Netherlands). Ironmaking and Raw Materials Div.

    1995-12-01

    The burden consists of 50% high basicity sinter and 50% home made olivine pellets. Two coke oven plants produce the required coke, about 340 kg/t (680 lb/NT). The average pulverized coal injection rate is 150 kg/t (300 lb/NT). To anticipate the aging coke oven plant No. 2 the coal injection capacity will e increased by 50% in 1996, by the installation of a third coal grinding line. In the Netherlands environmental issues have a high impact on further developments. In particular the environmental regulations require a significant decrease of dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxins emitted by the sinter plant. The appropriate measures must be concluded in the second part of this decade. To avoid costly conventional solutions Hoogovens has been testing since April, 1994 the Emission Optimized Sintering (EOS). In case of failure of EOS, the situation of a (partially) closed sinter plant was tested. Purchased pellets replaced sinter, leading to a 100% pellet and an 80% pellet/20% sinter trial. The trials were executed in the first half of 1994 at blast furnace No. 6, equipped with a PW-bell less top. Results are described.

  14. Determination of x-ray spectra from Al attenuation data by imposing a priori physical features of the spectrum: Theory and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado, Victor [Departamento de Radiologia, Universidad Complutense 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The determination of the spectral distribution of an x-ray beam from attenuation measurements in a narrow beam is an ill-conditioned problem that has aroused great interest since it was first proposed by Silberstein in 1932. In this work, the explicit reconstruction of the spectral distribution directly from the attenuation curve, without differentiating it, is carried out by a maximum likelihood method that allows one to impose a priori physical features of an x-ray spectral distribution, such as the positiveness of the solution, the boundness of its support, and the position and shape of the spikes and edges associated with the characteristic radiation. The numerical simulations made and the experimental validation of the proposed method have shown that it is possible to reconstruct x-ray spectra that, having a realistic shape, accurately fit the attenuation curve and predict the energy fluence. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of spectra including the K x rays of W is less accurate than the reconstruction of spectra including L x rays of W or K x rays of Mo, even when a priori information about the position and shape of the spikes and edges associated with the characteristic radiation is used.

  15. Constraints on cosmic string tension imposed by the limit on the stochastic gravitational wave background from the European Pulsar Timing Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Sanidas; R. A. Battye; B. W. Stappers

    2012-05-31

    We investigate the constraints that can be placed on the cosmic string tension by using the current Pulsar Timing Array limits on the stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB). We have developed a code to compute the spectrum of gravitational waves (GWs) based on the widely accepted one-scale model. In its simplest form the one-scale model allows one to vary: (i) the string tension, G\\mu/c^2; (ii) the size of cosmic string loops relative to the horizon at birth, \\alpha; (iii) the spectral index of the emission spectrum, q; (iv) the cut-off in the emission spectrum, n_*; and (v) the intercommutation probability, p. The amplitude and slope of the spectrum in the nHz frequency range is very sensitive to these unknown parameters. We have also investigated the impact of more complicated scenarios with multiple initial loop sizes, in particular the 2-\\alpha models proposed in the literature and a log-normal distribution for \\alpha. We have computed the constraint on G\\mu/c^2 due to the limit on a SGWB imposed by data from the European Pulsar Timing Array. Taking into account all the possible uncertainties in the parameters we find a conservative upper limit of G\\mu/c^2Array for Pulsars and the Square Kilometre Array.

  16. Modified helix-like instability structure on imploding z-pinch liners that are pre-imposed with a uniform axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awe, T. J., E-mail: tjawe@sandia.gov; Jennings, C. A.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Lamppa, D. C.; Martin, M. R.; Rovang, D. C.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Owen, A. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Hansen, S. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; Jones, M. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Tomlinson, K. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)] [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15

    Recent experiments at the Sandia National Laboratories Z Facility have, for the first time, studied the implosion dynamics of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) style liners that were pre-imposed with a uniform axial magnetic field. As reported [T. J. Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] when premagnetized with a 7 or 10?T axial field, these liners developed 3D-helix-like hydrodynamic instabilities; such instabilities starkly contrast with the azimuthally correlated magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities that have been consistently observed in many earlier non-premagnetized experiments. The helical structure persisted throughout the implosion, even though the azimuthal drive field greatly exceeded the expected axial field at the liner's outer wall for all but the earliest stages of the experiment. Whether this modified instability structure has practical importance for magneto-inertial fusion concepts depends primarily on whether the modified instability structure is more stable than standard azimuthally correlated MRT instabilities. In this manuscript, we discuss the evolution of the helix-like instability observed on premagnetized liners. While a first principles explanation of this observation remains elusive, recent 3D simulations suggest that if a small amplitude helical perturbation can be seeded on the liner's outer surface, no further influence from the axial field is required for the instability to grow.

  17. Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-12-31

    An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

  18. Systematic variations in strip-out factors used in the assessment of plutonium and americium lung burdens at Los Alamos National Laboratory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Steven Charles

    1992-01-01

    in partial fulfillment of the requirements fo the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Health Physics SYSTEMATIC VARIATIONS IN STRIP-OUT FACTORS USED IN THE ASSESSMENT OF PLUTONIUM AND AMERICIUM LUNG BURDENS AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL... Variations in Strip-Out Factors Used in the Assessment of Plutonium and Americium Lung Burdens at Los Alamos National Laboratory. (December 1992) Steven Charles Myers, B. A. , State University of New York College at Buffalo; M. Ed. , State University...

  19. POTENTIAL LIMITS IMPOSED BY THE MULTILATERAL TRADING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    and international level. In particular, flexibility mechanisms-emissions trading system, joint implementation (JI. In particular, the Protocol adopted flexibility mechanisms-emissions trading system (Article 17), joint

  20. Imposing Minimal Memory Ordering on Multiprocessors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Single-Chip Cloud Computer. http://techresearch.intel.com/called Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC) [1], can scale to

  1. Imposing Minimal Memory Ordering on Multiprocessors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    support for programming languages and operating systems,support for programming languages and operating systems,support for programming languages and op- erating systems,

  2. Fire Imposed Heat Fluxes for Structural Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jowsey, Allan

    The last two decades have seen new insights, data and analytical methods to establish the behaviour of structures in fire. These methods have slowly migrated into practice and now form the basis for modern quantitative ...

  3. Imposed-Dynamo Driven Spheromak Roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the spheromak --> high TBR and economically competitive with coal. · HIT-SI, a cold (~10-20 eV) concept to the stability -limit as expected for classical transport. #12;The Dynomak Reactor System Highlights · Energy Thermal efficiency [%] > 45 #12;Overnight capital cost break

  4. DOE Reg. Burden RFI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartmentEP9425 701 9th StDepartmentJanuary 4,

  5. DOE Reg. Burden RFI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartmentEP9425 701 9th StDepartmentJanuary

  6. OMB Burden Disclosure Statement

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -DepartmentAvailable forSite |n t78 I.(NationalOE'sOHAOLEDREDUCEJ

  7. The Information Security Tenure Track Faculty in Computer ScienceThe Information Security Institute at The Johns Hopkins University (JHUISI) is planning for substantial multi-year growth in the area of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    The Information Security Tenure Track Faculty in Computer ScienceThe Information Security Institute of Information Security and Cryptography. Our administration is committed at the highest level to substantially: Applicants in Information Security would also be associated with: · The Information Security Institute

  8. Analysis of Global Economic and Environmental Impacts of a Substantial Increase in Bioenergy Wallace E. Tyner (wtyner@purdue.edu), Thomas W. Hertel, Farzad Taheripour*, and Dileep K. Birur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analysis of Global Economic and Environmental Impacts of a Substantial Increase in Bioenergy have profound global economic, environmental, and social consequences. Current studies do not provide of biofuels and lack of comprehensive studies on global impacts have opened up several research avenues. Since

  9. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a rapidly emerging technology based on organic thin film semiconductors. Recently, there has been substantial investment in their use in displays. At the heart of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a rapidly emerging technology based on organic thin film semiconductors. Recently, there has been substantial investment in their use in displays. At the heart of an OLED are emissive molecules that generate light in response to electrical stimulation. Ideal emitters are efficient

  10. Effect of over-and under-burden on time-lapse CSEM monitoring capabilities Arash JafarGandomi* and Andrew Curtis, School of GeoSciences, The University of Edinburgh, Kings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .g., Thirud 2002). Strong variation of the resistivity of reservoir rocks with partial fluid saturation (e-lapse monitoring of the subsurface reservoirs with CSEM method. We show that even the introduction of a single-burden the impact of the high-resistivity layer decreases as the high-resistivity layer gets closer to the reservoir

  11. Substantially parallel flux uncluttered rotor machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2012-12-11

    A permanent magnet-less and brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by polyphase alternating currents. An uncluttered rotor is positioned within the magnetic rotating field and is spaced apart from the stator. An excitation core is spaced apart from the stator and the uncluttered rotor and magnetically couples the uncluttered rotor. The brushless excitation source generates a magnet torque by inducing magnetic poles near an outer peripheral surface of the uncluttered rotor, and the stator currents also generate a reluctance torque by a reaction of the difference between the direct and quadrature magnetic paths of the uncluttered rotor. The system can be used either as a motor or a generator

  12. On imposing dynamic contact-angle boundary conditions for wall ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Dong

    2012-09-18

    Aug 18, 2012 ... The bouncing water drop on hydro- phobic surfaces has been the subject of a number of existing exper- imental studies; see e.g. [29,37] and ...

  13. LA GACETA 1 "El desorden absoluto es imposible"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quirós, Fernando

    c´alculo de variaciones en Econom´ia, las teor´ias de tributaci´on y ahorro ´optimos. . . Impresiona

  14. Property:NEPA Resource Imposed Mitigation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report Url Jump to: navigation, search PropertyProposed Action

  15. Estimating the Burden of Neurocysticercosis in Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattarai, Rachana

    2012-10-19

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic disease caused by the larva of the zoonotic cestode Taenia solium. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the distribution of presenting clinical manifestations of NCC, to ...

  16. The Burden of Exascale Jayadev Misra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misra, Jayadev

    ;Algebraic Approach: Orc Calculus · Structured Concurrency · Hierarchy, Recursion · Implicit thread creation and manipulation #12;Orc Basics · Site: Basic service or component. The value returned by a site is published · treat humans as sites · sites may fail · Concurrency combinators for integrating sites. #12;Orc Basics

  17. Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

  18. The economic burden of sunscreen usage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johal, Ritika; Leo, Michael S; Ma, Brian; Sivamani, Raja K

    2014-01-01

    HI. Shedding light on sunscreens and their labels: Testingthat will allow for individualization of sunscreen advice.potential affordability, sunscreens should not be used as a

  19. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-DMarch 9, 2015 Cumulative'' issued by theEEI)

  20. Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-DMarch 9, 2015 Cumulative''DepartmentThe& Home

  1. Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-DMarch 9, 2015 Cumulative''DepartmentThe&

  2. Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-DMarch 9, 2015 Cumulative''DepartmentThe&the

  3. Regulatory Burden RFI - Hussmann Corporation Response

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial Opportunitiesof

  4. Re: Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudget ||Department ofRequest7ofPlanEO-05-01:

  5. Why dietary restriction substantially increases longevity in animal models but

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    . 1568-1637/$ ­ see front matter # 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2005

  6. Substantial Progress towards 12 GeV | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For some of the physicists, the analysis of these data took precedence over eating turkey during the Thanksgiving weekend. And just last night, beam was sent to three halls -...

  7. INTRODUCTION Many marine divers, such as phocid seals, undergo substantial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costa, Daniel P.

    by measuring animal mass combined with determination of water content using isotope dilution techniques (Pace associated with breeding and moult are replenished while animals feed at sea between these fasting periods (Costa, 1993). The size of the stores reflects an integration of foraging effort (energy expenditure

  8. 1 INTRODUCTION Civil structures require a substantial investment of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    of structures under normal operational loads and extreme distur- bances such as earthquakes. Commercial and maintenance costs. To eradicate the need for expensive cable installations, wireless communications Mexico. A statistical time-series damage detection procedure has been embedded in the sens- ing unit

  9. Private Company Uses EERE-Supported Chemistry Model to Substantially...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Multi-Zone Combustion Model (MCM) to help automotive engineers develop the next generation of high-efficiency, low-emission vehicles....

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Substantial and reversible brain gray matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaser, Christian

    European transcontinental multistage ultramarathon race and cov- ered the distance from the south of Italy

  11. Stereo Photogrammetry Reveals Substantial Drag on Cloud Thermals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C.3X-rays3 Prepared by: Michael G.Stephen

  12. Substantial improvements in methyl ketone production in E. coli and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System inStatus ofSmall GTPasesmirror (Journalinsights on the

  13. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System inStatus ofSmall GTPasesmirror (Journalinsights on

  14. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System inStatus ofSmall GTPasesmirror (Journalinsights onfrom

  15. Private Company Uses EERE-Supported Chemistry Model to Substantially

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices | Department ofPrioritization ToolPrivacyImprove

  16. Toward Design of a Universal Flu Vaccine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Toward Design of a Universal Flu Vaccine Print Worldwide, influenza causes substantial deaths and yearly economic burdens, but the highly changeable nature of the flu virus...

  17. A study on power assists for bicycle rickshaws in India, including fabrication of test apparatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Madeline R. (Madeline Ruth)

    2011-01-01

    Bicycle rickshaws impose significant physical burdens on their drivers. Used throughout India for transportation, these rickshaws are not designed for driver comfort and safety. Instead, traditional rickshaws are only ...

  18. Actinide minimization using pressurized water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visosky, Mark Michael

    2006-01-01

    Transuranic actinides dominate the long-term radiotoxity in spent LWR fuel. In an open fuel cycle, they impose a long-term burden on geologic repositories. Transmuting these materials in reactor systems is one way to ease ...

  19. The Edwards Aquifer: An Economic Perspective 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrifield, John D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Griffin, Ronald C.; Emerson, Peter M.; Collinge, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Business as usual has ceased to be an acceptable system for the Edwards because of the burden it imposes upon regional competitiveness and welfare. Nonrevisionist strategies such as surface water development and spring ...

  20. Snake River Fall Chinook Draft, Chapter 5, September 30, 2013, Predecisional, not for Citation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at times have unintended negative consequences on fish populations. These activities have the potential noted the substantial selective pressure imposed by current hydropower operations and cumulative harvest

  1. Developed Countries' Imposed Standards on Trade of Agricultural Imports from Developing Countries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabrera, Raul; Cochran, Matt; Dangelmayr, Lauren; D'Aguilar, Gavin; Lee, Jeongwoo; Speir, Ian; Weigand, Courtney

    2007-01-01

    by the EU has been declining. From being the largest exporter of beef for years, it is now a lesser competitor. Third, occupying a distinct and competitive second tier is the set of smaller exporters that include Argentina, New Zealand, Canada, and India... countries9 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 ' 0 0 0 m e t r i c t o n s Argentina Australia Brazil Canada EU-15/25 India New Zealand United States Source: USDA PSD Online, available...

  2. Limitations imposed on fire PRA methods as the result of incomplete and uncertain fire event data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Hyslop, J. S. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC)

    2010-04-01

    Fire probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods utilize data and insights gained from actual fire events in a variety of ways. For example, fire occurrence frequencies, manual fire fighting effectiveness and timing, and the distribution of fire events by fire source and plant location are all based directly on the historical experience base. Other factors are either derived indirectly or supported qualitatively based on insights from the event data. These factors include the general nature and intensity of plant fires, insights into operator performance, and insights into fire growth and damage behaviors. This paper will discuss the potential methodology improvements that could be realized if more complete fire event reporting information were available. Areas that could benefit from more complete event reporting that will be discussed in the paper include fire event frequency analysis, analysis of fire detection and suppression system performance including incipient detection systems, analysis of manual fire fighting performance, treatment of fire growth from incipient stages to fully-involved fires, operator response to fire events, the impact of smoke on plant operations and equipment, and the impact of fire-induced cable failures on plant electrical circuits.

  3. Heat flux scaling in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection with an imposed longitudinal wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Scagliarini; Armann Gylfason; Federico Toschi

    2013-11-19

    We present a numerical study of Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection disturbed by a longitudinal wind. Our results show that under the action of the wind, the vertical heat flux through the cell initially decreases, due to the mechanism of plumes-sweeping, and then increases again when turbulent forced convection dominates over the buoyancy. As a result, the Nusselt number is a non-monotonic function of the shear Reynolds number. We provide a simple model that captures with good accuracy all the dynamical regimes observed. We expect that our findings can lead the way to a more fundamental understanding of the of the complex interplay between mean-wind and plumes ejection in the Rayleigh-B\\'enard phenomenology.

  4. The Risk Imposed by Fire to Buildings and How to Address It 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L

    The history of fire science originates in the desire to enhance destruction of infrastructure by means of fire. Many of the basic principles of fire growth and the behaviour of structures in fire were developed within the ...

  5. OVERSTORY-IMPOSED HETEROGENEITY IN SOLAR RADIATION AND SOIL MOISTURE IN A SEMIARID WOODLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breshears, David D.; Rich, Paul M.; Barnes, Fairley J.; Katherine, Campbell

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. Degradation of semiarid ecosystems is a major environmental problem worldwide, characterized by a reduction in the ratio of herbaceous to woody plant biomass. These ecosystems can be described as a set of canopy ...

  6. Imposing Capitalism: Japanese and American Colonialism in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Cuba, 1890s-1920s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A. 2001. Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society.Quezon City, Philippines, New Day Publishers. Mahoney,the Colonisation of the Philippines. ” Itinerario 22(04):44–

  7. Chaplygin Gas of Tachyon Nature Imposed by Symmetry and Constrained via H(z) Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas Gardai Collodel; Gilberto Medeiros Kremer

    2015-09-10

    An action of general form is proposed for a Universe containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The latter is interpreted as a tachyon field non-minimally coupled to the scalar curvature. The Palatini approach is used when varying the action so the connection is given by a more generic form. Both the self-interaction potential and the non-minimally coupling function are obtained by constraining the system to present invariability under global point transformation of the fields (Noether Symmetry). The only possible solution is shown to be that of minimal coupling and constant potential (Chaplygin gas). The behavior of the dynamical properties of the system is compared to recent observational data, which infers that the tachyon field must indeed be dynamical.

  8. Radiant cooling in US office buildings: Towards eliminating the perception of climate-imposed barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetiu, C.

    1998-01-01

    Much attention is being given to improving the efficiency of air-conditioning systems through the promotion of more efficient cooling technologies. One such alternative, radiant cooling, is the subject of this thesis. Performance information from Western European buildings equipped with radiant cooling systems indicates that these systems not only reduce the building energy consumption but also provide additional economic and comfort-related benefits. Their potential in other markets such as the US has been largely overlooked due to lack of practical demonstration, and to the absence of simulation tools capable of predicting system performance in different climates. This thesis describes the development of RADCOOL, a simulation tool that models thermal and moisture-related effects in spaces equipped with radiant cooling systems. The thesis then conducts the first in-depth investigation of the climate-related aspects of the performance of radiant cooling systems in office buildings. The results of the investigation show that a building equipped with a radiant cooling system can be operated in any US climate with small risk of condensation. For the office space examined in the thesis, employing a radiant cooling system instead of a traditional all-air system can save on average 30% of the energy consumption and 27% of the peak power demand due to space conditioning. The savings potential is climate-dependent, and is larger in retrofitted buildings than in new construction. This thesis demonstrates the high performance potential of radiant cooling systems across a broad range of US climates. It further discusses the economics governing the US air-conditioning market and identifies the type of policy interventions and other measures that could encourage the adoption of radiant cooling in this market.

