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1

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

2

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID4,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Electric6"10Oil and

3

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used...

4

AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue (ThousandsAboutsite. IfHome

5

Total Imports of Residual Fuel  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--State Offshore Shale ProvedCountry: All Countries2009 2010

6

Imports of Distillate Fuel Oil  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7,992000Implications ofU.S.270 300

7

Total Imports of Residual Fuel  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26, 2008 (Next1,Product: Total9,216

8

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Katzer #12;CHARGE TO THE ALTF PANEL · Evaluate technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social

9

Importance of glassy fragility for energy applications of ionic liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that are liquid close to room temperature. Their possible applications are numerous, e.g., as solvents for green chemistry in various electrochemical devices, and even for such "exotic" purposes as spinning-liquid mirrors for lunar telescopes. Here we concentrate on their use for new advancements in energy-storage and -conversion devices: Batteries, supercapacitors or fuel cells using ILs as electrolytes could be important building blocks for the sustainable energy supply of tomorrow. Interestingly, ILs show glassy freezing and the universal, but until now only poorly understood dynamic properties of glassy matter, dominate many of their physical properties. We show that the conductivity of ILs, an essential figure of merit for any electrochemical application, depends in a systematic way not only on their glass temperature but also on the so-called fragility, characterizing the non-canonical super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of their ionic mobility.

P. Sippel; P. Lunkenheimer; S. Krohns; E. Thoms; A. Loidl

2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

10

Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

11

Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

13

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group 2  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue (ThousandsAboutsite. IfHome2

15

AEO2014 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting 1  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oil and Gas Supply AEO2014

16

AEO2015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Presentation  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oil and GasPURPOSES. DO

17

Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

U.S. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Imports  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198 18 Q 10Origin

19

Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they do?t compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Vclav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

23

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

24

Barriers to a biofuels transition in the U.S. liquid fuels sector.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Demand for liquid fuels (i.e., petroleum products) has burdened the U.S. with major challenges, including national security and economic concerns stemming from rising petroleum imports; (more)

O'Donnell, Michael Joseph

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

26

East Coast (PADD 1) Distillate Fuel Oil Imports  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96Nebraska Nuclear ProfileReportSep-14 Oct-14 Nov-14 Dec-14

27

Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Day with Secretary ChuEnergy

28

Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWende NewSowitecAWSAgri-Energy FocusBenefit Tool |

29

Liquid Fuels from Biomass | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty

30

Space effect on liquid film flow in a BWR fuel bundle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Critical power at boiling transition is an important factor in a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel bundle design. Boiling transition under high quality accounts for dryout as the result of the complete disappearance of film flow on a fuel rod. This liquid film vanishing process can be calculated by the liquid film model, which takes into account the evaporation due to heat from the rod surface, liquid film entrainment by steam flow, and liquid droplet deposition. It is known that spacers affect liquid film entrainment and liquid droplet deposition, so the detailed study of spacer effects on hydrodynamic characteristics is necessary for critical power prediction based on the film flow model. Many studies have been conducted to examine spacer effects on liquid film flow. However, most of them are restricted to simple test sections such as a rectangular conduit. There are a few reports on fuel bundle geometry; however the bundle studied was only a 3 by 3 rod array. It is known that spacers affect not only deposition and entrainment but also flow distribution among the subchannels. Therefore, in this research, liquid film thickness measurements were performed to clarify the deposition and entrainment at a spacer in a full-sized fuel bundle. Furthermore, critical power predictions on a BWR fuel bundle were carried out with a film flow model that included a spacer model.

Nishida, Koji; Kanazawa, Toru; Yokomizo, Osamu (Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for...

32

Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

Galle-Bishop, John Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM) Unveiling LFMM  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (MillionYear JanDecadeYearFeet) Year Jan Feb Mar

34

Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartment ofCarrie Noonan About UsEnergy SheriCellulosic Liquid Fuels

35

Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.13 LiquidEnergy fuels

36

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Liquid fuel microcombustor using microfabricated multiplexed electrospray sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering, Yale Center for Combustion Studies, New Haven, CT 06520, USA b Department of Electrical by microfabricating the fuel distributor in Si using deep reactive ion etching. Tests were performed using JP-8- ies, that is, of portable electricity generators operating on liquid fuels, may result in dramatic

Gomez, Alessandro

39

ACTIVE INSTABILITY CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS IN A LIQUID FUELED COMBUSTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACTIVE INSTABILITY CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS IN A LIQUID FUELED COMBUSTOR ADAM COKER YEDIDIA NEUMEIER-fueled combustor that were performed to improve understanding of the factors limiting control performance. A set varied. They show that the combustor's nominal dynamics (i.e., without Received 23 March 2005; accepted 7

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

40

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Liquid fuel reformer development: Autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to clean hydrogen feeds for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The process incorporates an autothermal reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. The authors have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, certified low-sulfur grade 1 diesel, and a standard grade 2 diesel. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 850 C, while maximum hydrogen product yields for the two diesel fuels were near 50%. Residual products in all cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, and methane. Further studies with grade 1 diesel showed improved conversion as the water:fuel ratio was increased from 1 to 2 at 850 C. Soot formation was reduced when the oxygen:carbon ratio was maintained at 1 at 850 C. There were no significant changes in hydrogen yield as the space velocity and the oxygen:fuel ratio were varied. Tests with a microchannel monolithic catalyst yielded similar or improved hydrogen levels at higher space velocities than with extruded pellets in a packed bed.

Pereira, C.; Bae, J-M.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

42

Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Enhanced conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

1985-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

45

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.13 Liquid

46

Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997EnvironmentElectricityrgy81 § ¨,43332EIAYearLiquid

47

Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

Richard Troiano

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Advanced liquid fuel production from biomass for power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the European Union, important political decisions recently adopted and concerning the evolution of the Common Agriculture Policy, the GATT trade liberalisation Agreement and new measures actually under discussion (CARBON TAX, Financial support for rural development...) will have significant impact, in a no distant future, on the bioenergy activity. Also the considerable energy import ({approximately} 55% of the consumption) is of increasing concerns. The biomass potential in the E.U. is large, but the availability of commercial technologies for processing and utilising this renewable energy resource is very modest. Thus, a strong effort for the development of new and efficient technologies (like the one implemented by ENEL/CRT) is essential, as well as the build-up of an efficient industry for the commercialisation of reliable, low-cost biomass conversion/utilisation systems. The recently founded {open_quotes}European Bioenergy Industry Association{close_quotes} will make an effort for the promotion of this specific new industrial sector. In this framework, a new research effort (in Germany/Italy) for up-grading the bio-crude-oil by high energetic electrons. This process, if demonstrated feasible, could be of great interest for the production of new liquid fuels of sufficient quality to be utilised in most types of modern power generator.

Grassi, G.; Palmarocchi, M.; Joeler, J. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie, Pisa (Italy)] [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

Dr. Paul A. Lessing

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Assumptions for Annual Energy Outlook 2014: Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5: Oil and Gas Workingfor

51

A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

Kuester, J.L.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

3: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute Fact 833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute A 2014 survey...

55

Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323Program Accomplishments of the Cloud

56

Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323Program Accomplishments of the CloudProgram

57

An Update in the Development of Alternate Liquid Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is classified by the U.S. Department of Energy as a non-critical or preferred fuel. 2. It is a cost effective high yield BTU fuel that can be produced with readily available feedstocks utilizing standard hardware and processing equipment. j 3. It has a low... for the disposal of spent industrial (flammable) liquids. 5. Certified laboratory analyses indicate that ALF feedstocks are free of all known carcinogens, and hazardous elements. 6. Utilization of ALF can provide a 20% business energy tax credit, in addition...

Rose, M. J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing...

60

Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel Matthew Eisaman and their impact Technology: Extracting CO2 from seawater Application: Renewable liquid fuel #12;Outline: Renewable liquid fuel #12;The data on atmospheric CO2 2000 years ago http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2

Homes, Christopher C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

iquid fuel--such as gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, and ethanol--will continue to be important for pow-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L iquid fuel--such as gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, and ethanol--will continue to be important for pow- ering our transportation systems in the foreseeable future. Transportation fuels derived from-derived transportation fuels are to substitute (on a large scale) for petroleum-based fuels. For example, how do we

Gilbert, Matthew

62

NREL Research on Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuels  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease. It can be used as an additive (typically 20%) to reduce vehicle emissions or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

None

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

63

NREL Research on Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease. It can be used as an additive (typically 20%) to reduce vehicle emissions or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

U.S. Total Imports of Residual Fuel  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone: FAX:9,152 8,905Area: U.S. Total Lower 48Area:

65

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

66

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Development of a Compact Liquid Fueled Pulsed Detonation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

automotive ignition system. Pre-heated liquid fuel is sprayed into a current of pre-heated air and thoroughly Hz. The PDE set up is water cooled allowing long duration testing. Diagnostics are performed using it necessary to preheat the fuel and/or air and to use nozzles to finely atomize the fuel spray. Liquid fueled

Texas at Arlington, University of

68

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

69

Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.

Li, H.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.

Li, H.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

0: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle Fact 680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle A June 2011 survey asked the...

73

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

75

alternative liquid fuels: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 3 The Effect of Using an Alternative Fuel...

76

alternative liquid fuel: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 3 The Effect of Using an Alternative Fuel...

77

A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

ConocoPhillips and Nexant Corporatin 2004deerabbott.pdf More Documents & Publications Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects...

78

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

Effect of directed port air flow on liquid fuel transport in a port fuel injected spark ignition engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With highly efficient modem catalysts, startup HC emissions have become a significant portion of the trip total. Liquid fuel is a major source of HC emissions during the cold start and fast idle period. Thus the control ...

Scaringe, Robert J. (Robert Joseph)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Corrosion-resistant fuel cladding allow for liquid metal fast breeder reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aluminide coating for a fuel cladding tube for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors) such as those using liquid sodium as a heat transfer agent. The coating comprises a mixture of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases and presents good corrosion resistance to liquid sodium at temperatures up to 700.degree. C. while additionally presenting a barrier to outward diffusion of .sup.54 Mn.

Brehm, Jr., William F. (Richland, WA); Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Meeting U.S. Liquid Transport Fuel Needs with a Nuclear Hydrogen Biomass System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two major energy challenges for the United States are replacing crude oil in our transportation system and eliminating greenhouse gas emissions. A domestic-source greenhouse-gas-neutral nuclear hydrogen biomass system to replace oil in the transportation sector is described. Some parts of the transportation system can be electrified with electricity supplied by nuclear energy sources that do not emit significant quantities of greenhouse gases. Other components of the transportation system require liquid fuels. Biomass can be converted to greenhouse-gas-neutral liquid fuels; however, the conversion of biomass-to-liquid fuels is energy intensive. There is insufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid fuel demands and provide the energy required to process the biomass-to-liquid fuels. With the use of nuclear energy to provide heat, electricity, and hydrogen for the processing of biomass-to-liquid fuels, the liquid fuel production per unit of biomass is dramatically increased, and the available biomass could meet U.S. liquid fuel requirements.

Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

Tao, Thomas

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

83

Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

84

The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

85

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

87

LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Determination of liquid and solid phase composition in partially frozen middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the tasks of the United States Navy Mobility Fuels program at the Naval Research Laboratory is to determine the effect of composition on the freezing properties of liquid fuels. The combination of requirements for ship and jet aircraft fuels of a low freezing point (to permit cold temperature operations around the world) and a flash point minimum (to reduce the hazard of storage and transport of liquid fuels on board ship) leads to opposing compositional needs. This is because many components of a fuel that tend to lower the freezing point (small hydrocarbons with higher vapor pressures) will also reduce the flash point. Because of these constraints, it is not always practical to produce fuels meeting these requirements from available crudes. This limits the amount of crudes and hence the amount of JP-5, the Navy fuel for carrier based aircraft, which can be produced from ''a barrel of crude.'' With increased knowledge and understanding of the components that first crystallize out of a cold fuel, it may be possible to modify refining techniques to increase the yield of Navy liquid fuels per barrel of crude without compromising either the freezing point or the flash point restrictions. This paper deals with the method used to separate the liquid filtrate from the precipitate in fuels cooled to predetermined temperatures below their freezing points, the method of analyzing the fuel and fuel fractions, and the results obtained from a study of one particular jet fuel.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Mushrush, G.W.; Hazlett, R.N.; DeGuzman, J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Josephine Elia, Graduate Student, Princeton University

90

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller Bachelors of Engineering, University in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is a critical issue in ensuring high cell performance. The water production

Victoria, University of

91

LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

VANDOR,D.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Evaporation Characteristics of a Liquid Bio-Fuel from Chicken Litter .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Alternative fuels are becoming more important as fossil fuels become more expensive. This thesis describes the production and properties of a bio-oil produced from waste (more)

Tolonen, Erik

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergyIDIQ Contract ESPCElectricalofVoltageEmployeeEmployees

94

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment ofEnergy Natural Gas: Transmission,

95

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Management of liquid water is critical for optimal fuel-cell operation, especially at low temperatures. It is therefore important to understand the wetting properties and water holdup of the various fuel-cell layers. While the gas-diffusion layer is relatively hydrophobic and exhibits a strong intermediate wettability, the catalyst layer is predominantly hydrophilic. In addition, the water content of the ionomer in the catalyst layer is lower than that of the bulk membrane, and is affected by platinum surfaces. Liquid-water removal occurs through droplets on the surface of the gas-diffusion layer. In order to predict droplet instability and detachment, a force balance is used. While the pressure or drag force on the droplet can be derived, the adhesion or surface-tension force requires measurement using a sliding-angle approach. It is shown that droplets produced by forcing water through the gas-diffusion layer rather than placing them on top of it show much stronger adhesion forces owing to the contact to the subsurface water.

