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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

2

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used in the mid- and long-term time frames.

3

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

4

Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

5

Why is fuel Economy Important?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Why Is Fuel Economy Important? Why Is Fuel Economy Important? Saves You Money Save as much as $1,700 in fuel costs each year by choosing the most efficient vehicle that meets your needs. See how much you can save! Photo of gasoline receipt on top of money Reduces Climate Change Carbon dioxide (CO2) from burning gasoline and diesel contributes to global climate change. You can do your part to reduce climate change by reducing your carbon footprint! Photo of Earth from space Reduces Oil Dependence Costs Our dependence on oil makes us vulnerable to oil market manipulation and price shocks. Find out how oil dependence hurts our economy! Chart showing annual cost of oil imports increasing from $21 billion per year in 1975 to approximately $330 billion in 2011 Increases Energy Sustainability

6

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Liquid Fuels from Biomass | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuels from Biomass Liquid Fuels from Biomass Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel...

8

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells ■ Hydrogen Energy ■ Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Integrated Concept Purified Biogas 3 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Non-Integrated Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2 purification Stationary Fuel Cells Direct Conversion Directed Biomethane 4 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Biogas Sources in the US ■ Landfill gas dominates (~4,000 Nm3/h typical)

9

Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuels (ALF) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) Address: P.O. Box 76 Place: McArthur, Ohio Zip: 45651 Sector: Biofuels, Renewable Energy, Services...

10

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 2 - Liquid Fuels World liquids consumption increases from 84 million barrels per day in 2005 to 99 million barrels per day in 2030 in the IEO2008 high price case. In the reference case, which reflects a price path that departs significantly from prices prevailing in the first 8 months of 2008, liquids use rises to 113 million barrels per day in 2030. Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

11

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

12

AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

last year but will be this year It is a cap and trade system for Green House Gas (GHG) It is anticipated to affect prices, production and more than just liquid fuels Carbon...

13

Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM) Unveiling LFMM  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in the Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) of NEMS Michael H. Cole, PhD, PE michael.cole@eia.gov August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC LFMM / NEMS overview 2 M. Cole, EIA Advanced Biofuels Workshop August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC * LFMM is a mathematical representation of the U.S. liquid fuels market (motor gasoline, diesel, biofuels, etc.). EIA analysts use LFMM to project motor fuel prices and production approaches through 2040. * LFMM is a cost-minimization linear program (LP). For a given set of fuel demands, LFMM will find the least-cost means of satisfying those demands, subject to various constraints (such as the RFS). * LFMM is part of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which is a computer model of the U.S. energy economy. EIA uses

14

Clean liquid fuels from MSW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for a cost effective and cleaner method of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal hardly needs emphasizing. With funding through the US EPA and US DOE-METC, EnerTech demonstrated its SlurryCarb{trademark} process for producing homogeneous, pumpable fuels from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with continuous pilot plant facilities, and characterized flue gas and ash emissions from combustion of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel. Pilot scale slurry carbonization experiments with RDF produced a homogeneous pumpable slurry fuel with a Higher Heating Value up to approximately 6,600 Btu/lb at 51.7 wt% total solids. The viscosity of this carbonized RDF slurry fuel was approximately 500 cP {at} 100 Hz decreasing, and ambient temperature. Also, pilot scale slurry carbonization experiments extracted up to approximately 94% of the feed RDF chlorine content as chloride salts. Atmospheric combustion of the carbonized RDF slurry fuel produced a carbon burnout exceeding 99.9%, with excess air as low as 15%. CO emissions averaged below 16 ppm (corrected to 7% O{sub 2}), while HCl and SO{sub 2} emissions were below 17 and 40 ppm, respectively, without acid gas scrubbing. NO{sub x} emissions depended on combustion temperature and averaged between 82--211 ppm, without selective noncatalytic or catalytic reduction. In addition, mercury emissions were measured at 0.003 mg/dscm. Combustion ash was non-hazardous, with low leaching characteristics, based on a TCLP analysis.

Klosky, M. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

Numerical simulation of laser ignition of a liquid fuel film  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulations were used to examine a set of interrelated physicochemical processes involved in the ignition of a liquid fuel film by a low-power laser beam. The delay time of ignition of a liquid fuel fil...

G. V. Kuznetsov; P. A. Strizhak

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Importation into Britain of Liquid Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of singular interest has recently been reported, namely, the importation into Britain of liquefied natural ...naturalgas ...

1958-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

18

Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

AEO2011: Imported Liquids by Source | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Imported Liquids by Source Imported Liquids by Source Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 146, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million barrels per day. The data is broken down into crude oil, light refined products and heavy refined products. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO EIA imports liquids Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Imported Liquids by Source- Reference Case (xls, 85.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

20

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel via Fractional Evaporation and Subsequent Hydrodesulfurization Upstream a Fuel Cell System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are favored for application in the foreseeable future. ... For fuel cells to be fuelled with liquid fuels as per Figure 1, an upstream desulfurization step is mandatory. ... fuel?recovered ...

Markus Brune; Rainer Reimert

2005-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

23

Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

AEO2011: Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 11, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million barrels per day. The data is broken down into crude oil, other petroleum supply, other non petroleum supply and liquid fuel consumption. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO disposition EIA liquid fuels Supply Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition- Reference Case (xls, 117 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

25

Design, fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a long duration aircraft  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liquid hydrogen has distinct advantages as an aircraft fuel. These include a specific heat of combustion 2.8 times greater than gasoline or jet fuel and zero carbon emissions. It can be utilized by fuel cells turbine engines and internal combustion engines. The high heat of combustion is particularly important in the design of long endurance aircraft with liquid hydrogen enabling cruise endurance of several days. However the mass advantage of the liquid hydrogen fuel will result in a mass advantage for the fuel system only if the liquid hydrogen tank and insulation mass is a small fraction of the hydrogen mass. The challenge is producing a tank that meets the mass requirement while insulating the cryogenic liquid hydrogen well enough to prevent excessive heat leak and boil off. In this paper we report on the design fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a prototype high altitude long endurance (HALE) demonstration aircraft. Design options on tank geometry tank wall material and insulation systems are discussed. The final design is an aluminum sphere insulated with spray on foam insulation (SOFI). Several steps and organizations were involved in the tank fabrication and test. The tank was cold shocked helium leak checked and proof pressure tested. The overall thermal performance was verified with a boil off test using liquid hydrogen.

Gary L. Mills; Brian Buchholtz; Al Olsen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Space effect on liquid film flow in a BWR fuel bundle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Critical power at boiling transition is an important factor in a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel bundle design. Boiling transition under high quality accounts for dryout as the result of the complete disappearance of film flow on a fuel rod. This liquid film vanishing process can be calculated by the liquid film model, which takes into account the evaporation due to heat from the rod surface, liquid film entrainment by steam flow, and liquid droplet deposition. It is known that spacers affect liquid film entrainment and liquid droplet deposition, so the detailed study of spacer effects on hydrodynamic characteristics is necessary for critical power prediction based on the film flow model. Many studies have been conducted to examine spacer effects on liquid film flow. However, most of them are restricted to simple test sections such as a rectangular conduit. There are a few reports on fuel bundle geometry; however the bundle studied was only a 3 by 3 rod array. It is known that spacers affect not only deposition and entrainment but also flow distribution among the subchannels. Therefore, in this research, liquid film thickness measurements were performed to clarify the deposition and entrainment at a spacer in a full-sized fuel bundle. Furthermore, critical power predictions on a BWR fuel bundle were carried out with a film flow model that included a spacer model.

Nishida, Koji; Kanazawa, Toru; Yokomizo, Osamu (Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels Graphic Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 Figure 26 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 Figure 27 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 28. World Liquids Consumption by Sector, 2005-2030 Figure 28 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 29. World Liquids Consumption by Region and Country Group, 2005 and 2030 Figure 29 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 30. Nominal World Oil Prices in three Cases, 1980-2030 Figure 30 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

28

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most widely used separation technique in the petroleum industry and other liquid fuel production processes as well as in much of the chemical industry is distillation. To design and operate an appropriate commercial and laboratory distillation unit requires a knowledge of the boiling point distribution of the materials to be separated. In recognition of these needs, the ASTM developed the distillation procedures of D86, D216, D447, D850, and D1078. They are widely used in laboratories for the purposes of sample characterization, product and quality control, and distillation column design. However, the significant drawbacks of these ASTM methods include (1) close monitoring of the distillation is required. This is particularly difficult for those samples which are very toxic and/or cause any other safety problems; (2) the sample under test must be transparent and free of separated water; and (3) results obtained by these methods are not particularly precise. This motivated the development of a novel automatic distillation system based on the use of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

31

EIA - AEO2010 - Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits This section provides a review of the treatment of Federal fuels taxes and tax credits in AEO2010. Excise taxes on highway fuel The treatment of Federal highway fuel taxes remains unchanged from the previous year’s AEO. Gasoline is taxed at 18.4 cents per gallon, diesel fuel at 24.4 cents per gallon, and jet fuel at 4.4 cents per gallon, consistent with current laws and regulations. Consistent with Federal budgeting procedures, which dictate that excise taxes dedicated to a trust fund, if expiring, are assumed to be extended at current rates, these taxes are maintained at their present levels, without adjustment for inflation, throughout the projection [9]. State fuel taxes are calculated on the basis of a volume-weighted average for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels. The State fuel taxes were updated as of July 2009 [10] and are held constant in real terms over the projection period, consistent with historical experience.

32

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for...

33

Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

Galle-Bishop, John Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

9: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply Fact 679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply U.S. imports of fuel ethanol were low until 2004 when...

35

Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photosynthesis Biomass Renewable liquid fuel Fuel synthesis #12;Renewable liquid fuel Combustion CO2 separation emissions from all sectors IEA, 2012; CO2 emissions from fuel combustion: Highlights. · Solar · Wind · CO2. R. Soc. A, 368, 3343, 2010 #12;Biological renewable liquid fuel Combustion Water CO2 in air

Homes, Christopher C.

36

1 - Gasification and synthetic liquid fuel production: an overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter discusses general considerations on gasification processes and synthetic liquid fuel production. It provides an overview of state-of-the-art gasification technologies, feedstocks and applications in power generation, and synthetic fuels production, together with some recent future trends in the field.

R. Luque; J.G. Speight

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Distillate Fuel Oil Imports Could Be Available - For A Price  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: So it wasn't demand and production explains only part of the reason we got through last winter with enough stocks. The mystery is solved when you look at net imports of distillate fuel last winter. As we found out, while imports are a small contributor to supply, they are sometimes crucial. Last winter, imports were the main source of supply increase following the price spike. Previous record levels were shattered as imports came pouring into the country. The fact that Europe was enjoying a warmer-than-normal winter also encouraged exports to the United States. It was massive amounts of imports, particularly from Russia, that helped us get through last winter in as good a shape as we did. Imports are expected to be relatively normal this winter. Added imports

38

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Exciplex Fluorescence Thermometry of Liquid Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental program is described that investigates the application of exciplex fluorescence to the internal thermometry of flowing liquid decane in the temperature range 24-91C....

Stufflebeam, John H

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Catalytic Reforming of Biomass Raw Fuel Gas to Syngas for FT Liquid Fuels Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasification of biomass to obtain a syngas provides a competitive means for clean FT (Fischer-Tropsch) liquid fuels from renewable resources. The feasibility of the process depends on the upgrading of raw ...

Tiejun Wang; Chenguang Wang; Qi Zhang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

50: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood 50: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin Summary NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide federal funding to Flambeau River Biofuels (FRB) to construct and operate a biomass-to-liquid biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin, on property currently used by Flambeau Rivers Paper, LLC (FRP) for a pulp and paper mill and Johnson Timber Corporation's (JTC) Summit Lake Yard for timber storage. This project would design a biorefinery which would produce up to 1,150 barrels per day (bpd) of clean syncrude. The biorefinery would also supply

42

Argonne project turns methane to liquid fuel for hybrid fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Researchers from the US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois and the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) have been awarded $2 million from the Advanced Research Projects AgencyEnergy (ARPA-E), for a two-year project on hybrid fuel cells, specifically on converting methane to liquid fuel.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

Dr. Paul A. Lessing

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

factors that would enhance or impede development and deployment. · Review other alternative fuels MIT HAROLD SCHOBERT Pennsylvania State University CHRISTOPHER SOMERVILLE Energy BioSciences Institute biomass 085 072 Wheat straw 070 055 a2008 costs = baseline costs #12;BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION STATUS

45

Advanced liquid fuel production from biomass for power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the European Union, important political decisions recently adopted and concerning the evolution of the Common Agriculture Policy, the GATT trade liberalisation Agreement and new measures actually under discussion (CARBON TAX, Financial support for rural development...) will have significant impact, in a no distant future, on the bioenergy activity. Also the considerable energy import ({approximately} 55% of the consumption) is of increasing concerns. The biomass potential in the E.U. is large, but the availability of commercial technologies for processing and utilising this renewable energy resource is very modest. Thus, a strong effort for the development of new and efficient technologies (like the one implemented by ENEL/CRT) is essential, as well as the build-up of an efficient industry for the commercialisation of reliable, low-cost biomass conversion/utilisation systems. The recently founded {open_quotes}European Bioenergy Industry Association{close_quotes} will make an effort for the promotion of this specific new industrial sector. In this framework, a new research effort (in Germany/Italy) for up-grading the bio-crude-oil by high energetic electrons. This process, if demonstrated feasible, could be of great interest for the production of new liquid fuels of sufficient quality to be utilised in most types of modern power generator.

Grassi, G.; Palmarocchi, M.; Joeler, J. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie, Pisa (Italy)] [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing...

47

EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY EIS-0432: Medicine Bow Fuel & Power Coal-to-Liquid Facility in Carbon County, WY Documents Available for...

48

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 2AConversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Santosh Gangwal, DirectorBusiness Development, Energy Technologies, Southern Research Institute

49

A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Liquid Fossil Fuel Technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research activities at BETC are summarized under the headings liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (resource assessment, production, enhanced recovery), processing (of liquids such as coal liquids, and crudes, thermodynamics), utilization (energy conversion, combustion), and project integration and technology transfer. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

An Update in the Development of Alternate Liquid Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is classified by the U.S. Department of Energy as a non-critical or preferred fuel. 2. It is a cost effective high yield BTU fuel that can be produced with readily available feedstocks utilizing standard hardware and processing equipment. j 3. It has a low... for the disposal of spent industrial (flammable) liquids. 5. Certified laboratory analyses indicate that ALF feedstocks are free of all known carcinogens, and hazardous elements. 6. Utilization of ALF can provide a 20% business energy tax credit, in addition...

Rose, M. J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

Richard Troiano

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

NREL Research on Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuels  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels, called "biofuels," to help meet transportation fuel needs. The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. Today, ethanol is made from starches and sugars, but at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) scientists are developing technology to allow it to be made from cellulose and hemicellulose, the fibrous material that makes up the bulk of most plant matter. Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease. It can be used as an additive (typically 20%) to reduce vehicle emissions or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

None

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

55

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9: June 13, 2011 9: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply on AddThis.com...

56

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

57

Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

Kuester, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell - CellTech Power  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell-CellTech Power Background Direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a theoretical efficiency advantage over traditional SOFCs operating on gasified carbon (syngas). CellTech Power LLC (CellTech) has been developing a liquid tin anode (LTA) SOFC that can directly convert carbonaceous fuels including coal into electricity without gasification. One of the most significant impediments

59

Conversion of Residual Biomass into Liquid Transportation Fuel: An Energy Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conversion of Residual Biomass into Liquid Transportation Fuel: An Energy Analysis ... An energy balance, in broad outline, is presented for the production of a high-quality liquid transportation fuel from residual crop biomass. ... That is, 40% of the initial energy in the biomass will be found in the final liquid fuel after subtracting out external energy supplied for complete processing, including transportation as well as material losses. ...

J. Manganaro; B. Chen; J. Adeosun; S. Lakhapatri; D. Favetta; A. Lawal; R. Farrauto; L. Dorazio; D. J. Rosse

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

60

No loss fueling station for liquid natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a no loss fueling station for delivery of liquid natural gas (LNG) to a use device such as a motor vehicle. It comprises: a pressure building tank holding a quantity of LNG and gas head; means for delivering LNG to the pressure building tank; means for selectively building the pressure in the pressure building tank; means for selectively reducing the pressure in the pressure building tank; means for controlling the pressure building and pressure reducing means to maintain a desired pressure in the pressure building tank without venting natural gas to the atmosphere; and means for delivering the LNG from the pressure building tank to the use device.

Cieslukowski, R.E.

1992-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activities and progress are reported in: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (enhanced recovery of oil and gas), processing (of petroleum and alternate fuels), utilization (transportation and energy conversion), and systems integration. BETC publications and finances are listed in appendices. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress accomplished for the quarter ending December 1982 is reported for the following research areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (technology assessment, gas research, oil research); liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.

Li, H.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.

Li, H.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Evaporation Characteristics of a Liquid Bio-Fuel from Chicken Litter .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Alternative fuels are becoming more important as fossil fuels become more expensive. This thesis describes the production and properties of a bio-oil produced from waste (more)

Tolonen, Erik

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

68

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The in-house results at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center on the liquid fossil fuel cycle are presented. The cycle covers extraction, processing, utilization, and environmental technology of the liquid fuels derived from petroleum, heavy oils, tar sands, oil shale, and coal.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Effect of directed port air flow on liquid fuel transport in a port fuel injected spark ignition engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With highly efficient modem catalysts, startup HC emissions have become a significant portion of the trip total. Liquid fuel is a major source of HC emissions during the cold start and fast idle period. Thus the control ...