  9. Chaplygin Gas of Tachyon Nature Imposed by Symmetry and Constrained via H(z) Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas Gardai Collodel; Gilberto Medeiros Kremer

    2015-05-03

    An action of general form is proposed for a Universe containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The latter is interpreted as a tachyon field non-minimally coupled to the scalar curvature. The Palatini approach is used when varying the action so the connection is given by a more generic form. Both the self-interaction potential and the non-minimally coupling function are obtained by constraining the system to present invariability under global point transformation of the fields (Noether Symmetry). The only possible solution is shown to be that of minimal coupling and constant potential (Chaplygin gas). The behavior of the dynamical properties of the system is compared to recent observational data, which infers that the tachyon field must indeed be dynamical.

  10. Emittance-Imposed Alignment and Frequency Tolerances for the TESLA Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baboi, N

    2004-09-02

    One option in building a future 500 GeV c.m. linear collider is to use superconducting 1.3 GHz 9-cell cavities. However, wakefields excited by the bunch train in the TESLA (TeV-Energy Super Conducting Linear Accelerator) collider can resonantly drive the beam into unstable operation such that a BBU (Beam Break Up) mode results or at the very least significant emittance dilution occurs. The largest kick factors (proportional to the transverse fields which kick the beam off axis) are found in the first three dipole bands and hence multi-bunch emittance growth is mainly determined from these bands. These higher order dipole modes are damped by carefully orientating special couplers placed at both ends of the cavities. We investigate the dilution in the emittance of a beam with a random misalignment of cavities down the complete main linac. The beneficial effects of frequency errors on ameliorating the beam dilution are discussed.

  11. BENEFITS OF RADIAL BUILD MINIMIZATION AND REQUIREMENTS IMPOSED ON ARIES COMPACT STELLARATOR DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    savings in the radial build has been achieved, reducing the major radius by more than 20%, which. The primary goal of the study is to develop a more compact machine that retains the cost savings associated

  12. Irradiation imposed degradation of the mechanical and electrical properties of electrical insulation for future accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polinski, J.; Chorowski, M.; Bogdan, P.; Strychalski, M.; Rijk, G. de

    2014-01-27

    Future accelerators will make extensive use of superconductors made of Nb{sub 3}Sn, which allows higher magnetic fields than NbTi. However, the wind-and-react technology of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet production makes polyimide Kapton® non applicable for the coils' electrical insulation. A Nb{sub 3}Sn technology compatible insulation material should be characterized by high radiation resistivity, good thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical properties. Candidate materials for the electrical insulation of future accelerator's magnet coils have to be radiation certified with respect to potential degradation of their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This contribution presents procedures and results of tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of DGEBA epoxy + D400 hardener, which is one of the candidates for the electrical insulation of future magnets. Two test sample types have been used to determine the material degradation due to irradiation: a untreated one (unirradiated) and irradiated at 77 K with 11 kGy/min intense, 4MeV energy electrons beam to a total dose of 50 MGy.

  13. Impacts of experimentally imposed drought on leaf respiration and morphology in an Amazon rain forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    . C Araga~o1 , Yadvinder Malhi1 , Antonio L. Da Costa5 , Alan P. Braga5 , Paulo L. Gonc¸alves5 , Joao De Athaydes5 , Mauricio Da Costa5 , Samuel S. Almeida6 , Catherine Campbell7 , Vaughan Hurry7

  14. Imposing Capitalism: Japanese and American Colonialism in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Cuba, 1890s-1920s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Brenner Debate! : Agrarian Class Structure and EconomicThe Brenner Debate! : Agrarian Class Structure and Economic

  15. Food safety and environmental quality impose conflicting demands on Central Coast growers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beretti, Melanie; Stuart, Diana

    2008-01-01

    References Bihn EA. 2004. Food Safety Begins on the Farm:a sub- stantial threat to food safety. Studies looking atthat could contaminate food crops (Brittingham et al. 1988;

  16. Imposing Capitalism: Japanese and American Colonialism in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Cuba, 1890s-1920s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    United States, 1897-1903 Table 6.1 Indicators of development during the Japanese period in Taiwan Table 6.2 Estimated death rate

  17. The Continued Oppression of Middleclass Mexican Americans: An Examination of Imposed and Negotiated Racial Identities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado, Daniel Justino

    2013-07-22

    semistructured open ended interviews (1-3 hours each), 10 months of ethnography in Phoenix and San Antonio, as well as a descriptive analysis of the Alamo monument website and Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office 2011 press releases this dissertation examines how...

  18. Imposing Capitalism: Japanese and American Colonialism in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Cuba, 1890s-1920s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Colonialism: The Case of Taiwan. ” The Journal of EconomicThe Economic Development of Colonial Taiwan: Evidence andHo, Yhi-Min. 1971. “On Taiwan’s Agricultural Transformation

  19. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of the current research is to assess differences in NOx emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels, resulting from fundamental issues and system-response issues.

  20. Chaplygin Gas of Tachyon Nature Imposed by Symmetry and Constrained via H(z) Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collodel, Lucas Gardai

    2015-01-01

    An action of general form is proposed for a Universe containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The latter is interpreted as a tachyon field non-minimally coupled to the scalar curvature. The Palatini approach is used when varying the action so the connection is given by a more generic form. Both the self-interaction potential and the non-minimally coupling function are obtained by constraining the system to present invariability under global point transformation of the fields (Noether Symmetry). The only possible solution is shown to be that of minimal coupling and constant potential (Chaplygin gas). The behavior of the dynamical properties of the system is compared to recent observational data, which infers that the tachyon field must indeed be dynamical.

  1. Simulated PV Power Plant Variability: Impact of Utility-imposed Ramp Limitations in Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Watts of installed capacity per m2 ), and (3) the daily cloud speed. The WVM uses t Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87123, USA Abstract -- The variability of solar PV power plants has led to some a 10% of capacity per minute limit on ramp rates produced by PV power plants in its minimum technical

  2. Health on whether any sanctions should be imposed by DHHS and, if so, what they

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, David Cameron

    direct- ly and by example. Scientific libraries are a modest but useful carbon sink, exactly the sort salary by thinking that other qualities associated with 904 the "good academic life" would more than-team science, and by the scarcity of amenities in university life. If the nation were faced with a surfeit

  3. Legal Doctrine and Self Imposed Norms: Examining the Politics of Stare Decisis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Mckinzie

    2012-10-19

    's incentive to adhere to precedent. I argue that even a politically motivated Supreme Court has an interest in adhering to precedent as a means of control over the lower courts. The Court has a role as a principal with the Courts of Appeals acting as an agent...

  4. Clean air amendments put big burden on refinery planners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherr, R.C.; Smalley, G.A. Jr.; Norman, M.E. )

    1991-06-10

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will not only require the production of reformulated gasoline but also have significant impact on other refinery-related construction. This must be considered when developing sound planning strategy. The three titles of the Clean Air Act Amendments that will have the greatest effect on refining are: Title I: Nonattainment; Title III: Air toxics; Title V: Permitting. To understand the ramifications of these amendments, it is necessary to review the interactions of new requirements with the permitting and construction schedule shown.

  5. AHAM Comments_DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden July 2014_FINAL...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    products "submit annually to the Commission a report listing the estimated annual energy consumption . . . or the energy efficiency rating . . . for each basic model in current...

  6. AHAM Comments_DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden July 2015_FINAL...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    products "submit annually to the Commission a report listing the estimated annual energy consumption . . . or the energy efficiency rating . . . for each basic model in current...

  7. Mandates: Unnecessary Burdens on Consumers, Industry, and Government

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langston, Brian

    1981-01-01

    on Man- dating Solar Water Heaters and Interested Persons,BuTri & J. PERLIN, SOLAR WATER HEATERS IN CALIFORNIA, 1891-costs for installed solar water heaters to be from $960 to $

  8. Low-Income Californians Bear Unequal Burden of Asthma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babey, Susan H.; Hastert, Theresa A.; Meng, Ying-Ying; Brown, E. Richard

    2007-01-01

    Research Brief February 2007 Low-Income Californians Bearbelow the poverty level. 1 Low-income adults and childrenasthma exacerbations. Low-Income Families Disproportionately

  9. NEMA Comments on DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) thanks you for the opportunity to provide comments on the Department of Energy’s efforts to make its regulatory program more effective and...

  10. Microsoft Word - Regulatory Burden RFI NEMA Comments regarding...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electrical Manufacturers Association 1300 North 17th Street, Suite 900 - Rosslyn, VA 22209 November 28, 2 July 17, 2015 VIA EMAIL TO: Regulatory.Review@hq.doe.gov Mr. Aaron...

  11. DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for retrospective review in DOE's final plan. DOEEE Consumer welfare and use of price forecasts made in applying learning curve analyses DOE seeks comment in its energy...

  12. Minimizing User Burden in Building Energy Analysis | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    performance levels, etc. The analysis of single buildings will be based directly on EnergyPlus. For the modeling of extended urban areas involving an aggregate of buildings, TAI...

  13. DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    consensus standard that brings all interest groups together and achieves the appropriate balance between energy savings and feasibility. Under development by the working group....

  14. Burden of disease caused by local transport in Warsaw, Poland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tainio, Marko

    2015-01-01

    al., 2008), have assessed the negative effect of transport 17 related physical activity by accounting the fraction of motorized trips that could have been completed on foot or by bicycle, and then calculating the loss of health due...

  15. Neural Noise in Electrocommunication --From Burden to Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benda, Jan

    .1007/978-3-642-41494-7 12, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 Weakly electric fish generate an electric field, called object localisation and electro- communication. Both, objects that are close to the fish and the EODs of other nearby electric fish, modulate the amplitude of a fish's EOD. Localisation signals are low

  16. Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electricLaboratory |EducationDepartment5-3:Washington, D.C.and

  17. Edison Electric Institute (EEI) Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, 76 Fed.

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus,Department ofDepartment of Energy NewsEnergyWorth

  18. Edison Electric Institute (EEI) Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, 77 Fed.

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus,Department ofDepartment of Energy

  19. NEMA Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoft The basics of

  20. Re: Request for Information on Regulatory Burden of DOE Regulations |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-D rendering ofFormDecemberEO-05-01: PotomacPatio

  1. Reducing Regulatory Burden EO 13563 Fifth RFI | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-DMarch 9, 2015 Cumulative'' issued by the President on

  2. Regulatory Burden RFI from Bodine Electric Company | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-DMarch 9, 2015 Cumulative''Department

  3. Regulatory Burden RFI from the Hussmann Corporation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-DMarch 9, 2015 Cumulative''DepartmentThe Hearth,

  4. Regulatory Burden Request for Information | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-DMarch 9, 2015Watchdog | Department of

  5. Minimizing User Burden in Building Energy Analysis | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE SafetyofDepartment. "NationalTechnologyThis tip sheet

  6. Microsoft Word - AGA Comments on 2011 Regulatory Burden RFI

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof MethaneMillion ElectricSandalowWLANs11 REV 218Microsoft1,.

  7. DOE Com Reg Burden RFI 9-7-12.pdf

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pState Efficiency,Energy News Media-Energy Whirlpool's Page 1

  8. DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartmentEP9425ViolatingThis versionReport

  9. DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartmentEP9425ViolatingThis

  10. DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartmentEP9425ViolatingThisAugust 2014 Newly

  11. DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartmentEP9425ViolatingThisAugust 2014

  12. DOE Seeks Reply Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 2015 GATEWAY Takes on

  13. Sixth RFI Comment On Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES Pursuant toPower WindDepartment ofSix-Year Review

  14. Reducing Regulatory Burden - EO 13563 Retrospective Review | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial Opportunities » Pastams AG 2015ersedReducingof

  15. Reducing Regulatory Burden EO 13563 Third RFI Comment Extension |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial Opportunities » Pastams AG

  16. Reducing Regulatory Burden EO 13563 Third RFI | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial Opportunities » Pastams AGReducing Regulatory

  17. NAESCO Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI Final | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department of EnergyNEW YORK STATE ELECTRIC &USE OFEnergy

  18. Maryland-National Capital Building Industry Association Regulatory Burden

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED1,400Manufacturing OfficeMark

  19. AHAM Comments Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks25

  20. .Hearth, Patio & Barbecue Association's Comments on DOE's Regulatory Burden

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks Y-12 Beta-3of thePoliciesDuringWays

  1. Comments on reducing regulatory burden | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)Day-June 22, 2015Operation at Mirant'sburden from

  2. DOE Comments Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10 DOEEnvironmental ManagementDepartment ofsettledRheem

  3. DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report - December 18,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominateEnergyThis memo from Assistant2012 |

  4. DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominateEnergyThis memo from Assistant2012Energy

  5. DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominateEnergyThis memo from

  6. Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Emerging energy technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    within energy production and energy use. These projects are either spin-offs of Risø's strategic research Impact on society: Sustainable energy supply Introduction This heading covers strategic research, it is important that Risø, as a well-established energy research institution, contributes to the development

  7. Colorado School of Mines 11 and is sure to attract substantially more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computing Organization, the center is a partnership between Mines, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Stewardship Pursue Renewable Resources Design New Energy-Related Materials hydrocarbon deposit characterization carbon sequestration photo-production of hydrogen polymer batteries hydrate nucleation/growth CO2

  8. Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Wind energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    supply approx. 20% of the electricity consumption in the Danish energy system. Hence wind energy and external collaboration on research and the education of scientists, to develop a knowledge sector with frontline international competencies that links research, education and research-based services. Together

  9. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  10. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  11. Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Society and systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on society: Sustainable energy supply Introduction Risø has for a number of years engaged in development activities with considerable breadth within the area of energy, including sustainability. The activities range from energy and climate planning, to the analysis of regulatory and economic means and system

  12. How to Substantially Reduce the Biggest Energy Wasters in Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, H. L.

    2005-01-01

    . Aggressive production workers will open wide pressure regulators or tag out automatic solenoid shut offs. It is easy to miss the short cycling of a bank of rotary compressors. And nobody can figure out why the piping is causing it. It is easy... bill. Each 2 psig, up or down, changes the power in the same direction by 1% Thus a 5 psig change results in a 2.5% power change; a 10 psig change results in a 5%^ power change. These figures apply only to rotary and reciprocating compressors...

  13. Observation of Cleavage Fracture after Substantial Dimple Rupture in ASTM A710 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, Walter Graham; Lloyd, Wilson Randolph

    2000-07-01

    A major concern often arising in structural integrity predictions is the possibility that low-energy brittle fracture could result as a consequence of cleavage either under normal operating or design accident conditions. This can be especially troublesome when the leak-before-break (LBB) approach shows an additional safety margin of the design. For LBB to be applicable, the fracture process must remain ductile (dimple rupture), and not change to cleavage. The American Society for Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Code) provides guidelines for avoiding cleavage fracture for Code-accepted materials. Experimental results for a non-Code steel are provided, and show that cleavage may occur for a thickness under16 mm (where the code suggests it will not) after stable crack growth (?a) of up to 20 mm. This work is still in progress; test results are provided along with possible reasons for the mode transition, but complete explanations are still being developed.

  14. IACR Policy on Irregular Submissions Scope. Simultaneous submission of substantially similar papers to multiple venues, resubmis-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    the authors' institution(s), and publication of the details of such cases. Further information. The following of fraudulently submitted papers. Definition. Irregular submissions typically fall in two categories: parallel(s)" without proper attribution of the source, constitues plagiarism. In such cases harsher action against

  15. Applying compressive sensing to TEM video: A substantial frame rate increase on any camera

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stevens, Andrew; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-13

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1 ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing (CS) methods to increase the frame rate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integratedmore »into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical CS inversion. Here we describe the background of CS and statistical methods in depth and simulate the frame rates and efficiencies for in-situ TEM experiments. Depending on the resolution and signal/noise of the image, it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by more than an order of magnitude using this approach.« less

  16. Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Competence platforms and exchange of knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the control and analysis of safety and reliability. Nuclear preparedness and radiation safety is a unique task safe and reliable products, services, transport and production. Risø is the national competence centre, readiness planning etc. is developed and applied across sectors. Materials and nanotechnology: Risø

  17. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1992-03-31

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  18. Scientific substantiation of safe operation of the Earthen Dams at the Votkinsk HPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deev, A. P.; Fisenko, V. F.; Sol'skii, S. V.; Lopatina, M. G.; Gints, A. V.; Aref'eva, A. N.

    2012-11-15

    Over a period of 15 years, coworkers of the B. E. Vedeneev Scientific-Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering have conducted scientific accompaniment of the operation of the earthen dams at the Votkinsk HPP. During that time, basic performance characteristics associated with complex hydrogeologic and hydrochemical conditions, and the forms of their unfavorable manifestations influencing the reliability and safety of the structures were revealed, and, recommendations and measures were developed for their elimination.

  19. Bounds imposed on the sheath velocity of a dense plasma focus by conservation laws and ionization stability condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auluck, S. K. H. E-mail: skauluck@barc.gov.in

    2014-09-15

    Experimental data compiled over five decades of dense plasma focus research are consistent with the snowplow model of sheath propagation, based on the hypothetical balance between magnetic pressure driving the plasma into neutral gas ahead and “wind pressure” resisting its motion. The resulting sheath velocity, or the numerically proportional “drive parameter,” is known to be approximately constant for devices optimized for neutron production over 8 decades of capacitor bank energy. This paper shows that the validity of the snowplow hypothesis, with some correction, as well as the non-dependence of sheath velocity on device parameters, have their roots in local conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy coupled with the ionization stability condition. Both upper and lower bounds on sheath velocity are shown to be related to material constants of the working gas and independent of the device geometry and capacitor bank impedance.