Das, Prodip K.; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

97

Dehydrogenation of liquid fuel in microchannel catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an improved process for the storage and delivery of hydrogen by the reversible hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of an organic compound wherein the organic compound is initially in its hydrogenated state. The improvement in the route to generating hydrogen is in the dehydrogenation step and recovery of the dehydrogenated organic compound resides in the following steps: introducing a hydrogenated organic compound to a microchannel reactor incorporating a dehydrogenation catalyst; effecting dehydrogenation of said hydrogenated organic compound under conditions whereby said hydrogenated organic compound is present as a liquid phase; generating a reaction product comprised of a liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound and gaseous hydrogen; separating the liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound from gaseous hydrogen; and, recovering the hydrogen and liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound.

Toseland, Bernard Allen (Coopersburg, PA); Pez, Guido Peter (Allentown, PA); Puri, Pushpinder Singh (Emmaus, PA)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

98

Liquid Fuels Taxes and Credits (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides a review of the treatment of federal fuels taxes and tax credits in Annual Energy Outlook 2010.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Sandia National Laboratories: convert natural gas to liquid fuel for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NREL Releasehy-drogenmaterial elements

100

The design of a microfabricated air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this dissertation, the microfabricated electrode (MFE) concept was applied to the design of an air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells. The catalyst layer of the electrode is envisioned to be fabricated by using ...

Pierre, Fritz, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Loan Guarantee to Support the Construction and Startup of the Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, Wyoming December 16, 2009 EIS-0432: Scoping...

102

Woodfuel scoping study Increasing the use of woodfuel as a substitute for fossil fuels is important  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Woodfuel scoping study Increasing the use of woodfuel as a substitute for fossil fuels is important tonnes of material a year from currently UMW in England by 2020. New government subsidies for heat

103

First AEO2015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.WyomingExpansion 5 Figure 2.Stocks 2009July 21,

104

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32Department ofMoving AwayAvailability of Feedstock and

105

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and VehicleCoolingCompensation

106

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis expected process scale required for favorable economics the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Experimental investigation of onboard storage and refueling systems for liquid-hydrogen-fueled vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2-1/2-year baseline experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive vehicle project was conducted to evaluate and document state-of-the-art capabilities in engine conversion for hydrogen operation, liquid-hydrogen onboard storage, and liquid-hydrogen refueling. The engine conversion, onboard liquid-hydrogen storage tank, and liquid-hydrogen refueling system used in the project represented readily available equipment or technology when the project began. The project information documented herein can serve as a basis of comparison with which to evaluate future vehicles that are powered by hydrogen or other alternative fuels, with different engines, and different fuel-storage methods. The results of the project indicate that liquid-hydrogen storage observed an operating vehicle and routine refueling of the vehicle can be accomplished over an extended period without any major difficulty. Two different liquid-hydrogen vehicle onboard storage tanks designed for vehicular applications were tested in actual road operation: the first was an aluminum dewar with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 110 l; the second was a Dewar with an aluminum outer vessel, two copper, vapor-cooled thermal-radiation shields, and a stainless-steel inner vessel with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 155 l. The car was refueled with liquid hydrogen at least 65 times involving more than 8.1 kl of liquid hydrogen during the 17 months that the car was operated on liquid hydrogen. The vehicle, a 1979 Buick Century sedan with a 3.8-l-displacement turbocharged V6 engine, was driven for 3633 km over the road on hydrogen. The vehicle had a range without refueling of about 274 km with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km with the second tank. The vehicle achieved 2.4 km/l of liquid hydrogen which corresponds to 9.4 km/l gasoline on an equivalent energy basis.

Stewart, W.F.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

Gerald P. Huffman

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

109

Liquid-liquid equilibria of fuel oxygenate + water + hydrocarbon mixtures. 3: Effect of temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have measured the ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol mixtures with, separately, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and toluene at 5 and 40 C, water + tert-amyl alcohol (TAOH) mixtures with, separately, toluene and hexane at 5 and 40 C, and of water + TAOH + pentane mixtures at 5 C. The ethanol-containing systems exhibit type 1 liquid-liquid phase behavior, and the TAOH-containing systems exhibit type 2 behavior. These data, together with the data they have previously reported at 25 C, provide information on how the liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems change as a function of temperature. While the addition of ethanol is found to increase the solubility of hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase, the concentration of the hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase decreases with increasing temperature. With the exception of hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase, the experimental data could be correlated quite well with either the UNIQUAC or NRTL models. For most of the systems considered here the predictions of the phase behavior with the liquid-liquid UNIFAC group-contribution model are only qualitatively correct. However, the liquid-liquid UNIFAC model erroneously predicts type 2 phase behavior to occur for water + ethanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane system at 5 C.

Wagner, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik; Sandler, S.I. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Interchangeability of gaseous fuels - The importance of the Wobbe-index  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Wobbe-index is introduced as an important gas quality criterion when interchanging gaseous fuels for engines. Changes in fuel gas composition appear not to induce noticeable changes in air to fuel ratio and combustion velocity when the Wobbe-index remains the same. This implies that no re-adjustment of ignition timing and air to fuel ratio settings is required, then. The volumetric energy content, the explosion limits and the knock resistance of a mixture can vary to a moderate extent when the Wobbe-index is constant and the gas composition varies.

Klimstra, J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Second AEO2014 Liquids Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting Summary  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubic Feet)Year

112

Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997EnvironmentElectricityrgy81 § ¨,43332EIAYear

113

Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas - Energy Information  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683DieselValues shownshortHouseholdsValues shown

114

Turning methane into usable liquid fuel: Illinois Institute of Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2TopoPortalBRDFTunableTurbulence may be keyand

115

Liquid Fuels via Upgrading of Syngas Intermediates Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.13 Liquid Fuels via Upgrading

116

Liquid Fuels via Uprading of Syngas Intermediates Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.13 Liquid Fuels via

117

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Air Force is evaluating various feedstock sources of endothermic fuels. The technical feasibility of producing endothermic fuel from the naphtha by-product from Great Plains Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota was evaluated. The capital and operating costs of deriving the fuel from coal naphtha were also estimated. The coal naphtha from Great Plains was successfully processed to remove sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen contaminants (UOP HD Unibon{reg sign} Hydrotreating) and then to saturate aromatic molecules (UOP AH Unibon{reg sign}). The AH Unibon product was fractionated to yield endothermic fuel candidates with less than 5% aromatics. The major cycloparaffins in the AH Unibon product were cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The production of endothermic fuel from the naphtha by-product stream was estimated to be cost competitive with existing technology. 17 figs., 23 tabs.

Johnson, R.W.; Zackro, W.C.; Czajkowski, G. (Allied-Signal, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA). Engineered Materials Research Center); Shah, P.P.; Kelly, A.P. (UOP, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells{  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells cations (e.g. ammonium) as electrolytes in fuel cells operating in the temperature range 100­200 uC, where cell operating with optimized electrodes in the same temperature range, while open circuit voltages

Angell, C. Austen

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Turning methane into usable liquid fuel: Illinois Institute of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Agency, or DARPA. Argonne was one of 13 projects aimed at developing new fuel cell technology as part of ARPA-E's Reliable Electricity Based on Electrochemical Systems (REBELS)...

122

A liquid water management strategy for PEM fuel cell stacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas and water management are key to achieving good performance from a PEM fuel cell stack. Previous experimentation had found, and this experimentation confirms, that one very effective method of achieving proper gas and water management is the use...

Van Nguyen, Trung; Knobbe, M. W.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

123

Ignition Capsules with Aerogel-Supported Liquid DT Fuel For The National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to {beta}-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65-75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

Ho, D D; Salmonson, J D; Clark, D S; Lindl, J D; Haan, S W; Amendt, P; Wu, K J

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

124

Vapor-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + 1-heptene, MTBE + four-component gasoline prototype, ethanol + four-component gasoline prototype, and separately MTBE and ethanol with the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Gasoline Blend A are reported. Small additions of MTBE have a very small effect on the total equilibrium pressure of this gasoline blend, and at most temperatures will decrease this pressure. In contrast, small additions of ethanol to this gasoline blend result in a significant increase in the equilibrium pressure at all temperatures. Analysis shows that the vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the MTBE-containing systems are easily correlated using a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state with conventional van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. Data for mixtures containing ethanol cannot be accurately correlated in this way.

Bennett, A.; Lamm, S.; Orbey, H.; Sandler, S.I. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

126

Modeling CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers for effects of thorium-based fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use the DRAGON code to model the CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers and evaluate the effects of thorium-based fuels on their incremental cross sections and reactivity worth. We optimize both the numerical quadrature and spatial discretization for 2D cell models in order to provide accurate fuel properties for 3D liquid zone controller supercell models. We propose a low computer cost parameterized pseudo-exact 3D cluster geometries modeling approach that avoids tracking issues on small external surfaces. This methodology provides consistent incremental cross sections and reactivity worths when the thickness of the buffer region is reduced. When compared with an approximate annular geometry representation of the fuel and coolant region, we observe that the cluster description of fuel bundles in the supercell models does not increase considerably the precision of the results while increasing substantially the CPU time. In addition, this comparison shows that it is imperative to finely describe the liquid zone controller geometry since it has a strong impact of the incremental cross sections. This paper also shows that liquid zone controller reactivity worth is greatly decreased in presence of thorium-based fuels compared to the reference natural uranium fuel, since the fission and the fast to thermal scattering incremental cross sections are higher for the new fuels. (authors)

St-Aubin, E.; Marleau, G. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, stn. Centre Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

An important recenttechnologicaldevelopmentin commercialF-T conversionis "liquid-phase" synthesis. In a liquid phasereactor,the feedgasis bubbled througha heavyoil (e.g.,the waxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;,,- -- An important recenttechnologicaldevelopmentin commercialF-T conversionis "liquidF- T liquids) in which catalystparticlesaresuspended.The vigorousmixing, the intimate gas(Tijm et al., 1997). 2.2. F-T conversion of coal The maindifference betweena processfor producing F

128

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report, for period ending June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

130

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization was done over a two day period in June 2011, and confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

131

Development of Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading Technologies for Lipid-Extracted Algae Conversion to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrotreating liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available test results. The system assumes an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric ton/day and that the feedstock is converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrate that HTL would be an effective option to convert LEA to liquid fuel. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent and the overall energy efficiency at higher heating value basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $0.75/L with LEA feedstock price at $33.1 metric ton at dry basis and 10% internal rate of return. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the largest effects to production cost would come from the final products yields and the upgrading equipments cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

Zhu, Yunhua; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Three-dimensional effects of liquid water flooding in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Researchers all over the world are focusing on optimizing this system to be cost competitive with energy conversion devices currently available. It is a well known fact that the cathode of the PEM fuel cell is the performance limiting component due...THREE DIMENSIONAL EFFECTS OF LIQUID WATER FLOODING IN THE CATHODE OF A PEM FUEL CELL by Dilip Natarajan and Trung Van Nguyen* Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045, USA Submitted...

Natarajan, Dilip; Van Nguyen, Trung

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

133

Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

None

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Liquid Fuel From Microbial Communities: Electroalcoholgenesis: Bioelectrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Butanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: MUSC is developing an engineered system to create liquid fuels from communities of interdependent microorganisms. MUSC is first pumping carbon dioxide (CO2) and renewable sources of electricity into a battery-like cell. A community of microorganisms uses the electricity to convert the CO2 into hydrogen. That hydrogen is then consumed by another community of microorganisms living in the same system. These new microorganisms convert the hydrogen into acetate, which in turn feed yet another community of microorganisms. This last community of microorganisms uses the acetate to produce a liquid biofuel called butanol. Similar interdependent microbial communities can be found in some natural environments, but theyve never been coupled together in an engineered cell to produce liquid fuels. MUSC is working to triple the amount of butanol that can be produced in its system and to reduce the overall cost of the process.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

Donald Olander

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

137

Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

140

Operating experience with a liquid-hydrogen fueled Buick and refueling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of liquid-hydrogen storage and refueling systems for vehicular applications was made in a recently completed project. The vehicle used in the project was a 1979 Buick Century sedan with a 3.8-L displacement turbocharged V6 engine and an automatic transmission. The vehicle had a fuel economy for driving in the high altitude Los Alamos area that was equivalent to 2.4 km/L of liquid hydrogen or 8.9 km/L of gasoline on an equivalent energy basis. About 22% less energy was required using hydrogen rather than gasoline to go a given distance based on the Environmental Protection Agency estimate of 7.2 km/L of gasoline for this vehicle. At the end of the project the engine had been operated for 138 h and the car driven 3633 km during the 17 months that the vehicle was operated on hydrogen . Two types of onboard liquid-hydrogen storage tanks were tested in the vehicle: the first was an aluminum Dewar with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 110 L; the second was a Dewar with an aluminum outer vessel, two copper vapor-cooled thermal radiation shields, and a stainless steel inner vessel with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 155 L. The Buick had an unrefueled range of about 274 km with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km with the second. The Buick was fueled at least 65 times involving a minimum of 8.1 kL of liquid hydrogen using various liquid-hydrogen storage Dewars at Los Alamos and a semiautomatic refueling station. A refueling time of nine minutes was achieved, and liquid hydrogen losses during refueling were measured. The project has demonstrated that liquid-hydrogen storage onboard a vehicle, and its refueling, can be accomplished over an extended period without any major difficulties; nevertheless, appropriate testing is still needed to quantitatively address the question of safety for liquid-hydrogen storage onboard a vehicle.

Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

142

Classification of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system components according to importance to safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a graded approach for classification of components used in transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage systems. This approach provides a method for identifying, the classification of components according to importance to safety within transportation packagings and dry spent fuel storage systems. Record retention requirements are discussed to identify the documentation necessary to validate that the individual components were fabricated in accordance with their assigned classification. A review of the existing regulations pertaining to transportation packagings and dry storage systems was performed to identify current requirements The general types of transportation packagings and dry storage systems were identified. Discussions were held with suppliers and fabricators of packagings and storage systems to determine current practices. The methodology used in this report is based on Regulatory Guide 7.10, Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in the Transport of Radioactive Material. This report also includes a list of generic components for each of the general types of transportation packagings and spent fuel storage systems. The safety importance of each component is discussed, and a classification category is assigned.

McConnell, J.W., Jr; Ayers, A.L. Jr; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 1. Comprehensive report. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases which are distinguished by the level of the test effort. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels used at the station (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. In general, no adverse boiler performance effects were encountered with the combustion of the CDL fuels. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. With the exception of NO/sub x/ emissions, the CDL fuels will be expected to have lower levels of stack emissions compared to a conventional No. 6 fuel oil. NO/sub x/ emissions will be controllable to EPA standards with the application of conventional combustion modification techniques. Volume 1, of a five-volume report, contains a comprehensive report of the entire test program. 43 figs., 19 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 2: boiler test results. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). The second phase involved the evaluation of three additional CDL fuels (H-Coal light distillate, Exxon Donor Solvent full range distillate and Solvent Refined Coal-II middle distillate). The test boiler was a front wall-fired Babcock and Wilcox unit with a rated steam flow of 425,000 lb/h and a generating capacity of 40 MW. Boiler performance and emissions were evaluated with baseline and CDL fuels at 15, 25, 40 MW loads and at various excess air levels. Low NO/sub x/ (staged) combustion techniques were also implemented. Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. The CDL fuels could be handled similarly to No. 2 oil with appropriate safety procedures and materials compatibility considerations. Volume 2 of a five-volume report contains the detailed boiler test results. 96 figs., 26 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

146

Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Analysis of liquid natural gas as a truck fuel: a system dynamics approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the potential for growth in use of liquid natural gas (LNG) fueled trucks. . A system dynamics model was constructed for the analysis and a variety of scenarios were investigated. The analysis considers the economics of LNG fuel in the context of the trucking industry to identify barriers to the increased use of LNG trucks and potential interventions or leverage points which may overcome these barriers. The study showed that today, LNG use in trucks is not yet economically viable. A large change in the savings from fuel cost or capital cost is needed for the technology to take off. Fleet owners have no way now to benefit from the environmental benefits of LNG fuel nor do they benefit from the clean burning nature of the fuel. Changes in the fuel cost differential between diesel and LNG are not a research issue. However, quantifying the improvements in reliability and wear from the use of clean fuel could support increased maintenance and warranty periods. Many people involved in the use of LNG for trucks believe that LNG has the potential to occupy a niche within the larger diesel truck business. But if LNG in trucks can become economic, the spread of fuel stations and technology improvements could lead to LNG trucks becoming the dominant technology. An assumption in our simulation work is that LNG trucks will be purchased when economically attractive. None of the simulation results show LNG becoming economic but then only to the level of a niche market.

Bray, M.A.; Sebo, D.E.; Mason, T.L.; Mills, J.I.; Rice, R.E.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

149

Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Quantification of Liquid Water Saturation in a PEM Fuel Cell Diffusion Medium Using X-ray Microtomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantification of Liquid Water Saturation in a PEM Fuel Cell Diffusion Medium Using X understanding of the two-phase flow and flooding occurrence in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells. We have as ice formation during cold start of PEM fuel cells. The water present in these porous layers

151

The importance of ion size and electrode curvature on electrical double layers in ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF{sub 6}], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] (near the positive electrode) ? [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) ? [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

Feng, G.; Qiao, R.; Huang, J; Dai, S.; Sumpter, B. G.; Meunier, V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

The Importance of Ion Size and Electrode Curvature on Electrical Double Layers in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF(6)], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the positive electrode) {approx} [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) {approx} [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a 'Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening' (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

The potential utilization of nuclear hydrogen for synthetic fuels production at a coaltoliquid facility / Steven Chiuta.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The production of synthetic fuels (synfuels) in coaltoliquids (CTL) facilities has contributed to global warming due to the huge CO2 emissions of the process. This (more)

Chiuta, Steven

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

Fox, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

Sutton, W.H.

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

156

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 10, October 1-December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe Electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. A coenzyme M analogue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates. Preliminary experiments have also been completed utilizing corn meal in which 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and carbon monoxide were both found to be effective methane suppressors. An analysis of the energy outputs and requirements for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from corn has been performed. As a means of expanding the number of potential substrates, pretreatment schemes are being investigated. A tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter. A solvent extractor system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter. Although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process, the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential.

Sanderson, J.E.; Levy, P.F.; Wise, D.L.; Nabor, M.R.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Hughes, C.A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFYOxide Emission Standards, Modeland Canada

158

Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction.

Dziewinski, J.J.

1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

159

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Steady state temperature profiles in two simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperature data from steady state tests in two parallel, simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications have been compared to determine the extent to which they agree. In general, good agreement was found in data at low flows and in bundle-center data at higher flows. Discrepancies in the data wre noted near the bundle edges at higher flows. An analysis of bundle thermal boundary conditions showed that the possible eccentric placement of one bundle within the housing could account for these discrepancies.

Levin, A.E.; Carbajo, J.J.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Rose, S.D.; Wantland, J.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

162

Liquid fuels from co-processing coal with bitumen or heavy oil: A review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal, bitumen and heavy oil (and various pitches, resids, etc.) are similar in that they require more substantial treatment than does conventional light oil to yield useful liquid fuels. The authors provide a brief and selective review of technologies for liquefying coal, followed by consideration of co-processing coal with bitumen/heavy oil. Such co-processing may be considered as use of bitumen/heavy oil as a solvent and/or hydrogen donor in liquefaction of coal, or as the use of coal to aid upgrading bitumen/heavy oil.

Moschopedis, S.E.; Hepler, L.G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony; ,

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

164

On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment ofOil's Impact on Our National Security Oil'sFunds for

165

Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 20112: July 19,Department4: May 9,|

166

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates

Kenis, Paul J. A.

167

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

Greene, D.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

Greene, D.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Safeguards and security concept for the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) and Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuel cycle, SAF line technical support  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a safeguards and security concept system review for the secure automated fabrication (SAF) and national liquid metal reactor (LMR) fuel programs.

Schaubert, V.J.; Remley, M.E.; Grantham, L.F.

1986-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

171

Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Broadview Heights, OH); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Chandler, AZ); Yoshizawa, Masahiro (Tokyo, JP)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

172

A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

173

Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.

Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components Prodip K. DasWater management in PEM fuel cells is critical for optimumof droplet dynamics in PEM fuel-cell gas flow channels has

Das, Prodip K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. The behavior of alkaline earth/metal oxide/halide catalysts containing strontium was found to be different from the behavior of catalysts containing barium. Two approaches were pursued to avoid the heterogeneous/homogeneous mechanism in order to achieve higher C{sub 2} selectivity/methane conversion combinations. One approach was to eliminate or minimize the typical gas phase combustion chemistry and make more of the reaction occur on the surface of the catalyst by using silver. Another approach was to change the gas phase chemistry to depart from the typical combustion reaction network by using vapor-phase catalysts. The layered perovskite K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10} was further studied. Modifications of process and catalyst variables for LaCaMnCoO{sub 6} catalysts resulted in catalysts with superior performance. Results obtained with a literature catalyst Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} were better than those obtained with NaCO{sub 3}/Pr-Ce oxide or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Ag-Pr-Ce oxide. 52 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.; Matherne, J.L.; Kinkade, N.E.

1990-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

177

Effect of in-cylinder liquid fuel films on engine-out unburned hydrocarbon emissions for SI engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nearly all of the hydrocarbon emissions from a modern gasoline-fueled vehicle occur when the engine is first started. One important contributing factor to this is the fact that, during this time, temperatures throughout ...

Costanzo, Vincent S. (Vincent Stanley), 1979-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Investigation of nuclide importance to functional requirements related to transport and long-term storage of LWR spent fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates the relative importances of the various actinide, fission-product, and light-element isotopes associated with LWR spent fuel with respect to five analysis areas: criticality safety (absorption fractions), shielding (dose rate fractions), curies (fractional curies levels), decay heat (fraction of total watts), and radiological toxicity (fraction of potential committed effective dose equivalent). These rankings are presented for up to six different burnup/enrichment scenarios and at decay times from 2 to 100,000 years. Ranking plots for each of these analysis areas are given in an Appendix for completeness, as well as summary tables in the main body of the report. Summary rankings are presented in terms of high (greater than 10% contribution to the total), medium (between 1% and 10% contribution), and low (less than 1% contribution) for both short- and long-term cooling. When compared with the expected measurement accuracies, these rankings show that most of the important isotopes can be characterized sufficiently for the purpose of radionuclide generation/depletion code validation in each of the analysis areas. Because the main focus of this work is on the relative importances of isotopes associated with L@ spent fuel, some conclusions may not be applicable to similar areas such as high-level waste (HLW) and nonfuel-bearing components (NFBC).

Broadhead, B.L.; DeHart, M.D.; Ryman, J.C.; Tang, J.S.; Parks, C.V.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment(October-DecemberBased onIn-Cylinder

180

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartment of EnergyLight-Duty Diesel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Biogas to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: ScopeDepartment1, 2011 (BETO)and Fuel Cells Workshop,

182

EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide federal funding to Flambeau River Biofuels (FRB) to construct and operate a biomass-to-liquid biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin, on property currently used by Flambeau Rivers Paper, LLC (FRP) for a pulp and paper mill and Johnson Timber Corporation's (JTC) Summit Lake Yard for timber storage. This project would design a biorefinery which would produce up to 1,150 barrels per day (bpd) of clean syncrude. The biorefinery would also supply steam to the FRP mill, meeting the majority of the mill's steam demand and reducing or eliminating the need for the existing biomass/coal-fired boiler. The biorefinery would also include a steam turbine generator that will produce "green" electrical power for use by the biorefinery or for sale to the electric utility.

183

Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume 2 of these proceedings contain 42 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Fuel blending and compatibility; Middle distillates; Microbiology; Alternative fuels; General topics (analytical methods, tank remediation, fuel additives, storage stability); and Poster presentations (analysis methods, oxidation kinetics, health problems).

Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Aging on Combustion Performance and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid-Ethanol Blends in a Swirl Burner.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid is a renewable fuel for stationary heat and power generation; however degradation of bio-oil by time, a.k.a. aging, has an impact (more)

Zarghami-Tehran, Milad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Properties on Combustion Performance and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blends in a Swirl Burner.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid, also known as bio-oil, is a promising renewable fuel for heat and power generation; however, implementing crude bio-oil in some current (more)

Moloodi, Sina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Ionic Liquids as Anti-Wear Additives for Next-Generation Low-Viscosity Fuel-Efficient Engine Lubricants  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ionic liquids...

187

One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

188

Development of remote disassembly technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is to develop equipment and demonstrate technology to reprocess fast breeder reactor fuel. Experimental work on fuel disassembly cutting methods began in the 1970s. High-power laser cutting was selected as the preferred cutting method for fuel disassembly. Remotely operated development equipment was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Development testing included remote automatic operation, remote maintenance testing, and laser cutting process development. This paper summarizes the development work performed at ORNL on remote fuel disassembly. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Bradley, E.C.; Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III; Weil, B.S.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32Department ofMoving AwayAvailability of Feedstock

190

A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 012139 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.Program - LibbyofThis EISStatement |This EIS evaluates thein(HECA)CycleCounty,

192

Second AEO2-015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting Summary  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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193

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartmentJuneWhenJulyBadges atEnergyVehicles

194

Biomass and Coal into Liquid Fuel with CO2 Capture - Energy Innovation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScienceCareers Apply for aCouldBiofuelHelpBiologyB I I O O m m a

195

Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

Wang, Yong (Richland, WA), Liu; Wei (Richland, WA)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

196

Algae: The Source of Reliable, Scalable, and Sustainable Liquid Transportation Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

At the February 12, 2009 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Brian Goodall (Sapphire Energy) spoke on Continental Airlines January 7th Biofuels Test. The flight was fueled, in part, by Sapphires algae-based jet fuel.

197

Near-field dispersal modeling for liquid fuel-air explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The near-field, explosive dispersal of a liquid into air has been explored using a combination of analytical and numerical models. The near-field flow regime is transient, existing only as long as the explosive forces produced by the detonation of the burster charge dominate or are approximately equal in magnitude to the aerodynamic drag forces on the liquid. The near-field model provides reasonable initial conditions for the far-field model, which is described in a separate report. The near-field model consists of the CTH hydrodynamics code and a film instability model. In particular, the CTH hydrodynamics code is used to provide initial temperature, pressure, and velocity fields, and bulk material distribution for the far-field model. The film instability model is a linear stability model for a radially expanding fluid film, and is used to provide a lower bound on the breakup time and an upper and lower bound on the initial average drop diameter for the liquid following breakup. Predictions of the liquid breakup time and the initial arithmetic average drop diameter from the model compare favorably with the sparse experimental data. 26 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

Gardner, D.R.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Environmental and economic tradeoffs of feedstock usage for liquid fuels and power production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thesis is divided into two parts - 1) assessing the energy return on investment for alternative jet fuels, and 2) quantifying the tradeoffs associated with the aviation and non-aviation use of agricultural residues. ...