Scaringe, Robert J. (Robert Joseph)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Determination of liquid and solid phase composition in partially frozen middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the tasks of the United States Navy Mobility Fuels program at the Naval Research Laboratory is to determine the effect of composition on the freezing properties of liquid fuels. The combination of requirements for ship and jet aircraft fuels of a low freezing point (to permit cold temperature operations around the world) and a flash point minimum (to reduce the hazard of storage and transport of liquid fuels on board ship) leads to opposing compositional needs. This is because many components of a fuel that tend to lower the freezing point (small hydrocarbons with higher vapor pressures) will also reduce the flash point. Because of these constraints, it is not always practical to produce fuels meeting these requirements from available crudes. This limits the amount of crudes and hence the amount of JP-5, the Navy fuel for carrier based aircraft, which can be produced from ''a barrel of crude.'' With increased knowledge and understanding of the components that first crystallize out of a cold fuel, it may be possible to modify refining techniques to increase the yield of Navy liquid fuels per barrel of crude without compromising either the freezing point or the flash point restrictions. This paper deals with the method used to separate the liquid filtrate from the precipitate in fuels cooled to predetermined temperatures below their freezing points, the method of analyzing the fuel and fuel fractions, and the results obtained from a study of one particular jet fuel.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Mushrush, G.W.; Hazlett, R.N.; DeGuzman, J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Polyethylene glycol as a green solvent for effective extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel at ambient conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Today there are serious regulations to reduce sulfur content of fuels because the \\{SOx\\} produced during the combustion of fuels containing sulfur compounds make the air polluted and have dangerous environmental impacts. With the aim of replacement of the present volatile, flammable and toxic organic solvents or inefficient, corrosive and expensive ionic liquids (ILs), the polyethylene glycol (PEG) was introduced as a green, effective, non-toxic, non-corrosive and also recyclable molecular solvent for extractive desulfurization (EDS) of benzothiophenic compounds from liquid fuel in this work for the first time. PEG shows excellent EDS and it has the higher extraction efficiency for dibenzothiophene (DBT) (76% within 90s) than those of ILs. Using this extractant, the BDT content was reduced from 512 to 10ppmw (98%) only within three extraction stages, the minimum number of cycles within shortest time reported up to now, and the deep desulfurization was achieved. Effect of some important parameters including initial concentration of sulfur compound, PEG dosage, time and temperature of extraction on the EDS process was investigated. It was fond that extraction performance of PEG is independent to temperature and initial sulfur content, which is an excellent finding for industrialization. The feasibility of PEG for extraction of different thiophenic compounds was observed in the order of dibenzothiophene>benzothiophene>4,6-dimethyldibenzothiopene. Finally, the PEG was reused in several cycles and then it was regenerated by adsorption method. The results of the present work hopefully provide useful information for future industrial application of PEG as an efficient green solvent for the EDS of liquid fuels.

Effat Kianpour; Saeid Azizian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller Bachelors of Engineering, University in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is a critical issue in ensuring high cell performance. The water production

Victoria, University of

73

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center's research activities are summarized under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction which is subdivided into resource assessment and production; liquid processing which includes characterization of liquids from petroleum, coal, shale and other alternate sources, thermodynamics and process technology; utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. (ATT)

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

New Fuel Cycle and Fuel Management Options in Heavy Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Fuel Management of Reactors Other Than Light Water Reactors

Ehud Greenspan; Pavel Hejzlar; Hiroshi Sekimoto; Georgy Toshinsky; David Wade

75

Interchangeability of gaseous fuels - The importance of the Wobbe-index  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Wobbe-index is introduced as an important gas quality criterion when interchanging gaseous fuels for engines. Changes in fuel gas composition appear not to induce noticeable changes in air to fuel ratio and combustion velocity when the Wobbe-index remains the same. This implies that no re-adjustment of ignition timing and air to fuel ratio settings is required, then. The volumetric energy content, the explosion limits and the knock resistance of a mixture can vary to a moderate extent when the Wobbe-index is constant and the gas composition varies.

Klimstra, J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy Rated Second Most Important Vehicle Attribute  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A 2014 survey asked a sample of the U.S. population the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel...

77

Fact #680: June 20, 2011 Fuel Economy is "Most Important" When Buying a Vehicle  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A June 2011 survey asked the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel economy, dependability, low...

78

Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles Fuels challenges in the evolving global energy market deer11simnick.pdf More Documents & Publications Green Racing Initiative:...

79

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

Tao, Thomas

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

80

Spent Isopropanol Solution as Possible Liquid Fuel for Moving Bed Reactor in Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spent Isopropanol Solution as Possible Liquid Fuel for Moving Bed Reactor in Chemical Looping Combustion ... The fuels, such as natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass combusted by CLC are frequently studied by various researchers(17, 26-31) and compared in the previous studies;(20, 33) however, only few studies on liquid fuel combustion are reported. ... Ishida, M.; Takeshita, K.; Susuki, K.; Ohba, T..Application of Fe2O3-Al2O3 composite particles as solid looping material of the chemical loop combustor Energy Fuels 2005, 19, 2514 2518 ...

Ping-Chin Chiu; Young Ku; Hsuan-Chih Wu; Yu-Lin Kuo; Yao-Hsuan Tseng

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough April 18, 2013 - 4:10pm Addthis NREL Scientist Bryon Donohoe looks at different views of ultra structures of pre-treated biomass materials in the Cellular Visualization room of the Biomass Surface Characterization Lab. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL. NREL Scientist Bryon Donohoe looks at different views of ultra structures of pre-treated biomass materials in the Cellular Visualization room of the Biomass Surface Characterization Lab. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL. A researcher examines a strain of the fermentation microorganism Zymomonas mobilis on a culture plate. NREL has genetically engineered and patented its own strains of Zymomonas mobilis to more effectively ferment the multiple sugars found in biomass as part of the cellulosic ethanol-to-renewable fuel conversion process. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL.

82

Comparison of performance characteristics of liquid biofuels and petroleum fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance properties of different types of liquid biofuels (bioalcohols, biodiesel, etc.) are examined...

K. E. Pankin; Yu. V. Ivanova; R. I. Kuzmina

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Preparation of liquid motor fuel components from oil shale gasification products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasification of shale from two domestic deposits (Kashpirskoe and Leningradskoe) and the subsequent transformation of the products of this process into the components of liquid motor fuels were studied.

B. I. Katorgin; A. L. Lapidus

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

The economics of liquid transportation fuels from coal: Past, present and future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews the technologies for producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and traces their evolution. Estimates of how their economics have changed with continuing research and development are also given.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; ElSawy, A. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Management of liquid water is critical for optimal fuel-cell operation, especially at low temperatures. It is therefore important to understand the wetting properties and water holdup of the various fuel-cell layers. While the gas-diffusion layer is relatively hydrophobic and exhibits a strong intermediate wettability, the catalyst layer is predominantly hydrophilic. In addition, the water content of the ionomer in the catalyst layer is lower than that of the bulk membrane, and is affected by platinum surfaces. Liquid-water removal occurs through droplets on the surface of the gas-diffusion layer. In order to predict droplet instability and detachment, a force balance is used. While the pressure or drag force on the droplet can be derived, the adhesion or surface-tension force requires measurement using a sliding-angle approach. It is shown that droplets produced by forcing water through the gas-diffusion layer rather than placing them on top of it show much stronger adhesion forces owing to the contact to the subsurface water.

Das, Prodip K.; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

86

Liquid Fuels Taxes and Credits (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides a review of the treatment of federal fuels taxes and tax credits in Annual Energy Outlook 2010.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Liquid-fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress reports for the quarter ending September 1982 are presented for the following major tasks: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment, enhanced recovery); liquid processing (characterization of petroleum, coal liquids, thermodynamics, process technology); utilization; project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: new laboratory enhances BETC capability in mass spectrometry; and BETC tests on diesel particulate extracts indicate potential health risks. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

AEO2015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Presentation  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

target volumes - Direct Rule and Pathways II Final Rule set renewable fuel oil and biogas as cellulosic- compliant. Investigating methodology for representing new rules. * E-15...

89

Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Josephine Elia, Graduate Student, Princeton University

90

UNDERSTANDING OF CATALYST DEACTIVATION CAUSED BY SULFUR POISONING AND CARBON DEPOSITION IN STEAM REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production. (more)

Xie, Chao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

92

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization was done over a two day period in June 2011, and confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

94

Coal-liquid fuel/diesel engine operating compatibility. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate fuel in blends of petroleum-derived fuels in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel fuel may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the fuel pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the fuel system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid fuels. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the fuel system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate fuel may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a fuel for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.

Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A liquid water management strategy for PEM fuel cell stacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas and water management are key to achieving good performance from a PEM fuel cell stack. Previous experimentation had found, and this experimentation confirms, that one very effective method of achieving proper gas and water management is the use...

Van Nguyen, Trung; Knobbe, M. W.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

96

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the design and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates, and electrolyte ...

Ranga S. Jayashree; Michael Mitchell; Dilip Natarajan; Larry J. Markoski; Paul J. A. Kenis

2007-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

97

Dehydrogenation of liquid fuel in microchannel catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an improved process for the storage and delivery of hydrogen by the reversible hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of an organic compound wherein the organic compound is initially in its hydrogenated state. The improvement in the route to generating hydrogen is in the dehydrogenation step and recovery of the dehydrogenated organic compound resides in the following steps: introducing a hydrogenated organic compound to a microchannel reactor incorporating a dehydrogenation catalyst; effecting dehydrogenation of said hydrogenated organic compound under conditions whereby said hydrogenated organic compound is present as a liquid phase; generating a reaction product comprised of a liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound and gaseous hydrogen; separating the liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound from gaseous hydrogen; and, recovering the hydrogen and liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound.

Toseland, Bernard Allen (Coopersburg, PA); Pez, Guido Peter (Allentown, PA); Puri, Pushpinder Singh (Emmaus, PA)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

98

Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

99

Development of hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading technologies for lipid-extracted algae conversion to liquid fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available experimental results. The system assumed an LEA feed rate of 608dry metric tons/day and that the feedstock was converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrated that HTL and upgrading is effective for converting LEA to liquid fuels. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9million gallon gasoline-equivalent (GGE) and the overall energy efficiency on a higher heating value (HHV) basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The variation range of the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $2.07 to $7.11/GGE by combining the effects of selected process factors. Key factors affecting the production cost were identified to be the LEA feedstock cost, final products yields, and the upgrading equipment cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

Yunhua Zhu; Karl O. Albrecht; Douglas C. Elliott; Richard T. Hallen; Susanne B. Jones

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Three-dimensional effects of liquid water flooding in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Researchers all over the world are focusing on optimizing this system to be cost competitive with energy conversion devices currently available. It is a well known fact that the cathode of the PEM fuel cell is the performance limiting component due...THREE DIMENSIONAL EFFECTS OF LIQUID WATER FLOODING IN THE CATHODE OF A PEM FUEL CELL by Dilip Natarajan and Trung Van Nguyen* Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045, USA Submitted...

Natarajan, Dilip; Van Nguyen, Trung

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights of research activities at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for the quarter ending March 1982 are summarized. Major research areas are: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: EOR data base - major new industry tool; properties of crude oils available via telephone hookup; alternative fuels data bank stresses transportation. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

Donald Olander

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

103

Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

An important recenttechnologicaldevelopmentin commercialF-T conversionis "liquid-phase" synthesis. In a liquid phasereactor,the feedgasis bubbled througha heavyoil (e.g.,the waxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;,,- -- An important recenttechnologicaldevelopmentin commercialF-T conversionis "liquidF- T liquids) in which catalystparticlesaresuspended.The vigorousmixing, the intimate gas(Tijm et al., 1997). 2.2. F-T conversion of coal The maindifference betweena processfor producing F

105

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

107

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights of research activities at BETC during the past quarter are summarized in this document. Major research areas include: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, and process technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer.

Not Available

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Pilot scale production and combustion of liquid fuels from refuse derived fuel (RDF): Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EnerTech is developing a process for producing pumpable slurry fuels, comparable to Coal-Water-Fuels (CWF), from solid Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF). Previous reports have described the characteristics of the enhanced carbonized RDF slurry fuels. This paper summarizes those fuel characteristics and reports on the latest combustion tests performed with the final product fuel. The objective of this research was to determine the boiler and emission performance from the carbonized RDF slurry fuel using statistical screening experiments. Eight combustion tests were performed with a pilot scale pulverized coal/oil boiler simulator, with CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions determined on-line. The combustion tests produced simultaneous CO and NO{sub x} emissions well below and SO{sub 2} emissions comparable to the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This research will form the basis for later combustion experiments to be performed with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel, in which dioxin/furan and trace metal emissions will be determined.

Klosky, M.K. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil fuel; and on the other hand, it provides a means for ''exporting'' geothermal energy from the well site. The primary goal of the work discussed in this report was to investigate the effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw. In assessing the relative merits of various sets of conditions, we considered both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, we also investigated the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge. Phenol was selected for study because it was reported (8) to be effective in suppressing repolymerization of reactive lignin fragments. Aluminum sulfate, on the other hand, was chosen as a representative of the Lewis acids which, we hoped, would catalyze the delignification reactions.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 1. Comprehensive report. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases which are distinguished by the level of the test effort. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels used at the station (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. In general, no adverse boiler performance effects were encountered with the combustion of the CDL fuels. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. With the exception of NO/sub x/ emissions, the CDL fuels will be expected to have lower levels of stack emissions compared to a conventional No. 6 fuel oil. NO/sub x/ emissions will be controllable to EPA standards with the application of conventional combustion modification techniques. Volume 1, of a five-volume report, contains a comprehensive report of the entire test program. 43 figs., 19 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 2: boiler test results. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). The second phase involved the evaluation of three additional CDL fuels (H-Coal light distillate, Exxon Donor Solvent full range distillate and Solvent Refined Coal-II middle distillate). The test boiler was a front wall-fired Babcock and Wilcox unit with a rated steam flow of 425,000 lb/h and a generating capacity of 40 MW. Boiler performance and emissions were evaluated with baseline and CDL fuels at 15, 25, 40 MW loads and at various excess air levels. Low NO/sub x/ (staged) combustion techniques were also implemented. Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. The CDL fuels could be handled similarly to No. 2 oil with appropriate safety procedures and materials compatibility considerations. Volume 2 of a five-volume report contains the detailed boiler test results. 96 figs., 26 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

No loss fueling station for liquid natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A no loss liquid natural gas (LNG) delivery system is described comprising: (a) means for storing LNG and natural gas at low pressure; (b) means for delivering LNG from the means for storing to a use device including means for sub-cooling the LNG; (c) means for pre-cooling the means for sub-cooling before the LNG is delivered to the use device to substantially reduce vaporization of the initial LNG delivered to the use device; and (d) means for delivering a selectable quantity of the natural gas in said storing means to said use device with the LNG.

Gustafson, K.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

115

Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Catalytic pressurization of liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As the use and applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) expand the need for a lighter weight fuel allowing for longer duration flights has become the primary limiting factor in the advancement of these vehicles. To extend the operational envelope of UAV onboard condensed hydrogen storage for missions exceeding one week is necessary. Currently large spherical liquid hydrogen tanks that are pressurized with external helium tanks or electronic heating elements are utilized for this purpose. However the mass size and power consumption of the fuel storage tank and fuel pressurization system significantly limit the flight envelope of UAV. In an effort to alleviate these issues this paper investigates the technological feasibility of orthohydrogen-parahydrogen catalysis as a method of fuel pressurization. Typical pressurization requirements for takeoff cruise and landing are reviewed. Calculations of the catalyst system mass and response time are presented.

Jacob Leachman; Melissa Jean Street; Teira Graham

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Liquid fuel resources and prospects for ligno-cellulosic ethanol: An Egyptian case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal) presently represent about 90% of the worlds total commercial primary energy demand. Yet, they are depletable sources of energy. Growth in the production of easily accessible oil, the main source of high energy liquid transportation fuels, will not match the projected rate of demand growth, especially in developing countries. In the transport sector, today, the only alternative to non-sustainable fossil fuels is biofuels that are produced from biomass, a stored environmentally neutral solar energy. These fuels are compatible with current vehicles and blendable with conventional fuels. Moreover, they share the long-established distribution infrastructure with little, if any, modification of equipment. The main biofuels presently in commercial production are bioethanol and biodiesel. Industrial countries started production of the 1st generation bioethanol and biodiesel from food products (grains and edible oil) since a few decades and these fuels are currently available at petrol stations. Second generation bioethanol from ligno-cellulosic materials is on the research, pilot and/or demonstration stage. This paper discusses the current situation regarding liquid fuels in Egypt which are experiencing imbalance between total production and demand for gasoline and diesel fuels. The quantified need for nonconventional sources is presented. Based on a thorough assessment of current and prospective generated agriculture residues as distributed over the political areas, mapping of the number and capacity of plants to be installed for production of bioethanol from available residues namely rice straw, sugar cane residues and cotton stalks has been developed. Annual capacities of 3000, 10,000 and 20,000tons ethanol/year until year 2021 have been proposed. Capital and operating requirements and economic indicators have been estimated. It has been concluded that at current price of ethanol of about $0.6/kg, the simple rate of return on investments is about 2.8%, 11% and 16% for the 3000, 10,000 and 20,000tons annual capacity ethanol respectively.