  20. Abstract--Transmission expansion in fast growing economies imposes severe challenges to electricity markets, given the need

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Juan

    and persistent increases in the per capita energy consumption bring about high electricity load growth rates to electricity markets, given the need for planning and executing major midterm investments in an environment, renewable energy, renewable integration, electricity regulation I. INTRODUCTION EALING with uncertainty has

  1. Suppression of Turbulence by Self-Generated and Imposed Mean Flows M. G. Shats,* H. Xia, and H. Punzmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falkovich, Gregory

    . Punzmann Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian in magnetized plasma research, since it offers a very effective method of turbulence control [13

  2. Successful transduction of liver in hemophilia by AAV-Factor IX and limitations imposed by the host

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    infusion of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) expressing canine Factor IX (F.IX) resultedAAV-2 vector expressing human F.IX was infused through the hepatic artery into seven subjects. The data show that: (i) vector infusion at doses up to 2 Â 1012 vg/kg was not associated with acute or long

  3. square vessel would also generate antivortices in order to comply with the imposed symmetry. By proper arrangement of the laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelley, Michael

    . et al. in Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology (ed. Nalwa, H. S.) Vol. 3, Ch. 9�ometrie cylindrique. Phys. Lett. 15, 13±15 (1965). 7. Abrikosov, A. A. Fundamentals of the Theory of Metals (North arrays of defects. Science 274, 1167±1169 (1996). 14. Li, W.-K. & Blinder, S. M. Solution of the Schro

  4. Sparsity-promoting optimal control of consensus and synchronization networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Mihailo

    Foundation under award CMMI-09-27720, and from the University of Minnesota Initiative for Renewable Energy impose heavy communication and computation burden on individual nodes. This motivates the development a brief summary of our results in Section V. II. MOTIVATION AND BACKGROUND A. Problem setup We consider

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS 1 Fracturing Rigid Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thrun, Sebastian

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS 1 Fracturing Rigid Materials Zhaosheng Bao to fracturing (and denting) brittle materials. To avoid the computational burden imposed by the stringent time mesh upon which finite element analysis can be carried out to provide a stress map for fracture

  6. Supplementary Material for: Second-generation products contribute substantially to the particle-phase organic material produced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    between m/z 100 and 1000 was carried out by direct infusion of a 15 mM sodium formate solution in 9:1 CH3CN-H2O. A 0.4 µM leucine enkephalin solution in 50:50 CH3CN-H2O was continuously infused through

  7. Corresponding author email address: jdagel@cfr.msstate.edu Channel Catfish Diets Include Substantial Vegetation in a Missouri River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    southern Canada to northeastern Mexico, but exclude much of the Atlantic coastal plain (Hubert 1999a). Substrates were largely characterized as sand, gravel, shale, and silt. The reservoir was operated primarily

  8. The technology of the rover and its landing sys-tem is designed to demonstrate substantial new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from a Multi- Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Similar to the radioisotope power to Pluto/New Horizons for more than 40 years, the MMRTG will significantly enhance the range and lifetime- power generator, the MMRTG is built with several layers of protective material designed to contain its

  9. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Engle, Nancy L; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Liao, James C; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Guss, Adam M; Yang, Yunfeng; Graham, David E

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

  10. The technology of the rover and its landing sys-tem is designed to demonstrate substantial new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - power generator, the MMRTG is built with several layers of protective material designed to contain its to nuclear material. The type of plutonium used in a radio- isotope power system is different from from a Multi- Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Similar to the radioisotope power

  11. Tight new regulations being imposed by European Union authori-ties and a widely publicized mass die-off of native pollinators in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    . Vol. 3 l No. 4 l August 2013 Green Bulletin Information for pest management professionals Resources | Page 3 Compost Tea | Page 4 Removing Poison-Oak from | Page 5 Landscapes and Recreation Areas Ask the Expert! | Page 6 SIGN UP...for a free subscription to the Green Bulletin at http

  12. , but also as the magnetic eld is imposed for xed x (ref. 17). The anisotropic eld effect reects the anisotropy of other

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buratto, Steve

    exist in models postulating a Bose±Einstein conden- sation of pre-formed pairs at Tc in the underdoped±1347 (1999). 12. Uemura, Y. J. Bose-Einstein to BCS crossover picture for high-Tc cuprates. Physica C 282. Speci®c heat of high temperature superconductors in high ®elds at Tc: from BCS to the Bose-Einstein

  13. Observations of imposed ordered structures in a dusty plasma at high magnetic field Edward Thomas Jr., Brian Lynch, Uwe Konopka, Robert L. Merlino, and Marlene Rosenberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merlino, Robert L.

    with the ambient plasma and become a third charged species in the plasma. While the origins of dusty plasma research were in astrophysical phe- nomena such as planetary rings1­3 or the transport of charged grains

  14. The Unequal Burdens of Repatriation: A Gendered Analysis of the Transnational Migration of Mongolia's Kazakh Population 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werner, Cynthia; Barcus, Holly R.

    2015-01-01

    primary driver for what they refer to as the “age of migration,” in which international migration is increasingly affecting all countries of the world as either sending or receiving countries. The interdisciplinary liter- ature on international migration... 2012). On a practical level, transnational migration means that Kazakh women are more likely than men to be separated from primary links in their social networks. Women rely on these links, for example, for things like small loans, house- hold labor...

  15. The Yellow Man's Burden : : The Politics of Settler Colonialism in Hokkaid? and Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugimoto, Tomonori

    of settler colonialism in Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, andbetween Hokkaid?, Sakhalin, and imperial Russia. Forindigenous lands such as Sakhalin and the Pacific islands.

  16. Regulatory Design for RES-E Support Mechanisms: Learning Curves, Market Structure, and Burden-Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batlle, Carlos

    Drawing from relevant experiences in power systems around the world, this paper offers a critical review of existing policy support mechanisms for RES-E (renewable energy sources for electricity), with a detailed analysis ...

  17. Sharing the burden of climate change stabilization: An energy sector perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Fabian; Sathaye, Jayant

    2006-01-01

    Gasoline Diesel Nat. Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric. Biomass WindDiesel Nat. Gas X X Nuclear X Hydro X Biomass X X Wind X “

  18. A new use of importance sampling to reduce computational burden in simulation estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerberg, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    1026. Kloek, T. , & Van Dijk, H. (1978): Bayesian estimationsampling (Kloek and Van Dijk 1978) is a very simplesampling (Kloek and Van Dijk 1978) addresses the simulation

  19. Increasing atmospheric burden of ethanol in the United States J. A. de Gouw,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    that a widespread use of E85 (a fuel blend with 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) could lead to significant increases blended into gasoline) for regular gasoline vehicles. Fuel sale data from the Energy Information as a transportation fuel in the U.S. increased significantly from 2000­2009, and in 2010 nearly all gasoline contained

  20. Research and outreach can lessen the overall burden of diabetes in farmworkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Lucia L; Martin, Anna C.; Steinberg, Francene M

    2010-01-01

    Montgomery MP, Kamel F, Saldana TM, et al. 2008. IncidentHealth Nutr 5(1A):113–22. Saldana TM, Basso O, Hoppin JA, etinterval = 1.5 – 3.3]) (Saldana et al. 2007). The most

  1. Ocean Water Vapor and Cloud Burden Trends Derived from the Topex Microwave Radiometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    algorithm is a log-linear regression algorithm with coefficients that are stratified by wind speed and water. TMR OBSERVATIONS The TMR flew in a 10-day non-sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit with an inclination

  2. Sharing the burden of climate change stabilization: An energy sector perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Fabian; Sathaye, Jayant

    2006-01-01

    regime. Thus, in addition to energy supply options and cost-a simplified global energy supply and carbon cycle model,to find cost-effective energy supply scenarios that take

  3. To Catch a Sex Thief: The Burden of Performance in Rape and Sexual Assault Trials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yung, Corey Rayburn

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to reform American rape law, prosecution and conviction rates remain low compared to similar crimes. While activists led legislatures to adopt important statutory changes for rape and sexual assault, only modest effects...

  4. Minimization of Blast Furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-08-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose proposed CFD model will focus on the complex physics and chemistry found within the upper part of the blast furnace.

  5. Social impact of the burden of psoriasis: effects on patients and practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Steven R; Malakouti, Mona; Koo, John YM

    2014-01-01

    FO, Kaplan DH, Barker J. Psoriasis. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(AB, Jr. , Reboussin DM. Psoriasis causes as much disabilityinterventional assessment of psoriasis quality of life using

  6. Comparing burden of dermatologic disease to search interest on google trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitsitt, Jacob; Karimkhani, Chante; Boyers, Lindsay N; Lott, Jason P; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    including eczema, pruritus, psoriasis, urticaria, malignantorder is as follows: psoriasis (n=23), eczema (22), itch (by DALY rankings were psoriasis and melanoma. Melanoma

  7. The Yellow Man's Burden : : The Politics of Settler Colonialism in Hokkaid? and Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugimoto, Tomonori

    Press. Cai, Ming-zhe, ed. 2001 Taiwan yuanzhumin shi: dushiAborigines: Urban Residents]. Nantou, Taiwan: The HistoricalResearch Commission of Taiwan Province. Camacho, Keith 2011

  8. Burden of the Cold War: The George H.W. Bush Administration and El Salvador 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arandia, Sebastian Rene

    2012-02-14

    the bipartisan consensus on US policy toward El Salvador: the failure of the FMLN‘s largest military offensive of the war and the murder of six Jesuit priests, their housekeeper, and her daughter by the Salvadoran military, the FAES. Despite more than one billion...

  9. Sharing the burden of climate change stabilization: An energy sector perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Fabian; Sathaye, Jayant

    2006-01-01

    generation from hydroelectric power plants, wind and solarWe also observe more hydroelectric power being used in the

  10. Radiation exposure liability : the burden of responsibility and compensation in civilian and military nuclear ventures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Jessica (Jessica Alejandro)

    2008-01-01

    Since Enrico Fermi first discovered that neutrons could split atoms in 1934, peaceful and militaristic uses of nuclear energy have become prevalent in our society. Two case studies, Three Mile Island and the Nevada Test ...

  11. Edison Electric Institute (EEI) Regulatory Burden RFI, 77 Fed. Reg. 47328 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus,Department ofDepartment of EnergyDepartment of

  12. FINAL CA IOU Comment Letter RFI Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor InnovativeProcessing22,673,list7.pdf More17, 2015, OHA deniedof

  13. Microsoft Word - Cover Letter Regulatory Burden RFI 4-15-11 | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing SwimmingMicrosoft Word -AcqGuide71pt1.docBRCMicrosoftEnergy

  14. Microsoft Word - NAESCO Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, Final.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE SafetyofDepartment. " 21 ran Wilson Blvd. On March 1615 M

  15. AHAM Comments_DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden July 2014_FINAL (00029367).DOC

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s iof1AGGIE SOL The University ofAHAM CCE

  16. AHAM Comments_DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden July 2015_FINAL (00039527).DOC

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s iof1AGGIE SOL The University ofAHAM CCEBy E-Mail

  17. Final Letter to DOE Regulatory Burden 9_7_2012.pdf

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,Energy 9, 2013FederalCommitteeFinal

  18. Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, 77 Fed. Reg. 28518 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial Opportunities » Pastams AGReducing

  19. Regulatory Burden RFI - Docket No. DOE-HQ-2011-0014-0001 | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial Opportunitiesof EnergyofEnergy

  20. NEMA Comments on DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department of EnergyNEW YORKFuelJuly-September 2013NEET-32, 20

  1. The Department of Energy's Request for Information on Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaics »TanklessResearchEnergy2 DOE Hydrogen Department of

  2. Microsoft Word - AGA Comments on 2011 Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy May 28MarEnergyDanielJune ADM 16 Rev

  3. Microsoft Word - Cover Letter Regulatory Burden RFI 4-15-11

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy May2.doc MicrosoftMicrosoft Word1 FINDING OFJuneApril

  4. Comment On: DOE-HQ-2011-0014-0001 Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)Day-June 22, 2015 | Department of Energyof

  5. Comment On: DOE-HQ-2011-0014-0001 Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)Day-June 22, 2015 | Department of Energyofof

  6. DOE EO 13563 January 2014 Update Report and Burden Reduction Efforts |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10 DOEEnvironmentalwith Recovery ActECR Report 2006

  7. DOE Extends Comment Period for Reply Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10 DOEEnvironmentalwith RecoveryWesternEnergy|

  8. DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report July 29, 2013 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominateEnergyThis memo from Assistant2012

  9. DOE Seeks Comments on its Preliminary Plan to Reduce Regulatory Burden |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominateEnergyThis memoEnergy TheDepartment of

  10. Milk Marketing Order Winners and Losers Hayley H. Chouinard*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    Milk Marketing Order Winners and Losers Hayley H. Chouinard* School of Economic Sciences Washington the distributional effects of federal milk marketing orders, and find results that vary substantially across find that households with lower incomes bear a greater regulatory burden due to marketing orders than

  11. Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

  12. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

  13. ~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates to a substantial increase in harvestable energy (Btu's).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    when consumed in an internal combustion engine yields no SOX, NOX or carbon monoxide allButanol ~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates environmentally harmful byproducts of combustion. CO2 is the combustion byproduct of butanol, and is considered

  14. Forensic science combines natural science and criminal justice. Successful practitioners must have substantial technical expertise and knowledge, critical analytic and thinking abilities, superior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, John J.

    , sheriff's deputies, prosecutors and defense attorneys, crime scene investigators, and agents from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Office of Homeland Security) International Business (BBA) Management (BBA) Marketing (BBA) Operations Management (BBA) Sport Management (BBA

  15. Light-travel-time diagnostics in early Supernova spectra: substantial mass loss of the IIb progenitor of SN 2013cu through a superwind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gräfener, G

    2015-01-01

    The progenitors of type-IIb supernovae (SNe) are believed to have lost their H-rich envelopes almost completely in the direct pre-SN phase. Recently the first 'flash spectrum' of a SN IIb (SN2013cu) has been presented, taken early enough to study its immediate circumstellar medium (CSM). Similar to a previous study by Groh (2014) we analyse the structure and chemical composition of the optically-thick CSM using non-LTE model atmospheres. For the first time we take light-travel time (LTT) effects on the spectrum formation into account, which affect the shapes and strengths of the observable emission lines, as well as the inferred SN luminosity. Based on the new CSM parameters we estimate a lower limit of ~0.3Msun for the CSM mass, which is a factor 10-100 higher than previous estimates. The spectral fit implies a CSM in the form of a homogeneous and spherically symmetric superwind whose mass-loss rate exceeds common expectations by up to two orders of magnitude. The derived chemical composition is in agreement...

  16. UGA Connections with China UGA's growth in connections with China has been substantial in the last decade; prior to 2006, UGA had no

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    and international trade law Global Food and Trade in China CAES Global food, food safety, agricultural

  17. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    the Cross River region of Nigeria. BMC Evolutionary Biologythe Cross River region of Nigeria Krishna R Veeramah 1,2* ,The Cross River region in Nigeria is an extremely diverse

  18. Improvement in Peripheral Glucose Uptake After Gastric Bypass Surgery Is Observed Only After Substantial Weight Loss Has Occurred and Correlates with the Magnitude of Weight Lost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    So, even if hepatic gluconeogenesis was not sup- pressed,shutting down hepatic gluconeogenesis allow- ing you to drawsuppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis? —the an- swer is we do

  19. Light Curves of Core-Collapse Supernovae with Substantial Mass Loss using the New Open-Source SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morozova, V; Renzo, M; Ott, C D; Clausen, D; Couch, S M; Ellis, J; Roberts, L F

    2015-01-01

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code SNEC, an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different wavelength bands assuming black body emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 Msun (at zero-age main sequence) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ~20-100 days if >~1.5-2 Msun of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. The shorter plateau lengths are unlike the Type IIP supernova light curves typically observed in nature. This suggests that, at least for zero-age main sequence masses <~ 20 Msun, hydrogen mass l...

  20. CO2 Capture and Regeneration at Low Temperatures: Novel Non-Aqueous CO2 Solvents and Capture Process with Substantially Reduced Energy Penalties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: RTI is developing a solvent and process that could significantly reduce the temperature associated with regenerating solvent and CO2 captured from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. Traditional CO2 removal processes using water-based solvents require significant amount of steam from power plants in order to regenerate the solvent so it can be reused after each reaction. RTI’s solvents can be better at absorbing CO2 than many water-based solvents, and are regenerated at lower temperatures using less steam. Thus, industrial heat that is normally too cool to re-use can be deployed for regeneration, rather than using high-value steam. This saves the power plant money, which results in increased cost savings for consumers.

  1. Burden distribution control for maintaining the central gas flow at No. 1 blast furnace in Pohang Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Suh, Y.K.; Ahn, T.J.; Kim, S.M. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1995-12-01

    The causes for temperature lowering at the upper shaft center in Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were investigated. The test operation with charging notch change in the actual blast furnace and with a 1/12 scale model to Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were carried out in order to improve central gas flow in the shaft. Finally, rebuilding of the lower bunker interior was performed using the results of model experiments. It was confirmed that the main reason for the gas temperature lowering at the upper shaft center was the smaller particle size at center than the wall according to the discharging characteristics of center feed bunker with stone box. The central gas flow could be secured through modifying the stone box in the bunker.

  2. Volumetric tumor burden and its effect on brachial plexus dosimetry in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romesser, Paul B.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Truong, Minh Tam

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of gross tumor volume of the primary (GTV-P) and nodal (GTV-N) disease on planned radiation dose to the brachial plexus (BP) in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Overall, 75 patients underwent definitive IMRT to a median total dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions. The right BP and left BP were prospectively contoured as separate organs at risk. The GTV was related to BP dose using the unpaired t-test. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine optimized volumetric thresholds of GTV-P and GTV-N corresponding to a maximum BP dose cutoff of > 66 Gy. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for factors associated with a higher maximal BP dose. A higher maximum BP dose (> 66 vs ? 66 Gy) correlated with a greater mean GTV-P (79.5 vs 30.8 cc; p = 0.001) and ipsilateral GTV-N (60.6 vs 19.8 cc; p = 0.014). When dichotomized by the optimized nodal volume, patients with an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 vs < 4.9 cc had a significant difference in maximum BP dose (64.2 vs 59.4 Gy; p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 cc was an independent predictor for the BP to receive a maximal dose of > 66 Gy when adjusted individually for BP volume, GTV-P, the use of a low anterior neck field technique, total planned radiation dose, and tumor category. Although both the primary and the nodal tumor volumes affected the BP maximal dose, the ipsilateral nodal tumor volume (GTV-N ? 4.9 cc) was an independent predictor for high maximal BP dose constraints in head and neck IMRT.

  3. Disease pathogenesis, treatment effectiveness, and co-morbid burden among adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarpatwari, Ameet Vilas

    2010-10-12

    ” missing work or school due to fatigue. These results highlight several promising avenues for future health-related quality of life (HRQoL) research. Thromboembolic Event Studies Using the GPRD, 1,070 adults with primary ITP were matched (1:4) with 4...

  4. Health impacts from urban air pollution in China : the burden to the economy and the benefits of policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matus, Kira J. (Kira Jen)

    2005-01-01

    In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), ...