Trivedi, Parthsarathi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize food versus fuel concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

Shi,Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFY 20112: July 19,Department4: May 9,|Vehicle |

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High-energy-density solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report, July 1987-December 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of new high-energy hydrocarbon fuels for use in air-breathing missiles has been the objective of a number of investigations which have received support during the past decade through programs sponsored by the Air Force Systems Command and/or the Naval Air Systems Command. The key characteristics which must be met by potential cruise missile fuels have been described by Burdette and coworkers. A primary requirement in this regard is that candidate fuels must possess high net volumetric heat of combustion (preferably greater than 160,000 BTU/gallon). In order to meet the primary requirement of high net volumetric heat of combustion, hydrocarbon systems have been sought which maximize the ratio of carbon-atom to hydrogen-atom content have been sought that maximize the ratio n/m.(JES)

Marchand, A.P.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Method of removing Pu(IV) polymer from nuclear fuel reclaiming liquid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Pu(IV) polymer not extractable from a nuclear fuel reclaiming solution by conventional processes is electrolytically converted to Pu.sup.3+ and PuO.sub.2.sup.2+ ions which are subsequently converted to Pu.sup.4+ ions extractable by the conventional processes.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mailen, James C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bell, Jimmy T. (Kingston, TN); Arwood, Phillip C. (Harriman, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

204

Coliquefaction of coal and black liquor to environmentally acceptable liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous work in the laboratories has demonstrated that addition to lignin to coal during liquefaction significantly increases the depolymerization of coal and enhances the quality of the liquid products. It is believed that thermolysis of the lignin results in the formation of phenoxyl and other reactive radicals at temperatures too low for significant thermolysis of the coal matrix; such radicals are effective and active intermediates that depolymerize coal by cleaving methylene bridges. It has been reported that alkali is also effective for extraction of liquids from coal. The work presented here combines these two reactive agents by utilizing the black liquor waste stream from the Kraft pulping process for coal depolymerization. That waste stream contains large amounts of lignin and sodium hydroxide, as well as other components. To permit comparative evaluations of the extent of coal depolymerization by coprocessing coal and black liquor, reference runs were performed with tetralin alone, sodium hydroxide in tetralin, and lignin in tetralin. Results indicated that the sodium hydroxide-tetralin system resulted in almost 67% conversion at 375 C, 1 hour. The black liquor system exhibited a lower conversion of 60%, indicating some inhibition of the depolymerization reactions by components in the black liquor.

Kim, J. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Akash, B.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Photoacoustically Measured Speeds of Sound of Liquid HBO2: On Unlocking the Fuel Potential of Boron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elucidation of geodynamic, geochemical, and shock induced processes is often limited by challenges to accurately determine molecular fluid equations of state (EOS). High pressure liquid state reactions of carbon species underlie physiochemical mechanisms such as differentiation of planetary interiors, deep carbon sequestration, propellant deflagration, and shock chemistry. Here we introduce a versatile photoacoustic technique developed to measure accurate and precise speeds of sound (SoS) of high pressure molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. SoS of an intermediate boron oxide, HBO{sub 2} are measured up to 0.5 GPa along the 277 C isotherm. A polarized Exponential-6 interatomic potential form, parameterized using our SoS data, enables EOS determinations and corresponding semi-empirical evaluations of > 2000 C thermodynamic states including energy release from bororganic formulations. Our thermochemical model propitiously predicts boronated hydrocarbon shock Hugoniot results.

Bastea, S; Crowhurst, J; Armstrong, M; ., N T

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

207

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 3. Emissions test results. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the plant, Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company, in Meridian, Mississippi. Volume 1, of a 5 volume report, contains a comprehensive report of the whole test program - see abstract of Volume 1 for a detailed abstract of the whole program. Volume 3 contains detailed emissions testing results. 41 figs., 6 tabs. (LTN)

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Syngas production from heavy liquid fuel reforming in inert porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-up), but it will still show a significant efficiency advantage [2]. Eventually, when fuel cells and hydrogen demand will build up, a switch can be made to central hydrogen production, by using fossil sources with CO2 sequestration and finally by the use of low carbon... requirements: Hydrogen production levels smaller than those in chemical plants; Severe constraints on size and weight; Ability to cycle through frequent start-ups and shutdowns; Hydrogen production rate should be responsive to changes in demand...

Pastore, Andrea

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

209

Review of the SIMMER-II analyses of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor core-disruptive accident fuel escape  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Early fuel removal from the active core of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor undergoing a core-disruptive accident may reduce the potential for large energetics resulting from recriticalities. This paper presents a review of analyses with the SIMMER-II computer program of the effectiveness of possible fuel escape paths. Where possible, how SIMMER-II compares with or is validated against experiments that simulated the escape paths also is discussed.

DeVault, G.P.; Bell, C.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-fuels facilities. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic fuels industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)

None

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Development of a test facility for the experimental evaluation of liquid and gaseous automotive engine fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Reference [15] ---------------- 55 LIST OF TABLES IN APPENDICES PAGE Table Al: Engine Specificat1ons Table A2: Eng1ne Break-in Schedule 69 74 Table A3: Wear Metals in Engine Oil- 77 Table Cl: Values Used for Variables in Emiss1ons Calculations... important. In selecting instrumentation for the system, accuracy, speed, and versatility were considered. The cost of each piece of equipment was weighed against its accuracy, its ability to save time collecting data, and its capability for adapting...

McCanlies, John Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

213

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

Jain, M.K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

"An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F range with no 650{degrees}F{sup +} product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650{degrees}F{sup +} liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m{sup 2}/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was carried out by comparing the design and costs of the current commercial plant of the Shenhua Corporation in Erdos, Inner Mongolia. The cost of producing synthetic crude oil from coal in the current commercial process was estimated to be $50.5 per barrel compared to the estimated cost of $41.7 per barrel in the new process. As mentioned earlier, the light distillate product in the new process is of higher quality and value than the C{sub 4}-975{degrees}F product in the current commercial process adopted by the Shenhua Corporation. In sum, the new coal liquefaction process is superior and less capital intensive to current commercial process, and has a high potential for commercialization.

Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

215

Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system and then solved by finite difference method with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. An iterative scheme was used to obtain a converged solution. Membrane reactor performance was compared to that in a traditional non-membrane packed-bed reactor (PBR). Their performances were also compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values achievable in a conventional non-membrane reactor. Numerical results of the models show that the methane conversions in the PBIMTR are always higher than that in the PBR, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium conversions. For instance, at a reaction pressure of 6 atm, a temperature of 650 C, a space velocity of 900/16.0 SCCM/gm{sub cat}, a steam to methane molar feed ratio of 3.0, a sweep ratio of 0.15, the conversion in the membrane reactor is about 86.5%, while the conversion in the non-membrane reactor is about 50.8%. The corresponding equilibrium conversion is about 56.4%. The effects on the degree of conversion and hydrogen yield were analyzed for different parameters such as temperature, reactor pressure, feed and sweep flow rate, feed molar ratio, and space time. From the analysis of the model results, it is obvious that the membrane reactor operation can be optimized for conversion or yield through the choice of proper operating and design parameters. Comparisons with available literature data for both membrane and non-membrane reactors showed a good agreement.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

216

Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. High temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer

Berning, Torsten

217

Crude Imports  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-GovNaturalInstituteCrosscuttingImports -

218

Fuel pin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

219

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

In order to account for ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) regulations related to Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90), ultra- low-sulfur diesel is differentiated from other...

220

Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

Zhou, P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

Zhou, P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Pulsed DD Neutron Generator Measurements for HEU Oxide Fuel Pins Using Liquid Scintillators with Pulse Shape Discrimination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements have been performed on high-enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium metal

Pennycook, Steve

224

The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Oxygen transport resistance correlated to liquid water saturation in the gas diffusion layer of PEM fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

22 November 2013 Accepted 24 December 2013 Keywords: Fuel cells PEM Diffusion Saturation Neutron than 0.15 gPt kW?1 will not be cost competitive. As a result, fuel cell researchers are exploring fuel cells Jon P. Owejan a,b, , Thomas A. Trabold c , Matthew M. Mench b a SUNY Alfred State College

Mench, Matthew M.

226

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report, May 10, 1994--December 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (i) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (ii) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. Since this work was for fundamental research in a number of related areas to the use of LNG as a transportation fuel for long haul trucking, many of those results have appeared in numerous refereed journal and conference papers, and significant graduate training experiences (including at least one M.S. thesis and one Ph.D. dissertation) in the first year of this project. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

Sutton, W.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Rapid prediction of various physical properties for middle distillate fuel utilizing directly coupled liquid chromatography//sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A group property approach has been developed to predict 17 physical properties of middle distillate (e.g., jet and diesel) fuels from experimentally derived liquid chromatography//sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance (LC//sup 1/H NMR) data. In the LC//sup 1/H NMR technique, the fuel is separated according to chemical class and the average molecular structure for each chemical class is then calculated. These average molecular structures form a basis set to predict the physical properties of the fuel. The physical properties that can be obtained in this manner are cetane number, cetane index, density, specific gravity, pour point, flash point, viscosity, filterability, heat of combustion, cloud point, volume percent aromatics, residual carbon content, and the initial, 10%, 50%, 90%, and end boiling points. Fourteen of the correlation coefficients for the predictions are better than 0.90 with 11 of the predictions falling either within or approximately equal to the ASTM method reproducibility for the measurement of the fuel property. The present method also provides chemical insight concerning the influence of chemical structural changes on the physical properties of the fuel as well as requiring much less analysis time and sample volume than corresponding ASTM methods.

Caswell, K.A.; Glass, T.E.; Swann, M.; Dorn, H.C.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Fuel option for gas turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth in electricity demand is an average of 10% per year. Energy, emission, and economy are importance of critical concerns for generating systems. Therefore, combined cycle power plant is preferred to Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) new power generating capacity. The various option of available fuel for gas turbine are natural gas, liquid fuel and coal fuel. Particularly with the tremendous price increases in imported and domestic fuel supplies, natural gas is an attractive low cost alternative for power generation. EGAT has researched using heavy fuel instead of natural gas since the year 1991. The problems of various corrosion characteristics have been found. In addition, fuel treatment for gas turbine are needed, and along with it, the environmental consideration are options that provide the limitation of environmental regulation.

Tantayakom, S. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand). Chemical and Analysis Dept.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano (Madison, WI); West, Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

230

Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

IMIDAZOLE-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS FOR USE IN POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS: EFFECT OF ELECTRON-WITHDRAWING AND ELECTRON-DONATING SUBSTITUENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) require humidifi cation for acceptable proton conductivity. Development of a novel polymer that is conductive without a water-based proton carrier is desirable for use in automobiles. Imidazole (Im) is a possible replacement for water as a proton solvent; Im can be tethered to the polymer structure by means of covalent bonds, thereby providing a solid state proton conducting membrane where the solvating groups do not leach out of the fuel cell. These covalent bonds can alter the electron availability of the Im molecule. This study investigates the effects of electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on the conductivity of Im complexed with methanesulfonic acid (MSA) in the form of ionic liquids. Due to the changes in the electronegativity of nitrogen, it is expected that 2-phenylimidazole (2-PhIm, electron-withdrawing) will exhibit increased conductivity compared to Im, while 2-methylimidazole (2-MeIm, electron-donating) will exhibit decreased conductivity. Three sets of ionic liquids were prepared at defi ned molar ratios: Im-MSA, 2-PhIm-MSA, and 2-MeIm- MSA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and 1H-NMR were used to characterize each complex. Impedance analysis was used to determine the conductivity of each complex. Both the 2-PhIm-MSA and 2-MeIm-MSA ionic liquids were found to be less conductive than the Im-MSA complex at base-rich compositions, but more conductive at acid-rich compositions. 1H-NMR data shows a downfi eld shift of the proton on nitrogen in 2-PhIm compared to Im, suggesting that other factors may diminish the electronic effects of the electron withdrawing group at base-rich compositions. Further studies examining these effects may well result in increased conductivity for Im-based complexes. Understanding the conductive properties of Im-derivatives due to electronic effects will help facilitate the development of a new electrolyte appropriate for automotive fuel cell use.

Chang, E.; Fu, Y.; Kerr, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (CO + H2O = CO2+ H2) is an important reaction for hydrogen upgrading during fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-treatment units in practical low-temperature PEM fuel cell systems, whereby the deleterious CO should be totally for hydrogen upgrading during fuel gas processing. Emerging applications in fuel cells require active, non-pyrophoric, and cost-effective catalysts. Along with a new group of platinum catalysts with atomically dispersed Pt

Napp, Nils

234

California Natural Gas Imports (No intransit Receipts) (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesmDecadeDecade Year-0(No intransit

235

Liquid Sunshine to Fuel Your Car (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

'Liquid Sunshine to Fuel Your Car' was submitted by the Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CLSF is directed by Daniel Cosgrove at Pennsylvania State University and is a partnership of scientists from three institutions: Penn State (lead), North Caroline State University, and Virginia Tech University. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation is 'to dramatically increase our fundamental knowledge of the formation and physical interactions of bio-polymer networks in plant cell walls to provide a basis for improved methods for converting biomass into fuels.' Research topics are: biofuels (biomass), membrane, interfacial characterization, matter by design, and self-assembly.