Shadia R. Tewfik; Nihal M. El Defrawy; Mohamed H. Sorour

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Important?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What are Neutrons, What are Neutrons, and Why are They Important? Before we can understand neutrons, we need to understand atoms. Everything in the world is made up of atoms: the air, trees, cars- even your body is made up of atoms. Atoms are so small that you need a very powerful magnifying glass to see them. There are 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms in a single drop of water! Even though atoms are very small, they are made up

119

Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long endurance flight on the order of days is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However no such system of LH2 storage delivery and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered student designed and constructed Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging pressurizing and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Total Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & Ed55 Imports - Other Conventional Gasoline Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB w/ Ether Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB w/ Alcohol Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, CBOB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, GTAB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, Other Imports - Fuel Ethanol Imports - Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Imports - Distillate Fuel Oil Imports - Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Imports - Distillate F.O., > 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Imports - Distillate F.O., > 500 ppm to 2000 ppm Sulfur Imports - Distillate F.O., > 2000 ppm Sulfur Imports - Residual Fuel Oil Imports - Propane/Propylene Imports - Other Other Oils Imports - Kerosene Imports - NGPLs/LRGs (Excluding Propane/Propylene) Exports - Total Crude Oil and Products Exports - Crude Oil Exports - Products Exports - Finished Motor Gasoline Exports - Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Exports - Distillate Fuel Oil Exports - Residual Fuel Oil Exports - Propane/Propylene Exports - Other Oils Net Imports - Total Crude Oil and Products Net Imports - Crude Oil Net Imports - Petroleum Products Period: Weekly 4-Week Avg.

122

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress accomplished during the quarter ending September 1981 is reported under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (reservoir characterization and evaluation, recovery projects, reservoir access, extraction technology, recovery processes and process implementation); liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, and process technology); utilization (energy conversion - adaptive engineering, combustion systems assessment, and heat engines/heat recovery); and project integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: air drilling research; fluid injection in reservoirs; target reservoirs in Permian Basin suitable for CO/sub 2/ flooding; heavy oil technology; and the fate of used motor oil/results of a survey.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress rport, April-June 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights of research activities for the quarter ending June 1983 are summarized under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel; extraction; processing; utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. Titles of featured articles are: (1) chemical flooding field test produces 975,000 barrels of oil; (2) chemicals boost recovery in steam-drive tests; (3) North Dakota carbon dioxide minitest successful; (4) carbon dioxide EOR reports issued; and (5) BETC slated for new management and new name. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the potential to provide a significant amount of energy to meet US liquid fuel requirements. MSW is defined as household waste, commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt, small quantity hazardous waste, and industrial solid waste. It includes food waste, residential rubbish, commercial and industrial wastes, and construction and demolition debris. It has an average higher heating value (HHV) of approximately 5100 btu/lb (as arrived basis).

126

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights of the BETC January-March 1980 quarter were: Gasohol was tested in a cooperative effort with Southwestern Bell Telephone Co. Two fleets of 55 cars were tested using gasohol in one and gasoline in the other. No problems were encountered. The gasohol-fueled cars had less emissions, and the fuel efficiencies for both fleets were approximately the same. An in situ combustion has been successfully started in a heavy oil deposit in Kansas. After some difficulties in starting the burn, it is now operating satisfactorily and producing oil. Cooperation between DOE and the Venezuelan oil industry was explored in a meeting at BETC that emphasized efforts to produce heavy oil. Cooperation through the International Energy Agency is expected to result in sharing of technology on enhanced oil recovery. Petroleum product surveys are produced cooperatively by DOE and the American Petroleum Institute. They give the properties of the products currently being marketed in the US. During the quarter, surveys on Motor Gasolines, Summer 1979 and Diesel Fuel Oils, 1979 were published. They are used to trace changes in characteristics and also to set specifications. The size of colloids, micelles, and emulsions in petroleum and associated liquids can be a factor in the design of improved recovery processes. The use of small angle x-ray scattering has been facilitated by a new method of calculation. The development of the Liquid Fossil Fuel Cycle has been facilitated by a workshop and further discussions resulting in a new statement Planning Framework for Liquid Fossil Fuel Cycle, March 1, 1980. This has now been used to prepare a computer-processible form to use in a critical path study of the BETC program.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The potential utilization of nuclear hydrogen for synthetic fuels production at a coaltoliquid facility / Steven Chiuta.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The production of synthetic fuels (synfuels) in coaltoliquids (CTL) facilities has contributed to global warming due to the huge CO2 emissions of the process. This (more)

Chiuta, Steven

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

Fox, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Mesoscopic modeling of liquid water transport in polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key performance limitation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC), manifested in terms of mass transport loss, originates from liquid water transport and resulting flooding phenomena in the constituent components. Liquid water leads to the coverage of the electrochemically active sites in the catalyst layer (CL) rendering reduced catalytic activity and blockage of the available pore space in the porous CL and fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) resulting in hindered oxygen transport to the active reaction sites. The cathode CL and the GDL therefore playa major role in the mass transport loss and hence in the water management of a PEFC. In this article, we present the development of a mesoscopic modeling formalism coupled with realistic microstructural delineation to study the profound influence of the pore structure and surface wettability on liquid water transport and interfacial dynamics in the PEFC catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Chao Yang [PENNSTATE UNIV.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates

Kenis, Paul J. A.

131

Stabilization of liquid hydrocarbon fuel combustion by using a programmable microwave discharge in a subsonic airflow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under conditions of a programmable discharge (a surface microwave discharge combined with a dc discharge), plasma-enhanced combustion of alcohol injected into a subsonic (M = 0.3-0.9) airflow in the drop (spray) phase is stabilized. It is shown that the appearance of the discharge, its current-voltage characteristic, the emission spectrum, the total emission intensity, the heat flux, the electron density, the hydroxyl emission intensity, and the time dependences of the discharge current and especially discharge voltage change substantially during the transition from the airflow discharge to stabilized combustion of the liquid hydrocarbon fuel. After combustion stabilization, more than 80% of liquid alcohol can burn out, depending on the input power, and the flame temperature reaches {approx}2000 K.

Kopyl, P. V.; Surkont, O. S.; Shibkov, V. M.; Shibkova, L. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Steady state temperature profiles in two simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temperature data from steady state tests in two parallel, simulated liquid metal reactor fuel assemblies with identical design specifications have been compared to determine the extent to which they agree. In general, good agreement was found in data at low flows and in bundle-center data at higher flows. Discrepancies in the data wre noted near the bundle edges at higher flows. An analysis of bundle thermal boundary conditions showed that the possible eccentric placement of one bundle within the housing could account for these discrepancies.

Levin, A.E.; Carbajo, J.J.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Rose, S.D.; Wantland, J.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Numerical assessment of liquid cooling system for power electronics in fuel cell electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electrical power from the fuel cells is converted and controlled by power electronics that are composed of control units, converters and switching devices. During the power management, the inevitable power losses induce heat generation in the power electronics. In this, effective design for the cooling system is essential in terms of safety, reliability, and durability. A liquid cooling system for the power electronics is applied to chill the electrical components below the thermal specifications. Nonetheless, the layout of cooling components is usually designed after the completion of the chassis and power electronics in the automotive applications, thus, only a little freedom is allowed to change the layout. Thus, it is significant and urgent to investigate the cooling performance before finalizing the layout design. In this paper, one dimensional and computerized fluid dynamics code is employed to simulate the performance of the cooling system at the early stage of conceptual design. Three different layouts of cooling systems are chosen to compare the ensuing systematic cooling performances. The liquid flow rates, pressure drops, and maximum temperatures are computed by the numerical simulations of the cooling system which comprises the cold plates, liquid pump, radiator, and plumbing network. It is demonstrated that for a fuel cell electric vehicle of 100kW, the dual cooling loops with a specified array control the maximum temperatures below thermal specification by inducing the higher liquid flow rate of rate of 33.4L/min through radiator than 20.0L/min in a single loop. The proposed systematic numerical simulation provides significant information to determine the layout of the power electronics coupled with the cooling performance at the early stage of conceptual design.

Heesung Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Safeguards and security concept for the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) and Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuel cycle, SAF line technical support  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a safeguards and security concept system review for the secure automated fabrication (SAF) and national liquid metal reactor (LMR) fuel programs.

Schaubert, V.J.; Remley, M.E.; Grantham, L.F.

1986-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

135

Sun-to-Fuel Assessment of Routes for Fixing CO2 as Liquid Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These land stressed regions will potentially have to use land for dual-uses, utilize offshore oceanic regions for harnessing solar energy or import energy from other areas. ... Several technologies including central processing units, solar cells, gas turbines, and wind turbines have demonstrated the experience curve effect, whereby drastic (101000 fold) decline in production costs are realized with research breakthroughs and experience gained from large-scale manufacturing. ... For both current and future STF efficiency calculations, we did not derate the reported growth rate for any unusable land in an algae farm. ...

Dharik S. Mallapragada; Navneet R. Singh; Vlad Curteanu; Rakesh Agrawal

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

136

REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS IN A NOVEL HYDROGEN-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE-BASED FUEL PROCESSOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to develop an inorganic metal-metal composite membrane to study reforming of liquid hydrocarbons and methanol by equilibrium shift in membrane-reactor configuration, viewed as fuel processor. Based on our current understanding and experience in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane, we propose to further develop this membrane to a Pd and Pd-Ag alloy membrane on microporous stainless steel support to provide structural reliability from distortion due to thermal cycling. Because of the metal-metal composite structure, we believe that the associated end-seal problem in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane in tubular configuration would not be an issue at all. We plan to test this membrane as membrane-reactor-separator for reforming liquid hydrocarbons and methanol for simultaneous production and separation of high-purity hydrogen for PEM fuel cell applications. To improve the robustness of the membrane film and deep penetration into the pores, we have used osmotic pressure field in the electroless plating process. Using this novel method, we deposited thin Pd-film on the inside of microporous stainless steel tube and the deposited film appears to robust and defect free. Work is in progress to evaluate the hydrogen perm-selectivity of the Pd-stainless steel membrane.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

137

Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction.

Dziewinski, J.J.

1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

138

Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

70-108B One Cyclotron Road Berkeley, California 94720 December 2, 1997 Key Words: Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells, humidification, gas distribution, direct liquid water injection, interdigitated flow fields. * Corresponding... of the catalyst layers were made of waterproof, carbon fiber cloths. Liquid water was injected by two metering pumps into two heated stainless steel coils, where it was preheated to the cell operating temperatures, and then directly into the gas streams...

Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Nguyen, Trung Van

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony; ,

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

140

Development of a silicon-based passive gas-liquid separation system for microscale direct methanol fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design, fabrication and performance characterisation of a passive gas-liquid separation system is presented in this paper. The gas-liquid separation system is silicon-based and its fabrication is compatible with the existing CMU design of the microscale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Both gas and liquid separators consist of staggered arrays of etched-through holes fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The gas separator is coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic polymer to substantiate the gas-liquid separation. To visually characterise the system performance, the gas-liquid separation system is made on a single wafer with a glass plate bonded on the top to form a separation chamber with a narrow gap in between. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) is applied for the low-temperature bonding. The maximum pressure for the liquid leakage of the gas separators is experimentally determined and compared with the values predicted theoretically. Several successful gas-liquid separations are observed at liquid pressures between 14.2 cmH2O and 22.7 cmH2O, liquid flow rates between 0.705 cc/min and 1.786 cc/min, and CO2 flow rates between 0.15160 cc/min to 0.20435 cc/min.

C.C. Hsieh; S.C. Yao; Yousef Alyousef

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented for the following major areas of investigation: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment, enhanced recovery); liquid processing (characterization of petroleum and synthetic crude, thermodynamics; process technology); utilization; project integration and technology transfer. Highlights for this period in research studies are listed as those in extraction research and processing and thermodynamics research. Searches for microorganisms that will be useful in enhanced oil recovery have produced two promising leads. At Oklahoma State University, bacteria of the genus Clostridia have been found which can live in a brine solution as found in most petroleum reservoirs. These bacteria produce carbon dioxide, acetic acid, alcohols, and ketones as metabolic products. At the University of Georgia, a culture of bacteria has been found which will reduce the viscosity of a 10/sup 0/ API gravity oil by 95 percent. The analysis of heavy oils requires differentiation of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen-containing compounds from hydrocarbons. The most effective way to do this is with a high-resolution mass spectrometer that can distinguish between compounds having molecular weights only a fractional unit apart. These molecular weights are calculated from the computer acquired time-moments of the various ions in a mass spectrum. Thus, the accuracy of results reflects, in part, the numerical methods used in data processing. Consequently, the effect of the mathematical functions on the accuracy of mass measurement is being determined.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Selective Transformation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Fuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Carbon-Supported Ruthenium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective Transformation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Fuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran over Carbon-Supported Ruthenium ... A simple and efficient process was presented for the selective hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) into the high-quality liquid fuel 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). ... (1-3) Among the many possible chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which can be produced from a variety of biomass-derived carbohydrates,(4-8) is recognized as a versatile intermediate (Scheme 1), and it can be further converted into a series of high-quality fuels such as ethyl levulinate (EL),(9) 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF),(10) 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF),(11) C9C15 alkanes,(12) and high-value chemicals such as levulinic acid (LA),(13) 2,5-dihydroxymethylfurfural (DHMF),(14) 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF),(15) and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). ...

Lei Hu; Xing Tang; Jiaxing Xu; Zhen Wu; Lu Lin; Shijie Liu

2014-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

143

Effect of in-cylinder liquid fuel films on engine-out unburned hydrocarbon emissions for SI engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nearly all of the hydrocarbon emissions from a modern gasoline-fueled vehicle occur when the engine is first started. One important contributing factor to this is the fact that, during this time, temperatures throughout ...

Costanzo, Vincent S. (Vincent Stanley), 1979-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.

Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components Prodip K. DasWater management in PEM fuel cells is critical for optimumof droplet dynamics in PEM fuel-cell gas flow channels has

Das, Prodip K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

147

Thrust measurement method verification and analytical studies on a liquid-fueled pulse detonation engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to test the feasibility of a new thrust stand system based on impulse thrust measurement method, a liquid-fueled pulse detonation engine (PDE) is designed and built. Thrust performance of the engine is obtained by direct thrust measurement with a force transducer and indirect thrust measurement with an eddy current displacement sensor (ECDS). These two sets of thrust data are compared with each other to verify the accuracy of the thrust performance. Then thrust data measured by the new thrust stand system are compared with the verified thrust data to test its feasibility. The results indicate that thrust data from the force transducer and ECDS system are consistent with each other within the range of measurement error. Though the thrust data from the impulse thrust measurement system is a litter lower than that from the force transducer due to the axial momentum losses of the detonation jet, the impulse thrust measurement method is valid when applied to measure the averaged thrust of PDE. Analytical models of PDE are also discussed in this paper. The analytical thrust performance is higher than the experimental data due to ignoring the losses during the deflagration to detonation transition process. Effect of equivalence ratio on the engine thrust performance is investigated by utilizing the modified analytical model. Thrust reaches maximum at the equivalence ratio of about 1.1.

Jie Lu; Longxi Zheng; Zhiwu Wang; Changxin Peng; Xinggu Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. Promoted metal oxide catalysts were tested. Several of these exhibited similar high ethylene to ethane ratios and low carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratios observed for the NaCl/{alpha}-alumina catalyst system reported earlier. Research on catalysts containing potentially activated metals began with testing of metal molecular sieves. Silver catalysts were shown to be promising as low temperature catalysts. Perovskites were tested as potential methane coupling catalysts. A layered perovskite (K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10}) gave the highest C{sub 2} yield. Work continued on the economic evaluation of a hypothetical process converting methane to ethylene. An engineering model of the methane coupling system has been prepared. 47 refs., 17 figs., 57 tabs.

Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.

1989-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

149

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Aging on Combustion Performance and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid-Ethanol Blends in a Swirl Burner.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid is a renewable fuel for stationary heat and power generation; however degradation of bio-oil by time, a.k.a. aging, has an impact (more)

Zarghami-Tehran, Milad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Properties on Combustion Performance and Emissions of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Liquid-ethanol Blends in a Swirl Burner.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Biomass fast pyrolysis liquid, also known as bio-oil, is a promising renewable fuel for heat and power generation; however, implementing crude bio-oil in some current (more)

Moloodi, Sina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

and Special Fuel Definitions The definition of alternative fuel includes liquefied petroleum gas (propane). Special fuel is defined as all combustible gases and liquids that are...

152

Transport properties of glass-forming liquids suggest that dynamic crossover temperature is as important as the glass transition temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is becoming common practice to partition glass-forming liquids into two classes based on the dependence of the shear viscosity ? on temperature T. In an Arrhenius plot, ln eta vs 1/T, a strong liquid shows linear behavior ...

Mallamace, Francesco

153

Fact #777: April 29, 2013 For the Second Year in a Row, Survey Respondents Consider Fuel Economy Most Important When Purchasing a Vehicle  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A 2012 survey asked the question "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" The choices were fuel economy, dependability, low price,...