  5. Microsoft Word - Regulatory Burden RFI NEMA Comments regarding small motor regulations 17July2015 v5_1.docx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy May2.docTechnicalBARACK ofAcquisition Smart Grid

  6. Impacts of ocean albedo alteration on Arctic sea ice restoration and Northern Hemisphere climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cvijanovic, Ivana; Caldeira, Ken; MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is expected to transition into a seasonally ice-free state by mid-century, enhancing Arctic warming and leading to substantial ecological and socio-economic challenges across the Arctic region. It has been proposed that artificially increasing high latitude ocean albedo could restore sea ice, but the climate impacts of such a strategy have not been previously explored. Motivated by this, we investigate the impacts of idealized high latitude ocean albedo changes on Arctic sea ice restoration and climate. In our simulated 4xCO? climate, imposing surface albedo alterations over the Arctic Ocean leads to partial sea ice recovery and a modestmore »reduction in Arctic warming. With the most extreme ocean albedo changes, imposed over the area 70°–90°N, September sea ice cover stabilizes at ~40% of its preindustrial value (compared to ~3% without imposed albedo modifications). This is accompanied by an annual mean Arctic surface temperature decrease of ~2 °C but no substantial global mean temperature decrease. Imposed albedo changes and sea ice recovery alter climate outside the Arctic region too, affecting precipitation distribution over parts of the continental United States and Northeastern Pacific. For example, following sea ice recovery, wetter and milder winter conditions are present in the Southwest United States while the East Coast experiences cooling. We conclude that although ocean albedo alteration could lead to some sea ice recovery, it does not appear to be an effective way of offsetting the overall effects of CO? induced global warming.« less

  7. Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, Teresa J; Fortner, Allison M; Jett, Robert T; Peterson, Mark J; Carriker, Neil; Morris, Jesse G; Gable, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

  8. van Dijk, S., and Polani, D., (2011). Look-Ahead Relevant In-formation: Reducing Cognitive Burden over Prolonged Tasks. In

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polani, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Preprint van Dijk, S., and Polani, D., (2011). Look-Ahead Relevant In- formation: Reducing Prolonged Tasks Sander G. van Dijk Daniel Polani Adaptive Systems Research Group Univeristy of Hertfordshire

  9. Cysticercosis in the United States: A Nationwide Hospitalization Study Assessing Burden of Disease, Fatality Risk Factors and Economic Impact of Infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Keefe, Kaitlin Ashley

    2013-01-01

    diagnoses and charge information stratified by in-hospitalcharge-related variables were calculated using hospital and discharge weights provided with the data, with statistical techniques designed for complex, stratified

  10. Penn State Engineering Search for 6 Faculty Positions Dean's Frontier Faculty As part of a plan for substantial expansion of the faculty in both core and emerging fields, the Penn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maranas, Costas

    and imaging; nanomanufacturing; additive manufacturing; new materials for sustainability and enhanced Advanced Manufacturing for Medical and Mechanical Sciences: bioprinting; biomedical sensing, devices will be determined during the hiring process. Additional information about these positions and the College's plan

  11. Interdisciplinary Physics Concentration Plan The Interdisciplinary Physics concentration allows students substantial flexibility to define the thematic focus of their study. Thisflexibility comes with a responsibility: each student must work with a physic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awtar, Shorya

    Interdisciplinary Physics Concentration Plan The Interdisciplinary Physics concentration allows with a responsibility: each student must work with a physics concentration counselor to select the right 400. Each version you develop will be kept by the Physics Student Services Officeuntil you graduate. Last

  12. Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: A Discussion of Natural Analogs, FEPS, and Modeling Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, J.; Pruess, K.; Lewicki, J.L.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.; Karimjee, A.

    2008-01-01

    stress field. OVER BURDEN Psm (MPa) OVER BURDEN Region ofhydraulic fracturing (Pfm > 0) Psm (MPa) CAPROCK 3 CAPROCK 3

  13. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishan, Amar U.; Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S.; Lee, Percy

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  14. The bumpy road to federal CO{sub 2} caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gannett, C.; Adamson, D.

    2007-07-15

    In January and February 2007 members of the US Congress introduced a number of carbon capture and trade bills that compete with each other to impose the most stringent standards possible. Soon after, the Speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi, called for consideration of a bill by the full House by the summer. Two issues have been resolved so far: any greenhouse gas reduction program almost certainly will be mandatory, and it appears likely that regulation of the electric power sector's CO{sub 2} emissions will be via a cap and trade system. Many other issues remain. Eight of these are discussed in the article. They include: where in the energy supply chain should greenhouse gas emissions be regulated? and, How should the burden of greenhouse gas reduction be shared with the electricity industry?

  15. Technology certification and technology acceptance: Promoting interstate cooperation and market development for innovative technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-03-01

    In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges.

  16. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA); Carrano, Anthony V. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  17. State and national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use: Results from measurements and modeling in India for estimation of the global burden of disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    P-value Intercept Fuel: kerosene vs. LPG Fuel: dung vs.LPG Fuel: wood vs.LPG Kitchen: SOK vs. ODK Kitchen: IWPK vs. ODK Kitchen:

  18. Implementation of a stepped-wedge cluster randomized design in routine public health practice: Design and application for a tuberculosis (TB) household contact study in a high burden area of Lima, Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Household Contacts; ACF: Active Case Finding; PCF: Passivehousehold contact, and the underperformance of their current passive

  19. Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    .237.145.145 The article was downloaded on 26/09/2011 at 22:24 Please note that terms and conditions apply. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About is considered. Likewise, as SSL products enter into widespread use, disposal of more and more end-of-life SSL

  20. State and national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use: Results from measurements and modeling in India for estimation of the global burden of disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    model in southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu for non-JHARKHAND (19) KARNATAKA (26) KERALA (28) MADHYA PRADESH (

  1. Implementation of a stepped-wedge cluster randomized design in routine public health practice: Design and application for a tuberculosis (TB) household contact study in a high burden area of Lima, Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    samples) pulmonary TB case coughs or exhales aerosolizedTB. Any person reporting cough for over 14 days is asked toclinical guidelines for TB (cough >14 days duration with or

  2. State and national household concentrations of PM2.5 from solid cookfuel use: Results from measurements and modeling in India for estimation of the global burden of disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    to Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Combustion in Kenya.to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion among womenV: Air pollution from household solid cookfuel combustion in

  3. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  4. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  5. What Do Family Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Patients Desire in Smart Home Technologies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rialle, Vincent; Guigui, Carole; Hervé, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives - The authors' aim was to investigate the representations, wishes, and fears of family caregivers (FCs) regarding 14 innovative technologies (IT) for care aiding and burden alleviation, given the severe physical and psychological stress induced by dementia care, and the very slow uptake of these technologies in our society. Methods - A cluster sample survey based on a self-administered questionnaire was carried out on data collected from 270 families of patients with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders, located in the greater Paris area. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used in addition to usual statistical tests to identify homogenous FCs clusters concerning the appreciation or rejection of the considered technologies. Results - Two opposite clusters were clearly defined: FCs in favor of a substantial use of technology, and those rather or totally hostile. Furthermore the distributions of almost all the answers of appreciations were U shaped. Significant relations were demonstrated betwee...

  6. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  7. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  8. Generating end plug potentials in tandem mirror plasma confinement by heating thermal particles so as to escape low density end stoppering plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, David E. (Danville, CA); Logan, B. Grant (Danville, CA)

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for raising the potential of a magnetic mirror cell by pumping charged particles of the opposite sign of the potential desired out of the mirror cell through excitation, with the pumping being done by an externally imposed field at the bounce frequency of the above charged particles. These pumped simple mirror cells then provide end stoppering for a center mirror cell for the tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus. For the substantially complete pumping case, the end plugs of a tandem mirror can be up to two orders of magnitude lower in density for confining a given center mirror cell plasma than in the case of end plugs without pumping. As a result the decrease in recirculating power required to keep the system going, the technological state of the art required, and the capital cost are all greatly lowered.

  9. Computing the dielectric constant of liquid water at constant dielectric displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The static dielectric constant of liquid water is computed using classical force field based molecular dynamics simulation at fixed electric displacement D. The method to constrain the electric displacement is the finite temperature classical variant of the constant-D method developed by Stengel, Spaldin and Vanderbilt (Nat. Phys. 2009, 5: 304). There is also a modification of this scheme imposing fixed values of the macroscopic field E. The method is applied to the popular SPC/E model of liquid water. We compare four different estimates of the dielectric constant, two obtained from fluctuations of the polarization at D = 0 and E = 0 and two from the variation of polarization with finite D and E. It is found that all four estimates agree when properly converged. The computational effort to achieve convergence varies however, with constant D calculations being substantially more efficient. We attribute this difference to the much shorter relaxation time of longitudinal polarization compared to transverse polar...

  10. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1998-05-05

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat is disclosed. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device. 4 figs.

  11. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, John D. (Eaton's Neck, NY); El-Genk, Mohamed S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  12. Non-synchronous control of self-oscillating resonant converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaser, John Stanley (Niskayuna, NY); Zane, Regan Andrew (Scotia, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A self-oscillating switching power converter has a controllable reactance including an active device connected to a reactive element, wherein the effective reactance of the reactance and the active device is controlled such that the control waveform for the active device is binary digital and is not synchronized with the switching converter output frequency. The active device is turned completely on and off at a frequency that is substantially greater than the maximum frequency imposed on the output terminals of the active device. The effect is to vary the average resistance across the active device output terminals, and thus the effective output reactance, thereby providing converter output control, while maintaining the response speed of the converter.

  13. Suggested guidelines for anti-islanding screening.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Ropp, Michael

    2012-02-01

    As increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are connected to utility systems, distribution engineers are becoming increasingly concerned about the risk of formation of unintentional islands. Utilities desire to keep their systems secure, while not imposing unreasonable burdens on users wishing to connect PV. However, utility experience with these systems is still relatively sparse, so distribution engineers often are uncertain as to when additional protective measures, such as direct transfer trip, are needed to avoid unintentional island formation. In the absence of such certainty, utilities must err on the side of caution, which in some cases may lead to the unnecessary requirement of additional protection. The purpose of this document is to provide distribution engineers and decision makers with guidance on when additional measures or additional study may be prudent, and also on certain cases in which utilities may allow PV installations to proceed without additional study because the risk of an unintentional island is extremely low. The goal is to reduce the number of cases of unnecessary application of additional protection, while giving utilities a basis on which to request additional study in cases where it is warranted.

  14. A Novel Application of Parallel Betweenness Centrality to Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Feo, John T.; Wong, Pak C.

    2010-04-19

    In Energy Management Systems, contingency analysis is commonly performed for identifying and mitigating potentially harmful power grid component failures. The exponentially increasing combinatorial number of failure modes imposes a significant computational burden for massive contingency analysis. It is critical to select a limited set of high-impact contingency cases within the constraint of computing power and time requirements to make it possible for real-time power system vulnerability assessment. In this paper, we present a novel application of parallel betweenness centrality to power grid contingency selection. We cross-validate the proposed method using the model and data of the western US power grid, and implement it on a Cray XMT system - a massively multithreaded architecture - leveraging its advantages for parallel execution of irregular algorithms, such as graph analysis. We achieve a speedup of 55 times (on 64 processors) compared against the single-processor version of the same code running on the Cray XMT. We also compare an OpenMP-based version of the same code running on an HP Superdome shared-memory machine. The performance of the Cray XMT code shows better scalability and resource utilization, and shorter execution time for large-scale power grids. This proposed approach has been evaluated in PNNL’s Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). It is expected to provide a quick and efficient solution to massive contingency selection problems to help power grid operators to identify and mitigate potential widespread cascading power grid failures in real time.

  15. Development of a Smart MicroGrid Testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Wei-Jen; Wetz, David

    2013-04-25

    Demand for electricity is rapidly increasing thereby applying pressure to expand generation and distribution capacity worldwide. The expansion of traditional services not only imposes burdens on financial resources but also encounters many challenges from community residents who oppose the construction of new power generation plants or transmission facilities in their backyard. From the integrated resource planning point of view, a feasible and economical remedy is, therefore, to utilize existing dispersed generation capacity known as distributed generation (DG) and/or renewable energy resources that may exist in the vicinity of the load centers. The main criteria for selecting the type of fuel source for a DG is its local availability, conversion system technological advancement, impact on the environment, and operating cost. DG’s have existed in the market for many years. Large diesel or gas powered generation sets are used in stand-by mode to power up vital services such as hospitals, financial and commercial compounds, telecommunication centers and industrial premises. Wind turbines, photovoltaic energy sources, and fuel cells are new comers that are now competing in size and efficiency with many standard generating sets. With this in mind, they are being used in many places not only as stand-by units but as the prime source of power particularly when the $/kWhr rate is high[1-5].

  16. ELSEVIER AppliedNumericalMathematics25 (1997) 169-184 MATHEMATICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugnano, Luigi

    1997-01-01

    independent conditions to be imposed, in order to get the discrete solution. The BVM approach essentially

  17. Gone with the Wind - The Potential Tragedy of the Common Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lifshitz-Goldberg, Yaei

    2010-01-01

    oil extraction to illustrate this notion and demonstrating how excessive drilling can impose unnecessary costs

  18. Does hydrologic circulation mask frictional heat on faults after large earthquakes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulton, Patrick M.; Harris, Robert N.; Saffer, Demian M.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    geothermal gradient super- imposed with a temperature anomaly expected from frictional heating defined by equations

  19. Assessment of the Effect of Air Pollution Controls on Trends in Shortwave Radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from Multiple Observation Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Chuen-Meei; Pleim, Jonathan; Mathur, Rohit; Hogrefe, Christian; Long, Charles N.; Xing, Jia; Roselle, Shawn; Wei, Chao

    2014-02-14

    Long term datasets of total (all-sky) and clear-sky downwelling shortwave (SW) radiation, cloud cover fraction (cloudiness) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are analyzed together with aerosol concentration from several networks (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) in the United States (US). Seven states with varying climatology are selected to better understand the effect of aerosols and clouds on SW radiation. This analysis aims to test the hypothesis that the reductions in anthropogenic aerosol burden resulting from substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides over the past 15 years across the US has caused an increase in surface SW radiation. We show that the total and clear-sky downwelling SW radiation from seven sites have increasing trends except Penn State which shows no tendency in clear-sky SW radiation. After investigating several confounding factors, the causes can be due to the geography of the site, aerosol distribution, heavy air traffic and increasing cloudiness. Moreover, we assess the relationship between total column AOD with surface aerosol concentration to test our hypothesis. In our findings, the trends of clear-sky SW radiation, AOD, and aerosol concentration from the sites in eastern US agree well with our hypothesis. However, the sites in western US demonstrate increasing AOD associated with mostly increasing trends in surface aerosol concentration. At these sites, the changes in aerosol burden and/or direct aerosol effects alone cannot explain the observed changes in SW radiation, but other factors need to be considered such as cloudiness, aerosol vertical profiles and elevated plumes.

  20. Assessment of multi-decadal WRF-CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation "brightening" in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gan, C.-M.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Hogrefe, C.; Long, C. N.; Xing, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Wei, C.

    2015-07-01

    Multi-decadal simulations with the coupled WRF-CMAQ model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 21 years (1990–2010) across the United States (US), their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading over North America, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. In particular, this study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in solar radiation. Extensive analyses conducted by Gan et al. (2014) utilizingmore »observations (e.g. SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE and ARM) over the past 16 years (1995–2010) indicate a shortwave (SW) radiation (both all-sky and clear-sky) "brightening" in the US. The relationship of the radiation brightening trend with decreases in the aerosol burden is less apparent in the western US. One of the main reasons for this is that the emission controls under the CAA were aimed primarily at reducing pollutants in areas violating national air quality standards, most of which were located in the eastern US while the relatively less populated areas in the western US were less polluted at the beginning of this study period. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF-CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even through it tends to underestimate the AOD. In particular, the sulfate concentration predictions were well matched with the observations. The discrenpancies found in the clear-sky diffuse SW radiation are likely due to several factors such as potential increase of ice particles associated with increasing air traffic, the definition of "clear-sky" in the radiation retrieval methodology and aerosol semi-direct and/or indirect effects which cannot be readily isolated from the observed data.« less

  1. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-05-04

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA andmore »West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  2. Quantifying sources of black carbon in western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source–receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over northwestern USA and westernmore »Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  3. Environmental justice and wellbeing in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daravanis, Athanasios

    Environmental justice can be achieved by a fair distribution of environmental benefits and burdens. Environmental discrimination, usually occurs by allocating burdens disproportionately, a fact that affects adversely people's’ mental and physical...

  4. Dead Babies, Bowel Disturbances, and Other Combat Humor in Afghanistan and Iraq 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madsen, Marissa Torian

    2013-02-18

    are returning with more psychological burdens. Various attempts have been made to decrease the psychological burdens on these American soldiers. However, I believe a missing component of these attempts is a thorough understanding of the military as its own...

  5. Roadmap for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles in California: A Transition Strategy through 2017

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, J; Cunningham, Joshua M; Nicholas, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Source – Shell) Phase Reduce capex burden (depth of trough)share cost • Reduced capex need for new station build •

  6. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    dug wells, PSFs, rainwater harvesting, and deep tubewells.burden than both rainwater harvesting and deep tubewells,

  7. Preemptive Strike: Law in the Campaign for Clean Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Scott

    2015-01-01

    equipment, polluting the air and water and burdening thereductions in noise, air and water pollution at the Hugo

  8. Ethics in collaborative global health researchhealth research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    in developing countries ­Global health inequalities­Global health inequalities ­Disproportionate burden

  9. Parallelization and checkpointing of GPU applications through program transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano-Quinde, Lizandro Dami#19; an [Ames Laboratory

    2012-11-15

    GPUs have emerged as a powerful tool for accelerating general-purpose applications. The availability of programming languages that makes writing general-purpose applications for running on GPUs tractable have consolidated GPUs as an alternative for accelerating general purpose applications. Among the areas that have beneffited from GPU acceleration are: signal and image processing, computational fluid dynamics, quantum chemistry, and, in general, the High Performance Computing (HPC) Industry. In order to continue to exploit higher levels of parallelism with GPUs, multi-GPU systems are gaining popularity. In this context, single-GPU applications are parallelized for running in multi-GPU systems. Furthermore, multi-GPU systems help to solve the GPU memory limitation for applications with large application memory footprint. Parallelizing single-GPU applications has been approached by libraries that distribute the workload at runtime, however, they impose execution overhead and are not portable. On the other hand, on traditional CPU systems, parallelization has been approached through application transformation at pre-compile time, which enhances the application to distribute the workload at application level and does not have the issues of library-based approaches. Hence, a parallelization scheme for GPU systems based on application transformation is needed. Like any computing engine of today, reliability is also a concern in GPUs. GPUs are vulnerable to transient and permanent failures. Current checkpoint/restart techniques are not suitable for systems with GPUs. Checkpointing for GPU systems present new and interesting challenges, primarily due to the natural differences imposed by the hardware design, the memory subsystem architecture, the massive number of threads, and the limited amount of synchronization among threads. Therefore, a checkpoint/restart technique suitable for GPU systems is needed. The goal of this work is to exploit higher levels of parallelism and to develop support for application-level fault tolerance in applications using multiple GPUs. Our techniques reduce the burden of enhancing single-GPU applications to support these features. To achieve our goal, this work designs and implements a framework for enhancing a single-GPU OpenCL application through application transformation.

  10. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  11. Understanding the nature of nuclear power plant risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denning, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the evolution of understanding of severe accident consequences from the non-mechanistic assumptions of WASH-740 to WASH-1400, NUREG-1150, SOARCA and today in the interpretation of the consequences of the accident at Fukushima. As opposed to the general perception, the radiological human health consequences to members of the Japanese public from the Fukushima accident will be small despite meltdowns at three reactors and loss of containment integrity. In contrast, the radiation-related societal impacts present a substantial additional economic burden on top of the monumental task of economic recovery from the nonnuclear aspects of the earthquake and tsunami damage. The Fukushima accident provides additional evidence that we have mis-characterized the risk of nuclear power plant accidents to ourselves and to the public. The human health risks are extremely small even to people living next door to a nuclear power plant. The principal risk associated with a nuclear power plant accident involves societal impacts: relocation of people, loss of land use, loss of contaminated products, decontamination costs and the need for replacement power. Although two of the three probabilistic safety goals of the NRC address societal risk, the associated quantitative health objectives in reality only address individual human health risk. This paper describes the types of analysis that would address compliance with the societal goals. (authors)

  12. Close encounters in a pediatric ward: measuring face-to-face proximity and mixing patterns with wearable sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isella, L; Barrat, A; Cattuto, C; Colizza, V; Broeck, W Van den; Gesualdo, F; Pandolfi, E; Ravà, L; Rizzo, C; Tozzi, A E; 10.1371/journal.pone.0017144

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections place a substantial burden on health care systems and represent a major issue in current public health, requiring notable efforts for its prevention. Understanding the dynamics of infection transmission in a hospital setting is essential for tailoring interventions and predicting the spread among individuals. Mathematical models need to be informed with accurate data on contacts among individuals. We used wearable active Radio-Frequency Identification Devices to detect face-to-face contacts among individuals with a spatial resolution of about 1.5 meters, and a time resolution of 20 seconds. The study was conducted in a general pediatrics hospital ward, during a one-week period, and included 119 participants. Nearly 16,000 contacts were recorded during the study, with a median of approximately 20 contacts per participants per day. Overall, 25% of the contacts involved a ward assistant, 23% a nurse, 22% a patient, 22% a caregiver, and 8% a physician. The majority of contacts were of brief ...