Cosgrove, Daniel (Director, Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation) [Director, Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation; CLSF Staff

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Liquid Sunshine to Fuel Your Car (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

'Liquid Sunshine to Fuel Your Car' was submitted by the Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation (CLSF) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. CLSF is directed by Daniel Cosgrove at Pennsylvania State University and is a partnership of scientists from three institutions: Penn State (lead), North Caroline State University, and Virginia Tech University. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation is 'to dramatically increase our fundamental knowledge of the formation and physical interactions of bio-polymer networks in plant cell walls to provide a basis for improved methods for converting biomass into fuels.' Research topics are: biofuels (biomass), membrane, interfacial characterization, matter by design, and self-assembly.

Cosgrove, Daniel (Director, Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation); CLSF Staff

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

237

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that developed...

238

Influence of wettability on liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water management is a key factor that limits PEFC's performance. We show how insights into this problem can be gained from pore-scale simulations of water invasion in a model fibrous medium. We explore the influence of contact angle on the water invasion pattern and water saturation at breakthrough and show that a dramatic change in the invasion pattern, from fractal to compact, occurs as the system changes from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Then, we explore the case of a system of mixed wettability, i.e. containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores. The saturation at breakthrough is studied as a function of the fraction of hydrophilic pores. The results are discussed in relation with the water management problem, the optimal design of a GDL and the fuel cell performance degradation mechanisms. We outline how the study could be extended to 3D systems, notably from binarised images of GDLs obtained by X ray microtomography.

Hamza Chraibi; L. Ceballos; M. Prat; Michel Quintard; Alexandre Vabre

2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

239

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

Jain, M.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

sf01 - Summer Fuel Table.xlsx  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve Class3a.86, 19988, TotalTotal( ( (Q2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

of ASTM specification D6751. Renewable diesel is defined as liquid fuel derived from biomass that meets EPA's fuel registration requirements and ASTM specifications D975 or D396;...

242

BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, Biodiesel. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel is a substitute for or an additive to diesel fuel that is derived from the oils and fats of plants. It is an alternative fuel that can be used in diesel engines and provides power similar to conventional diesel fuel. It is a biodegradable transportation fuel that contributes little, if any, net carbon dioxide or sulfur to the atmosphere, and is low in particulate emission. It is a renewable, domestically produced liquid fuel that can help reduce US dependence on foreign oil imports. This overview presents the resource potential, history, processing techniques, US DOE programs cost and utilization potential of biodiesel fuels.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Towards In situ extraction of fine chemicals and biorenewable fuels from fermentation broths using Ionic liquids and the Intensification of contacting by the application of Electric Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and design new ionic liquids for task specific needs. Solvent selection for in situ fermentation is depended on high solute partitioning and their biocompatibility with the microorganisms. Such information for these new set of solvents, ionic liquids...

Gangu, Satya Aravind

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

(Ionization in liquids)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes charge transport following ionization of model liquids and how this process may be important in carcinogenesis. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Development of a Conceptual Process for Selective CO{sub 2} Capture from Fuel Gas Streams Using [hmim][Tf2N] Ionic Liquid as a Physical Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ionic Liquid (IL) [hmim][Tf2N] was used as a physical solvent in an Aspen Plus simulation, employing the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (P-R EOS) with Boston-Mathias (BM) alpha function and standard mixing rules, to develop a conceptual process for CO{sub 2} capture from a shifted warm fuel gas stream produced from Pittsburgh # 8 coal for a 400 MWe power plant. The physical properties of the IL, including density, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure and heat capacity were obtained from literature and modeled as a function of temperature. Also, available experimental solubility values for CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CO, and CH{sub 4} in this IL were compiled and their binary interaction parameters ({delta}{sub ij} and l{sub ij}) were optimized and correlated as functions of temperature. The Span-Wager Equation-of-State EOS was also employed to generate CO{sub 2} solubilities in [hmim][Tf2N] at high pressures (up to 10 MPa) and temperatures (up to 510 K). The conceptual process developed consisted of 4 adiabatic absorbers (2.4 m ID, 30 m high) arranged in parallel and packed with Plastic Pall Rings of 0.025 m for CO{sub 2} capture; 3 flash drums arranged in series for solvent (IL) regeneration with the pressure-swing option; and a pressure-intercooling system for separating and pumping CO{sub 2} up to 153 bar to the sequestration sites. The compositions of all process streams, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency, and net power were calculated using Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that, based on the composition of the inlet gas stream to the absorbers, 95.67 mol% of CO{sub 2} was captured and sent to sequestration sites; 99.5 mol% of H{sub 2} was separated and sent to turbines; the solvent exhibited a minimum loss of 0.31 mol%; and the net power balance of the entire system was 30.81 MW. These results indicated that [hmim][Tf2N] IL could be used as a physical solvent for CO{sub 2} capture from warm shifted fuel gas streams with high efficiency.

Basha, Omar M.; Keller, Murphy J.; Luebke, David R.; Resnik, Kevin; P Morsi, Badie I.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOEs proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

247

Production of High-Quality Syngas via Biomass Gasification for Catalytic Synthesis of Liquid Fuels Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d FNEPA/309Department of

248

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Total Imports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26, 2008 (Next1,Product: Total9,216 9,178

250

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oiland 5

251

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oiland 5Reserves

252

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oiland

253

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 OilandProduction (Million

254

Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb MarFeet)

255

Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb MarFeet)Based Production

256

Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb MarFeet)Based

257

Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb MarFeet)BasedProduction

258

Arkansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVentedYear Jan Feb Mar

259

Arkansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVentedYear Jan Feb Mar(Million

260

Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVentedYear Jan FebYear

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVentedYear Jan FebYearBarrels)

262

Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesm 3 (D CD ^ Q) r* o' 3Reserves

263

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesm 3 (D CD ^MarketedProved Reserves

264

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesm 3 (D CD ^MarketedProved

265

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesm 3 (D CD

266

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesm 3 (D CDProduction (Million

267

Company Level Imports Archives  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data CBECS Public UseRobertCompany

268

Alamo, TX Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Mexico (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb Mar

269

Babb, MT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5: OilCitygate PriceW

270

Calais, ME Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesm 3 (D CD ^ Q) r* o' 3 a

271

Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oil and(Million

272

Alabama Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

273

Alaska Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan FebProvedGrossYear Jan FebYear

274

Arizona Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear JanFeet)Year Jan Feb MarInput

275

Arkansas Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVentedYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

276

Liquid and solid phase compositions in a partially frozen JP-5 fuel low in n-alkanes. Memorandum report April 1983-January 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A JP-5 low in n-alkanes was partially frozen at several temperatures 9 to 15 C below its normal freezing point of -53 C. In spite of their low concentrations in the starting fuel, the n-alkanes were the predominant components in the solid phase crystallizing from the fuel. In this respect, this JP-5 behaves in a fashion similar to other jet fuels which contain 3 to 5 times the amounts of n-alkanes.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.J.; Mushrush, G.W.

1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

277

Liquid Metal Transformers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIan KalinResearch,IntroducingIonic Liquid Pretreatment EERE

279

Coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The introduction of coal based fuel systems such as coal/air and coal water mixtures was an attempt to minimize the use of heavy fuel oils in large scale power generation processes. This need was based on forecasts of fuel reserves and future pricing of fuel oils, therefore economic considerations predominated over environmental benefits, if any, which could result from widespread use of these fuels. Coal continued as the major fuel used in the power generation industry and combustion systems were developed to minimize gaseous emissions, such as NOx. Increasing availability of natural gas led to consideration of its use in combination with coal in fuel systems involving combined cycle or topping cycle operations. Dual fuel coal natural gas operations also offered the possibility of improved performance in comparison to 100% coal based fuel systems. Economic considerations have more recently looked at emulsification of heavy residual liquid fuels for consumption in power generation boiler and Orimulsion has emerged as a prime example of this alternative fuel technology. The paper will discuss some aspects of the burner technology related to the application of these various coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels in the power generation industry.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The introduction of coal based fuel systems such as coal/air and coal water mixtures was an attempt to minimise the use of heavy fuel oils in large scale power generation processes. This need was based on forecasts of fuel reserves and future pricing of fuel oils, therefore economic considerations predominated over environmental benefits, if any, which could result from widespread use of these fuels. Coal continued as the major fuel used in the power generation industry and combustion systems were developed to minimise gaseous emissions, such as NO{sub x}. Increasing availability of natural gas led to consideration of its use in combination with coal in fuel systems involving combined cycle or topping cycle operations. Dual fuel coal natural gas operations also offered the possibility of improved performance in comparison to 100% coal based fuel systems. Economic considerations have more recently looked at emulsification of heavy residual liquid fuels for consumption in power generation boiler and Orimulsion has emerged as a prime example of this alternative fuel technology. The next sections of the paper will discuss some aspects of the burner technology related to the application of these various coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels in the power generation industry.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [ABB Combustion Services Limited, Derby (United Kingdom)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Prediction of middle-distillate fuel properties using liquid chromatography-proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. Final report, 1987-1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research was initiated to support the Army's capability to identify the components of fuels that contribute to low-temperature performance of fuels. It was discovered that various physical properties of middle-distillate fuels can be predicted. The LC-{sup 1}HNMR technique was developed to predict physical properties based on chemical structures present in the fuels. The prediction of properties is approached from a 'group property' point of view. In the group property approach, the structure of the molecule is examined for structural features that dictate the physical properties of the compounds. In other words, the physical properties of a molecule or compound are determined by the number of types of chemical groups, i.e., methyl, methylene, methine, etc., present. These LC-{sup 1}H NMR predicted property measurements were compared to measurements obtained by the ASTM fuel tests. Most measurements were found to be within experimental error. The research has demonstrated that the LC-{sup 1}H NMR approach for measuring various middle-distillate fuel properties can be used as an alternative to the ASTM methods of fuel property measurement.

Swann, M.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Fourth quarterly progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues that may be categorized as direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

Sutton, W.H.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

AGING EFFECTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF IMIDAZOLIUM, QUATERNARY AMMONIUM, PYRIDINIUM AND PYRROLIDINIUM-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USED IN FUEL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long term aging effect of temperature on these materials. Imizadolium, quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidnium-based ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 hours (15 weeks) at 200?C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. It was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

Fox, E.

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

284

Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be conveted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

Diesel fuel containing a tetrazole or triazole cetane improver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a liquid fuel adapted for use in a diesel engine containing a cetane number increasing amount of at least one fuel soluble additive compound.

Martella, D.J.

1986-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

ClearFuels-Rentech Pilot-Scale Biorefinery  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The ClearFuels-Rentech pilot-scale biorefinery will use Fisher-Tropsch gas-to-liquids technology to create diesel and jet fuel.

288

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

289

Liquid Metal Transformers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

290

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adam R. 2008. Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energyshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. In

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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292

Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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293

Calif--Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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294

Calif--Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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295

Calif--Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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296

Calif--San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesm 3 (D CD ^ Q)Proved Reserves

297

Calif--San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesm 3 (D CD ^ Q)Proved

298

Calif--San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesm 3 (D CD ^ Q)ProvedProduction

299

Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

300

Commercialization of coal to liquids technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After an overview of the coal market, technologies for producing liquids from coal are outlined. Commercialisation of coal-to-liquid fuels, the economics of coal-to-liquids development and the role of the government are discussed. Profiles of 8 key players and the profiles of 14 projects are finally given. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ambient pressure fuel cell system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Distribution of higher n-alkanes in partially frozen middle-distillate fuels. Final report, October 1982-September 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In conjunction with continuing studies on the effect of composition on the freezing points of middle distillate fuels, attention was directed to partially frozen fuels. The crystals and residual liquid from partially frozen JP-5 and DFM fuel samples derived from both petroleum and shale were separated from each other and collected by means of the NRL liquid-solid separator apparatus (LSS) at several temperatures below the freezing points of the original samples. The original fuel samples, the solid material (precipitate), and liquid (filtrate) were characterized by gas chromatography (GC). The filtrate data were straightforward. As expected, Van't Hoff plot of the n-alkanes concentrations (log concentrations vs reciprocal absolute temperature) formed straight lines, and their slopes demonstrated the importance of the higher n-alkanes in fuel crystallization at cold temperatures. The precipitate data presented some problems of interpretation since it was observed that the waxy crystal precipitate matrix entrapped significant amounts of liquid (filtrate). The data on solid which were obtained by these methods demonstrated that the higher n-alkanes play the key role in fuel crystallization at low temperatures, concentrating as much as tenfold in the crystallized solids compared to the liquid. Also, it was clearly shown that the n-alkanes form the major part, up to least 95% by weight in some fuels, of the solid crystals formed.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.; DeGuzman, J.

1985-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

307

Company Level Imports Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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308

Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam Coal Import

309

Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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310

Mixing in a liquid metal electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

Kelley, Douglas H.