154

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Factsheet summarizing Univ. of Alabama project to save energy and reduce emissions with fuel-flexible burners

155

Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Integrated Catalytic Conversion of ?-Valerolactone to Liquid Alkenes for Transportation Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for Transportation Fuels 10.1126/science...Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of...synthesis of renewable fuels remains a challenging...corn ethanol and biodiesel, have the capacity...of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry...catalysts, and engineering. Chem. Rev. 106...

Jesse Q. Bond; David Martin Alonso; Dong Wang; Ryan M. West; James A. Dumesic

2010-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

157

One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

158

The effect of TDC temperature and density on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a D.I. Diesel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A parametric study of the liquid-phase fuel penetration of evaporating Diesel fuel jets has been conducted in a directinjection Diesel engine using laser elastic-scatter imaging. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible Diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. The density and temperature at TDC were varied systematically by adjusting the intake temperature and pressure. At all operating conditions the measurements show that initially the liquid fuel penetrates almost linearly with increasing crank angle until reaching a maximum length. Then, the liquid-fuel penetration length remains fairly constant although fuel injection continues. At a TDC density of 16.6 kg/m{sup 3} and a temperature of about 1000 K the maximum penetration length is approximately 23 mm. However, it varies significantly as TDC conditions are changed, with the liquid-length being less at higher temperatures and at higher densities. The corresponding apparent heat release rate plots are presented and the results of the liquid-phase fuel penetration are discussed with respect to the ignition delay and premixed bum fraction.

Espey, C. [Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Fossil fuel prices and the economic and budgetary challenges of a small energy-importing economy: the case of Portugal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines the economic and budgetary impacts of fuel prices using a dynamic general equilibrium model of ... detailed modeling of the public sector. The fuel price scenarios are based on forecasts by th...

Alfredo Marvo Pereira; Rui Marvo Pereira

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in logarithms has important implications for the stability of estimates of pass through when oil price levels rise significantly. Second, considering spot prices for refined prices improves significantly the fit of the estimated models relative to using crude oil prices. It also results in more economically meaningful results concerning the extent of pass through. Third, oil price pass through occurs quickly, with 90% occurring within three to five weeks. Fourth, using a relatively broad specification allowing for asymmetry in the pass through from upstream to downstream prices, there is little evidence of statistically significant asymmetries. Furthermore, even where asymmetry is found to be statistically significant, it is generally not economically significant. Lastly, these results generally hold across most euro area countries with few exceptions.

Aidan Meyler

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Effect of Gas-to-Liquid Diesel Fuels on Combustion Characteristics, Engine Emissions, and Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming. Comparative Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, U.K., Shell Global Solutions, Cheshire Innovation Park, Chester CH1 3SH, U.K., Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, U.K., and Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Blount's Court, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9NH, U.K. ... Clearly, the general trend is toward higher efficiency engines and improved fuel economy, something that puts current technology spark ignition (SI) engines in a relatively weak position compared to compression ignition (CI) engines. ... As the diesel engine used in this study was equipped with a pump-line-nozzle-type fuel injection system, all the observed effects may not apply to common rail or unit injection equipped engines. ...

A. Abu-Jrai; A. Tsolakis; K. Theinnoi; R. Cracknell; A. Megaritis; M. L. Wyszynski; S. E. Golunski

2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

162

A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 012139 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Algae: The Source of Reliable, Scalable, and Sustainable Liquid Transportation Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

At the February 12, 2009 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Brian Goodall (Sapphire Energy) spoke on Continental Airlines January 7th Biofuels Test. The flight was fueled, in part, by Sapphires algae-based jet fuel.

164

Probing Liquid Water Saturation in Diffusion Media of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of information strongly needed to characterize the level of cathode DM flooding or anode dry-out. In this paper liquid water in the anode DM for the thin membrane case. In addition, the two-phase simulation results be realized. One of these is related to flooding phenomena. Due to the presence of liquid water inside a PEFC

165

Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Fuel pin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

167

Fuel instability studies; Liquid phase oxidation of tetrahydrothiophene by tert-butyl hydroperoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactions that lead to fuel instability are the subject of conflicting reports in the literature. Confusion results from the difficulty in relating differences in fuel composition, temperature, surface effects and dissolved oxygen content that comprise the multitude of reported studies. Model studies offer a means by chic the mechanism of an individual reaction can be related to a simple system and then extended to the more complex fuel media. This paper reports a model oxidation study of a species, t-butyl hydroperoxide under mild reaction conditions, 120{degrees}C, in a tetradecane model fuel. The major oxidation product was tetrahydrothiophene sulfoxide from the sulfide and t-butanol from the hydroperoxide. The complete suite of products is reported.

Mushrush, G.W.; Pellenbarg, R.E.; Hazlett, R.N.; Morris, R.E.; Hardy, D.R. (Fuels Section, Code 6180, Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Renewable Liquid Transportation Fuels: The Cornerstone of the Success of Brazilian Bioenergy Program  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the 1970s OPEC decided to raise the oil price by 70%. Countries depending on this fuel were forced to develop new sources of energy. As one of those countries, Brazil began the intensification of programs...

Veronica de Araujo Bruno; Adilson Roberto Gonalves

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with both conventional and ultra-low sulfur diesel, and FRFG motor fuels. * The UCF LCA develops a set of near-term (2006) and long-term (2015) scenarios to assess impacts...

170

3 - Preparation of feedstocks for gasification for synthetic liquid fuel production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Gasification has been considered as a potential thermo-chemical method of conversion to effectively utilize the carbon (organic content) present in the feedstock. Preparation and handling methods of some of the potential feedstocks (i.e., coal, petroleum residue, biomass, and municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce the synthetic gas) for various applications are discussed. The pre-treatment process for feedstock constitutes the steps that must be imposed on the raw material in preparation for use in a gasification reactor. The properties of fuel that influence the gasification are energy content, moisture content, particle size and distribution, form of the fuel, bulk density of the fuel, volatile matter content, ash content, and composition and reactivity of the fuel.

B. Bhavya; R. Singh; T. Bhaskar

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Environmental and economic tradeoffs of feedstock usage for liquid fuels and power production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thesis is divided into two parts - 1) assessing the energy return on investment for alternative jet fuels, and 2) quantifying the tradeoffs associated with the aviation and non-aviation use of agricultural residues. ...

Trivedi, Parthsarathi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Hazards Induced by Breach of Liquid Rocket Fuel Tanks: Conditions and Risks of Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixture Explosions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the data of purposeful rupture experiments with LOx and LH2 tanks, the Hydrogen-Oxygen Vertical Impact (HOVI) tests that were performed to clarify the ignition mechanisms, the explosive power of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures under different conditions, and to elucidate the puzzling source of the initial formation of flames near the intertank section during the Challenger disaster. We carry out a physics-based analysis of general explosions scenarios for cryogenic gaseous H2/Ox mixtures and determine their realizability conditions, using the well-established simplified models from the detonation and deflagration theory. We study the features of aerosol H2/Ox mixture combustion and show, in particular, that aerosols intensify the deflagration flames and can induce detonation for any ignition mechanism. We propose a cavitation-induced mechanism of self-ignition of cryogenic H2/Ox mixtures that may be realized when gaseous H2 and Ox flows are mixed with a liquid Ox turbulent stream, as occurred in all HOVI ...

Osipov, Viatcheslav; Hafiychuk, Halyna; Ponizovskaya-Devine, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Mathias, Donovan; Lawrence, Scott; Werkheiser, Mary

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

174

Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize food versus fuel concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

Shi,Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

fuels include liquid non-petroleum based fuel that can be placed in motor vehicle fuel tanks and used to operate on-road vehicles, including all forms of fuel commonly or...

176

Review of the SIMMER-II analyses of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor core-disruptive accident fuel escape  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Early fuel removal from the active core of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor undergoing a core-disruptive accident may reduce the potential for large energetics resulting from recriticalities. This paper presents a review of analyses with the SIMMER-II computer program of the effectiveness of possible fuel escape paths. Where possible, how SIMMER-II compares with or is validated against experiments that simulated the escape paths also is discussed.

DeVault, G.P.; Bell, C.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of gas to liquid (GTL) fuels and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Crude oil price hikes, energy security concerns and environmental drivers have turned the focus to alternative fuels. Gas to liquid (GTL) diesel is regarded as a promising alternative diesel fuel, considering the adeptness to use directly as a diesel fuel or in blends with petroleum-derived diesel or bio-diesel. GTL fuel derived from FischerTropsch synthesis is of distinctly different characteristics than fossil diesel fuel due to its paraffinic nature, virtually zero sulfur, low aromatic contents and very high cetane number. GTL fuel is referred to as a clean fuel for its inherent ability to reduce engine exhaust emission even with blends of diesel and bio-diesel. This paper illustrates feasibility of GTL fuel in context of comparative fuel properties with conventional diesel and bio-diesels. This review also describes the technical attributes of GTL and its blends with diesel and bio-diesel focusing their impact on engine performance and emission characteristics on the basis of the previous research works. It can introduce an efficacious guideline to devise several blends of alternative fuels, further the development of engine performance and constrain exhaust emission to cope with the relentless efforts to manufacture efficient and environment friendly powertrains.

H. Sajjad; H.H. Masjuki; M. Varman; M.A. Kalam; M.I. Arbab; S. Imtenan; S.M. Ashrafur Rahman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

High-energy-density solid and liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report, July 1987-December 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of new high-energy hydrocarbon fuels for use in air-breathing missiles has been the objective of a number of investigations which have received support during the past decade through programs sponsored by the Air Force Systems Command and/or the Naval Air Systems Command. The key characteristics which must be met by potential cruise missile fuels have been described by Burdette and coworkers. A primary requirement in this regard is that candidate fuels must possess high net volumetric heat of combustion (preferably greater than 160,000 BTU/gallon). In order to meet the primary requirement of high net volumetric heat of combustion, hydrocarbon systems have been sought which maximize the ratio of carbon-atom to hydrogen-atom content have been sought that maximize the ratio n/m.(JES)

Marchand, A.P.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Group Meeting - November 2007 Group Meeting - November 2007 The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group participated in a Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review on November 6, 2007. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with members of the Department of Energy Hydrogen Production Technical Team. The following meeting documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader. Proceedings Agenda, discussion points, and participant list (PDF 146 KB) Action items and meeting highlights (PDF 104 KB) 2007 Annual Merit Review Report excerpts on bio-derived liquids to hydrogen distributed reforming research (PDF 3.9 MB) Presentations DOE Targets, Tools, and Technology

180

Dynamic Modeling of the Coproduction of Liquid Fuels and Electricity from a Hybrid Solar Gasifier with Various Fuel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(19) Such a process could also offer important synergies with CO2 geo-sequestration pipeline networks, which are anticipated to be introduced in the medium-term. ... (14) The hybrid vortex gasifier and co-reforming reactor are assumed to be sized to achieve a sufficiently long residence time for 100% conversion of the coal and 99% of the input natural gas to syngas. ... The size of the energetic and GHG emissions performance improvements possible is limited by the gasifiers turn-down and turn-up capacity. ...

Ashok A. Kaniyal; Philip J. van Eyk; Graham J. Nathan

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE USE OF GAS-TO-LIQUID FUELS IN TRANSPORTATION  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

submitted manuscript has been submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE- AC05-96OR22464. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a non- exclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes." ORNL/TM-1999/258 AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE USE OF GAS-TO-LIQUID FUELS IN TRANSPORTATION David L. Greene Center for Transportation Analysis Oak Ridge National Laboratory November 1999 Prepared by the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 managed by LOCKHEED MARTIN ENERGY RESEARCH CORP. for the U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES . .

182

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

liquid fuels, fuels other than alcohol derived from biological materials, and electricity. Any portion of the credit not used in the year the AFV is purchased or converted...

183

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 7. GPGP jet-fuels production program. Evaluation of technical uncertainties for producing jet fuels from liquid by-products of the Great Plains gasification plant. Interim report, 2 October 1987-30 September 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to analyze GPGP operations and develop correlations for the liquid by-products and plant operating factors such as coal feed rate and coal characteristics.

Fraser, M.D.; Rossi, R.J.; Wan, E.I.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 3. Emissions test results. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the plant, Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company, in Meridian, Mississippi. Volume 1, of a 5 volume report, contains a comprehensive report of the whole test program - see abstract of Volume 1 for a detailed abstract of the whole program. Volume 3 contains detailed emissions testing results. 41 figs., 6 tabs. (LTN)

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Ionic Liquid-Assisted Synthesis of Pt Nanoparticles onto Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The success of PEMFC depends considerably on cost, durability, and performance of the electrocatalyst in fuel cell stacks. ... The development of highly active electrocatalysts dispersed on corrosion-resistant and inexpensive carbons is necessary for achieving the reliability of the PEMFC necessary for their widespread usage and reducing its total cost. ... Time-effective and reliable methods for studying catalyst durability are indispensable for developing PEMFC catalysts. ...

Inhwan Do; Lawrence T. Drzal

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Syngas production from liquid fuels in a non-catalytic porous burner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates rich combustion of n-heptane, diesel oil, kerosene and rapeseed-oil methyl ester (RME) bio-diesel for the purpose of producing syngas ready for the clean-up stages for fuel-cell applications or for traditional combustor enrichment. Rich flames have been stabilised in a two-layer inert porous medium combustor and a range of equivalence ratios and porous materials have been examined. n-heptane was successfully reformed up to an equivalence ratio of 3, reaching a conversion efficiency (based on the lower heating value of H2 and CO over the fuel input) up to 75% for a packed bed of alumina beads. Similarly, diesel, kerosene and bio-diesel were reformed to syngas in a Zirconia foam burner with conversion efficiency over 60%. A preliminary attempt to reduce the content of CO and hydrocarbons in the reformate has been also conducted using commercial steam reforming and watergas shift reaction catalysts, obtaining encouraging results. Finally, soot emission has been assessed, demonstrating particle formation for diesel oil above ?=2, whereas bio-diesel showed the lowest soot formation tendency among all the fuels tested.

A. Pastore; E. Mastorakos

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

The conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels using the Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The natural gas and energy industries have long sought an economically attractive means of converting remote gas reserves into transportable products, such as fuels or petrochemicals. Applicable gas sources include: undeveloped gas fields in locations so remote that pipeline construction is prohibitively expensive and associated gas from oil wells that is either flared, which is becoming environmentally unacceptable in many parts of the world, or reinjected, which is costly. Projects which have been developed to exploit such feeds typically have converted the gas into one of the following: (1) liquefied natural gas (LNG)--the process plants for LNG production are expensive, need to be very large to be economically viable, have costly dedicated shipping requirements, and suffer from a limited market concentrated in few countries; (2) methanol--the market for petrochemical feedstock methanol is limited, for use as a fuel, further downstream processing is needed, for example in a methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or methanol to gasoline (MTG) unit. Clearly, there is a need for an alternative that produces high quality fuels or value added products that can be transported to far-off markets, while yielding an attractive return on the developers` investment. The Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Process will fulfill this need.

Silverman, R.W. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hill, C.R. [Sastech, Johannesburg (South Africa)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Fuel option for gas turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth in electricity demand is an average of 10% per year. Energy, emission, and economy are importance of critical concerns for generating systems. Therefore, combined cycle power plant is preferred to Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) new power generating capacity. The various option of available fuel for gas turbine are natural gas, liquid fuel and coal fuel. Particularly with the tremendous price increases in imported and domestic fuel supplies, natural gas is an attractive low cost alternative for power generation. EGAT has researched using heavy fuel instead of natural gas since the year 1991. The problems of various corrosion characteristics have been found. In addition, fuel treatment for gas turbine are needed, and along with it, the environmental consideration are options that provide the limitation of environmental regulation.

Tantayakom, S. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nonthaburi (Thailand). Chemical and Analysis Dept.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

190

Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-fuels facilities. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic fuels industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)

None

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Photoacoustically Measured Speeds of Sound of Liquid HBO2: On Unlocking the Fuel Potential of Boron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elucidation of geodynamic, geochemical, and shock induced processes is often limited by challenges to accurately determine molecular fluid equations of state (EOS). High pressure liquid state reactions of carbon species underlie physiochemical mechanisms such as differentiation of planetary interiors, deep carbon sequestration, propellant deflagration, and shock chemistry. Here we introduce a versatile photoacoustic technique developed to measure accurate and precise speeds of sound (SoS) of high pressure molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. SoS of an intermediate boron oxide, HBO{sub 2} are measured up to 0.5 GPa along the 277 C isotherm. A polarized Exponential-6 interatomic potential form, parameterized using our SoS data, enables EOS determinations and corresponding semi-empirical evaluations of > 2000 C thermodynamic states including energy release from bororganic formulations. Our thermochemical model propitiously predicts boronated hydrocarbon shock Hugoniot results.

Bastea, S; Crowhurst, J; Armstrong, M; ., N T

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

192

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost.

193

Liquid hydrocarbon fuels from syngas. Second annual report, March 1982-February 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Initial Task 1 tests used methanol as the feed. It was found that catalysts of interest tended to make highly methylated aromatics in the Berty reactor. Although a simulated distillation showed that these products boiled in the gasoline and diesel range, most were solid at room temperature. Aromatic products frequently are desirable constituents of gasoline, but highly methylated aromatics which precipitate at the concentrations found are undesirable. Since small olefins are products and intermediates in reactions over Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, propylene was chosen as feedstock to replace methanol. Catalysts for syngas feed (task 2) have a metal component (MC) and a shape-selective component (SSC). Four techniques have been used in synthesizing our bi-functional catalysts. The data presented show that catalysts and conditions have been found which enable converting 1:1 H/sub 2//CO syngas feed at reasonable conversions in one step to motor fuel range products with quite acceptable selectivity to C/sub 5//sup +/ products. Two effects should be noted. The molecular sieves used reduced the high boiling (wax) component of the product as compared to physical mixture with the relatively inert ..cap alpha..-alumina. Also the quality of the gasoline range product with the molecular sieve is much better than with the F-T type catalyst.