  13. Circular A-110 CIRCULAR A-110

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    standardized and codified the administrative requirements Federal agencies impose on State and local grantees in the Federal Register. Those standards which Federal agencies impose on grantees will be adopted by agencies i

  14. A NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS PERSPECTIVE ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of hydroelectricity. Each of these functions imposes externalities of its own: building a dam upstream will have

  15. Nuclear Energy Governance and the Politics of Social Justice: Technology, Public Goods, and Redistribution in Russia and France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriadis, Theocharis N

    2009-01-01

    funds rather than an emissions trading system does notmay impose an emissions trading system, which will lead to

  16. le cas de l'isopentane que dans le cas de l'acide carbonique, et cela tient surtout la mthode qui a servi les obtenir, mthode insuf-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    que l'on puisse même obtenir les harmoniques, qui imposent lenr période au son de biseau plus aigu ou

  17. A STUDY OF REGIONAL TEMPERATURE AND THERMOHYDROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AN UNDERGROUND REPOSITORY FOR NUCLEAR WASTES IN HARD ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.S.Y.

    2010-01-01

    geothermal gradient of 30°C/km is assumed. By imposing a constant pressure boundary condition in equation (

  18. !ncredible Kerala? A Political Ecological Analysis of Organic Agriculture in the "Model for Development"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thottathil, Sapna

    2012-01-01

    to ISO-type independent third-party certification. ” PGScertification and inspection fees. Due to structural limitations imposed by ISO

  19. Alternative Donor--Acceptor Stacks from Crown Ethers and Naphthalene Diimide Derivatives: Rapid, Selective Formation from Solution and Solid State Grinding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koshkakaryan, Gayane

    2010-01-01

    shielding effect imposed by adjacent DNP ring systems, the degeneracy in 3a suggested that the polyethylene

  20. Modeling the Lac repressor-operator assembly: The influence of DNA looping on Lac

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    number, and the end conditions imposed by the LacR tetramer. The tetramer can assume two types of confor

  1. Hexavalent Chromium Reduction under Fermentative Conditions with Lactate Stimulated Native Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somenahally, Anil C; Mosher, Jennifer J; Yuan, Tong; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Brown, Steven D; Yang, Zamin Koo; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Van Nostrand, Dr. Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Elias, Dwayne A

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in-situ is a plausible bioremediation strategy in electron-acceptor limited environments. However, higher [Cr(VI)] may impose stress on syntrophic communities and impact community structure and function. The study objectives were to understand the impacts of Cr(VI) concentrations on community structure and on the Cr(VI)-reduction potential of groundwater communities at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were used to grow native communities enriched with lactate (30 mM) and continuously amended with Cr(VI) at 0.0 (No-Cr), 0.1 (Low-Cr) and 3.0 (High-Cr) mg/L. Microbial growth, metabolites, Cr(VI), 16S rRNA gene sequences and GeoChip based functional gene composition were monitored for 15 weeks. Temporal trends and differences in growth, metabolite profiles, and community composition were observed, largely between Low-Cr and High-Cr bioreactors. In both High-Cr and Low-Cr bioreactors, Cr(VI) levels were below detection from week 1 until week 15. With lactate enrichment, native bacterial diversity substantially decreased as Pelosinus spp., and Sporotalea spp., became the dominant groups, but did not significantly differ between Cr concentrations. The Archaea diversity also substantially decreased after lactate enrichment from Methanosaeta (35%), Methanosarcina (17%) and others, to mostly Methanosarcina spp. (95%). Methane production was lower in High-Cr reactors suggesting some inhibition of methanogens. Several key functional genes were distinct in Low-Cr bioreactors compared to High-Cr. Among the Cr resistant microbes, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas testosterone and Ralstonia pickettii proliferated in Cr amended bioreactors. In-situ fermentative conditions facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, and as a result 3.0 mg/L Cr(VI) did not impact the overall bacterial community structure.

  2. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  3. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N

    2013-06-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  4. Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) enacted in 1984 required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate all listed and characteristic hazardous wastes according to a strict schedule and to develop requirements by which disposal of these wastes would be protective of human health and the environment. The implementing regulations for accomplishing this statutory requirement are established within the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) program. The LDR regulations (40 CFR Part 268) impose significant requirements on waste management operations and environmental restoration activities at DOE sites. For hazardous wastes restricted by statute from land disposal, EPA is required to set levels or methods of treatment that substantially reduce the waste`s toxicity or the likelihood that the waste`s hazardous constituents will migrate. Upon the specified LDR effective dates, restricted wastes that do not meet treatment standards are prohibited from land disposal unless they qualify for certain variances or exemptions. This document provides an overview of the LDR Program.

  5. Aperture Test for Internal Target Operation in the JLAB High-current ERL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shukui

    2013-06-01

    A high current beam transmission test has been successfully completed at the JLAB FEL Facility, culminating in very low-loss transmission of a high current CW beam through a small aperture. The purpose of this test was to determine if an ERL is capable of meeting the stringent requirements imposed by the use of a 1018/cm3 internal gas target proposed for the DarkLight experiment*. Minimal beamline modifications were made to create a machine configuration that is substantially different from those used in routine UV or IR FEL operation. A sustained (8 hour) high power beam run was performed, with clean transmission through a 2 mm transverse aperture of 127 mm length simulating the target configuration. A beam size of 50 um (rms) was measured near the center of the aperture. Experimental data from a week-long test run consistently exhibited beam loss of only a few ppm on the aperture while running 4.5 mA current at 100 MeV -- or nearly 0.5 MW beam power. This surpassed the users? expectation and demonstrated a unique capability of an ERL for this type of experiments. This report presents a summary of the experiment, a brief overview of our activities, and outlines future plans.

  6. Electric power demand limit for variable speed heat pumps and integrated water heating heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a method of operating an integrated heat pump and hot water system that is capable of providing heating or cooling to an environmental comfort zone. The heat pump and hot water system including a variable speed compressor whose operating speed is substantially linearly related to the difference between outdoor air temperature and indoor air temperature in the comfort zone, and also including means to receive a utility peak demand limit signal to initiate automatic power limiting to reduce the power demand imposed by the heat pump and hot water system, the method comprising sensing the outdoor temperature T{sub OD}; sensing the indoor temperature T{sub ID} in the comfort zone; sensing the speed S{sub 1} of the variable speed compressor; and in response to receiving the utility peak demand limit signal DLS calculating a reference speed S{sub R} for the compressor as a function of the speed S{sub 1}, the outdoor temperature T{sub OD}, the indoor temperature T{sub ID}, and predetermined values that correspond to a reference indoor temperature T{sub ID} and a zero-load temperature difference {Delta}T{sub Z} that corresponds to the difference between the outdoor and indoor temperatures that result in a zero load requirement on the compressor; and during occurrence of the signal DLS operating the compressor at a reduced operating speed limited to a predetermined fraction, less than unity, times the reference speed S{sub R}.

  7. Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2012-09-01

    Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

  8. Habemus Superstratum! A constructive proof of the existence of superstrata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bena, Iosif; Russo, Rodolfo; Shigemori, Masaki; Warner, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    We construct the first example of a superstratum: a class of smooth horizonless supergravity solutions that are parameterized by arbitrary continuous functions of (at least) two variables and have the same charges as the supersymmetric D1-D5-P black hole. We work in Type IIB string theory on T^4 or K3 and our solutions involve a subset of fields that can be described by a six-dimensional supergravity with two tensor multiplets. The solutions can thus be constructed using a linear structure, and we give an explicit recipe to start from a superposition of modes specified by an arbitrary function of two variables and impose regularity to obtain the full horizonless solutions in closed form. We also give the precise CFT description of these solutions and show that they are not dual to descendants of chiral primaries. They are thus much more general than all the known solutions whose CFT dual is precisely understood. Hence our construction represents a substantial step toward the ultimate goal of constructing the ...

  9. Habemus Superstratum! A constructive proof of the existence of superstrata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iosif Bena; Stefano Giusto; Rodolfo Russo; Masaki Shigemori; Nicholas P. Warner

    2015-03-04

    We construct the first example of a superstratum: a class of smooth horizonless supergravity solutions that are parameterized by arbitrary continuous functions of (at least) two variables and have the same charges as the supersymmetric D1-D5-P black hole. We work in Type IIB string theory on T^4 or K3 and our solutions involve a subset of fields that can be described by a six-dimensional supergravity with two tensor multiplets. The solutions can thus be constructed using a linear structure, and we give an explicit recipe to start from a superposition of modes specified by an arbitrary function of two variables and impose regularity to obtain the full horizonless solutions in closed form. We also give the precise CFT description of these solutions and show that they are not dual to descendants of chiral primaries. They are thus much more general than all the known solutions whose CFT dual is precisely understood. Hence our construction represents a substantial step toward the ultimate goal of constructing the fully generic superstratum that can account for a finite fraction of the entropy of the three-charge black hole in the regime of parameters where the classical black hole solution exists.

  10. Suitable thin shell structural configurations for earth sheltered housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behr, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    An earth sheltered house is one whose building envelope is substantially in contact with soil, without necessarily being totally underground. Hence, it can provide the commonly sought attributes of a residence, including natural light, exterior views, and curb appeal. It also exhibits strong energy performance, lower maintenance, and good storm protection. Despite the longer-term life cycle cost advantages of earth sheltered buildings, a current hindrance to the mass market acceptance of earth sheltered housing is higher initial cost which is caused, in part, by the inability of conventional rectilinear structural systems to support economically the massive soil loads imposed on earth covered buildings. In deference to the premise that technical suitability is no guarantee of innovation acceptance in the housing industry, a survey of the nontechnical impediments to housing innovation was first undertaken. These impediment areas include: market inhibition; builder trepidations; industry constraints; and financing problems. As a result of an architectural design program written under contract for the Department of Energy, it was possible to include a rather extensive (but necessarily subjective) evaluation of the architectural potential for earth sheltered shell structures. Engineering suitability dimensions included structural effectiveness, constructability, and economy of construction for single- and double-curvature thin shell structures. Overall engineering suitability and architectural potential are deemed to be adequate, although non-engineering impediments to housing innovation appear to raise significant questions regarding the potential for mass market implementation of thin shell stuctures in earth sheltered housing.

  11. Constraining Sterile Neutrinos Using Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan Girardi; Davide Meloni; Tommy Ohlsson; He Zhang; Shun Zhou

    2014-08-21

    Models of neutrino mixing involving one or more sterile neutrinos have resurrected their importance in the light of recent cosmological data. In this case, reactor antineutrino experiments offer an ideal place to look for signatures of sterile neutrinos due to their impact on neutrino flavor transitions. In this work, we show that the high-precision data of the Daya Bay experi\\-ment constrain the 3+1 neutrino scenario imposing upper bounds on the relevant active-sterile mixing angle $\\sin^2 2 \\theta_{14} \\lesssim 0.06$ at 3$\\sigma$ confidence level for the mass-squared difference $\\Delta m^2_{41}$ in the range $(10^{-3},10^{-1}) \\, {\\rm eV^2}$. The latter bound can be improved by six years of running of the JUNO experiment, $\\sin^22\\theta_{14} \\lesssim 0.016$, although in the smaller mass range $ \\Delta m^2_{41} \\in (10^{-4} ,10^{-3}) \\, {\\rm eV}^2$. We have also investigated the impact of sterile neutrinos on precision measurements of the standard neutrino oscillation parameters $\\theta_{13}$ and $\\Delta m^2_{31}$ (at Daya Bay and JUNO), $\\theta_{12}$ and $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ (at JUNO), and most importantly, the neutrino mass hierarchy (at JUNO). We find that, except for the obvious situation where $\\Delta m^2_{41}\\sim \\Delta m^2_{31}$, sterile states do not affect these measurements substantially.

  12. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  13. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  14. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1992-12-31

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested.

  15. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mankamo, T. ); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. )

    1992-01-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested.

  16. The origin of net electric currents in solar active regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalmasse, K; Démoulin, P; Kliem, B; Török, T; Pariat, E

    2015-01-01

    There is a recurring question in solar physics about whether or not electric currents are neutralized in active regions (ARs). This question was recently revisited using three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations of magnetic flux emergence into the solar atmosphere. Such simulations showed that flux emergence can generate a substantial net current in ARs. Another source of AR currents are photospheric horizontal flows. Our aim is to determine the conditions for the occurrence of net vs. neutralized currents with this second mechanism. Using 3D MHD simulations, we systematically impose line-tied, quasi-static, photospheric twisting and shearing motions to a bipolar potential magnetic field. We find that such flows: (1) produce both {\\it direct} and {\\it return} currents, (2) induce very weak compression currents - not observed in 2.5D - in the ambient field present in the close vicinity of the current-carrying field, and (3) can generate force-free magnetic fields with a net current...

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahn, E.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S. (Morse, Richard, Weisenmiller and Associates, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    As private power (non-utility generation) has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital, and that this leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not home by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  19. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahn, E.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S. [Morse, Richard, Weisenmiller & Associates, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    As private power has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital. This leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not borne by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  20. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects. Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahn, E.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S. [Morse, Richard, Weisenmiller and Associates, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    As private power (non-utility generation) has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital, and that this leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not home by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  1. Assessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation "brightening" in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gan, C.-M.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Hogrefe, C.; Long, C. N.; Xing, J.; Wong, D.; Gilliam, R.; Wei, C.

    2015-11-03

    Long-term simulations with the coupled WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting–Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 16 years (1995–2010) across the United States (US), their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading over North America, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. In particular, this study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in solar radiation. Extensive analysesmore »conducted by Gan et al. (2014a) utilizing observations (e.g., SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE, and ARM) over the past 16 years (1995–2010) indicate a shortwave (SW) radiation (both all-sky and clear-sky) "brightening" in the US. The relationship of the radiation brightening trend with decreases in the aerosol burden is less apparent in the western US. One of the main reasons for this is that the emission controls under the CAA were aimed primarily at reducing pollutants in areas violating national air quality standards, most of which were located in the eastern US, while the relatively less populated areas in the western US were less polluted at the beginning of this study period. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF–CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even though it tends to underestimate the AOD. In particular, the sulfate concentration predictions were well matched with the observations. The discrepancies found in the clear-sky diffuse SW radiation are likely due to several factors such as the potential increase of ice particles associated with increasing air traffic, the definition of "clear-sky" in the radiation retrieval methodology, and aerosol semi-direct and/or indirect effects which cannot be readily isolated from the observed data.« less

  2. Finding One's Way to "a Place Where I Am Respected": the Experiences of First-Generation Vietnamese Americans with Depression and/or Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Hannah Thuy Thi

    2013-01-01

    Freedman- Doan, 2009), and pose a burden for families andin proximity to services) pose significant barriers to Asianneeds of Asian Americans poses additional barriers to

  3. Machine Tool Design and Operation Strategies for Green Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Power Demand of Precision Machine Tools, MS Thesis, Dept.Environmental Burden for Machine Tool Operation, JSME Int.of Downsized Design for Machine Tools on the Environmental

  4. Outside Consultant Construction Audit Scope of Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    risk areas for review Review of the Contractor job cost o Obtain Excel Review of Subcontracts o Review subcontract labor and labor burden rates

  5. 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuel Management Best Practices for Transit November 27, 2007 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of...

  6. INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    microbial burden The Energy Efficient Buildings (EEB) Mobilein a number of energy efficient buildings, wherein pollutantenergy~efficient ventilation , institutional and commercial buildings.

  7. To Move or Not to Move: The Economics of Cloud Computing Byung Chul Tak Bhuvan Urgaonkar Anand Sivasubramaniam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    of this burden and can focus on its core expertise. (ii) Cap-ex savings: it eliminates the need for purchasing

  8. Reduced methane growth rate explained by decreased Northern Hemisphere microbial sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai, FM; Kai, FM; Tyler, SC; Tyler, SC; Randerson, JT; Blake, DR

    2011-01-01

    rate of the atmospheric methane burden. Nature 393, 447–of global tropospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33,M. J. in Atmospheric Methane: its Role in the Global

  9. Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haas, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    and J. Hamrin. 2005. “Renewable Energy Policies and Marketsexperience with renewable energy obligation supportM. (2001): REBUS: Renewable Energy Burden Sharing (Main

  10. The Economic Impact of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Washington State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kastanis, Angeliki; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Herman, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    tax burden for the State of Washington according to the Taxsurvey/. State of Washington Department of Commerce. (2011). Washington State Travel Impacts 1991-2010p. Retrieved

  11. Maryland-National Capital Building Industry Association Regulatory...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Maryland-National Capital Building Industry Association Regulatory Burden RFI (Federal Register August 8, 2012) Maryland-National Capital Building Industry Association Regulatory...

  12. Toward Design of a Universal Flu Vaccine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deaths and yearly economic burdens, but the highly changeable nature of the flu virus complicates the production of an effective vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control...

  13. Safe Haven: International Norms, Strategic Interests, and U.S. Refugee Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salehyan, Idean

    2001-01-01

    of the International Refugee System." InternationalHigh Commissioner for Refugees. Newsweek. April 19, 1999. "1998. "Burden-sharing During Refugee Emergencies: the Logic

  14. The Homeowner Revolution: Democracy, Land Use and the Los Angeles Slow-Growth Movement, 1965-1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    burden tidelands oil and dry gas revenues to finance RTDfinance the system proved more helpful. In 1968, the Club of Southern California, Western Oil and

  15. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    situation. In addition DOE estimates there will be additional burden for refresher training of approximately 2 hour annually for each entity subject to reporting on Form OE-417....

  16. Paperwork Reduction Act Submission (OMB 83-I)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    that the certification covers: It is necessary for the proper performance of agency functions; It avoids unnecessary duplication; It reduces burden on small entities; It uses...

  17. Form EIA-851Q

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reclearance Approval Expires: XXXXXXXX Burden: 0.75 hours Company Name: Preparer Name: Company Address: Preparer Title: Company City: Preparer Company Name: Company State:...

  18. EEO Complaint Equal Employment Opportunity: Collaborating for...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    r EEO Complaint Equal Employment Opportunity: Collaborating for Mission Success Things to Consider Before you Decide to File.... BURDEN OF PROOF IN THE EEO COMPLAINT PROCESS Who...

  19. Environmental impact estimation of mold making process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Daeyoung

    2013-01-01

    tool path evaluation for environmental sustainability”, J.Prediction System of Environmental Burden for Machine ToolProduct Development”, Environmental Process 22, 4 (2003) 41.

  20. Form OE-417

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Form OE-417 ELECTRIC EMERGENCY INCIDENT AND DISTURBANCE REPORT Form Approved OMB No. 1901-0288 Approval Expires 03312018 Burden Per...