311

Investigate... Future Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Gas Tank? What Does It Take? 9:30 am Using GIS to Map the Wood Supply 11:00 am Forest Management Forest to Processing Plant 2:00 pm Ethanol Production in Lab: Cellulosic Biomass to Liquid Fuel 2:50 pm of Mechanical Engineering Tim Jenkins, Ph.D. Candidate tree biomass from forest to processing facility

312

Plant variability and bio-fuel properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemically converting biomass feedstocks to fuels is one of the major thrusts of renewable energy research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Among several thermochemical routes is the fast pyrolysis process which produces liquid fuels from woody and herbaceous biomass feedstocks. Because of the large variability in the composition of biomass feedstocks due to plant variety and environmental factors, it is important to assess how these variabilities affect the properties of thermochemical liquid fuels (bio-oils) produced from these resources. Similar varieties of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) that were grown at three different locations and three hybrid poplar clones that were grown at one location were used in these studies. The feedstocks were pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor at 500{degrees}C. The gas products were analyzed on-line and the liquid products were analyzed for elemental composition and higher heating values. Apart from small difference in the yield of char/ash, the yields of pyrolysis oils and gases were similar for switchgrass feedstocks grown at all three locations. The char/ash yields ranged from 21.1 to 22.9%; total liquids (organic liquids + water) yields ranged from 59%-60.5%; and the gas yields ranged from 11%-12% (wt). The higher heating values (HHVs) of the oils were similar (24.3-24.6 MJ/kg). For the hybrid poplar feedstocks, total liquids (65%-69%), char/ash (10%-11%), and gas yields (15.6%-17%) were similar for all three poplar clones; however, the elemental composition and the HHVs of the pyrolysis oils had statistically significant differences. The NC5260 pyrolysis oils had lower HHV (22.0{+-}0.5 MG/kg) compared to the DN clones (23.2{+-}0.3 MJ/kg). The yields of total liquids and organics for the three clones were higher than those for the switchgrass feedstocks. The gas yields for the hybrid poplar clones were higher than for the switchgrass, but had compositions similar to those of the switchgrass feedstocks.

Agblevor, F.A.; Besler-Guran, S.; Wiselogel, A.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

A self-regulated passive fuel-feed system for passive direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Unlike active direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) that require liquid pumps and gas compressors to supply reactants, the design of passive DMFCs eliminates these ancillary (more)

Chan, Yeuk Him

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Landed Costs of Imported Crude by Area  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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315

Landed Costs of Imported Crude by Area  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997EnvironmentElectricityrgy81 § ¨ ¦Liquids Reserve

316

A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

317

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

318

Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodiesel Syn-oil Syn-gas Biochemicals Biogas Global biofuels production 4 1.2.1 Global biofuels production Biofuels can broadly be categorised into two groups. The first group is termed as the first generation biofuels which refers... by the EU countries (3.6 billion liters) is less 10% of those produced by the US, the EU produce 52.4% of the world bio- diesels [8, 9]. Germany and France are the largest producers of biodiesel within the EU. Rapeseed is widely used as feedstock in the EU...

Chong, Cheng Tung

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

319

LMFBR fuel assembly design for HCDA fuel dispersal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel assembly for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor having an upper axial blanket region disposed in a plurality of zones within the fuel assembly. The characterization of a zone is dependent on the height of the axial blanket region with respect to the active fuel region. The net effect of having a plurality of zones is to establish a dispersal flow path for the molten materials resulting during a core meltdown accident. Upward flowing molten material can escape from the core region and/or fuel assembly without solidifying on the surface of fuel rods due to the heat sink represented by blanket region pellets.

Lacko, Robert E. (North Huntingdon, PA); Tilbrook, Roger W. (Monroeville, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results are presented for the autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene and benzene solutions of naphthalene. The tests were run at atmospheric pressure and at moderately high reactant preheat temperatures in the 800-900 K range. Carbon formation lines were determined for paraffinic and aromatic liquids. Profiles were determined for axial bed temperature and composition. Space velocity efforts were assessed, and the locations and types of carbon were recorded. Significant reactive differences between hydrocarbons were identified. Carbon formation characteristics were hydrocarbon specific. The differing behavior of paraffinic and aromatic fuels with respect to their carbon formation may be important in explaining the narrow range of carbon-free operating conditions found in the ATR of number two fuel oil.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Liquidyne Fuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolar (Texas) JumpEvent (2) linkedLiquidPiston

322

Algae: The Source of Reliable, Scalable, and Sustainable Liquid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Scalable, and Sustainable Liquid Transportation Fuels At the February 12, 2009 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Brian Goodall (Sapphire Energy)...

323

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...

324

Fuel Station Procedure Applicability All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Station Procedure Applicability All Last Revised 11/20/12 Procedure Owner Andrew Grant agrant for the purchasing and distribution of fuel for vehicles owned by Bowling Green State University (BGSU). This centralization is important to ensure compliance for BGSU employees who use the centralized fuel station and fuel

Moore, Paul A.

325

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

327

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Methods of producing transportation fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

330

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds"OfficeTourFrom3, 2015 7:00FuelFuelFuel

331

Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

over a range of dilutions & injection pressures - Significant fuel effects observed (data analysis is in progress) 2. Showed that raw liquids from the fast pyrolysis of woody...

332

Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Coal-Derived Liquids to Enable HCCI Technology Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and Emissions Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing...

333

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adam R. 2008. Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energyshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. Inunconventional (tar sands or shale oil) being more energy

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683 2,539 1,736LiquidsDecade 1,112276(EIA)

335

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683 2,539 1,736LiquidsDecade 1,112276(EIA)Procedures,

336

1.0 GAS TRANSFER An important process used in water and wastewater treatment. Also very important when  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.0 GAS TRANSFER An important process used in water and wastewater treatment. Also very important = CL (CL + HcVG) (6) where CL = liquid phase concentration, VL = liquid volume, CG = gas phase concentration, VG = gas volume, Hc = dimensionless Henry's law coefficient and M = mass of gas. Now use two

Stenstrom, Michael K.

337

EIA Winter Fuels Outlook  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96Nebraska Nuclear Profile 2010Virginia1:Electric PowerEIA

338

Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96NebraskaWellsFoot) Year Jan12,608 12,438

339

Important Filing Information | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005DepartmentDecemberGlossaryEnergyImportant Filing Information Important

340

Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.13 Liquid Fuels

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Importance of Biomass Production and Supply  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Department-2023Department ofSmart Grid:Importance of

343

Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

Nuvera Fuel Cells

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Fuel assembly transfer basket for pool type nuclear reactor vessels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel assembly transfer basket for a pool type, liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a side access loading and unloading port for receiving and relinquishing fuel assemblies during transfer.

Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA); Ramsour, Nicholas L. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The Sasol route to fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Details are given of the Sasol operation in South Africa. Flow sheets are provided for Sasol 1 and Sasol 2 and 3. The Sasol 1 plant produces waxes, liquid fuels, pipeline gas and chemicals; the Sasol 2 and 3 plants primarily produce ethylene, gasoline and diesel fuel. The versatility of the process is emphasized. The product selectivities of the fixed bed and Synthol reactors are shown and the properties of the products are compared. The influence of the catalyst on selectivity is examined.

Dry, M.E.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Fuel Cells for Critical Communications Backup Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen is from fossil fuels ~49% from natural gas ~29% liquid hydrocarbons ~18% coal with and ~4 transition period only) Coal (with carbon sequestration) Renewable Sources: · Wind · Biomass · Solar will drive consumption in excess of 40% over the next five years ­ Oil-sands processing, gas-to-liquids

347

Synthetic Fuel  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

348

Fuel Economy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Energy Department is investing in groundbreaking research that will make cars weigh less, drive further and consume less fuel.

349

Biomimetic Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles and Their Applications as Electro-catalysts in Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. 1 Synthesis of highlyapplications, such as PEM fuel cells. More importantly thisapplications, such as PEM fuel cells. More importantly this

Li, Yujing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataCombinedDepartment2015 InformationA BRIEF HISTORY OF THEAA Liquid Layer

351

Transportation Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatusButler TinaContact-Information-TransmissionLaboratoryFuels

352

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor's note:Computing | ArgonnechallengingFryFuel

353

Fuel cell electric power production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

Hwang, Herng-Shinn (Livingston, NJ); Heck, Ronald M. (Frenchtown, NJ); Yarrington, Robert M. (Westfield, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Fuel cell electric power production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

Hwang, H.-S.; Heck, R. M.; Yarrington, R. M.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

355

Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.13 Liquid FuelsLiquid

356

Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from Occidental Shale Company was fractionated to give three liquids in the diesel fuel boiling range. The initial boiling point in each case was 325/sup 0/F (163/sup 0/C). The final boiling points were 640/sup 0/F (338/sup 0/C), 670/sup 0/F (354/sup 0/C) and 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/F). Each fraction was hydrotreated to three different severities (800, 1200 and 1500 psi total pressure) over a Shell 324 nickel molybdate on alumina catalyst at 710 to 750/sup 0/F to afford 9 different model fuels. A variety of commercial and experimental additives were evaluated as cold flow improvers in the model fuels at treat levels of 0.04 to 0.4 wt %. Both the standard pour point test (ASTM D97) and a more severe low temperature flow test (LTFT) were employed. Reductions in pour points of up to 70/sup 0/F and improvements in LTFT temperatures up to 16/sup 0/F were achieved. It is concluded that flow improver additives can play an important role in improving the cold flow properties of future synthetic fuels of the diesel type derived from oil shale.

Frankenfeld, J.W.; Taylor, W.F.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Company Level Imports  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User Group and UserofProteinNewsat NERSC#N/A 2010 2010

358

Important communication talk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching. |EndecahemeEMSLImagingOregonAerosol3Project-X: A

359

Important communication talk  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching. |EndecahemeEMSLImagingOregonAerosol3Project-X: A

360

Natural Gas Imports (Summary)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan Feb Marthrough

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Development of Reversible Fuel Cell Systems at Proton Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/DOE Reversible Fuel Cell Workshop 5 Proton OnSite · Manufacturer of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen Fuel Cell Workshop PEM Cell Stacks Complete Systems 6 Proton Capabilities · Complete product/DOE Reversible Fuel Cell Workshop 9 PEM Fuel Cell & Electrolysis · Humidified gas streams vs. liquid water

362

LiquidPiston Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolar (Texas) JumpEvent (2) linkedLiquidPiston Inc

363

Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

365

Biodiesel Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

publication 442-880 There are broad and increasing interests across the nation in using domestic, renewable bioenergy. Virginia farmers and transportation fleets use considerable amounts of diesel fuel in their operations. Biodiesel is an excellent alternative fuel for the diesel engines. Biodiesel can be produced from crops commonly grown in Virginia, such as soybean and canola, and has almost the same performance as petrodiesel. The purpose of this publication is to introduce the basics of biodiesel fuel and address some myths and answer some questions about biodiesel fuel before farmers and fleet owners use this type of fuel. ASTM standard for biodiesel (ASTM D6751) Biodiesel fuel, hereafter referred to as simply biodiesel,

unknown authors

366

Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, LP-gas and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

112 Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel and by keeping fuel storage facilities in top condition. Flammable Liquids and Gases Gasoline, diesel fuel, LP flammability and safety precautions. Do not keep gasoline inside the home or transport it in the trunks

367

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibilityFieldMinds"OfficeTourFrom3, 2015

368

U.S. Imports from All Countries  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26,8,Coal Stocks at Other3Import Area: U.S.

369

Important Information | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching. |EndecahemeEMSLImagingOregonAerosol3 12Important

370

Fuel pins with both target and fuel pellets in an isotope-production reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target pellets are placed in close contact with fissile fuel pellets in order to increase the tritium production rate.

Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

371

Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction Eric D. Larson Princeton Environmental@princeton.edu Ren Tingjin Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China This paper reports detailed process designs and cost assessments for production of clean liquid fuels (methanol

372

Fuel pin cladding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan (San Jose, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Fuel pin cladding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, is described which consist of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel an/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

1983-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

374

New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month Week 1 WeekExpectedBarrels) Liquids,

375

The Prospects for Coal-To-Liquid Conversion: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion, a polygeneration technology that produces liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity by coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process. CTL is more expensive ...

Chen, Y.-H. Henry

376

Ignition of deuterium-trtium fuel targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom.

Musinski, Donald L. (Saline, MI); Mruzek, Michael T. (Britton, MI)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Ignition of deuterium-tritium fuel targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom. 5 figures.

Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

378

Methods of making transportation fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

379

Liquid foams of graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Calculate viscosities for 355 liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid viscosities are important factors in process design and operation. The viscosity of a liquid determines its flow properties, such as velocity and pressure drop. In addition, the heat- and mass-transfer characteristics of a liquid are affected by its viscosity. An equation can be used to calculate liquid viscosities as a function of temperature. In the accompanying table, regression coefficients are included for 355 compounds with five, six or seven carbon atoms--generally the most-widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. To calculate the viscosity of a liquid at any temperature between its melting and critical points (T[sub min] and T[sub max]), use the following equation: log[sub 10] [eta][sub liq] = A + B/T + CT + DT[sup 2] where [eta][sub liq] = viscosity, cP, A,B,C and D = regression coefficients, and T = liquid temperature, K. Insert the temperature into the equation along with the corresponding regression coefficients from the table. The chemical formulae are listed by the number of carbon atoms.

Yaws, C.L.; Lin, Xiaoyan; Li Bu (Lamar Univ., TX (United States))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Landed Costs of Imported Crude by API Gravity  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997EnvironmentElectricityrgy81 § ¨ ¦Liquids Reserve

386

Landed Costs of Imported Crude by API Gravity  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997EnvironmentElectricityrgy81 § ¨ ¦Liquids Reserve

387

Landed Costs of Imported Crude for Selected Crude Streams  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997EnvironmentElectricityrgy81 § ¨ ¦Liquids Reserve

388

Landed Costs of Imported Crude for Selected Crude Streams  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997EnvironmentElectricityrgy81 § ¨ ¦Liquids Reserve

389

West Coast (PADD 5) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember1. Foreign sales ofLiquidsWater0,Welcome

390

East Coast (PADD 1) Imports from All Countries  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.Wyoming Electricity ProfileUnder ConstructionImport

391

,"U.S. Crude Oil Imports"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 103. Relative2. Occupancy ofAviation GasolineImports"

392

Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for increasing both fuel economy and safety without compromising functionality.

Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

393

Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching. |EndecahemeEMSL Intramolecular CoulombLiquids

394

(Electron transfer rates at semiconductor/liquid interfaces)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work has focused on several aspects of the fundamental chemistry and physics semiconductor/liquid junction behavior. These projects have been directed primarily towards GaAs/liquid contacts, because GaAs/liquid systems provide high energy conversion efficiencies and offer an opportunity to gain mechanistic understanding of the factors that are important to control in an efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion system.

Lewis, N.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

[Electron transfer rates at semiconductor/liquid interfaces]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work has focused on several aspects of the fundamental chemistry and physics semiconductor/liquid junction behavior. These projects have been directed primarily towards GaAs/liquid contacts, because GaAs/liquid systems provide high energy conversion efficiencies and offer an opportunity to gain mechanistic understanding of the factors that are important to control in an efficient photoelectrochemical energy conversion system.

Lewis, N.S.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Unconventional fuel: Tire derived fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Material recovery of scrap tires for their fuel value has moved from a pioneering concept in the early 1980`s to a proven and continuous use in the United States` pulp and paper, utility, industrial, and cement industry. Pulp and paper`s use of tire derived fuel (TDF) is currently consuming tires at the rate of 35 million passenger tire equivalents (PTEs) per year. Twenty mills are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The utility industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 48 million PTEs per year. Thirteen utilities are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The cement industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 28 million PTEs per year. Twenty two cement plants are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. Other industrial boilers are currently consuming tires at the rate of 6.5 million PTEs per year. Four industrial boilers are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. In total, 59 facilities are currently burning over 117 million PTEs per year. Although 93% of these facilities were not engineered to burn TDF, it has become clear that TDF has found acceptance as a supplemental fuel when blending with conventional fuels in existing combustion devices designed for normal operating conditions. The issues of TDF as a supplemental fuel and its proper specifications are critical to the successful development of this fuel alternative. This paper will focus primarily on TDF`s use in a boiler type unit.

Hope, M.W. [Waste Recovery, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

398

BWR Fuel Assembly BWR Fuel Assembly PWR Fuel Assembly  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

BWR Fuel Assembly BWR Fuel Assembly PWR Fuel Assembly PWR Fuel Assembly The PWR 17x17 assembly is approximately 160 inches long (13.3 feet), 8 inches across, and weighs 1,500 lbs....

399

Irradiation behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic fuels were the first fuels chosen for liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMR's). In the late 1960's world-wide interest turned toward ceramic LMR fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel was realized. However, during the 1970's the performance limitations of metallic fuel were resolved in order to achieve a high plant factor at the Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The 1980's spawned renewed interest in metallic fuel when the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept emerged at Argonne National Laboratory. A fuel performance demonstration program was put into place to obtain the data needed for the eventual licensing of metallic fuel. This paper will summarize the results of the irradiation program carried out since 1985.

Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Walters, L.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Direct methanol fuel cell and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress in a study to determine the most cost effective and suitable combination of existing petroleum refinery processes needed to make specification transportation fuels or blending stocks, from direct and indirect coal liquefaction product liquids is reported.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Fossil Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuels A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi - Department of Petroleum Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals...

403

The distribution of n-alkanes in partially frozen middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work on partially frozen fuels is one of a continuing series of studies on the effect of composition on the freezing properties of hydrocarbon fuels. The method used for this purpose was reported previously. By means of this method the authors were able to determine the composition of the liquid and solid phases in partially frozen mixtures consisting of liquid and of solid crystals plus entrapped liquid. This paper presents the results of this study on five different middle distillate fuels.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.; Guzman, J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuelmaking them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once theyre pumped out of the tank.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Preferential oxidation of methanol and carbon monoxide for gas cleanup during methanol fuel processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol fuel processing generates hydrogen for low-temperature, PEM fuel cell systems now being considered for transportation and other applications. Although liquid methanol fuel is convenient for this application, existing fuel processing techniques generate contaminants that degrade fuel cell performance. Through mathematical models and laboratory experiments chemical processing is described that removes CO and other contaminants from the anode feed stream.

Birdsell, S.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Inbody, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Fail-safe storage rack for irradiated fuel rod assemblies  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fail-safe storage rack is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

Lewis, Donald R. (Pocatello, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Solid fuel applications to transportation engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the energy security bene?ts of reduced u.s. oil imports.security, namely, the share of alternatives to crude oil (oil such as o?-shore petroleum, and coal/gas based liquids, can be considered better for energy security (

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

411

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

413

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

collectors. In a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which is widely regarded as the most promisingFUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fuel Cells -- is the key to making it happen. Stationary fuel cells can be used for backup power, power for remote loca

414

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96NebraskaWellsFoot) Year Jan12,608 Canadaviewing

415

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96NebraskaWellsFoot) Year Jan12,608 CanadaviewingPrice

416

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96NebraskaWellsFoot) Year Jan12,608

417

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96NebraskaWellsFoot) Year Jan12,608Sampling Methodology

418

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96NebraskaWellsFoot) Year Jan12,608Sampling

419

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96NebraskaWellsFoot) Year Jan12,608SamplingSee all

420

Preparation of High Purity, High Molecular-Weight Chitin from Ionic Liquids for Use as an Adsorbate for the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater (Workscope MS-FC: Fuel Cycle R&D)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ensuring a domestic supply of uranium is a key issue facing the wider implementation of nuclear power. Uranium is mostly mined in Kazakhstan, Australia, and Canada, and there are few high-grade uranium reserves left worldwide. Therefore, one of the most appealing potential sources of uranium is the vast quantity dissolved in the oceans (estimated to be 4.4 billion tons worldwide). There have been research efforts centered on finding a means to extract uranium from seawater for decades, but so far none have resulted in an economically viable product, due in part to the fact that the materials that have been successfully demonstrated to date are too costly (in terms of money and energy) to produce on the necessary scale. Ionic Liquids (salts which melt below 100{degrees}C) can completely dissolve raw crustacean shells, leading to recovery of a high purity, high molecular weight chitin powder and to fibers and films which can be spun directly from the extract solution suggesting that continuous processing might be feasible. The work proposed here will utilize the unprecedented control this makes possible over the chitin fiber a) to prepare electrospun nanofibers of very high surface area and in specific architectures, b) to modify the fiber surfaces chemically with selective extractant capacity, and c) to demonstrate their utility in the direct extraction and recovery of uranium from seawater. This approach will 1) provide direct extraction of chitin from shellfish waste thus saving energy over the current industrial process for obtaining chitin; 2) allow continuous processing of nanofibers for very high surface area fibers in an economical operation; 3) provide a unique high molecular weight chitin not available from the current industrial process leading to stronger, more durable fibers; and 4) allow easy chemical modification of the large surface areas of the fibers for appending uranyl selective functionality providing selectivity and ease of stripping. The resulting sorbent should prove economically feasible, as well as providing an overall net energy gain.

Rogers, Robin

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Winter fuels report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

422

Winter fuels report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

Not Available

1995-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

423

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Lightweight cryogenic-compatible pressure vessels for vehicular fuel storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lightweight, cryogenic-compatible pressure vessel for flexibly storing cryogenic liquid fuels or compressed gas fuels at cryogenic or ambient temperatures. The pressure vessel has an inner pressure container enclosing a fuel storage volume, an outer container surrounding the inner pressure container to form an evacuated space therebetween, and a thermal insulator surrounding the inner pressure container in the evacuated space to inhibit heat transfer. Additionally, vacuum loss from fuel permeation is substantially inhibited in the evacuated space by, for example, lining the container liner with a layer of fuel-impermeable material, capturing the permeated fuel in the evacuated space, or purging the permeated fuel from the evacuated space.

Aceves, Salvador; Berry, Gene; Weisberg, Andrew H.

2004-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

425

Comparative analysis of selected fuel cell vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vehicles powered by fuel cells operate more efficiently, more quietly, and more cleanly than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Furthermore, methanol-fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) can utilize major elements of the existing fueling infrastructure of present-day liquid-fueled ICE vehicles (ICEVs). DOE has maintained an active program to stimulate the development and demonstration o fuel cell technologies in conjunction with rechargeable batteries in road vehicles. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the availability of data on FCVs, and to develop a vehicle subsystem structure that can be used to compare both FCVs and ICEV, from a number of perspectives--environmental impacts, energy utilization, materials usage, and life cycle costs. This report focuses on methanol-fueled FCVs fueled by gasoline, methanol, and diesel fuel that are likely to be demonstratable by the year 2000. The comparative analysis presented covers four vehicles--two passenger vehicles and two urban transit buses. The passenger vehicles include an ICEV using either gasoline or methanol and an FCV using methanol. The FCV uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an on-board methanol reformer, mid-term batteries, and an AC motor. The transit bus ICEV was evaluated for both diesel and methanol fuels. The transit bus FCV runs on methanol and uses a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) fuel cell, near-term batteries, a DC motor, and an on-board methanol reformer. 75 refs.

NONE

1993-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

426

Ignition quality determination of marine diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition quality of heavy marine diesel fuels is considered to be an important parameter. The standard procedures used to quantify this parameter for distillate fuels are not applicable to residual fuels. Proton NMR Spectroscopy was demonstrated to be an effective tool to characterize the ''global'' fuel composition of commercially available fuels covering a wide range of ignition quality. Proton NMR data from these fuels were used to determine a cetane number (CNp) for the heavy fuels using procedures previously reported for distillate fuels. The validity of this instrumental technique for determining CNp was corroborated by actual ASTM D 613 engine tests on a number of commercially available fuels, run as blends with secondary reference fuels. Viscosity and density values of the analyzed heavy fuels were regressed against predicted cetane numbers to obtain a correlation expression.

Gulder, O.L.; Glavincevski, B.; Kassinger, R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Proceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

optimization study. For a new technology, such as fuel cells, it is also important to include uncertaintiesProceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference June 16-18, 2008, Denver, Colorado, USA FUELCELL2008-65111 OPTIMAL DESIGN OF HYBRID ELECTRIC FUEL

Papalambros, Panos

428

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with air. Liquid carbon monoxide is extremely toxic and extremely flammable. #12;Cryogenic liquids connecting cylinder to lower pressure piping or systems. 6. Use a check valve or trap in the discharge line

429

Development and Demonstration of Fischer-Tropsch Fueled Heavy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

(F-T) Fuels in the U.S. -- An Overview APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Coal-Derived Liquids to Enable HCCI Technology...

430

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States--FischerTropsch Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States--Fischer­Tropsch Synthesis Tad W-mine development. Consequently, a large-scale effort to convert coal to liquids (CTL) has been proposed to create that coal into a synthetic liquid fuel, or synfuel. The plan is con- troversial, but Gov. Schweitzer ­ half

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

431

A Methanol and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell Using Non-Noble Catalysts in Alkaline Solution.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A primary goal of this work is to develop a novel liquid-based microscale fuel cell using non-noble metal catalysts. The developed fuel cell is based (more)

Sung, Woosuk

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Equation for liquid density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

imported | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWende NewSowitec doWinvest Home Jweers's picture Submittedimported

434

Fabrication and Pre-irradiation Characterization of a Minor Actinide and Rare Earth Containing Fast Reactor Fuel Experiment for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy, seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter lived fission products, thereby decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and reducing the long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. This transmutation of the long lived actinides plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium can be accomplished by first separating them from spent Light Water Reactor fuel using a pyro-metalurgical process, then reprocessing them into new fuel with fresh uranium additions, and then transmuted to short lived nuclides in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. An important component of the technology is developing actinide-bearing fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium isotopes that meet the stringent requirements of reactor fuels and materials.

Timothy A. Hyde

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat providing wide variation of the composite proportion of liquid-gas output while maintaining high overall carbon conversion to useful fuel. The process and apparatus utilizes three process stages in a single vessel providing functions of drying wet peat, provisions for addition of both wet and dry peat to a hydropyrolysis zone and gasification of the peat char.

Bodle, W.W.; Punwani, D.; Weil, S.A.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

436

Liquid detection circuit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

Li, Zaiwei (Moreno Valley, CA); Tang, Yongchun (Walnut, CA); Cheng; Jihong (Arcadia, CA)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

439

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPEN ORIGINAL ARTICLE Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells Justine E Mink1,2, Ramy M Qaisi1, Bruce E Logan3 and Muhammad M Hussain1 Micro-sized microbial fuel cells: graphene; microbial fuel cell; saliva INTRODUCTION Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) rely upon the decomposition

440

OPERATOR'S MANUAL IMPORTANT NOTES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-3 B) LOAD CONNECTION (I) and PAR. 3-3 C) LOAD CONNECTION (II) add the following: Load connectionsMODEL OPERATOR'S MANUAL IMPORTANT NOTES: 1) This manual is valid for the following Model: BOP 20-20, BOP 36-12, BOP 50-8, BOP 72-6, BOP 100-4 BOP 100W, 200W, 400W POWER SUPPLY #12;#12;1 LOAD

Kleinfeld, David

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Hydrogen as a near-term transportation fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The health costs associated with urban air pollution are a growing problem faced by all societies. Automobiles burning gasoline and diesel contribute a great deal to this problem. The cost to the United States of imported oil is more than US$50 billion annually. Economic alternatives are being actively sought. Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range (>480 km) with emissions well below the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being required in California. These vehicles can also be manufactured without excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining engine and other component efficiencies, the overall vehicle efficiency should be about 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to what US vehicle operators pay today. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing low-cost, large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus can be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Rambach, G.D.