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

The selective catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch liquids to high value transportation fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company, investigated a selective catalytic cracking process (FCC) to convert the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) gasoline and wax fractions to high value transportation fuels. The primary tasks of this contract were to (1) optimize the catalyst and process conditions of the FCC process for maximum conversion of F-T wax into reactive olefins for later production of C{sub 4}{minus}C{sub 8} ethers, and (2) use the olefin-containing light naphtha obtained from FCC processing of the F-T wax as feedstock for the synthesis of ethers. The catalytic cracking of F-T wax feedstocks gave high conversions with low activity catalysts and low process severities. HZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts gave higher yields of propylene, isobutylene, and isoamylenes but a lower gasoline yield than Y zeolite catalysts. Catalyst selection and process optimization will depend on product valuation. For a given catalyst and process condition, Sasol and LaPorte waxes gave similar conversions and product selectivities. The contaminant iron F-T catalyst fines in the LaPorte wax caused higher coke and hydrogen yields.

Schwartz, M.M.; Reagon, W.J.; Nicholas, J.J.; Hughes, R.D.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

"An Economic Process for Coal Liquefaction to Liquid Fuels" SBIR Phase II -- Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current commercial processes for direct coal liquefaction utilize expensive backmix-flow reactor system and conventional catalysts resulting in incomplete and retrogressive reactions that produce low distillate liquid yield and high gas yield, with high hydrogen consumption. The new process we have developed, which uses a less expensive reactor system and highly active special catalysts, resulted in high distillate liquid yield, low gas yield and low hydrogen consumption. The new reactor system using the special catalyst can be operated smoothly for direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Due to high hydrogenation and hydrocracking activities of the special catalysts, moderate temperatures and high residence time in each stage of the reactor system resulted in high distillate yield in the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F range with no 650{degrees}F{sup +} product formed except for the remaining unconverted coal residue. The C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F distillate is more valuable than the light petroleum crude. Since there is no 650{degrees}F{sup +} liquid product, simple reforming and hydrotreating of the C{sub 4}-650{degrees}F product will produce the commercial grade light liquid fuels. There is no need for further refinement using catalytic cracking process that is currently used in petroleum refining. The special catalysts prepared and used in the experimental runs had surface area between 40-155 m{sup 2}/gm. The liquid distillate yield in the new process is >20 w% higher than that in the current commercial process. Coal conversion in the experimental runs was moderate, in the range of 88 - 94 w% maf-coal. Though coal conversion can be increased by adjustment in operating conditions, the purpose of limiting coal conversion to moderate amounts in the process was to use the remaining unconverted coal for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen consumption was in the range of 4.0 - 6.0 w% maf-coal. A preliminary economic analysis of the new coal liquefaction process was carried out by comparing the design and costs of the current commercial plant of the Shenhua Corporation in Erdos, Inner Mongolia. The cost of producing synthetic crude oil from coal in the current commercial process was estimated to be $50.5 per barrel compared to the estimated cost of $41.7 per barrel in the new process. As mentioned earlier, the light distillate product in the new process is of higher quality and value than the C{sub 4}-975{degrees}F product in the current commercial process adopted by the Shenhua Corporation. In sum, the new coal liquefaction process is superior and less capital intensive to current commercial process, and has a high potential for commercialization.

Ganguli, Partha Sarathi

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

196

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 4. GPGP jet-fuels production program-feed analyses compilation and review. Interim report, October 1987-January 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to compile and review physical and chemical characterization data for the GPGP by-product liquids. This report describes the relative reliability of the various characterization data and indicates where specific limitations exist.

Rossi, R.J.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 10. Jet fuels production by-products, utility, and sulfur-emissions control integration study. Interim report, 1 May 1988-1 April 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding has been provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to evaluate the impact of integrating Jet Fuel and/or Chemical Production Facilities with the Great Plains Gasification Plant.

Rossi, R.J.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Development of a test facility for the experimental evaluation of liquid and gaseous automotive engine fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Reference [15] ---------------- 55 LIST OF TABLES IN APPENDICES PAGE Table Al: Engine Specificat1ons Table A2: Eng1ne Break-in Schedule 69 74 Table A3: Wear Metals in Engine Oil- 77 Table Cl: Values Used for Variables in Emiss1ons Calculations... important. In selecting instrumentation for the system, accuracy, speed, and versatility were considered. The cost of each piece of equipment was weighed against its accuracy, its ability to save time collecting data, and its capability for adapting...

McCanlies, John Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

199

Fuels & Lubricant Technologies- FEERC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuels & Lubricants Technology Fuels & Lubricants Technology Fuels and lubricants research at FEERC involves study of the impacts of fuel and lubricant properties on advanced combustion processes as well as on emissions and emission control strategies and devices. The range of fuels studied includes liquid fuels from synthetic and renewable sources as well as conventional and unconventional fossil-based sources. Combustion and emissions studies are leveraged with relevant single and multi-cylinder engine setups in the FEERC and access to a suite of unique diagnostic tools and a vehicle dynamometer laboratory. ORNL/DOE research has been cited by EPA in important decisions such as the 2006 diesel sulfur rule and the 2010/2011 E15 waiver decision. Major program categories and examples

200

The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Advanced Fuels Synthesis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Fuels Synthesis Advanced Fuels Synthesis Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Advanced Fuels Synthesis The Advanced Fuels Synthesis Key Technology is focused on catalyst and reactor optimization for producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal/biomass mixtures, supports the development and demonstration of advanced separation technologies, and sponsors research on novel technologies to convert coal/biomass to liquid fuels. Active projects within the program portfolio include the following: Fischer-Tropsch fuels synthesis Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal/Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels Via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Coal Fuels Alliance: Design and Construction of Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery

202

Availability Assessment of Carbonaceous Biomass in California as a Feedstock for Thermo-chemical Conversion to Synthetic Liquid Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

148% of the states diesel fuel market or 22% of total U.S.diesel gallon equivalent, therefore 6.5 dge amounts to 4.46 (10 -5 ) mi/kJ. California Clean Fuels Market

Valkenburg, C; Norbeck, J N; Park, C S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Modeling radiation in particle clouds: On the importance of inter-particle radiation for pulverized solid fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The importance of inter-particle radiation for clusters of gray and diffuse particles is investigated. The radiative cooling of each individual particle is found to vary strongly with its position in the cluster, and a mean radiative particle cooling term is proposed for single particle simulations of particle clusters or for high detail simulation, like Direct Numerical Simulations of small sub-volumes of large clusters of particles. Radiative cooling is shown to be important both for furnaces for coal gasification and coal combustion. Broadening the particle size distribution is found to have just a minor effect on the radiative particle cooling. This is particularly the case for large and dense particle clusters where there is essentially no effect of size distribution broadening at all. For smaller and more dilute particle clusters, the effect of distribution broadening is clear but still not dominant.

Haugen, Nils Erland L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Pulsed DD Neutron Generator Measurements for HEU Oxide Fuel Pins Using Liquid Scintillators with Pulse Shape Discrimination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements have been performed on high-enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium metal

Pennycook, Steve

205

Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Oxygen transport resistance correlated to liquid water saturation in the gas diffusion layer of PEM fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

22 November 2013 Accepted 24 December 2013 Keywords: Fuel cells PEM Diffusion Saturation Neutron than 0.15 gPt kW?1 will not be cost competitive. As a result, fuel cell researchers are exploring fuel cells Jon P. Owejan a,b, , Thomas A. Trabold c , Matthew M. Mench b a SUNY Alfred State College

Mench, Matthew M.

207

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report, May 10, 1994--December 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (i) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (ii) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. Since this work was for fundamental research in a number of related areas to the use of LNG as a transportation fuel for long haul trucking, many of those results have appeared in numerous refereed journal and conference papers, and significant graduate training experiences (including at least one M.S. thesis and one Ph.D. dissertation) in the first year of this project. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

Sutton, W.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that developed...

209

Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system and then solved by finite difference method with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. An iterative scheme was used to obtain a converged solution. Membrane reactor performance was compared to that in a traditional non-membrane packed-bed reactor (PBR). Their performances were also compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values achievable in a conventional non-membrane reactor. Numerical results of the models show that the methane conversions in the PBIMTR are always higher than that in the PBR, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium conversions. For instance, at a reaction pressure of 6 atm, a temperature of 650 C, a space velocity of 900/16.0 SCCM/gm{sub cat}, a steam to methane molar feed ratio of 3.0, a sweep ratio of 0.15, the conversion in the membrane reactor is about 86.5%, while the conversion in the non-membrane reactor is about 50.8%. The corresponding equilibrium conversion is about 56.4%. The effects on the degree of conversion and hydrogen yield were analyzed for different parameters such as temperature, reactor pressure, feed and sweep flow rate, feed molar ratio, and space time. From the analysis of the model results, it is obvious that the membrane reactor operation can be optimized for conversion or yield through the choice of proper operating and design parameters. Comparisons with available literature data for both membrane and non-membrane reactors showed a good agreement.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

210

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

In order to account for ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) regulations related to Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90), ultra- low-sulfur diesel is differentiated from other...

211

The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (CO + H2O = CO2+ H2) is an important reaction for hydrogen upgrading during fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-treatment units in practical low-temperature PEM fuel cell systems, whereby the deleterious CO should be totally for hydrogen upgrading during fuel gas processing. Emerging applications in fuel cells require active, non-pyrophoric, and cost-effective catalysts. Along with a new group of platinum catalysts with atomically dispersed Pt

Napp, Nils

212

Total Imports of Residual Fuel  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. Total 5,752 5,180 7,707 9,056 6,880 6,008 1936-2013 PAD District 1 1,677 1,689 2,008 3,074 2,135 2,814 1981-2013 Connecticut 1995-2009 Delaware 1995-2012 Florida 359 410 439 392 704 824 1995-2013 Georgia 324 354 434 364 298 391 1995-2013 Maine 65 1995-2013 Maryland 1995-2013 Massachusetts 1995-2012 New Hampshire 1995-2010 New Jersey 903 756 948 1,148 1,008 1,206 1995-2013 New York 21 15 14 771 8 180 1995-2013 North Carolina 1995-2011 Pennsylvania 1995-2013 Rhode Island 1995-2013 South Carolina 150 137 194 209 1995-2013 Vermont 5 4 4 5 4 4 1995-2013 Virginia 32 200 113 1995-2013 PAD District 2 217 183 235 207 247 179 1981-2013 Illinois 1995-2013

213

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Excise Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Excise Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Liquefied natural gas, liquid fuel derived from coal, and liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass are subject to a federal excise tax of

214

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI); Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano (Madison, WI); West, Ryan M. (Madison, WI)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

215

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

of ASTM specification D6751. Renewable diesel is defined as liquid fuel derived from biomass that meets EPA's fuel registration requirements and ASTM specifications D975 or D396;...

216

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Excise Tax Liquefied natural gas, liquid fuel derived from coal, and liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass are subject to a federal excise tax of 24.3 cents per gallon. All...

217

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Filling CNG Fuel Tanks Filling CNG Fuel Tanks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Filling CNG Fuel Tanks on AddThis.com... More in this section... Natural Gas Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Maintenance & Safety Fuel System & Cylinders Fuel Safety Traffic Accident Filling CNG Tanks Laws & Incentives Filling CNG Fuel Tanks Unlike liquid fuel, which consistently holds about the same volume of fuel

218

Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

xTL Fuels to someone xTL Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels xTL Fuels Synthetic liquid transportation fuels, collectively known as xTL fuels, are produced through specialized conversion processes. These production methods, including the Fischer-Tropsch process, produce fuels from carbon-based feedstocks, such as biomass, coal, or natural gas, and can

219

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

the equivalent rate for all other non-liquid alternative fuels. Certain exclusions apply. (Reference Senate Bill 786, 2014, and North Carolina General Statutes 105-449.136...

220

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fuel Cells | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Fuel cells are an important enabling technology for the nation's energy portfolio and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nation,...

222

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuels Renewable Fuels Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuels Promotion Recognizing that biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel will be an important part of the state's energy economy and advanced research in

223

Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

42 MaxPlanckForschung 4 | 13 Turbulence is omnipresent: it plays an important role during planet formation, mixes fuel and air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on aircraft wings or car bodies, for example, is feared because it push- es up the fuel consumption. And tur formation, mixes fuel and air in the cylinder of an engine, but also increases the energy needed for pumps PHENOMENON In our blood vessels, the steady blood flow also switches time and again to turbulent motion

Falge, Eva

225

Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Craig Jensen 1 (Primary Contact), Daniel Brayton 1 , and Scott Jorgensen 2 1 Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC 531 Cooke Street Honolulu, HI 96813 Phone: (808) 339-1333 Email: hhcllc@hotmail.com 2 General Motors Technical Center DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0005020 Project Start Date: July 1, 2011 Project End Date: June 30, 2013 *Congressionally directed project Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The objective of this project is to optimize a hydrogen storage media based on a liquid organic carrier (LOC) for hydrogen and design a commercially viable hydrogen

226

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel and Fuel and Vehicle Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax Liquid alternative fuels used to operate on-road vehicles are taxed at a rate of $0.175 per gallon. These fuels are taxed at the same rate as

227

Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel. In our proposal...production of liquid hydrocarbons. Thus, the goal...sustainable production of hydrocarbon fuel for the transportation...The resulting combustion energy not only provides heat for the endothermic...

Rakesh Agrawal; Navneet R. Singh; Fabio H. Ribeiro; W. Nicholas Delgass

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use in nuclear fuel processing J. F. Wishart and I. A. Shkrob in "Ionic Liquids: From Knowledge to Application" Rogers, R. D., Plechkova, N. V., and Seddon, K. R., Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 1030, Ch. 8, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2009, pp 119-134. (ISBN 978-0-8412-6997-2) [Find chapter at ACS Publications] Abstract: Using ionic liquids as a medium for the processing of spent nuclear fuel, where their safety and process improvement advantages could be significant, promises to substantially contribute to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles to improve the world's energy posture. It is therefore important to study the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids, to determine

229

Photon Tools for Fuel Spray Studies in Aerospace Propulsion Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tools for Fuel Spray Studies in Aerospace Tools for Fuel Spray Studies in Aerospace Propulsion Systems Kuo-Cheng Lin, 1 Campbell D. Carter, 2 and Stephen A. Schumaker 3 1 Taitech, Inc., 1430 Oak Court, Suite 301, Beavercreek, OH 45430, USA; 2 Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433, USA; 3 Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA 93524, USA Fuel injection plays an important role in establishing stable and efficient combustion inside the combustor of a liquid-fueled aerospace propulsion system. Depending on the application of interest, fuel injection conditions range from high-speed crossflows in the air-breathing propulsion systems to quiescent environments with extremely high pressures in the rocket engines. In addition to the typical liquid

230

Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of liquid hydrocarbon fuels (16, 17). It can...conversion to liquid fuels using the FT process...support total current oil consumption of 13.8 Mbbl/d by the...produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel. In our proposal, the...from the transportation engine. Therefore, for coal...

Rakesh Agrawal; Navneet R. Singh; Fabio H. Ribeiro; W. Nicholas Delgass

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Convergence of Regional Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) Prices : A review of regional LNG import prices using Engle Grangers Cointegration approach.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis investigates the bivariate long term stochastic relationship between the import Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) prices in Japan, USA and EU. The bivariate testing (more)

Eliston, Anton Jayanand

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Petroleum & Other Liquids - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum & Other Liquids Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude Reserves and Production Refining and Processing Imports/Exports & Movements Stocks Consumption/Sales All Petroleum & Other Liquids Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Consumption & Sales Crude Reserves & Production Imports/Exports & Movements Prices Projections Refining & Processing Stocks All Reports EIA's latest Short-Term Energy Outlook for crude oil and liquid fuels › image chart of World Liquid Fuels Supply and Demand as described in linked Short-Term Energy Outlook Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook, released monthly. EIA's latest weekly petroleum analysis › Featured chart from This Week in Petroleum using statistics from the Weekly Petroleum Status Report

233

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

From Bio-Derived Liquids From Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen From Bio Hydrogen From Bio - - Derived Liquids Derived Liquids Dave King, Yong Wang, PNNL BILIWIG Meeting Laurel, Maryland November 6, 2007 Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Project comprises two components z Ethanol steam reforming z Aqueous phase reforming (APR) Importance to small scale hydrogen production for distributed reforming for hydrogen production ‹ Ethanol is rapidly becoming an infrastructure fuel and is a logical feedstock ‹ APR provides vehicle for facile reforming of a variety of bio-derived feedstocks available in the biorefinery that are not conducive to conventional vapor phase reforming Distinctive technology approach/innovation z We are investigating single step ethanol reforming with emphasis on lower

234

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt...