  1. Impacts of Oxygenated Gasoline Use on California Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    on-road motor vehicle emissions (BURDEN7F). Mobile Sourcespeciation profile for vehicle emissions agrees with cold=Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Thomas W. Kirchstetter Brett C°

  2. Wind Energy Forecasting: A Collaboration of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Xcel Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, K.; Wan, Y. H.; Wiener, G.; Liu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    The focus of this report is the wind forecasting system developed during this contract period with results of performance through the end of 2010. The report is intentionally high-level, with technical details disseminated at various conferences and academic papers. At the end of 2010, Xcel Energy managed the output of 3372 megawatts of installed wind energy. The wind plants span three operating companies1, serving customers in eight states2, and three market structures3. The great majority of the wind energy is contracted through power purchase agreements (PPAs). The remainder is utility owned, Qualifying Facilities (QF), distributed resources (i.e., 'behind the meter'), or merchant entities within Xcel Energy's Balancing Authority footprints. Regardless of the contractual or ownership arrangements, the output of the wind energy is balanced by Xcel Energy's generation resources that include fossil, nuclear, and hydro based facilities that are owned or contracted via PPAs. These facilities are committed and dispatched or bid into day-ahead and real-time markets by Xcel Energy's Commercial Operations department. Wind energy complicates the short and long-term planning goals of least-cost, reliable operations. Due to the uncertainty of wind energy production, inherent suboptimal commitment and dispatch associated with imperfect wind forecasts drives up costs. For example, a gas combined cycle unit may be turned on, or committed, in anticipation of low winds. The reality is winds stayed high, forcing this unit and others to run, or be dispatched, to sub-optimal loading positions. In addition, commitment decisions are frequently irreversible due to minimum up and down time constraints. That is, a dispatcher lives with inefficient decisions made in prior periods. In general, uncertainty contributes to conservative operations - committing more units and keeping them on longer than may have been necessary for purposes of maintaining reliability. The downside is costs are higher. In organized electricity markets, units that are committed for reliability reasons are paid their offer price even when prevailing market prices are lower. Often, these uplift charges are allocated to market participants that caused the inefficient dispatch in the first place. Thus, wind energy facilities are burdened with their share of costs proportional to their forecast errors. For Xcel Energy, wind energy uncertainty costs manifest depending on specific market structures. In the Public Service of Colorado (PSCo), inefficient commitment and dispatch caused by wind uncertainty increases fuel costs. Wind resources participating in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) footprint make substantial payments in the real-time markets to true-up their day-ahead positions and are additionally burdened with deviation charges called a Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG) to cover out of market costs associated with operations. Southwest Public Service (SPS) wind plants cause both commitment inefficiencies and are charged Southwest Power Pool (SPP) imbalance payments due to wind uncertainty and variability. Wind energy forecasting helps mitigate these costs. Wind integration studies for the PSCo and Northern States Power (NSP) operating companies have projected increasing costs as more wind is installed on the system due to forecast error. It follows that reducing forecast error would reduce these costs. This is echoed by large scale studies in neighboring regions and states that have recommended adoption of state-of-the-art wind forecasting tools in day-ahead and real-time planning and operations. Further, Xcel Energy concluded reduction of the normalized mean absolute error by one percent would have reduced costs in 2008 by over $1 million annually in PSCo alone. The value of reducing forecast error prompted Xcel Energy to make substantial investments in wind energy forecasting research and development.

  3. The impact of cine EPID image acquisition frame rate on markerless soft-tissue tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yip, Stephen Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Although reduction of the cine electronic portal imaging device (EPID) acquisition frame rate through multiple frame averaging may reduce hardware memory burden and decrease image noise, it can hinder the continuity of soft-tissue motion leading to poor autotracking results. The impact of motion blurring and image noise on the tracking performance was investigated. Methods: Phantom and patient images were acquired at a frame rate of 12.87 Hz with an amorphous silicon portal imager (AS1000, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The maximum frame rate of 12.87 Hz is imposed by the EPID. Low frame rate images were obtained by continuous frame averaging. A previously validated tracking algorithm was employed for autotracking. The difference between the programmed and autotracked positions of a Las Vegas phantom moving in the superior-inferior direction defined the tracking error (?). Motion blurring was assessed by measuring the area change of the circle with the greatest depth. Additionally, lung tumors on 1747 frames acquired at 11 field angles from four radiotherapy patients are manually and automatically tracked with varying frame averaging. ? was defined by the position difference of the two tracking methods. Image noise was defined as the standard deviation of the background intensity. Motion blurring and image noise are correlated with ? using Pearson correlation coefficient (R). Results: For both phantom and patient studies, the autotracking errors increased at frame rates lower than 4.29 Hz. Above 4.29 Hz, changes in errors were negligible with? < 1.60 mm. Motion blurring and image noise were observed to increase and decrease with frame averaging, respectively. Motion blurring and tracking errors were significantly correlated for the phantom (R = 0.94) and patient studies (R = 0.72). Moderate to poor correlation was found between image noise and tracking error with R ?0.58 and ?0.19 for both studies, respectively. Conclusions: Cine EPID image acquisition at the frame rate of at least 4.29 Hz is recommended. Motion blurring in the images with frame rates below 4.29 Hz can significantly reduce the accuracy of autotracking.

  4. Interactive prostate segmentation using atlas-guided semi-supervised learning and adaptive feature selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sang Hyun [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Gao, Yaozong, E-mail: yzgao@cs.unc.edu [Department of Computer Science, Department of Radiology, and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Shi, Yinghuan, E-mail: syh@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shen, Dinggang, E-mail: dgshen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Accurate prostate segmentation is necessary for maximizing the effectiveness of radiation therapy of prostate cancer. However, manual segmentation from 3D CT images is very time-consuming and often causes large intra- and interobserver variations across clinicians. Many segmentation methods have been proposed to automate this labor-intensive process, but tedious manual editing is still required due to the limited performance. In this paper, the authors propose a new interactive segmentation method that can (1) flexibly generate the editing result with a few scribbles or dots provided by a clinician, (2) fast deliver intermediate results to the clinician, and (3) sequentially correct the segmentations from any type of automatic or interactive segmentation methods. Methods: The authors formulate the editing problem as a semisupervised learning problem which can utilize a priori knowledge of training data and also the valuable information from user interactions. Specifically, from a region of interest near the given user interactions, the appropriate training labels, which are well matched with the user interactions, can be locally searched from a training set. With voting from the selected training labels, both confident prostate and background voxels, as well as unconfident voxels can be estimated. To reflect informative relationship between voxels, location-adaptive features are selected from the confident voxels by using regression forest and Fisher separation criterion. Then, the manifold configuration computed in the derived feature space is enforced into the semisupervised learning algorithm. The labels of unconfident voxels are then predicted by regularizing semisupervised learning algorithm. Results: The proposed interactive segmentation method was applied to correct automatic segmentation results of 30 challenging CT images. The correction was conducted three times with different user interactions performed at different time periods, in order to evaluate both the efficiency and the robustness. The automatic segmentation results with the original average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.78 were improved to 0.865–0.872 after conducting 55–59 interactions by using the proposed method, where each editing procedure took less than 3 s. In addition, the proposed method obtained the most consistent editing results with respect to different user interactions, compared to other methods. Conclusions: The proposed method obtains robust editing results with few interactions for various wrong segmentation cases, by selecting the location-adaptive features and further imposing the manifold regularization. The authors expect the proposed method to largely reduce the laborious burdens of manual editing, as well as both the intra- and interobserver variability across clinicians.

  5. Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in physical space. While still over-parametrized, this choice of model space contains far fewer parameters than before, thus easing the computational burden, in some cases, of the optimization problem. And most importantly, the associated finite element discretization is aligned with the abrupt changes in material properties associated with lithologic boundaries as well as the interface between buried cultural artifacts and the surrounding Earth. In section 4, algorithms and tools are described that associate a smooth interface surface to a given triangulation. In particular, the tools support surface refinement and coarsening. Section 5 describes some preliminary results on the application of interface identification methods to some model problems in geophysical inversion. Due to time constraints, the results described here use the GNU Triangulated Surface Library for the manipulation of surface meshes and the TetGen software library for the generation of tetrahedral meshes.

  6. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, Final Report For the Performance Period May 1, 2008 through April 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2009-07-30

    The Yakima-Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is a joint project of the Yakama Nation (lead entity) and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and is sponsored in large part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with oversight and guidance from the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC). It is among the largest and most complex fisheries management projects in the Columbia Basin in terms of data collection and management, physical facilities, habitat enhancement and management, and experimental design and research on fisheries resources. Using principles of adaptive management, the YKFP is attempting to evaluate all stocks historically present in the Yakima subbasin and apply a combination of habitat restoration and hatchery supplementation or reintroduction, to restore the Yakima Subbasin ecosystem with sustainable and harvestable populations of salmon, steelhead and other at-risk species. The original impetus for the YKFP resulted from the landmark fishing disputes of the 1970s, the ensuing legal decisions in United States versus Washington and United States versus Oregon, and the region's realization that lost natural production needed to be mitigated in upriver areas where these losses primarily occurred. The YKFP was first identified in the NPCC's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) and supported in the U.S. v Oregon 1988 Columbia River Fish Management Plan (CRFMP). A draft Master Plan was presented to the NPCC in 1987 and the Preliminary Design Report was presented in 1990. In both circumstances, the NPCC instructed the Yakama Nation, WDFW and BPA to carry out planning functions that addressed uncertainties in regard to the adequacy of hatchery supplementation for meeting production objectives and limiting adverse ecological and genetic impacts. At the same time, the NPCC underscored the importance of using adaptive management principles to manage the direction of the Project. The 1994 FWP reiterated the importance of proceeding with the YKFP because of the added production and learning potential the project would provide. The YKFP is unique in having been designed to rigorously test the efficacy of hatchery supplementation. Given the current dire situation of many salmon and steelhead stocks, and the heavy reliance on artificial propagation as a recovery tool, YKFP monitoring results will have great region-wide significance. Supplementation is envisioned as a means to enhance and sustain the abundance of wild and naturally-spawning populations at levels exceeding the cumulative mortality burden imposed on those populations by habitat degradation and by natural cycles in environmental conditions. A supplementation hatchery is properly operated as an adjunct to the natural production system in a watershed. By fully integrating the hatchery with a naturally-producing population, high survival rates for the component of the population in the hatchery can raise the average abundance of the total population (hatchery component + naturally-producing component) to a level that compensates for the high mortalities imposed by human development activities and fully seeds the natural environment. The objectives of the YKFP are to: use Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) and other modeling tools to facilitate planning for project activities, enhance existing stocks, re-introduce extirpated stocks, protect and restore habitat in the Yakima Subbasin, and operate using a scientifically rigorous process that will foster application of the knowledge gained about hatchery supplementation and habitat restoration throughout the Columbia River Basin. The YKFP is still in the early stages of evaluation, and as such the data and findings presented in this report should be considered preliminary until results are published in the peer-reviewed literature. The following is a brief summary of current YKFP activities by species.

  7. Turkey energy and environmental review - Task 7 energy sector modeling : executive summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Since 1990, energy consumption has increased at an annual average rate of 4.3%. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have grown along with its energy consumption. Emissions in 2000 reached 211 million metric tons. With GDP projected to grow at over 6% per year over the next 25 years, both the energy sector and the pollution associated with it are expected to increase substantially. This is expected to occur even if assuming stricter controls on lignite and hard coal-fired power generation. All energy consuming sectors, that is, power, industrial, residential, and transportation, will contribute to this increased emissions burden. Turkish Government authorities charged with managing the fundamental problem of carrying on economic development while protecting the environment include the Ministry of Environment (MOE), the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR), and the Ministry of Health, as well as the Turkish Electricity Generation & Transmission Company (TEAS). The World Bank, working with these agencies, is planning to assess the costs and benefits of various energy policy alternatives under an Energy and Environment Review (EER). Eight individual studies have been conducted under this activity to analyze certain key energy technology issues and use this analysis to fill in the gaps in data and technical information. This will allow the World Bank and Turkish authorities to better understand the trade-offs in costs and impacts associated with specific policy decisions. The purpose of Task 7-Energy Sector Modeling, is to integrate information obtained in other EER tasks and provide Turkey's policy makers with an integrated systems analysis of the various options for addressing the various energy and environmental concerns. The work presented in this report builds on earlier analyses presented at the COP 6 conference in Bonn.

  8. Sex-dependent Differences in Intestinal Tumorigenesis Induced in Apc1638N/+ Mice by Exposure to {gamma} Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trani, Daniela; Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; Maastricht Radiation Oncology Lab, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, University of Maastricht ; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia ; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Hartmann, Dan P.; Datta, Kamal; Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia ; Fornace, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 and 5 Gy radiation doses and to investigate the interplay of gender and radiation with regard to intestinal tumorigenesis in an adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutant mouse model. Methods and Materials: Apc1638N/+ female and male mice were exposed whole body to either 1 Gy or 5 Gy of {gamma} rays and euthanized when most of the treated mice became moribund. Small and large intestines were processed to determine tumor burden, distribution, and grade. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 and estrogen receptor (ER)-{alpha} were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: We observed that, with both 1 Gy and 5 Gy of {gamma} rays, females displayed reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis compared with males. As for radiation effect on small intestinal tumor progression, although no substantial differences were found in the relative frequency and degree of dysplasia of adenomas in irradiated animals compared with controls, invasive carcinomas were found in 1-Gy- and 5-Gy-irradiated animals. Radiation exposure was also shown to induce an increase in protein levels of proliferation marker Ki-67 and sex-hormone receptor ER-{alpha} in both non tumor mucosa and intestinal tumors from irradiated male mice. Conclusions: We observed important sex-dependent differences in susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N/+ mutants. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that exposure to radiation doses as low as 1 Gy can induce a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity as well as enhance tumor progression in vivo.

  9. Gina Neff--Venture Labor Venture Labor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    #12;El Gina Neff--Venture Labor Venture Labor Work and the Burden of Risk in Innovative Industries of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Neff, Gina, 1971­ Venture labor : work and the burden of risk #12;El Gina Neff--Venture Labor © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved

  10. Pharmacological Induction of Molecular Chaperones Restores Mitochondrial Function in Hyperglycemically Stressed Sensory Neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liang

    2012-12-31

    and psychological burdens to a patient's quality of life and a large economic burden to the health care system. Despite the prevalence and severity of DPN, the development of therapies that have focused on "diabetes specific" targets has met with limited...

  11. This is the author's version of a work that was submitted/accepted for pub-lication in the following source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Paul

    , & Morawska, Lidia (2013) Tackling the health burden from household air pollution (HAP) : development;1 Tackling the health burden from household air pollution (HAP): development and implementation of new WHO 3138 9079 #12;2 Abstract Household air pollution (HAP), arising mainly from the combustion of solid

  12. 898 Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 6 / Friday, January 9, 2009 / Notices the time needed to review instructions;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and semiannually. Estimated Total Annual Hour Burden: 0. Estimated Total Annual Cost: $0. Changes in the Estimates.g. landfills, rather than replacing existing OSWI units. No respondent or agency burdens or costs have been kilovolt (kV) Electric Transmission Line from Imperial Valley Substation (in Imperial Co. near the City

  13. A Scalable Model for Energy Load Balancing in Large-scale Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    A Scalable Model for Energy Load Balancing in Large-scale Sensor Networks Seung Jun Baek we consider how one might achieve more balanced energy burdens across the network by spreading sinks change their locations to balance the energy burdens incurred accross the network nodes [1

  14. 7, 94199464, 2007 The impact of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) per kg of fuel emitted are higher than for road transport or aviation. Besides cloud properties. Here we use ECHAM5/MESSy1-MADE, a global climate model with detailed aerosol and cloud burden and 0.4% to 1.4% to the total black carbon burden in the year 2000. In addition to changes in15

  15. OUTGASSING MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS USED IN DESIGNING THE DOUBLET III NEUTRAL BEAM INJECTOR SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    CA, November 13-16, 1979 OUTGASSING MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTSM ij „J OUTGASSING MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTSt r a i n t s were imposed. Outgassing Rate Measurement and

  16. Toward a Genealogy of Mestizaje: Rethinking Race in Colonial Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemser, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    as a threat to the Spanish government. After establishingthe actions of the Spanish government matter little. Alongto overthrow the Spanish government and impose their own

  17. Kinship structures and survival: Maternal mortality on the Croatian-Bosnian border 1750-1898

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammel, E A; Gullickson, A

    2004-01-01

    factors as the collapse of feudalism, military involvement,kinship; networks; feudalism; Croatia; Slavonia [SubmittedHabsburgs imposed a ‘new feudalism’ on the region, granting

  18. Perspective Reformulations of Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programs ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-06-02

    ations. Our overarching goal is to demonstrate the power of these techniques ...... i and zi is a binary variable indicating the purchase of asset i. Imposing a cardi-.

  19. Integrating constructability into conceptual structural design and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horn, Abbigayle

    2015-01-01

    This thesis encourages interdisciplinary design exploration through consideration of constructability in conceptual structural design. Six new metrics are introduced to measure variability in structural components, impose ...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    body of any county, city, or town to impose a different property tax on renewable energy generating machinery and tools than other... Eligibility: Commercial, Construction,...

  1. First Principles Study of the Li[subscript 10]GeP[subscript 2]S[subscript 12] Lithium Super Ionic Conductor Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo, Yifei

    The continued drive for high performance lithium batteries has imposed stricter requirements on the electrolyte materials. Solid electrolytes comprising lithium super ionic conductor materials exhibit good safety and ...

  2. Solution Methods for the Periodic Petrol Station Replenishment ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chefi

    2013-03-11

    Constraints (7) impose logic relations between the new variable Wnt and the assignment ..... In: MODSIM International Congress on Modelling and Simulation.

  3. ISSN 1744-683X www.softmatter.org Volume 7 | Number 1 | 7 January 2011 | Pages 1276

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    gradient that imposes different vitrification temperature limits at different positions along the gradient deformation strains, tunable transition temperatures, low density and low manufacturing cost. As a result

  4. Network Performance Improvements For Web Services : : An End-to-End View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radhakrishnan, Sivasankar

    2014-01-01

    high capital expenditure (CAPEX). The limitations imposed byworst-case traffic results in high CAPEX. Oversubscribingtree topology would reduce CAPEX, but network performance

  5. The Worst-case Wind Power Scenario for Adaptive Robust Unit ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sep 16, 2014 ... Abstract: Abstract--- The increasing penetration of uncertain generation such as wind and solar in power systems imposes new challenges to ...

  6. Energy Efficiency Under Alternative Carbon Policies: Incentives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.govpublications. Executive Summary Rate-based emissions standards (or emissions intensity standards), which impose a limit on the rate (or...

  7. DOE Cites Bechtel National Inc. for Price-Anderson Violations...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    practices that contributed to the problems. The Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 1988 authorizes the Energy Department to impose civil penalties on its contractors for...

  8. downloadForm.asp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or modification. "Local taxes" includes taxes imposed by a possession or territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, or the Northern Mariana Islands, if the contract is performed...

  9. Microsoft Word - DE-SOL-0006851 FINAL Amended 9-5-14.rtf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or modification. "Local taxes" includes taxes imposed by a possession or territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, or the Northern Mariana Islands, if the contract is performed...

  10. algor_ams.ps.gz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to transport-dominated di usion problems; unfortunately, it can fail to preserve. natural conservation laws .... Impose a quasiregular simplicial partition fM j g over

  11. Guidance Concerning Enforcement of EISA 2007 Standards Candelabra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Candelabra Base and Intermediate Base Lamps The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007) imposed energy conservation standards for candelabra and...