1995-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

442

The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus will be Fischer-Tropsch liquids made from natural gas, coal or biomass. The models will include both the effects of operation with these alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional petroleum-based fuels. The team will develop the requisite kinetic rules for specific reaction types and incorporate these into detailed kinetic mechanisms to predict the combustion performance of neat alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional fuels. Reduced kinetic models will be then developed to allow solution of the coupled kinetics/transport problems. This is a collaboration between the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CSM/LLNL team plans to build on the substantial progress made in recent years in developing accurate detailed chemical mechanisms for the oxidation and pyrolysis of conventional fuels. Particular emphasis will be placed upon reactions of the isoalkanes and the daughter radicals, especially tertiary radicals, formed by abstraction from the isoalkanes. The various components of the program are described. We have been developing the kinetic models for two iso-dodecane molecules, using the same kinetic modeling formalisms that were developed for the gasoline and diesel primary reference fuels. These mechanisms, and the thermochemical and transport coefficient submodels for them, are very close to completion at the time of this report, and we expect them to be available for kinetic simulations early in the coming year. They will provide a basis for prediction and selection of desirable F-T molecules for use in jet engine simulations, where we should be able to predict the ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of proposed fuel components. These mechanisms include the reactions and chemical species needed to describe high temperature phenomena such as shock tube ignition and flammability behavior, and they will also include low temperature kinetics to describe other ignition phenomena such as compression ignition and knocking. During the past years, our hydrocarbon kinetics modeling group at LLNL has focused a great deal on fuels typical of gasoline and diesel fuel. About 10 years ago, we developed kinetic models for the fuel octane primary reference fuels, n-heptane [1] and iso-octane [2], which have 7 and 8 carbon atoms and are therefore representative of typical gasoline fuels. N-heptane represents the low limit of knock resistance with an octane number of 0, while iso-octane is very knock resistant with an octane number of 100. High knock resistance in iso-octane was attributed largely to the large fraction of primary C-H bonds in the molecule, including 15 of the 18 C-H bonds, and the high bond energy of these primary bonds plays a large role in this knock resistance. In contrast, in the much more ignitable n-heptane, 10 of its 16 C-H bonds are much less strongly bound secondary C-H bonds, leading to its very low octane number. All of these factors, as well as a similarly complex kinetic description of the equally important role of the transition state rings that transfer H atoms within the reacting fuel molecules, were quantified and collected into large kinetic reaction mechanisms that are used by many researchers in the fuel chemistry world.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

443

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

445

In Proc of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Symposium, 199th Electrochem.l Soc. Mtg, Washington DC, 3/01.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Proc of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Symposium, 199th Electrochem.l Soc. Mtg, Washington DC, 3/01. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF LIQUID-FEED DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS Z. H. Wang and C. Y. Wang Electrochemical methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Diffusion and convection of both gas and liquid phases are considered

Wang, Chao-Yang

446

Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

Neutzler, J.K.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

447

Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprising corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant.

Neutzler, Jay Kevin (Rochester, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Microbial fuel cell with improved anode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for preparing a microbial fuel cell, wherein the method includes: (i) inoculating an anodic liquid medium in contact with an anode of the microbial fuel cell with one or more types of microorganisms capable of functioning by an exoelectrogenic mechanism; (ii) establishing a biofilm of the microorganisms on and/or within the anode along with a substantial absence of planktonic forms of the microorganisms by substantial removal of the planktonic microorganisms during forced flow and recirculation conditions of the anodic liquid medium; and (iii) subjecting the microorganisms of the biofilm to a growth stage by incorporating one or more carbon-containing nutritive compounds in the anodic liquid medium during biofilm formation or after biofilm formation on the anode has been established.

Borole, Abhijeet P.

2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

449

Liquid-flow reactor and method of using  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tendency of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels, such as kerosene, diesel fuel, and jet fuel toward the formation of fuel-insoluble solids during thermal stress in an aircraft fuel system is assessed by an accelerated test method comprising passing a predetermined quantity of a sample of fuel through a heated test section maintained at a predetermined temperature, at a predetermined fuel flow rate. A metal test strip, weighed before the test, is clamped in the heated test section during the test. It is weighed again after the test and the weight of solids buildup during the test is determined. It is related directly to the tendency of the fuel to form fuel-insoluble solids during thermal stress. A filter is weighed before the test. It is then connected to the outlet of the test section, and liquid fuel leaving the test section during the test is passed through it. The filter is then weighed a second time and the weight increase of the filter due to its capture of fuel-insoluble solids is calculated. It also is directly related to the tendency of the fuel to form fuel-insoluble solids during thermal stress.

Hardy, D.R.; Beal, E.J.; Burnett, J.C.

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

450

Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

451

Fuel Processing Valri Lightner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Hydrogen · Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cells Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc. GE Catalytica ANL PNNL University-Board Fuel Processing Barriers $35/kW Fuel Processor $10/kW Fuel Cell Power Systems $45/kW by 2010 BARRIERS · Fuel processor start-up/ transient operation · Durability · Cost · Emissions and environmental issues

452

Important Trinity / NERSC-8 Documents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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453

Fuel reforming for fuel cell application.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fossil fuels, such as natural gas, petroleum, and coal are currently the primary source of energy that drives the world economy. However, fossil fuel is (more)

Hung, Tak Cheong

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a nuclear fission reactor which has a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200 to 1800/sup 0/C range, and even higher to 2500/sup 0/C.

Minkov, V.

1984-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

455

Winter fuels report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

Not Available

1995-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

456

Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank Matthew J. Daigle1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank Matthew J. Daigle1 and Vadim N. Smelyanskiy2 temperature stratification effects driven by natural convec- tion in a liquid hydrogen cryogenic fuel tank has liquid and ullage spaces. Temperature and ve- locity boundary layers at the tank walls are taken

Daigle, Matthew

457

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Resources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Alternative fuel vehicles use fuel types other than petroleum and include such fuels as electricity, ethanol, biodiesel, natural gas, hydrogen, and propane. Compared to petroleum, these...

458

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Grants and Rebates The Arkansas Alternative Fuels Development Program (Program) provides grants to alternative fuel producers, feedstock processors, and...

459

Alternative Fuel Implementation Toolkit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels ­ biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas...........................................................................................................................................................................6 Trends and Fleet Examples: Alternative Fuel Decision Table

460

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in 1990. These many alternative-fuel initiatives failed tolow-cost, low-carbon alternative fuels would thrive. Theto introduce low-carbon alternative fuels. Former Federal

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Institute 1990 Fuel Cell Status," Proceedings ofMiller, "Introduction: Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle DevelopmentPrograms," presented at Fuel Cells for Transportation,

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGLs) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical LNG like fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Performance characteristics of the annular core research reactor fuel motion detection system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent proof tests have shown that the annular core research reactor (ACRR) fuel motion detection system has reached its design goals of providing high temporal and spatial resolution pictures of fuel distributions in the ACRR. The coded aperture imaging system (CAIS) images the fuel by monitoring the fission gamma rays from the fuel that pass through collimators in the reactor core. The gamma-ray beam is modulated by coded apertures before producing a visible light coded image in thin scintillators. Each coded image is then amplified and recorded by an opticalimage-intensifier/fast-framing-camera combination. The proximity to the core and the coded aperture technique provide a high data collection rate and high resolution. Experiments of CAIS at the ACRR conducted under steady-state operation have documented the beneficial effects of changes in the radiation shielding and imaging technique. The spatial resolutions are 1.7 mm perpendicular to the axis of a single liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel pin and 9 mm in the axial dimension. Changes in mass of 100 mg in each resolution element can be detected each frame period, which may be from 5 to 100 ms. This diagnostic instrument may help resolve important questions in fuel motion phenomenology.

Kelly, J.G.; Stalker, K.T.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Autoignition of toluene reference fuels at high pressures modeled with detailed chemical kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic model for the autoignition of toluene reference fuels (TRF) is presented. The toluene submechanism added to the Lawrence Livermore Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) mechanism was developed using recent shock tube autoignition delay time data under conditions relevant to HCCI combustion. For two-component fuels the model was validated against recent high-pressure shock tube autoignition delay time data for a mixture consisting of 35% n-heptane and 65% toluene by liquid volume. Important features of the autoignition of the mixture proved to be cross-acceleration effects, where hydroperoxy radicals produced during n-heptane oxidation dramatically increased the oxidation rate of toluene compared to the case when toluene alone was oxidized. Rate constants for the reaction of benzyl and hydroperoxyl radicals previously used in the modeling of the oxidation of toluene alone were untenably high for modeling of the mixture. To model both systems it was found necessary to use a lower rate and introduce an additional branching route in the reaction between benzyl radicals and O{sub 2}. Good agreement between experiments and predictions was found when the model was validated against shock tube autoignition delay data for gasoline surrogate fuels consisting of mixtures of 63-69% isooctane, 14-20% toluene, and 17% n-heptane by liquid volume. Cross reactions such as hydrogen abstractions between toluene and alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals and between the PRF were introduced for completion of chemical description. They were only of small importance for modeling autoignition delays from shock tube experiments, even at low temperatures. A single-zone engine model was used to evaluate how well the validated mechanism could capture autoignition behavior of toluene reference fuels in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model could qualitatively predict the experiments, except in the case with boosted intake pressure, where the initial temperature had to be increased significantly in order to predict the point of autoignition. (author)

Andrae, J.C.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom); Bjoernbom, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Cracknell, R.F.; Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

Table 3.3 Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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467

Study of liquid retention in fixed-bed reactors with upward flow of gas and liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature survey of the measurement techniques for the determination of liquid retention in cocurrent upward gas and liquid flow in fixed-bed reactors is presented. A number of these techniques were used in this work in columns of different diameters (Dc = 0.05 m, 0.10 m, and 0.15 m). Porous alumina particles of two different diameters (dp = 0.002 m and 0.0028 m) with both nonfoaming (water, cyclohexane, heptane, and propanol) and foaming liquids (kerosene, LCO, and diesel fuel) have been investigated. The gas used was either air or N[sub 2]. The methods investigated include volumetry, gravimetry, gammametry, and determination of residence-time distribution by tracer technique. A simple correlation for the prediction of total gas and liquid retention for bubble and pulsed flow is proposed and verified.

Yang, X.L.; Euzen, J.P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Vernaison (France)); Wild, G. (Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique, Nancy (France))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Sodium boiling dryout correlation for LMFBR fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain postulated accident conditions for a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), such as the failure of the shutdown heat removal system (SHRS), sodium boiling and clad dryout might occur in the fuel assemblies. It is important to predict the time from boiling inception to dryout, since sustained clad dryout will result in core damage. In this paper a dryout correlation is presented. This correlation is based on 21 boiling tests which resulted in dryout from the THORS BUNDLE 6A, a 19-pin full-length simulated LMFBR fuel assembly and from the THORS Bundle 9, a 61-pin full-length simulated LMFBR fuel assembly. All these tests were performed as follows: for each specified bundle power, an initial steady-state high sodium flow was established, for which sodium boiling did not occur in the bundle. The temperature at the outlet of the test section was approx. 700/sup 0/C. Then, using a programmable pump control system, the flow was reduced to a low value and boiling occurred.

Carbajo, J.J.; Rose, S.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

OpenEI Community - imported  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBusPFAN)ChangeOnPACen 2014 Geothermal Case

470

Generation of hydrogen peroxide in a shorted fuel cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen peroxide is a {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} chemical with a well-assured future. As such, significant growth in demand is predicted for this material. To meet this growth, new technologies of manufacture are being contemplated to compete with the established Anthraquinone process. Some of these new methods seek the niche market of on-site generation of hydrogen peroxide. One good example of this is Dow`s caustic/peroxide generation scheme for the bleaching of paper pulp. Others rely on externally-supplied electrical power in an electrochemical reactor scheme, where peroxide may be generated additionally in neutral or acidic solution. It has long been realized that the chemical potential of the reactants themselves can be used in a controlled manner in an electrolytic cell. This is the basis of fuel cells (to generate electrical power) and has been extended to the synthesis of useful chemical species, either using solid polymer electrolytes or active oxygen transporting membranes. Use has also been made of the inherent chemical potential in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} reactions to produce hydrogen peroxide. This reactor utilized a liquid phase cathode with dissolved air or oxygen to produce small concentrations of peroxide in a fixed volume. In fact, most schemes for the direct, electrochemical production of peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen yield low, millimolar peroxide concentrations. This paper describes the development of a scalable, segmented-flow, shorted fuel cell for the generation of greater than 1 w/o hydrogen peroxide. Three areas are of major importance in the development of a continuous, peroxide-forming reactor: the reactor design, catalyst choice and application, and the operating parameters for the reactor. The cathode catalyst is probably the single most important part. Operating parameters include such basics as temperature, pressure, gas flow rate, and liquid flow rate. Each of these topics will be discussed.

Webb, S.P.; McIntyre, J.A. [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

471

West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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472

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0SalesElements) IndustrialFuelLiquids

473

Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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474

Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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475

Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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476

Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year Jan Feb (Million CubicFuelLiquids

477

Air and Liquid Advisors ALA | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWaterBrasil JumpAerowatt EnergiesFacilityInformationWebLiquid

478

,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 103. Relative2. Occupancy ofAviation Gasoline Sales to14Liquids

479

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Updated NGNP Fuel Acquisition Strategy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel acquisition strategy was first established in 2007. In that report, a detailed technical assessment of potential fuel vendors for the first core of NGNP was conducted by an independent group of international experts based on input from the three major reactor vendor teams. Part of the assessment included an evaluation of the credibility of each option, along with a cost and schedule to implement each strategy compared with the schedule and throughput needs of the NGNP project. While credible options were identified based on the conditions in place at the time, many changes in the assumptions underlying the strategy and in externalities that have occurred in the interim requiring that the option