235

Fuel Guide Economy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 1 MODEL YEAR 2000 FUEL ECONOMY LEADERS IN POPULAR VEHICLE CLASSES Listed below are the vehicles with the highest fuel economy for the most popular classes, including both automatic and manual transmissions and gasoline and diesel vehicles. Please be aware that many of these vehicles come in a range of engine sizes and trim lines, resulting in different fuel economy values. Check the fuel economy guide or the fuel economy sticker on new vehicles to find the values for a particular version of a vehicle. CONTENTS MODEL YEAR 2000 FUEL ECONOMY LEADERS ................. 1 HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE ..................................................... 2 FUEL ECONOMY AND YOUR ANNUAL FUEL COSTS .......... 3 WHY FUEL ECONOMY IS IMPORTANT .................................

236

Coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The introduction of coal based fuel systems such as coal/air and coal water mixtures was an attempt to minimize the use of heavy fuel oils in large scale power generation processes. This need was based on forecasts of fuel reserves and future pricing of fuel oils, therefore economic considerations predominated over environmental benefits, if any, which could result from widespread use of these fuels. Coal continued as the major fuel used in the power generation industry and combustion systems were developed to minimize gaseous emissions, such as NOx. Increasing availability of natural gas led to consideration of its use in combination with coal in fuel systems involving combined cycle or topping cycle operations. Dual fuel coal natural gas operations also offered the possibility of improved performance in comparison to 100% coal based fuel systems. Economic considerations have more recently looked at emulsification of heavy residual liquid fuels for consumption in power generation boiler and Orimulsion has emerged as a prime example of this alternative fuel technology. The paper will discuss some aspects of the burner technology related to the application of these various coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels in the power generation industry.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The introduction of coal based fuel systems such as coal/air and coal water mixtures was an attempt to minimise the use of heavy fuel oils in large scale power generation processes. This need was based on forecasts of fuel reserves and future pricing of fuel oils, therefore economic considerations predominated over environmental benefits, if any, which could result from widespread use of these fuels. Coal continued as the major fuel used in the power generation industry and combustion systems were developed to minimise gaseous emissions, such as NO{sub x}. Increasing availability of natural gas led to consideration of its use in combination with coal in fuel systems involving combined cycle or topping cycle operations. Dual fuel coal natural gas operations also offered the possibility of improved performance in comparison to 100% coal based fuel systems. Economic considerations have more recently looked at emulsification of heavy residual liquid fuels for consumption in power generation boiler and Orimulsion has emerged as a prime example of this alternative fuel technology. The next sections of the paper will discuss some aspects of the burner technology related to the application of these various coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels in the power generation industry.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R. [ABB Combustion Services Limited, Derby (United Kingdom)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Development of thin palladium membranes supported on large porous 310L tubes for a steam reformer operated with gas-to-liquid fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Palladium membranes were prepared on large tubes (80mm diameter and 150mm length) of porous stainless steel supports (PSS) using a modified electroless plating technique. The morphology of the palladium layer was found to be depending on the container material of the coating apparatus. The use of PMMA resulted in compact palladium layers with smooth surfaces whereas PTFE led to inhomogeneous palladium coating with rough surface. Two different ceramic materials and coating methods were used to prepare an intermediate layer needed to prevent intermetallic diffusion between the palladium and the support at elevated temperatures. Wet powder spraying of TiO2 followed by sintering resulted in a smoother surface than atmospheric plasma spraying of YSZ, thus allowing for a thinner palladium coating. Pd/TiO2/PSS membranes showed about 4 times higher hydrogen permeances than Pd/YSZ/PSS membranes as a consequence of higher palladium thickness and lower porosity of the ceramic intermediate layer. The selectivity against nitrogen was comparable for both membranes. However, the YSZ intermediate layer showed better stability at elevated temperatures. Two membrane tubes were applied in the membrane reformer, which produced hydrogen successfully from a gas-to-liquid (GtL) fuel.

Grazyna Straczewski; Johannes Vller-Blumenroth; Hubert Beyer; Peter Pfeifer; Michael Steffen; Ingmar Felden; Angelika Heinzel; Matthias Wessling; Roland Dittmeyer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuels * Pourable, storable and transportable liquid fuel * Contains approximately 50-55% energy content of fossil fuel * Meets applicable ASTM Standard for industrial use (ASTM...

240

Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies Liquid Fuels from Biomass BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

IFR fuel cycle--pyroprocess development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle is based on the use of a metallic fuel alloy, with nominal composition U-2OPu-lOZr. In its present state of development, this fuel system offers excellent high-burnup capabilities. Test fuel has been carried to burnups in excess of 20 atom % in EBR-II irradiations, and to peak burnups over 15 atom % in FFTF. The metallic fuel possesses physical characteristics, in particular very high thermal conductivity, that facilitate a high degree of passive inherent safety in the IFR design. The fuel has been shown to provide very large margins to failure in overpower transient events. Rapid overpower transient tests carried out in the TREAT reactor have shown the capability to withstand up to 400% overpower conditions before failing. An operational transient test conducted in EBR-II at a power ramp rate of 0.1% per second reached its termination point of 130% of normal power without any fuel failures. The IFR metallic fuel also exhibits superior compatibility with the liquid sodium coolant. Equally as important as the performance advantages offered by the use of metallic fuel is the fact that this fuel system permits the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as ``pyroprocessing,`` featuring fused-salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Development of the IFR pyroprocess has been underway at the Argonne National Laboratory for over five years, and great progress has been made toward establishing a commercially-viable process. Pyroprocessing offers a simple, compact means for closure of the fuel cycle, with anticipated significant savings in fuel cycle costs.

Laidler, J.J.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

IFR fuel cycle--pyroprocess development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle is based on the use of a metallic fuel alloy, with nominal composition U-2OPu-lOZr. In its present state of development, this fuel system offers excellent high-burnup capabilities. Test fuel has been carried to burnups in excess of 20 atom % in EBR-II irradiations, and to peak burnups over 15 atom % in FFTF. The metallic fuel possesses physical characteristics, in particular very high thermal conductivity, that facilitate a high degree of passive inherent safety in the IFR design. The fuel has been shown to provide very large margins to failure in overpower transient events. Rapid overpower transient tests carried out in the TREAT reactor have shown the capability to withstand up to 400% overpower conditions before failing. An operational transient test conducted in EBR-II at a power ramp rate of 0.1% per second reached its termination point of 130% of normal power without any fuel failures. The IFR metallic fuel also exhibits superior compatibility with the liquid sodium coolant. Equally as important as the performance advantages offered by the use of metallic fuel is the fact that this fuel system permits the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as pyroprocessing,'' featuring fused-salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Development of the IFR pyroprocess has been underway at the Argonne National Laboratory for over five years, and great progress has been made toward establishing a commercially-viable process. Pyroprocessing offers a simple, compact means for closure of the fuel cycle, with anticipated significant savings in fuel cycle costs.

Laidler, J.J.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Using Ionic Liquids to Make Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Using Ionic Liquids to Make...

244

EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOEs proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

245

Winter Heating Fuels - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

stocks, imports and exports. Renewable & Alternative Fuels Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium Uranium fuel, nuclear...

246

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Background The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction converts a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide-derived from coal, methane or biomass-to liquid fuels. The Department of Energy (DOE) refers to the coal-based process as Coal-to-Liquids. The F-T process was discovered by German scientists and used to make fuels during World War II. There has been continued interest of varying intensity in F-T technology

247

Chapter 3 - Fuels for Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter deals with various types of liquid fuels and the relevant chemical and physical properties of these fuels as a means of comparison to the fuels of the future. It gives an overview of the manufacture and properties of the common fuels as well as a description of various biofuels. A fuel mixture usually contains a wide range of organic compounds (usually hydrocarbons). The specific mixture of hydrocarbons gives a fuel its characteristic properties, such as boiling point, melting point, density, viscosity, and a host of other properties. Depending on the application (stationary, central power, remote, auxiliary, transportation, military, etc.), there are a wide range of conventional fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, light distillates, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuels, diesel, and biodiesel, that could be used in reforming processes to produce hydrogen (or hydrogen-rich synthesis gas) to power fuel cells. Fossils fuels include gaseous fuels, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, and jet fuels. Gaseous fuels include natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. Types of gasoline include automotive gasoline, aviation gasoline, and gasohol. Some additives added into gasoline are antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, demulsifiers, anti-icing, dyes and markers, drag reducers, and oxygenates.

James G. Speight

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Development of a Conceptual Process for Selective CO{sub 2} Capture from Fuel Gas Streams Using [hmim][Tf2N] Ionic Liquid as a Physical Solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ionic Liquid (IL) [hmim][Tf2N] was used as a physical solvent in an Aspen Plus simulation, employing the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (P-R EOS) with Boston-Mathias (BM) alpha function and standard mixing rules, to develop a conceptual process for CO{sub 2} capture from a shifted warm fuel gas stream produced from Pittsburgh # 8 coal for a 400 MWe power plant. The physical properties of the IL, including density, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure and heat capacity were obtained from literature and modeled as a function of temperature. Also, available experimental solubility values for CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CO, and CH{sub 4} in this IL were compiled and their binary interaction parameters ({delta}{sub ij} and l{sub ij}) were optimized and correlated as functions of temperature. The Span-Wager Equation-of-State EOS was also employed to generate CO{sub 2} solubilities in [hmim][Tf2N] at high pressures (up to 10 MPa) and temperatures (up to 510 K). The conceptual process developed consisted of 4 adiabatic absorbers (2.4 m ID, 30 m high) arranged in parallel and packed with Plastic Pall Rings of 0.025 m for CO{sub 2} capture; 3 flash drums arranged in series for solvent (IL) regeneration with the pressure-swing option; and a pressure-intercooling system for separating and pumping CO{sub 2} up to 153 bar to the sequestration sites. The compositions of all process streams, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency, and net power were calculated using Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that, based on the composition of the inlet gas stream to the absorbers, 95.67 mol% of CO{sub 2} was captured and sent to sequestration sites; 99.5 mol% of H{sub 2} was separated and sent to turbines; the solvent exhibited a minimum loss of 0.31 mol%; and the net power balance of the entire system was 30.81 MW. These results indicated that [hmim][Tf2N] IL could be used as a physical solvent for CO{sub 2} capture from warm shifted fuel gas streams with high efficiency.

Basha, Omar M.; Keller, Murphy J.; Luebke, David R.; Resnik, Kevin; P Morsi, Badie I.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Diesel fuel containing a tetrazole or triazole cetane improver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a liquid fuel adapted for use in a diesel engine containing a cetane number increasing amount of at least one fuel soluble additive compound.

Martella, D.J.

1986-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

250

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

gas produced from biomass, where biomass is defined as any organic material other than oil, natural gas, and coal; liquid, gaseous or solid synthetic fuels produced from coal; or...

251

Availability and Assessment of Carbonaceous Biomass in the United States as a Feedstock for Thermo-chemical Conversion to Synthetic Liquid Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

148% of the states diesel fuel market or 22% of total U.S.diesel gallon equivalent, therefore 6.5 dge amounts to 4.46 (10 -5 ) mi/kJ. California Clean Fuels Market

Valkenburg, C; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Alternate Fuels: Is Your Waste Stream a Fuel Source?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in their boiler systems. And, the trend toward using Process Gases, Flammable Liquids, and Volatile Organic Compounds (\\iDe's), to supplement fossil fuels, will be considered a key element of the management strategy for industrial power plants. The increase...ALTERNATE FUELS: IS YOUR WASTE STREAM A FUEL SOURCE? PHn, COERPER. MANAGER ALTERNATE FUEL SYSTEMS. CLEAVER-BROOKS. Mn,WAUKEE. WI ABSTRACT Before the year 2000. more than one quarter of u.s. businesses will be firing Alternate Fuels...

Coerper, P.

253

Company Level Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

All Petroleum & Other Liquids Reports All Petroleum & Other Liquids Reports Company Level Imports With Data for September 2013 | Release Date: November 27, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 30, 2013 | XLS Previous Issues Month: September 2013 August 2013 July 2013 June 2013 May 2013 April 2013 March 2013 February 2013 January 2013 prior issues Go September 2013 Import Highlights Monthly data on the origins of crude oil imports in September 2013 has been released and it shows that two countries exported more than 1 million barrels per day to the United States (see table below). The top five exporting countries accounted for 75 percent of United States crude oil imports in September while the top ten sources accounted for approximately 92 percent of all U.S. crude oil imports. The top five sources of US crude

254

A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

255

Laser Shearographic Testing of Foam Insulation on Cryogenic Fuel Tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Centaur is a high-energy rocket used as a second stage to the Atlas launch vehicle. The Centaur is cryogenically fueled, using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and requires insulation to prevent fuel boi...

Douglas D. Burleigh; James E. Engel

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

257

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adam R. 2008. Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energyshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. In

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Definition: Diesel fuel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Diesel fuel Diesel fuel Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Diesel fuel A liquid fuel produced from petroleum; used in diesel engines.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Diesel oil and Gazole (fuel) redirect here. Sometimes "diesel oil" is used to mean lubricating oil for diesel engines. Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel. Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. As of 2007, almost

259

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

260

Liquid and solid phase compositions in a partially frozen JP-5 fuel low in n-alkanes. Memorandum report April 1983-January 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A JP-5 low in n-alkanes was partially frozen at several temperatures 9 to 15 C below its normal freezing point of -53 C. In spite of their low concentrations in the starting fuel, the n-alkanes were the predominant components in the solid phase crystallizing from the fuel. In this respect, this JP-5 behaves in a fashion similar to other jet fuels which contain 3 to 5 times the amounts of n-alkanes.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.J.; Mushrush, G.W.

1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 5. Recovery of benzene/benzene plus phenol from the Great Pplains Gasification Plant crude phenol stream. Interim report, September 1987-February 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential for production of jet fuels from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant located in Buelah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This report details the program with Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., a subcontractor to Burns and Roe Services Corporation, who, as a subcontractor to DOE, investigated the potential of producing benzene or benzene plus phenol from the crude phenol stream.

Harris, E.C.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Distribution of higher n-alkanes in partially frozen middle-distillate fuels. Final report, October 1982-September 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In conjunction with continuing studies on the effect of composition on the freezing points of middle distillate fuels, attention was directed to partially frozen fuels. The crystals and residual liquid from partially frozen JP-5 and DFM fuel samples derived from both petroleum and shale were separated from each other and collected by means of the NRL liquid-solid separator apparatus (LSS) at several temperatures below the freezing points of the original samples. The original fuel samples, the solid material (precipitate), and liquid (filtrate) were characterized by gas chromatography (GC). The filtrate data were straightforward. As expected, Van't Hoff plot of the n-alkanes concentrations (log concentrations vs reciprocal absolute temperature) formed straight lines, and their slopes demonstrated the importance of the higher n-alkanes in fuel crystallization at cold temperatures. The precipitate data presented some problems of interpretation since it was observed that the waxy crystal precipitate matrix entrapped significant amounts of liquid (filtrate). The data on solid which were obtained by these methods demonstrated that the higher n-alkanes play the key role in fuel crystallization at low temperatures, concentrating as much as tenfold in the crystallized solids compared to the liquid. Also, it was clearly shown that the n-alkanes form the major part, up to least 95% by weight in some fuels, of the solid crystals formed.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.; DeGuzman, J.

1985-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

263

imports | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1 1 Varnish cache server imports Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is Table 146, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million barrels per day. The data is broken down into crude oil, light refined products and heavy refined products. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO EIA imports liquids Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Imported Liquids by Source- Reference Case (xls, 85.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

264

A new future for carbohydrate fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The development of renewable energy sources to reduce our dependence on limiting fossil fuel reserves continues to be a critical research initiative. Utilizing the abundant high energy content of carbohydrates contained in biomass (cellulose and hemicellulose) must be considered to be an important contribution to our overall energy budget. Carbohydrate-derived furan-based liquid fuels and especially ethanol are becoming important added components forming gasoline blends to lower overall fossil fuel use. Alternate renewable energy processes that more efficiently use the carbohydrate energy content are desirable and would lower the overall carbohydrate input requirement for energy production. Recently, new catalysts have shown the feasibility of efficiently transporting the 24 electrons in glucose to fuel cell electrodes making possible the direct conversion of the stored energy in carbohydrates into electricity with the benign formation of carbonate and water as products. The conversion of glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, into three-carbon carbohydrates provides another opportunity to produce electricity from an abundant carbohydrate source. New developments in catalyst systems promise to make carbohydrate fuel cells an important part of future energy strategies.