  12. Type of presentation: Oral IT-11-O-1669 Electrostatic potential of single-layer graphene measured using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    devices, energy storage, and electrocatalysis [2]. Characterisation of graphene imposes a requirement patches across the graphene sheet with larger phase shifts, which are typical features of silicon oxide

  13. Globalizing Public Interest Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Scott L; Trubek, Louise G

    2009-01-01

    American Court of Human Rights, with power to impose bindingmarkets and the power of human rights at the supranationaland leverage the power of the human rights system to

  14. Appliance Efficiency Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The federal government has imposed and updated appliance efficiency standards through several legislative acts,* and now has standards in place or under development for 30 classes of...

  15. BMC Ecology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    abdulkadir.sufi

    2009-03-21

    Feb 24, 2009 ... Address: 1Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West ... constraints imposed by daily energy requirements, feed-.

  16. Sandia Energy - Modeling & Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by chemical facilities under a program for imposing greater security requirements on high-threat sites. DHS is collaborating with Sandia to determine how the Chemical Facility...

  17. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    RT deviations impose (i.e. wind forecast errors on averagerelative magnitude of wind forecast errors decreases betweenwith managing DA wind forecast errors steadily increases.

  18. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-01-01

    pump  particles   into  a  low-­?density  outlying  “halo”  population;  this  physics  imposes  stringent  requirements   on   numerical   noise,   requiring   good   particle   statistics  

  19. Palabra del Escriton Fin de milenio en la mitad del mundo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mafla-Bustamante, Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    empezando la transi- democracia y el Presidente Alwynque hacen imposible que eso sea una democracia completa.Es una democracia completamente amarrada y supeditada.

  20. Part VI: Section I: Contract Clause

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    under the procedures authorized in Executive Order 11246, as amended. In addition, sanctions may be imposed and remedies invoked against the Contractor as provided in Executive...

  1. Inducing Corporate Compliance: A Law and Economics Analysis of Corporate Liability Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oded, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    include somewhat mitigated sanctions which are imposed onby adjusting the actual sanction to offset the increase inD. 1984. Prices and sanctions. Columbia Law Review 84, :

  2. Sanctions Against South Africa: Strategy for the Anti-Apartheid Movement of the 1980's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danaher, Kevin

    1981-01-01

    South Africa and Sanctions: Genesis and Prospects,SANCTIONS AGAINST SOUTH AFRICA: STRATEGY FOR THE ANTI-attempts to impose sanctions against the South Africa

  3. ResPoNSe: modeling the wide variability of residential energy consumption.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peffer, Therese; Burke, William; Auslander, David

    2010-01-01

    variation imposed by occupant behavior and appliance loads.a stochastic model of occupant behavior to develop annualhousehold occupant make-up and behavior. Physical factors,

  4. Environmental Management System Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    does not include ISO 14001 certification. Such certificationmarketplace. ISO 14001 certification imposes extensiveto the Berkeley Lab. Certification under ISO 14001 is most

  5. Three approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu2S, organic luminescent films, and PbSe nanocrystal superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbone, Ian Anthony

    2013-01-01

    keep shale ban until fracking alternative emerges. Business-farmers see threat from fracking. The New York Times,Agbroko. S.Africa imposes fracking moratorium in karoo.

  6. Harford County- Property Tax Credit for Solar and Geothermal Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Harford County offers a tax credit from real property taxes imposed on residential buildings, nonresidential buildings, or other structures that use solar or geothermal devices for heating, cooling...

  7. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, provide models for the study of symbiosis,...

  8. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Algae play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms provide models for the study of symbiosis...

  9. A Taste of Algal Genomes from the Joint Genome Institute Kuo...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Algae play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, provide models for the study of symbiosis,...

  10. A Taste of Algal Genomes from the Joint Genome Institute (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Algae play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, provide models for the study of symbiosis,...

  11. Advanced Penning-type ion source development and passive beam focusing techniques for an associated particle imaging neutron generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sy, Amy

    2013-01-01

    cusp magnetic field to the plasma confinement and resultantaxial magnetic field and the resultant magnetic confinementaxial magnetic field imposes a type of magnetic confinement

  12. COMING SOON DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Lucia

    SPECIFICTOPICS INCLUDE: · Engineering research in response to unique constraints imposed by poverty. · Assessment, interdisciplinary journal applying engineering and economic research to the problems of poverty. Published studies

  13. Saving Water Saves Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads,shorter showers). Water- and energy- conserving activitiesstress imposed on limited water (and energy) supplies from

  14. Multi-scale interaction of driftWave turbulence with large scale shear flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDevitt, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    then to impose outgoing wave energy boundary conditions [Appendix A, this outgoing wave energy condition implies thatMHD. Appendix A: Outgoing Wave Energy Boundary Conditions In

  15. "V Doc with logo.doc"

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and how you can get access to this information. Please review it carefully. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) imposes numerous...

  16. Reference guide to WPP version 2.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2010-01-22

    WPP is a computer program for simulating seismic wave propagation on parallel machines. WPP solves the governing equations in second order formulation using a node-based finite difference approach. The basic numerical method is described in [9]. WPP implements substantial capabilities for 3-D seismic modeling, with a free surface condition on the top boundary, non-reflecting far-field boundary conditions on the other boundaries, point force and point moment tensor source terms with many predefined time dependencies, fully 3-D heterogeneous material model specification, output of synthetic seismograms in the SAC [4] format, output of GMT [11] scripts for laying out simulation information on a map, and output of 2-D slices of (derived quantites of) the solution field as well as the material model. Version 2.0 of WPP allows the free surface boundary condition to be imposed on a curved topography. For this purpose a curvilinear mesh is used near the free surface, extending into the computational domain down to a user specified level. The elastic wave equations and the free surface boundary conditions are discretized on the curvilinear mesh using the energy conserving technique described in [2]. A curvilinear mesh generator is built into WPP and the curvilinear mesh is automatically generated from the topography. Below the curvilinear grid, the elastic wave equation is discretized on Cartesian meshes, which leads to a more computationally efficient algorithm. In version 2.0 of WPP, Cartesian local mesh refinement can be used to make the computational mesh finer near the free surface, where more resolution often is needed to resolve short wave lenghts in the solution, for example in sedimentary basins. The mesh refinement is performed in the vertical direction and each Cartesian grid is constructed from user specified refinement levels. In this approach, the grid size in all three spatial directions is doubled across each mesh refinement interface, leading to substantial savings in memory and computational effort. The energy conserving mesh refinement coupling method described in [10] is used to handle the hanging nodes along the refinement interface. The examples subdirectory of the WPP source distribution contains several examples and validation tests. Many Matlab/octave scripts are provided in the tools directory.

  17. Stigma models: Testing hypotheses of how images of Nevada are acquired and values are attached to them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1994-12-01

    This report analyzes data from surveys on the effects that images associated with nuclear power and waste (i.e., nuclear images) have on people`s preference to vacation in Nevada. The analysis was stimulated by a model of imagery and stigma which assumes that information about a potentially hazardous facility generates signals that elicit negative images about the place in which it is located. Individuals give these images negative values (valences) that lessen their desire to vacation, relocate, or retire in that place. The model has been used to argue that the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository could elicit images of nuclear waste that would stigmatize Nevada and thus impose substantial economic losses there. This report proposes a revised model that assumes that the acquisition and valuation of images depend on individuals` ideological and cultural predispositions and that the ways in which new images will affect their preferences and behavior partly depend on these predispositions. The report tests these hypotheses: (1) individuals with distinct cultural and ideological predispositions have different propensities for acquiring nuclear images, (2) these people attach different valences to these images, (3) the variations in these valences are important, and (4) the valences of the different categories of images within an individual`s image sets for a place correlate very well. The analysis largely confirms these hypotheses, indicating that the stigma model should be revised to (1) consider the relevant ideological and cultural predispositions of the people who will potentially acquire and attach value to the image, (2) specify the kinds of images that previously attracted people to the host state, and (3) consider interactions between the old and potential new images of the place. 37 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Measured and predicted temperature profiles along MEMS bridges at pressures from 0.05 to 625 torr.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2010-10-01

    We will present experimental and computational investigations of the thermal performance of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as a function of the surrounding gas pressure. Lowering the pressure in MEMS packages reduces gas damping, providing increased sensitivity for certain MEMS sensors; however, such packaging also dramatically affects their thermal performance since energy transfer to the environment is substantially reduced. High-spatial-resolution Raman thermometry was used to measure the temperature profiles on electrically heated, polycrystalline silicon bridges that are nominally 10 microns wide, 2.25 microns thick, 12 microns above the substrate, and either 200 or 400 microns long in nitrogen atmospheres with pressures ranging from 0.05 to 625 Torr. Finite element modeling of the thermal behavior of the MEMS bridges is performed and compared to the experimental results. Noncontinuum gas effects are incorporated into the continuum finite element model by imposing temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces that are determined from noncontinuum simulations. The experimental and simulation results indicate that at pressures below 0.5 Torr the gas-phase heat transfer is negligible compared to heat conduction through the thermal actuator legs. As the pressure increases above 0.5 Torr, the gas-phase heat transfer becomes more significant. At ambient pressures, gas-phase heat transfer drastically impacts the thermal performance. The measured and simulated temperature profiles are in qualitative agreement in the present study. Quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated temperature profiles requires accurate knowledge of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties, the device geometry, and the thermal accommodation coefficient.

  19. The Extension of the URF HADES: Realization and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastiaens, W; Demarche, M.

    2003-02-27

    An important step in the feasibility study of radioactive waste disposal in Boom Clay is the demonstration that we can construct galleries using industrial techniques, keeping the disturbance of the host-rock at an acceptable level for the long term safety of the disposal site. The successful construction of a connecting gallery of 85m in less than 6 weeks demonstrated the feasibility. To limit the disturbance, an expanding lining type was used: the wedge-block system; for the same reason, the lining was installed as soon as possible after excavation and a minimal excavation rate (2m/day) was imposed. The total radial convergence was limited to about 0.09m; the excavation radius was 2.445m. An extensive instrumentation and observation program accompanied the construction of the connecting gallery. Sensors measuring displacements, total pressure and pore water pressure were installed in the host rock to study the hydro-mechanical behavior of the clay when the gallery was excavated. Sensors in the tunneling shield gave information about the instantaneous convergence and excavation parameters. Strain gauges were placed in three sections of the lining to study the evolution of stresses in the lining with time. A systematic observation of the face and side-walls provided a useful database of the shape and orientation of encountered fractures. This way, the origin of the fractures can be explained and substantiated. The fractures were induced by differential stresses, about 6m ahead of the excavation face. No evidence of natural induced fractures was found. On the other hand, qualitative evidence of self healing and self-sealing of the host rock was encountered.

  20. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  1. Black Holes in Galaxy Mergers: Evolution of Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip F. Hopkins; Lars Hernquist; Thomas J. Cox; Tiziana Di Matteo; Paul Martini; Brant Robertson; Volker Springel

    2005-06-13

    Based on numerical simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers, we discuss a model in which quasar activity is tied to the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes in galaxies. Nuclear inflow of gas attending a galaxy collision triggers a starburst and feeds black hole growth, but for most of the duration of the starburst, the black hole is heavily obscured by surrounding gas and dust which limits the visibility of the quasar, especially at optical and UV wavelengths. Eventually, feedback energy from accretion heats the gas and expels it in a powerful wind, leaving a 'dead quasar'. Between buried and dead phases there is a window during which the galaxy would be seen as a luminous quasar. Because the black hole mass, radiative output, and distribution of obscuring gas and dust all evolve strongly with time, the duration of this phase of observable quasar activity depends on both the waveband and imposed luminosity threshold. We determine the observed and intrinsic lifetimes as a function of luminosity and frequency, and calculate observable lifetimes ~10 Myr for bright quasars in the optical B-band, in good agreement with empirical estimates and much smaller than the black hole growth timescales ~100 Myr, naturally producing a substantial population of 'buried' quasars. However, observed and intrinsic energy outputs converge in the IR and hard X-ray bands as attenuation becomes weaker and chances of observation greatly increase. We obtain the distribution of column densities along sightlines in which the quasar is seen above a given luminosity, and find that our result agrees remarkably well with observed estimates of the column density distribution from the SDSS for appropriate luminosity thresholds. (Abridged)

  2. Basin scale assessment of gas hydrate dissociation in response to climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Cameron-Smith, P.

    2011-07-01

    Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating climate. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those now occurring in the arctic and those predicted under future climate change scenarios, has only recently been investigated. Field investigations have discovered substantial methane gas plumes exiting the seafloor along the Arctic Ocean margin, and the plumes appear at depths corresponding to the upper limit of a receding gas hydrate stability zone. It has been suggested that these plumes may be the first visible signs of the dissociation of shallow hydrate deposits due to ongoing climate change in the arctic. We simulate the release of methane from oceanic deposits, including the effects of fully-coupled heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate dissociation, and other thermodynamic processes, for systems representative of segments of the Arctic Ocean margins. The modeling encompasses a range of shallow hydrate deposits from the landward limit of the hydrate stability zone down to water depths beyond the expected range of century-scale temperature changes. We impose temperature changes corresponding to predicted rates of climate change-related ocean warming and examine the possibility of hydrate dissociation and the release of methane. The assessment is performed at local-, regional-, and basin-scales. The simulation results are consistent with the hypothesis that dissociating shallow hydrates alone can result in significant methane fluxes at the seafloor. However, the methane release is likely to be confined to a narrow region of high dissociation susceptibility, defined by depth and temperature, and that any release will be continuous and controlled, rather than explosive. This modeling also establishes the first realistic bounds for methane release along the arctic continental shelf for potential hydrate dissociation scenarios, and ongoing work may help confirm whether climate change is already impacting the stability of the vast oceanic hydrate reservoir.

  3. Advanced insulations for refrigerator/freezers: The potential for new shell designs incorporating polymer barrier construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.

    1992-11-01

    The impending phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used to expand foam insulation, combined with requirements for increased energy efficiency, make the use of non-CFC-based high performance insulation technologies increasingly attractive. The majority of current efforts are directed at using advanced insulations in the form of thin, flat low-conductivity gas-filled or evacuated orthogonal panels, which we refer to as Advanced Insulation Panels (AIPs). AIPs can be used in composite with blown polymer foams to improve insulation performance in refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) of conventional design and manufacture. This AIP/foam composite approach is appealing because it appears to be a feasible, near-term method for incorporating advanced insulations into R/Fs without substantial redesign or retooling. However, the requirements for adequate flow of foam during the foam-in-place operation impose limitations on the allowable thickness and coverage area of AIPs. This report examines design alternatives which may offer a greater increase in overall thermal resistance than is possible with the use of AIP/foam composites in current R/F design. These design alternatives generally involve a basic redesign of the R/F taking into account the unique requirements of advanced insulations and the importance of minimizing thermal bridging with high thermal resistance insulations. The focus here is on R/F doors because they are relatively simple and independent R/F components and are therefore good candidates for development of alterative designs. R/F doors have significant thermal bridging problems due to the steel outer shell construction. A three dimensional finite difference computer modeling exercise of a R/F door geometry was used to compare the overall levels of thermal resistance (R-value) for various design configurations.

  4. Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

    2006-01-01

    THE SUN SHINE ON SOLAR COSTS: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OFWe find that: (1) solar costs have declined substantially2004 $/W AC . 4. SOLAR COSTS HAVE DECLINED SUBSTANTIALLY In

  5. Essays on energy and environmental policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novan, Kevin Michael

    2012-01-01

    regions with substantial solar potential, and minimal windregions with substantial solar potential and little off-peaksuch as wind and solar energy, has the potential to reduce

  6. Registrar's Office Student Employee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at Michigan Tech, that I may have access to records or other forms of individually identifiable information to any unauthorized person could subject me to criminal and civil penalties imposed by law. I further criminal or civil penalties are imposed. I also understand that willful or unauthorized disclosure may

  7. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01

    impose a price on the carbon in their own fossil fuels forprice A nthropogenic climate change is driven by CO 2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels (fossil fuel resources are suf?ciently concentrated such that, if the relatively few countries that extract the most fuels imposed a price

  8. SERIES Workshop "Role of research infrastructures in seismic rehabilitation" Istanbul, 8 -9 February 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the overall seismic behaviour of an underground structure · Ground failure · The response is also controlled by the imposed permanent ground· The response is also controlled by the imposed permanent ground deformations cause of collapse is due to the shear and buckling failure of the centre columns, which were designed

  9. Soc Choice Welfare (2003) 20: 353362 Constrained allocation problems with single-peaked

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    2003-01-01

    this problem when allocating pollution permits. Each permit gives the bearer firm the right to a certain amount of pollution. A firm's right to pollute is also bounded by the constraints imposed by local governments. E.g. very strict local limits may be imposed on polluters in densely populated or This paper is based

  10. NOTICE OF PROPOSED REGULATION Date: July 30, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    is resolved and any sanctions (where appropriate) are completed unless the sanction is expulsion, in which of sanctions to be imposed. No degree will be conferred until: 1. the action is resolved, including completion of any sanctions imposed, and 2. all degree requirements are fulfilled. In the event sanctions have

  11. September 4, 2003 |Previous Next Rooting out the cheats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart

    good behavior among their rhizobia by imposing sanctions against cheats. cheat the system University rhizobial partner by imposing sanctions against noncooperative bacteria. In what Regis Ferriere, professor withholds oxygen from noncooperative nodules. 2 2 Such sanctions are analogous to the policing that can

  12. STUDENT CHEATING AND PLAGIARISM Academic Sanctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichel, Lothar

    STUDENT CHEATING AND PLAGIARISM Academic Sanctions The following academic sanctions are provided chairperson and the student conduct office each time a sanction is imposed. Regional campus instructors shall notify the regional campus dean and the student conduct officer each time a sanction is imposed. Regional

  13. University of Arizona Code of Academic Integrity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    . If it is determined a violation did not occur, the sanctions imposed must be overturned. 5. If it is determined a violation did occur, determine if sanctions imposed by faculty member is/are appropriate, and either uphold the sanctions, or modify as appropriate. 6. Notify the student of the outcome of the appeal. 7. Send a copy

  14. As large terrestrial organisms, it can be difficult for humans to grasp what it is like to live in the wave-swept environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denny, Mark

    only to the forces imposed by the wind. Perhaps the following analogy will help. The force imposed on a structure by a water velocity of 2ms­1 is roughly equivalent to that exerted by a wind of 130milesh­1-force winds. If air were incompressible, a surf-zone water velocity of 25ms­1 would exert a force equivalent

  15. Research Group: Food Farm and Firms November 2012 "How do GM / non GM coexistence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the labeling threshold. The government may impose on GMO producers mandatory ex ante isolation distances from introduce an ex post compensation to non-GMO farmers for profit losses due to harvest down- grading, imposing GMO farmers' participation to a compensation fund via a tax on GM seeds. Assuming endogenous crop

  16. A system for interpretation of blast furnace stockrod measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnelae, J.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A system for intelligent monitoring and interpretation of signals from blast furnace stockrods is presented. The system visualizes the measurements and estimates the local burden layer thickness (under the rods) after every dump. Furthermore, it analyzes the burden descent rate to distinguish between slips, hangings, normal descent and peaks, etc., and also combines the stockrod information with findings of temperature measurements from an above-burden probe. The preprocessing of the signals and some features of the system, which is under development, are treated in this paper.