G.D. Watt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

clean clean Fuel Cell Power Plant Experience Naval Applications US Department of Energy/ Office of Naval Research Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop Washington, DC March 29, 2011 FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. *FuelCell Energy, Inc. *Renewable and Liquid Fuels Experience *HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack for Shipboard APU *Solid Oxide Experience and Applications DOE-ONR Workshop FuelCell Energy, the FuelCell Energy logo, Direct FuelCell and "DFC" are all registered trademarks (®) of FuelCell Energy, Inc. FuelCell Energy, Inc. * Premier developer of fuel cell technology - founded in 1969 * Over 50 power installations in North America, Europe, and Asia * Industrial, commercial, utility

267

Ambient pressure fuel cell system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Japan Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oceania » Japan Oceania » Japan Japan Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data Trends The history of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from Japan is remarkable for the abrupt change that occurred in 1973. With postwar growth at 9.8% per year from 1950 to 1973, total emissions were virtually constant from 1974-1987. From 1987-96, emissions grew 25.3% reaching 329 million metric tons of carbon. Growth during this period was characterized by a return to mid-1970s consumption levels for liquid petroleum products and increased contributions from coal and natural gas use. Since 1996, Japan's fossil-fuel CO2 emissions have vacilated and now total 329 million metric tons of carbon in 2008. Based on United Nations energy trade data for 2008, Japan is the world's largest importer of coal (184 million metric tons) and

269

Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Fourth quarterly progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues that may be categorized as direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

Sutton, W.H.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Fuel Combustion Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Combustion Lab Fuel Combustion Lab NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on characterizing fuels at the molecular level. This information can then be used to understand and predict the fuel's effect on engine performance and emissions. By understanding the effects of fuel chemistry on ignition we can develop fuels that enable more efficient engine designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the distributed Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory, and the Biofuels activity. Photo of assembled IQT. Ignition Quality Tester The central piece of equipment in the Fuel Combustion Laboratory is the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT(tm)). The IQT(tm) is a constant volume combustion vessel that is used to study ignition properties of liquid

272

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

basis (e.g. , to remove bunker fuels, cement production,+ imports ?exports ? bunkers ? non ? fuel uses ? stockMarland and Rotty, 1984). Bunker fuels are fuels used in

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Towards In situ extraction of fine chemicals and biorenewable fuels from fermentation broths using Ionic liquids and the Intensification of contacting by the application of Electric Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

product separations. For developing environmentally sustainable processes, ionic liquids are touted as greener alternative to organic solvents not only because of their relatively low volatility but also due to the ability to tune their properties...

Gangu, Satya Aravind

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Propane Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Propane Fuel Prices Find propane fuel prices and trends. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or autogas, has been used worldwide as a vehicle fuel for decades. It is stored as a liquid, and

275

DYNAMIC MODELING FUEL PROCESSORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for reusability, rapid development and assessment of complete system, and design improvement from simulation results BACKGROUND · Fuel cell based power systems are becoming increasingly important in aeronautical applications · Reformer based fuel cell systems make the technology amenable to logistic fuels such as diesel

Mease, Kenneth D.

276

Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

P-Series to someone by P-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels P-Series P-Series fuels are blends of natural gas liquids (pentanes plus), ethanol, and methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF), a biomass co-solvent. P-Series fuels are clear, colorless, 89-93 octane, liquid blends used either alone or mixed with gasoline in any proportion in flexible fuel vehicles. These fuels are

277

Catalyst optimization in gas-to-liquid technology : an operations view / Israel Olalekan Jolaolu.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology is a general term used for a group of technologies that has the capability to create liquid hydrocarbon fuels from (more)

Jolaolu, Israel Olalekan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

A new technology for producing synthetic liquid hydrocarbons from gaseous hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conventional technologies of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF) production from gaseous hydrocarbons by producing synthesis ... liquid hydrocarbons are examined. A high-efficiency SLF production technology that allows ...

D. L. Astanovskii; L. Z. Astanovskii; A. L. Lapidus

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fast start-up of a diesel fuel processor for PEM fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fuel cell systems based on liquid fuels are particularly suitable for auxiliary power generation due to the high energy density of the fuel and its easy storage. Together with industrial partners, Oel-Waerme-Institut is developing a 3kWel PEM fuel cell system based on diesel steam reforming to be applied as an APU for caravans and yachts. The start-up time of a fuel cell APU is of crucial importance since a buffer battery has to supply electric power until the system is ready to take over. Therefore, the start-up time directly affects the battery capacity and consequently the system size, weight, and cost. In the presented work a novel start-up strategy for the steam reforming fuel processor is introduced. The new approach includes the reactive heating of WGS reactors by using reformate from oxidative steam reforming (OSR) instead of the sequential heating of the fuel processor. The start-up procedure is demonstrated on a 10kW steam reformer and a parameter study is carried out. Subsequently, the new procedure is tested on the complete fuel processor. Here, the OSR operation starts after 15:20min and provides reformate for reactive heating of the WGS reactors. Steam reforming operation can be started after 23:40min, which is 9min earlier than applying sequential heating of the fuel processor. Until SR operation, the total energy consumption sums up to up to 5.9MJ fuel and 13Ah (12V) electric energy.

Marius Maximini; Philip Engelhardt; Martin Brenner; Frank Beckmann; Oliver Moritz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

U.S. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Imports  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Costa Rica 2004-2013 El Salvador 2004-2013 Guatemala 2012-2014 Jamaica 2004-2013 Netherlands 2006-2014 Nicaragua 2012-2014 Pakistan 2006-2006 Singapore 24 2014-2014 Trinidad...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hydrodeoxygenation processes: Advances on catalytic transformations of biomass-derived platform chemicals into hydrocarbon fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignocellulosic biomass provides an attractive source of renewable carbon that can be sustainably converted into chemicals and fuels. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) processes have recently received considerable attention to upgrade biomass-derived feedstocks into liquid transportation fuels. The selection and design of HDO catalysts plays an important role to determine the success of the process. This review has been aimed to emphasize recent developments on HDO catalysts in effective transformations of biomass-derived platform molecules into hydrocarbon fuels with reduced oxygen content and improved H/C ratios. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels can be obtained by combining oxygen removal processes (e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation etc.) as well as by increasing the molecular weight via CC coupling reactions (e.g. aldol condensation, ketonization, oligomerization, hydroxyalkylation etc.). Fundamentals and mechanistic aspects of the use of HDO catalysts in deoxygenation reactions will also be discussed.

Sudipta De; Basudeb Saha; Rafael Luque

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Designing New Transit Bus Garages to be Fuel Flexible  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Designing New Transit Bus Garages to be Fuel Flexible Prepared By: Marathon Technical Services Six Venus Crescent P.O. Box 318 Heidelberg, Ontario, Canada N0B1Y0 Telephone: 519-699-9250 May 12, 2006 ______________________________________________________________________________ DESIGNING NEW TRANSIT BUS GARAGES TO BE FUEL FLEXIBLE Background Information Before discussing the building design features that are recommended for CNG and GH2 buses, it is important to understand what makes these fuels different from gasoline or diesel. The items below summarize the basic differences between the properties of gaseous and liquid fuels that influence the building design changes: 1. Natural Gas and Hydrogen are both lighter-than-air and in gaseous form at atmospheric

283

Biomimetic Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles and Their Applications as Electro-catalysts in Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. 1 Synthesis of highlyapplications, such as PEM fuel cells. More importantly thisapplications, such as PEM fuel cells. More importantly this

Li, Yujing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid electrolyte fuel cells Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Renewable Energy 2 Liquid Fed Direct Fuel...

285

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced fuel performance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Renewable Energy 2 Liquid Fed Direct Fuel...

286

STATE ALTERNATIVE FUELS PLAN COMMISSIONREPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Liquids Alliance of Automotive Manufacturers American Bioethanol Corporation American Honda Motor Company Resources California Electric Transportation Coalition California Environmental Protection Agency California. Dupont #12;iii ECO Fuel Systems Inc Electric Power Research Institute EMPA Technology and Society

287

A self-regulated passive fuel-feed system for passive direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Unlike active direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) that require liquid pumps and gas compressors to supply reactants, the design of passive DMFCs eliminates these ancillary (more)

Chan, Yeuk Him

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Fuel Station Procedure Applicability All  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Station Procedure Applicability All Last Revised 11/20/12 Procedure Owner Andrew Grant agrant for the purchasing and distribution of fuel for vehicles owned by Bowling Green State University (BGSU). This centralization is important to ensure compliance for BGSU employees who use the centralized fuel station and fuel

Moore, Paul A.

289

Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels  

Energy Savers [EERE]

fuel * a primary reference fuel for diesel * Include both high and low temperature chemistry important to model low temperature combustion modes Improve component models for...

290

Argonne Transportation Technology R&D Center - Alternative Fuels -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Fischer-Tropsch Fuels SunDiesel fuel This Sun Diesel BTL fuel, made from wood chips, results in lower particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions. Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels are synthetic diesel fuels produced by converting gaseous hydrocarbons, such as natural gas and gasified coal or biomass, into liquid fuel. These fuels are commonly categorized into the following groups: Biomass to liquids (BTL) Gas to liquids (GTL) Coal to liquids (CTL) Argonne engineers are investigating the performance and emissions data of F-T fuels for both older and newer vehicles. The goal is to provide this data to the U.S. Department of Energy, the auto industry and energy suppliers. Part of the lab's strategy also includes publishing the data to solicit ideas and input from the fuels and combustion community.

291

Commercialization of coal to liquids technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After an overview of the coal market, technologies for producing liquids from coal are outlined. Commercialisation of coal-to-liquid fuels, the economics of coal-to-liquids development and the role of the government are discussed. Profiles of 8 key players and the profiles of 14 projects are finally given. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gasoline and 6% of its diesel demand by converting...conversion to liquid fuels using the FT process...total current oil consumption of 13.8 Mbbl/d by...conversion of syngas to diesel is 100% selective...liquid hydrocarbon fuel. In our proposal...the transportation engine. Therefore, for coal...

Rakesh Agrawal; Navneet R. Singh; Fabio H. Ribeiro; W. Nicholas Delgass

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...source of liquid hydrocarbon fuels (16, 17...gasification data provided in...produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel. In our...The resulting combustion energy not only provides heat for the endothermic...pass from the hydrocarbon conversion...well as other heat requirements...From the NRC data in Table E-23...

Rakesh Agrawal; Navneet R. Singh; Fabio H. Ribeiro; W. Nicholas Delgass

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

NREL: Learning - Alternative Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alternative Fuels Alternative Fuels Photo of a man standing next to a large heavy-duty truck cab while the truck is being filled with biodiesel at a refueling station. As part of its work for the Clean Cities program, NREL helps people find and use alternative fuels such as biodiesel. Credit: L.L. Bean To reduce our growing dependence on imported oil, our nation's researchers are working with industry to develop several different kinds of alternative fuels. Some of these fuels can either be blended with petroleum while some are alternatives to petroleum. Using alternative fuels can also help to curb exhaust emissions and contribute to a healthier environment. Most of today's conventional cars, vans, trucks, or buses can already run on some alternative fuels, such as blends of gasoline or diesel fuel that

295

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

296

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Specifications for fuel for a gas-turbine plant on a marine platform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Specifications for liquid and gaseous fuel obtained directly on a marine platform for a power plant based on...

E. P. Fedorov; L. S. Yanovskii

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Plant variability and bio-fuel properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermochemically converting biomass feedstocks to fuels is one of the major thrusts of renewable energy research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Among several thermochemical routes is the fast pyrolysis process which produces liquid fuels from woody and herbaceous biomass feedstocks. Because of the large variability in the composition of biomass feedstocks due to plant variety and environmental factors, it is important to assess how these variabilities affect the properties of thermochemical liquid fuels (bio-oils) produced from these resources. Similar varieties of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) that were grown at three different locations and three hybrid poplar clones that were grown at one location were used in these studies. The feedstocks were pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor at 500{degrees}C. The gas products were analyzed on-line and the liquid products were analyzed for elemental composition and higher heating values. Apart from small difference in the yield of char/ash, the yields of pyrolysis oils and gases were similar for switchgrass feedstocks grown at all three locations. The char/ash yields ranged from 21.1 to 22.9%; total liquids (organic liquids + water) yields ranged from 59%-60.5%; and the gas yields ranged from 11%-12% (wt). The higher heating values (HHVs) of the oils were similar (24.3-24.6 MJ/kg). For the hybrid poplar feedstocks, total liquids (65%-69%), char/ash (10%-11%), and gas yields (15.6%-17%) were similar for all three poplar clones; however, the elemental composition and the HHVs of the pyrolysis oils had statistically significant differences. The NC5260 pyrolysis oils had lower HHV (22.0{+-}0.5 MG/kg) compared to the DN clones (23.2{+-}0.3 MJ/kg). The yields of total liquids and organics for the three clones were higher than those for the switchgrass feedstocks. The gas yields for the hybrid poplar clones were higher than for the switchgrass, but had compositions similar to those of the switchgrass feedstocks.

Agblevor, F.A.; Besler-Guran, S.; Wiselogel, A.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Algae: The Source of Reliable, Scalable, and Sustainable Liquid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Scalable, and Sustainable Liquid Transportation Fuels At the February 12, 2009 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Brian Goodall (Sapphire Energy)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel and Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Fueling Infrastructure Incentives on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

303

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

304

Fuel Cells Team  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Judith Valerio at one of our 31 single-cell test stands Fuel Cell Team The FC team focus is R&D on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for commercial and military applications. Our program has had ongoing funding in the area of polymer electrolyte fuel cells since 1977 and has been responsible for enabling breakthroughs in the areas of thin film electrodes and air bleed for CO tolerance. For more information on the history of fuel cell research at Los Alamos, please click here. Fuel cells are an important enabling technology for the Hydrogen Economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power the nation and the world. The FC team is exploring the potential of fuel cells as energy-efficient, clean, and fuel-flexible alternatives that will

305

Chapter 7 - Gas Turbine Fuel Systems and Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The basics of a gas turbine fuel system are similar for all turbines. The most common fuels are natural gas, LNG (liquid natural gas), and light diesel. With appropriate design changes, the gas turbine has proved to be capable of handling residual oil, pulverized coal, syngas from coal and various low BTU fluids, both liquid and gas, that may be waste streams of petrochemical processes or, for instance, gas from a steel (or other industry) blast furnace. Handling low BTU fuel can be a tricky operation, requiring long test periods and a willingness to trade the savings in fuel costs with the loss of turbine availability during initial prototype full load tests. This chapter covers gas turbine fuel systems and includes a case study (Case 5) on blast furnace gas in a combined cycle power plant (CCPP). All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered, the point is to discover them. Plato

Claire Soares

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Efficient Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines Efficient Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines Natural gas and other liquid feedstocks for transportation fuels...

307

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a method to make liquid chemicals. The method includes deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be conveted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes.

Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

308

Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

Fuel assembly transfer basket for pool type nuclear reactor vessels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel assembly transfer basket for a pool type, liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a side access loading and unloading port for receiving and relinquishing fuel assemblies during transfer.

Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA); Ramsour, Nicholas L. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Use Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

311

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants and Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative

312

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adam R. 2008. Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energyshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. Inunconventional (tar sands or shale oil) being more energy

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions with Fuel-Flexible Burners  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas, thereby reducing energy consumption, lowering greenhouse gas emissions, and...

314

Advanced Nuclear Fuel | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

operate; lowers proliferation risks by reducing the need for enriched uranium; converts depleted uranium to usable fuel as it operates; uses liquid sodium as a coolant, which is...

315

Spontaneous hydrogen evolution in direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical energy conversion device that converts chemical energy of liquid methanol into electrical energy. Because of its (more)

Ye, Qiang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Spray structures and vaporizing characteristics of a GDI fuel spray  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spray structures and distribution characteristics of liquid and vapor phases in non-evaporating and evaporating Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel sprays were investigated using Laser Induced...

Dong-Seok Choi; Gyung-Min Choi; Duck-Jool Kim

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Coal-Derived Liquids to Enable HCCI Technology Fuel Chemistry and Cetane Effects on HCCI Performance, Combustion, and Emissions Cetane Performance and Chemistry Comparing...

318

Miscibility of Ethanol in Diesel Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fuels selected were as follows:? US-1D, US-2D, kerosene, light cycle oil, #1 fuel oil, Fischer Tropsch Liquid 2 (FTL-2, FTL refers to a broad-cut fraction of Fischer?Tropsch products not meeting diesel volatility specifications.), ... The close proximity of a mixture's UCST to the fuel's cloud point masked the classical UCST phase behavior for the FTL fuels and light cycle oil; however, the general trends persisted. ...

K. R. Gerdes; G. J. Suppes

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

319

SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

COOK,Z.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, LP-gas and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

112 Farm Fuel Safety Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel and by keeping fuel storage facilities in top condition. Flammable Liquids and Gases Gasoline, diesel fuel, LP flammability and safety precautions. Do not keep gasoline inside the home or transport it in the trunks

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

1.0 GAS TRANSFER An important process used in water and wastewater treatment. Also very important when  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of H2S in septic sewers causing pipe corrosion. 2. CO2 Stripping of some ground waters, industrial1.0 GAS TRANSFER An important process used in water and wastewater treatment. Also very important wastewaters to the stream. Gas/Liquid Interface Gas Liquid Gas transfer to the liquid is absorption Gas

Stenstrom, Michael K.

322

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Funding and Technical Assistance on Digg

323

Methods of producing transportation fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

324

Fuel System and Fuel Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel management provides optimal solutions to reduce fuel consumption. Merchant vessels, such as container ships, drive at a reduced speed to save fuel since the reduction of the speed from...?1 lowers consumption

Michael Palocz-Andresen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography and Electrodriven Separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......processing (5), solvent extraction (6, 7), electrolytes in batteries (8), metal deposition (9, 10) and gas treatment (11...Polymerized ionic liquid sorbents for CO2 separation. Energy and Fuels (2010) 24:5797-5804. 13 Ho T.D. , Canestraro A......

Yi Huang; Shun Yao; Hang Song

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Fuel cell electric power production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

Hwang, Herng-Shinn (Livingston, NJ); Heck, Ronald M. (Frenchtown, NJ); Yarrington, Robert M. (Westfield, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Recovery of Information from the Fast Flux Test Facility for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fast Flux Test Facility is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor to operate in the United States. Information from the design, construction, and operation of this reactor was at risk as the facilities associated with the reactor are being shut down. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is a program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy with a mission to develop new fuel cycle technologies to support both current and advanced reactors. Securing and preserving the knowledge gained from operation and testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility is an important part of the Knowledge Preservation activity in this program.