  17. Comparative study of plutonium burning in heavy and light water reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taiwo, T. A.; Kim, T. K.; Szakaly, F. J.; Hill, R. N.; Yang, W. S.; Dyck, G. R.; Hyland, B.; Edwards, G. W. R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Atomic Energy Canada Ltd.

    2008-01-01

    There is interest in the U.S. and world-wide in reducing the burden on geological nuclear fuel disposal sites. In some disposal scenarios, the decay heat loading of the surrounding rock limits the commercial spent fuel capacity of the sites. In the long term (100 to 1,500 years), this decay heat is generated primarily by actinides, particularly {sup 241}Am and {sup 241}Pu. One possible approach to reducing this decay-heat burden would be to reprocess commercial spent nuclear fuel and use intermediate-tier thermal reactors to 'burn' these actinides and other transuranics (plutonium and higher actinides). The viability of this approach is dependent on the detailed changes in chemical and isotopic compositions of actinide-bearing fuels after irradiation in thermal reactor spectra. The intermediate-tier thermal burners could bridge the commercial water-cooled reactors and fast reactors required for ultimate consumption of the transuranics generated in the commercial reactors. This would reduce the number of such fast reactors required to complete the mission of burning transuranics. If thermal systems are to be used for the transmutation mission, it is likely that they would be similar to or are advanced versions of the systems currently used for power generation. In both the U.S. and Canada, light- and heavy-water-cooled thermal reactors are used for power generation in the commercial nuclear sector. About 103 pressurized- and boiling- light water reactors (PWRs and BRWs) are deployed in the U.S. nuclear industry while about 18 CANDU (heavy-water-cooled) reactors are used in the Canadian industry. There are substantial differences between light and heavy water-cooled reactors that might affect transmutation potential. These arise from differences in neutron balance of the reactors, in neutron energy spectra, in operational approaches (e.g., continuous refueling enhancing fuel burnup), and so on. A systematic study has been conducted to compare the transmutation potentials of CANDU and PWR systems using (U,Pu)O{sub 2} mixed oxide fuels. First, we examine and compare the isotopic evolution of plutonium-containing fuel under irradiation in these reactor types to understand the physics processes involved. The core-physics parameters to be compared for these systems are generated using two-dimensional lattice physics models for a single fuel assembly that is representative of the whole-core (e.g., using the linear reactivity model). Results from a parametric study of the discharge burnup as a function of the Pu fraction in the initial heavy metal are presented for each system. The Pu consumption level, minor actinides buildup level, and the masses destroyed per unit energy generation are summarized and compared. In addition, assessment results for a simple plutonium recycling concept in realistic CANDU and PWR cores are presented. In these cases, plutonium from commercial spent PWR fuel will be separated and burned in realistic intermediate thermal burner reactors using (U,Pu)O{sub 2} mixed oxide fuel. The spent fuel from this thermal burner will be separated and the resulting Pu will be burned in a second pass through the thermal burner reactor. The resulting transuranics are assumed to then be burned in a fast burner reactor. The impact of using the spent fuels of these systems on the core performance of the fast burner reactor and the required numbers of the various reactor types will be discussed.

  18. New Directions: Potential Climate and Productivity Benefits from CO2 Capture in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    scale for reducing the carbon footprint of buildings throughto substantially reduce the carbon footprint of commercial

  19. International Perspectives on a Path to MFE DEMO G. H. Neilson1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    on a single roadmap to fusion, there is substantial scope to add value through international cooperation

  20. The Private Regulation of Global Corporate Conduct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, David

    2006-01-01

    substantial. For example, Starbucks purchases a significantwell as retailers such as Starbucks, offer FT coffee – among

  1. The Very Deep Hole Concept: Evaluation of an Alternative for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1979-01-01

    Costs could be substantially underestimated, particularly if the expansion of activities in oil-well drilling

  2. From Project to Community: The Redesign of Columbia Point [Place Profile: Harbor Point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goody, Joan E

    1993-01-01

    Section 8 Substantial Rehabilitation Rent Subsidy, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD);

  3. SUMMARY OF PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO UNIVERSITY REGULATION 6C2R-2.0131 Posting, Promotions, Chalking, Advertising and Active Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    , Advertising and Active Distribution of M aterials on FSU Campuses The regulation has been substantially

  4. When Claiming to Teach for Social Justice is Not Enough: Majoritarian Stories of Race, Difference, and Meritocracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Torres, Aubrey Scheopner; Barnatt, Joan; Piazza, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Rebecca had substantial classroom management issues, citingevidence of poor classroom management, Rebecca never felt

  5. Can bees simultaneously engage in adaptive foraging behaviour and attend to cryptic predators?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittka, Lars

    punishment in the form of bitter quinine solution. However, this resulted in bees incurring substantially

  6. Measuring Social Presence in Team-Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Paul

    game. The Daedalus project, a substantial study of MMORPG players, states that there are many different

  7. Comparison of Kinetic and Equilibrium Reaction Models in Simulating the Behavior of Gas Hydrates in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.

    2006-01-01

    hydrocarbons residing in hydrate deposits is estimated to substantially exceed all known conventional

  8. Comparison of kinetic and equilibrium reaction models in simulating gas hydrate behavior in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.

    2006-01-01

    hydrocarbons residing in hydrate deposits is estimated to substantially exceed all known conventional

  9. Comparison of kinetic and equilibrium reaction models in simulating the behavior of porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.

    2006-01-01

    hydrocarbons residing in hydrate deposits is estimated to substantially exceed all known conventional

  10. Annual Report of the EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Programme 2012/13 3 JET Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (ICRH) antennae. A substantial programme of ex-vessel refurbishment and maintenance activities was also

  11. Marine reserve effects on fishery profit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Crow; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven; Siegel, David A.; Costello, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    shery and conservation parties: (i) dedication of a moderateharvested and (ii) dedication of a substantial proportion (

  12. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    authorization." 10 C.F.R. 710.21(b)(6). Once the DOE has made a showing of derogatory information raising security concerns, the burden is on the individual to produce evidence...

  13. Delegating Network Security with More Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naous, Jad

    Network security is gravitating towards more centralized control. Strong centralization places a heavy burden on the administrator who has to manage complex security policies and be able to adapt to users' requests. To be ...

  14. Development of novel chemical biology tools to probe malaria parasite physiology and aid in antimalarial drug discovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abshire, James R. (James Robbins)

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains a major burden to global public health. Antimalarial drugs are a mainstay in efforts to control and eventually eradicate this disease. However, increasing drug resistance threatens to reverse recent gains ...

  15. Dartmouth College HANOVER NEW HAMPSHIRE 037553529 Office of the Provost 6004 Parkhurst Hall, Rm. 102 Tel (603)6464091

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dartmouth College HANOVER NEW HAMPSHIRE 037553529 Office on Sponsored Activities and the Vice Provost for Research on the implementation of the new regulations. Duane hiring a Conflict of Interest Officer to handle the additional administrative burden of the new

  16. The water consumption of energy production: an international comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, David H.

    Producing energy resources requires significant quantities of fresh water. As an energy sector changes or expands, the mix of technologies deployed to produce fuels and electricity determines the associated burden on ...

  17. Developing effective chronic disease interventions in Africa: insights from Ghana and Cameroon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Boynton, Petra; Atanga, Lem L.

    2010-04-19

    - vant to secondary prevention. Sedentary lifestyles have been strongly implicated in Ghana's chronic disease burden [45]. However there is also an emerging keep-fit culture in urban and rural fit and football clubs are also common across the country...

  18. Urban activities and critical stocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, John E.

    Assessing contemporary society ?s burden on the planet has been an ongoing project of many research teams in many disciplines. The recent emergence and proliferation of efforts to understand the role that cities play has ...

  19. Inferring team task plans from human meetings: A generative modeling approach with logic-based prior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Been

    We aim to reduce the burden of programming and deploying autonomous systems to work in concert with people in time-critical domains such as military field operations and disaster response. Deployment plans for these ...

  20. Stabilization of basic oxygen furnace slag by hot-stage carbonation treatment Rafael M. Santos a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 3001 Leuven, Belgium b KU Leuven, Dept. Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 for heavy metal leaching, is a costly burden on metallurgi- cal plants; a sustainable valorization route

  1. Which Semantic Web? Catherine C. Marshall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Cathy

    and Subject Descriptors H.5.4 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: Hypertext/Hypermedia ­ architectures years (see for example [27]). Finally, there is a utopian desire to offload the burden of information

  2. A new mouse model to probe the role of aflatoxin B? in liver carcinogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouhenguel, Jason T

    2010-01-01

    One and a half million new cancer cases are reported each year in the United States. Despite this overwhelming burden of disease, current preventative treatments and early detection techniques are inadequate. With cancers, ...

  3. Sustainability 2012, 4, 210-226; doi:10.3390/su4020210 sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sustainability 2012, 4, 210-226; doi:10.3390/su4020210 sustainability ISSN 2071-1050 www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability accounting. Keywords: climate policy; burden sharing; negative emissions OPEN ACCESS #12;Sustainability 2012

  4. Compiler techniques for scalable performance of stream programs on multicore architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Michael I. (Michael Ian), 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Given the ubiquity of multicore processors, there is an acute need to enable the development of scalable parallel applications without unduly burdening programmers. Currently, programmers are asked not only to explicitly ...

  5. Procedia Engineering 102 (2015) 731 740 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    , for example, the metallurgical and pharmaceutical industries. In blast furnaces operated in the metallurgical of a hopper into the burden surface of the furnace through an inclined rotating chute. Such particulate flows

  6. Transmutation of Transuranic Elements in Advanced MOX and IMF Fuel Assemblies Utilizing Multi-recycling Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yunhuang

    2011-02-22

    The accumulation of spent nuclear fuel may be hindering the expansion of nuclear electricity production. However, the reprocessing and recycling of spent fuel may reduce its volume and environmental burden. Although fast spectrum reactors...

  7. Optimization of a seed and blanket thorium-uranium fuel cycle for pressurized water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dean, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    A heterogeneous LWR core design, which employs a thorium/uranium once through fuel cycle, is optimized for good economics, wide safety margins, minimal waste burden and high proliferation resistance. The focus is on the ...

  8. Two-stage Ignition as an Indicator of Low Temperature Combustion in a Late Injection Pre-mixed Compression Ignition Control Strategy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bittle, Joshua

    2011-02-22

    Internal combustion engines have dealt with increasingly restricted emissions requirements. After-treatment devices are successful in bringing emissions into compliance, but in-cylinder combustion control can reduce their burden by reducing engine...

  9. Microsoft Word - 0047.tba.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    gross mismanagement, and abuse of authority, and (ii) refusals to participate in dangerous activities. 10 C.F.R. 708.1, 708.5. - 2 - burden of showing, by a preponderance...

  10. "Anchor Babies" and Dreams Deferred: Public Discourse about Immigrant Children and Implications for Civic and Educational Rights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich; Johnson, Sarah Jean

    2011-01-01

    english/law/crc.htm. Van Dijk, T.  A.  (1991).  Racism and english/law/crc.htm. van Dijk, T.  A.  (1991).  Racism and burdens, and animals (van Dijk, 1991).  Mehan  (1997) 

  11. Towards Macroscopic Water Integration for Zero Liquid Discharge in Industrial Complexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Othman, Zakarya

    2015-03-02

    associated with high capital and operating cost and pose a significant economic burden to implementing industries. ZLD solutions are explored as End-of-Pipe treatment options to eliminate liquid discharges. Instead, ZLD options should be explored...

  12. Ilex vomitoria (Native) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    Fecal egg counts are a practical, cost-effective diagnostic tool for determining parasite burden in sheep and goats. This publication describes materials and equipment needed and explains the procedure for making valid egg counts.

  13. What I learned from missionaries in the Dominican Republic : loosen the agenda, hold onto the vision; cherchando is an important part of transformational development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Sandra (Sandra M.)

    2007-01-01

    Missionaries go into the field with the desire to transform lives - not just spiritually and not just materially, but entirely, or in current lingo, holistically. Such an ambitious goal, combined with the burden of the ...

  14. Countercurrent Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Improvements Over Batch Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zentay, Agustin Nicholas

    2014-05-05

    Transportation fuels are the major driver for fossil fuel production, a burden that many countries have tried to ease by blending fossil fuels with biofuel substitutes such as ethanol. Current U.S. ethanol production relies ...

  15. Monitoring success of HIV/AIDS health care delivery : balancing donor requirements with internal management needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Health care delivery organizations bear the burden of meeting monitoring and evaluation requirements set by numerous external organizations often at the cost of implementing internally defined management needs. Monitoring ...

  16. Evaluation of mobile emissions contributions to Mexico City's emissions inventory using on-road and cross-road emission measurements and ambient data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavala-Perez, Miguel Angel

    Mobile emissions represent a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and, therefore, it is crucial to use top-down techniques informed by on-road exhaust ...

  17. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutilier, Michael Stephen Ha

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees – a readily available, ...

  18. Rent Reform Initiatives In Public Housing and Section 8 Voucher Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    over payment standards and HUD’s FMR obligations would beLocal housing agencies and HUD must collaborate on ways toincluding: Burdens placed upon HUD and its local agency

  19. Web-based Supplementary Materials for Test for Rare Variants by Environment Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xihong

    Web-based Supplementary Materials for Test for Rare Variants by Environment Interactions and Xihong Lin May 2015 #12;Contents Web Appendix 1. Bias Analysis of Burden Tests dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Web Appendix 2. i

  20. DSP.Ear: Leveraging Co-Processor Support for Continuous Audio Sensing on Smartphones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgiev, Petko; Lane, Nicholas D.; Rachuri, Kiran K.; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    . However, the cumulative processing burden critically impacts the phone battery. To address this problem, we propose DSP.Ear – an integrated sensing system that takes advantage of the latest low-power DSP co-processor technology in commodity mobile...

  1. Assessment of the appropriateness and market opportunity of a point-of-care diagnostic solution for hepatitis C in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocker, Charlotte (Charlotte Amanda Lucy)

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is the most common bloodborne infection in the United States. Although the incidence of HCV is declining, the burden of the disease is rising, driven by the increasing rates of end-stage liver disease and ...

  2. Durability of Response in Children Treated with Pegylated Interferon alfa-2a +/- Ribavirin for Chronic Hepatitis C.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    +/- Ribavirin for Chronic Hepatitis C Kathleen B. Schwarz MDKamal NM. Burden of Pediatric Hepatitis C. World J Gastro 3.Adolescents with Chronic Hepatitis C. Gastro 2011;140:450-8.

  3. Mother Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdulmelik, Nebila

    2009-01-01

    and strong LIVE LONG MOTHER AFRICA! About the author: NebilaMOTHER AFRICA Ailing pains that never seem to go awaydespite the strife Mother AFRICA Although they will burden

  4. Identification of small molecules for human hepatocyte expansion and iPS differentiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Jing

    Cell-based therapies hold the potential to alleviate the growing burden of liver diseases. Such therapies require human hepatocytes, which, within the stromal context of the liver, are capable of many rounds of replication. ...

  5. Sargassum Early Advisory System (SEAS): Developing the Standard Operating Procedure of Investigating the Hourly Growth Rate of Sargassum While Suspended in the Neritic Coastal waters off of Galveston, Texas. (May 2014) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Brandon Nicholas

    2014-01-22

    will feed on the abundant life that grows throughout its mats. It serves a fundamental role once on the beaches; providing organic material to sustain dune vegetation. Sargassum, while vital to beach health, can become a significant burden to coastal...

  6. Comparison of emissions from on-road sources using a mobile laboratory under various driving and operational sampling modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavala-Perez, Miguel Angel

    Mobile sources produce a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in large cities and have harmful effects on air quality at multiple spatial scales. Mobile emissions are intrinsically difficult to ...

  7. Predicting Risk for Incidences of Homelessness Among Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motupalli, Venkat

    2015-12-18

    screener, with no added time or data collection burden. Further, a freeware script, compatible with all common data collection and storage systems, was developed to provide a baseline for further digital management efforts....

  8. OPEC at high noon 1974-1981

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1992-01-01

    After 1973, oil consumption stagnated worldwide. Non-OPEC output increased, mostly in Alaska, Mexico, and the North Sea, but not because of the price rise. The cartel nations had to assume the whole burden of cutting back ...

  9. THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schedule Wood Chip Deliveries According to Demand......103 AR No. 18 Purchase Materials from Supplier in Customized Packing...105 AR No. 19 Install Pellet Silo and Receive Bulk Delivery Discount.......107 BURDEN

  10. Microsoft PowerPoint - 1_BRIAN_HORN_NMMSS Overrview-May 12 2014...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    23 Desired improvements * Simplify process for sites to report data to NMMSS - Use of internet - Use of e-mail * No new burden on sites * Keep reporting simple for reporting sites...

  11. The use of daylight in the design of a controlled environment for food production in the Caribbean and other equatorial climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles, Curtis B

    1989-01-01

    This thesis addresses the use of daylight in the design of a controlled environment for food production in the Caribbean and other Equatorial climates. An expanding population has put a tremendous burden on the food ...

  12. Next Generation Manufacturing Processes | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Minimization of Blast Furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas...

  13. Distributive Justice: A Status Value Formulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Joseph; Zelditch, Morris Jr; Anderson, Bo; Cohen, Bernard P

    2015-07-29

    The authors present a theory of distributive justice, feelings that a distribution of benefits and burdens to particular individuals is right and proper. They distinguish local systems and referential structures, and the theory predicts...

  14. Uncertainties in estimates of the oxidative capacity of the urban atmosphere : a modeling and measurement approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavala-Pérez, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    Mobile emissions represent a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in megacities and have a deleterious effect on air quality at local and regional scales. Due to the significant sources of ...

  15. Monitoring Internal Parasite Infection in Small Ruminants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machen, Richard V.; Craddock, Frank; Craig, Tom

    1998-05-19

    Fecal egg counts are a practical, cost-effective diagnostic tool for determining parasite burden in sheep and goats. This publication describes materials and equipment needed and explains the procedure for making valid egg counts....

  16. An Investigation of the Optimal Sample Size, Relationship between Existing Tests and Performance, and New Recommended Specifications for Flexible Base Courses in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewes, Bailey

    2013-04-22

    The purpose of this study was to improve flexible base course performance within the state of Texas while reducing TxDOT’s testing burden. The focus of this study was to revise the current specification with the intent ...

  17. U

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Expires: XXXXXXX Burden: 5 hours 1 INSTRUCTIONS PURPOSE The Form EIA-851A "Domestic Uranium Production Report (Annual)" is used to collect data about the U.S. uranium industry...

  18. U

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Approval Expires: XXXXXXXX Burden: 15 hours 1 INSTRUCTIONS PURPOSE The Form EIA-858 "Uranium Marketing Annual Survey" is used to collect data about the U.S. uranium market on...

  19. U

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    XXXXXXX Burden: 0.75 hours 1 INSTRUCTIONS PURPOSE The Form EIA-851Q "Domestic Uranium Production Report (Quarterly)" is used to collect data about the U.S. uranium...

  20. Decision analysis of novel point-of-care diagnostics for Pediatric Pneumonia : implementation in Developing countries with tiered healthcare systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Biao, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric Pneumonia (PNA) is the single leading cause of death in children under five, accounting for 19% of all childhood deaths worldwide. Due to severe resource constraints on healthcare, the global burden of the disease ...