Nielsen, Deborah L.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold

329

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel and Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions

331

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Motor Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Motor Carrier Fuel Tax Effective January 1, 2014, a person who operates a commercial motor vehicle

332

Color Degradation of Hydrocracked Diesel Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Color Degradation of Hydrocracked Diesel Fuel ... An important quality standard to be examined is the color of diesels, given the fact that consumers tend to relate a dark colored fuel to low quality fuel, where the dark color comes from the fuels aging. ...

Isabelle Bergeron; Jean-Pierre Charland; Marten Ternan

1999-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

333

The Sasol route to fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Details are given of the Sasol operation in South Africa. Flow sheets are provided for Sasol 1 and Sasol 2 and 3. The Sasol 1 plant produces waxes, liquid fuels, pipeline gas and chemicals; the Sasol 2 and 3 plants primarily produce ethylene, gasoline and diesel fuel. The versatility of the process is emphasized. The product selectivities of the fixed bed and Synthol reactors are shown and the properties of the products are compared. The influence of the catalyst on selectivity is examined.

Dry, M.E.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Microstructured Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micro fuel cells ; Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells ; Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ...

Luc G. Frechette

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Definition The definition of an alternative fuel includes natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity, hydrogen, fuel mixtures containing not less

336

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Fueling Stations Photo of an ethanol fueling station. Thousands of ethanol fueling stations are available in the United States.

337

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Promotion The Missouri Alternative Fuels Commission (Commission) promotes the continued production and use of alternative transportation fuels in

338

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Hydrogen Fueling Stations Photo of a hydrogen fueling station. A handful of hydrogen fueling stations are available in the United States

339

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a biodiesel fueling station. Hundreds of biodiesel fueling stations are available in the United States.

340

Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option.

McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Training of Engineers and Managers An important task of the Earth Engineering Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering Center (EEC) is to identify viable tech- nologies for recovering materials and energy from solid,Div., ASME (U.S.) Plastics Div., American Chemistry Council (U.S.) Solid Waste Association of North America fuels, liquid fuels to hydrogen, and carbon-based greenhouse gases to fuels. The mission of the Earth

Qian, Ning

342

EMSL - liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquids en Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 C. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsiodine-solubility-low-activity-waste-borosilicate...

343

Renewable Fuel Standard Schedule | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Standard Schedule Standard Schedule Jump to: navigation, search Name Renewable Fuel Standard Schedule Sector Liquid Transportation Fuels Spatial Resolution National Geographic Scope United States Temporal Resolution Annual The United States Environmental Protection Agency, under the National Renewable Fuel Standard program and as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), periodically revises the volumetric standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel that must be used in transportation fuel each year. The table below lists the current RFS2 schedule in billions of gallons: Year Renewable Biofuel Advanced Biofuel Cellulosic Biofuel Biomass-based Diesel Undifferentiated Total 2008 9 9

344

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans on AddThis.com...

345

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on AddThis.com...

346

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit on AddThis.com...

347

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund on AddThis.com... More in this section...

348

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel and Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Tax Exemption on AddThis.com...

349

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol

350

Ignition of deuterium-tritium fuel targets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom. 5 figures.

Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

351

Impact of nuclear irradiation on helium bubble nucleation at interfaces in liquid metals coupled to permeation through stainless steels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impact of nucleating gas bubbles in the form of a dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope permeation at interfaces between liquid metals, like LLE, and structural materials, like stainless steel, has been studied. Liquid metal to structural material interfaces involving surfaces, may lower the nucleation barrier promoting bubble nucleation at active sites. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control at interfaces may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. He bubbles as a permeation barrier principle is analysed showing a significant impact on hydrogen isotope permeation, which may have a significant effect on liquid metal systems, e.g., tritium extraction systems. Liquid metals like LLE under nuclear irradiation in, e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles...

Fradera, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Definition: Fossil fuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Fossil fuels Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Fossil fuels Fuels formed in the Earth's crust over millions of years from decomposed organic matter. Common fossil fuels include petroleum, coal, and natural gas.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They range from volatile materials with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquid petroleum

353

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Blend Biodiesel Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Blend Mandate Pursuant to state law, all diesel motor vehicle fuel and all other liquid fuel used to operate motor vehicle diesel engines in Massachusetts must

354

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Fueling Infrastructure Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Grants on AddThis.com...

355

Synthetic Fuel  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

356

Hydrogen Generation Via Fuel Reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reforming is the conversion of a hydrocarbon based fuel to a gas mixture that contains hydrogen. The H2 that is produced by reforming can then be used to produce electricity via fuel cells. The realization of H2?based power generation via reforming is facilitated by the existence of the liquid fuel and natural gas distribution infrastructures. Coupling these same infrastructures with more portable reforming technology facilitates the realization of fuel cell powered vehicles. The reformer is the first component in a fuel processor. Contaminants in the H2?enriched product stream such as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can significantly degrade the performance of current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Removal of such contaminants requires extensive processing of the H2?rich product stream prior to utilization by the fuel cell to generate electricity. The remaining components of the fuel processor remove the contaminants in the H2 product stream. For transportation applications the entire fuel processing system must be as small and lightweight as possible to achieve desirable performance requirements. Current efforts at Argonne National Laboratory are focused on catalyst development and reactor engineering of the autothermal processing train for transportation applications.

John F. Krebs

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Fuel pins with both target and fuel pellets in an isotope-production reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target pellets are placed in close contact with fissile fuel pellets in order to increase the tritium production rate.

Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

Exergy analysis of PEM fuel cells for marine applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cells have a promising potential use in stationary and mobile power generation systems, as well as in automotive, aerospace or marine industries. At present, the main field of marine applications of fuel cells is submarines. Hydrogen/oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are commonly used in this field. Storage of oxygen in liquid form is the optimal solution. Hydrogen can be stored in carbon-nanofibres or metallic hydrides, for example, or in liquid fuels, as alcohols, with further generation of the hydrogen required on-board. The objective of this study is to perform an exergetic analysis of two possibilities of using PEM fuel cells on surface ships and submarines: hydrogen/oxygen PEM fuel cells fed with hydrogen generated by reforming of methanol, and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells directly fed with liquid methanol. To do this, exergy losses and exergetic efficiencies are calculated for both configurations at selected optimal operation points.

T.J. Leo; J.A. Durango; E. Navarro

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Pyroprocessing of IFR Metal Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle features the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as {open_quotes}pyroprocessing{close_quotes} featuring fused-salt electrofining of the spent fuel. Electrofining of IFR spent fuel involves uranium recovery by electro-transport to a solid steel cathode. The thermodynamics of the system preclude plutonium recovery in the same way, so a liquid cadmium cathode located in the electrolyte salt phase is utilized. The deposition of Pu, Am, Np, and Cm takes place at the liquid cadmium cathode in the form of cadmium intermetallic compounds (e.g, PuCd{sub 6}), and uranium deposits as the pure metal when cadmium saturation is reached. A small amount of rare earth fission products deposit together with the heavy metals at both the solid and liquid cadmium cathodes, providing a significant degree of self-protection. A full scope demonstration of the IFR fuel cycle will begin in 1993, using fuel irradiated in EBR-II.

Laidler, J.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodiesel Syn-oil Syn-gas Biochemicals Biogas Global biofuels production 4 1.2.1 Global biofuels production Biofuels can broadly be categorised into two groups. The first group is termed as the first generation biofuels which refers... by the EU countries (3.6 billion liters) is less 10% of those produced by the US, the EU produce 52.4% of the world bio- diesels [8, 9]. Germany and France are the largest producers of biodiesel within the EU. Rapeseed is widely used as feedstock in the EU...

Chong, Cheng Tung

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a Light Duty Vehicle Workshop in Washington, D.C. on July 26, 2010.

362

Coal and Biomass to Liquid Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Figure 3.3 illustrates the main processing steps in coal to gasoline using MTG. Methanol synthesis is large-scale commercial technology...2]. Single-train methane-based methanol plants up to 5,500 tonnes of metha...

James R. Katzer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Laser Ignition of Alternative Liquid Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within a research project at the TU Vienna, the potential and mechanism of laser-induced ignition with respect to mixture inflammation and combustion were investigated compared to conventional spark ignition. A s...

Dr. Josef Graf; Dr. Thomas Lauer; Univ.-Prof. Dr. Bernhard Geringer

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Projects Projects NREL's vehicles and fuels projects focus on developing, evaluating, and demonstrating innovative technologies that reduce the nation's dependence on imported petroleum and improve air quality. We work in partnership with vehicle manufacturers, equipment suppliers, fuel providers, and others to develop and commercialize vehicle and fuel technologies that meet our nation's energy and environmental goals. Advanced Combustion and Fuels Biofuels Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Energy Storage Fleet Test and Evaluation Power Electronics ReFUEL Laboratory Secure Transportation Data Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction Vehicle Systems Analysis Printable Version Vehicles & Fuels Research Home Projects Advanced Combustion & Fuels Biofuels Electric Vehicle Grid Integration

365

Numerical modeling of the ignition of a liquid hydrocarbon layer by a radiant heat pulse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A gas-phase model of radiative ignition of a flammable liquid is developed, allowing for absorption of the radiant flux in the gas phase. Using motor fuels (gasoline and diesel fuel), as examples, we demonstra...

Yu. V. Agabekov; F. G. Yagafarov

366

The Prospects for Coal-To-Liquid Conversion: A General Equilibrium Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the economics of coal-to-liquid (CTL) conversion, a polygeneration technology that produces liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity by coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process. CTL is more expensive ...

Chen, Y.-H. Henry

367

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Glossary  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Glossary Glossary This glossary contains terms and acronyms related to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z - Acronyms A AC Generator (or Alternator) An electric device that produces an electric current that reverses direction many times per second. Also called a synchronous generator. Adsorption The adhesion of the molecules of gases, dissolved substances, or liquids to the surface of the solids or liquids with which they are in contact. Air The mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases that, with varying amounts of water vapor, forms the atmosphere of the earth. Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) A type of hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell in which the electrolyte is concentrated potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the hydroxide ions (OH-) are transported from the cathode to the anode.

368

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fueling Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Development on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

369

Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Liquid propane injection technology can offer the same power, torque, and environmental vehicle performance while reducing imports of foreign oil

370

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emerging Fuels Emerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emerging Fuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels Emerging Alternative Fuels Several emerging alternative fuels are under development or already developed and may be available in the United States. These fuels may

371

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult to make more cost-effective and durable for commercial applications, particularly for the rigors of daily transportation. Since the 1970s, scientists at Los Alamos have managed to make various scientific breakthroughs that have contributed to the development of modern fuel cell systems. Specific efforts include the following: * Finding alternative and more cost-effective catalysts than platinum. * Enhancing the durability of fuel cells by developing advanced materials and

372

The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus will be Fischer-Tropsch liquids made from natural gas, coal or biomass. The models will include both the effects of operation with these alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional petroleum-based fuels. The team will develop the requisite kinetic rules for specific reaction types and incorporate these into detailed kinetic mechanisms to predict the combustion performance of neat alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional fuels. Reduced kinetic models will be then developed to allow solution of the coupled kinetics/transport problems. This is a collaboration between the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CSM/LLNL team plans to build on the substantial progress made in recent years in developing accurate detailed chemical mechanisms for the oxidation and pyrolysis of conventional fuels. Particular emphasis will be placed upon reactions of the isoalkanes and the daughter radicals, especially tertiary radicals, formed by abstraction from the isoalkanes. The various components of the program are described. We have been developing the kinetic models for two iso-dodecane molecules, using the same kinetic modeling formalisms that were developed for the gasoline and diesel primary reference fuels. These mechanisms, and the thermochemical and transport coefficient submodels for them, are very close to completion at the time of this report, and we expect them to be available for kinetic simulations early in the coming year. They will provide a basis for prediction and selection of desirable F-T molecules for use in jet engine simulations, where we should be able to predict the ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of proposed fuel components. These mechanisms include the reactions and chemical species needed to describe high temperature phenomena such as shock tube ignition and flammability behavior, and they will also include low temperature kinetics to describe other ignition phenomena such as compression ignition and knocking. During the past years, our hydrocarbon kinetics modeling group at LLNL has focused a great deal on fuels typical of gasoline and diesel fuel. About 10 years ago, we developed kinetic models for the fuel octane primary reference fuels, n-heptane [1] and iso-octane [2], which have 7 and 8 carbon atoms and are therefore representative of typical gasoline fuels. N-heptane represents the low limit of knock resistance with an octane number of 0, while iso-octane is very knock resistant with an octane number of 100. High knock resistance in iso-octane was attributed largely to the large fraction of primary C-H bonds in the molecule, including 15 of the 18 C-H bonds, and the high bond energy of these primary bonds plays a large role in this knock resistance. In contrast, in the much more ignitable n-heptane, 10 of its 16 C-H bonds are much less strongly bound secondary C-H bonds, leading to its very low octane number. All of these factors, as well as a similarly complex kinetic description of the equally important role of the transition state rings that transfer H atoms within the reacting fuel molecules, were quantified and collected into large kinetic reaction mechanisms that are used by many researchers in the fuel chemistry world.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Effects of Fuel Physical Properties on Diesel Engine Combustion Using Diesel and Bio-Diesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational study is performed to investigate the effects of physical property on diesel engine combustion characteristics using bio-diesel fuels. Properties of typical bio-diesel fuels that were either calculated or measured are used in the study and the simulation results are compared with those of conventional diesel fuels. Sensitivity of the computational results to individual physical properties is also investigated, and the results can provide information for desirable characteristics of the blended fuels. The properties considered in this study include liquid density, vapor pressure, surface tension, liquid viscosity, liquid thermal conductivity, liquid specific heat, latent heat, vapor specific heat, vapor diffusion coefficient, vapor viscosity and vapor thermal conductivity. The results show significant effects of the fuel physical properties on ignition delay and burning rates at various engine operating conditions. It is seen that there is no single physical property that dominates differences of ignition delay between diesel and bio-diesel fuels. However, among the 11 properties considered in the study, the simulation results were found to be most sensitive to the liquid fuel density, vapor pressure and surface tension through their effects on the mixture preparation processes.

Ra, Youngchul [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Comparative analysis of selected fuel cell vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vehicles powered by fuel cells operate more efficiently, more quietly, and more cleanly than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Furthermore, methanol-fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) can utilize major elements of the existing fueling infrastructure of present-day liquid-fueled ICE vehicles (ICEVs). DOE has maintained an active program to stimulate the development and demonstration o fuel cell technologies in conjunction with rechargeable batteries in road vehicles. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the availability of data on FCVs, and to develop a vehicle subsystem structure that can be used to compare both FCVs and ICEV, from a number of perspectives--environmental impacts, energy utilization, materials usage, and life cycle costs. This report focuses on methanol-fueled FCVs fueled by gasoline, methanol, and diesel fuel that are likely to be demonstratable by the year 2000. The comparative analysis presented covers four vehicles--two passenger vehicles and two urban transit buses. The passenger vehicles include an ICEV using either gasoline or methanol and an FCV using methanol. The FCV uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an on-board methanol reformer, mid-term batteries, and an AC motor. The transit bus ICEV was evaluated for both diesel and methanol fuels. The transit bus FCV runs on methanol and uses a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) fuel cell, near-term batteries, a DC motor, and an on-board methanol reformer. 75 refs.

NONE

1993-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

375

Solid fuel applications to transportation engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Proceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACCUMULATION IN A PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL WITH DEAD-ENDED ANODE Jason B. Siegel, Denise A. Mc structure of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a dead-ended anode is observed using to the anode via pressure regulation, accumu- lation of liquid water in the anode gas distribution channels

Stefanopoulou, Anna

377

The distribution of n-alkanes in partially frozen middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work on partially frozen fuels is one of a continuing series of studies on the effect of composition on the freezing properties of hydrocarbon fuels. The method used for this purpose was reported previously. By means of this method the authors were able to determine the composition of the liquid and solid phases in partially frozen mixtures consisting of liquid and of solid crystals plus entrapped liquid. This paper presents the results of this study on five different middle distillate fuels.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.; Guzman, J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distributed Reforming Targets Arlene F. Anderson Technology Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group and Hydrogen Production Technical Team Review November 6, 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program (HFCIT) cost-shared research directed at distributed bio-liquid reforming. The Working Group includes

379

Coal to Liquids | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquids Liquids Coal to Liquids Major General Allen Tackett of the National Guard's 130th Airlift Wing dispenses the first fill-up of hydrogen fuel from the Yeager facility. Located in Charleston, WV, the Yeager facility was constructed and operated with support from the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. Major General Allen Tackett of the National Guard's 130th Airlift Wing dispenses the first fill-up of hydrogen fuel from the Yeager facility. Located in Charleston, WV, the Yeager facility was constructed and operated with support from the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. The Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels Program supports DOE's strategic goals of increasing energy security, reducing environmental impact of energy use,

380

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Definition Biodiesel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Definition Biodiesel is defined as a renewable, biodegradable, mono alkyl ester combustible liquid fuel that is derived from agricultural plant oils or animal fats and meets ASTM specification D6751-11b. A biodiesel blend is a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Propane Tax to someone Propane Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Propane Tax For taxation purposes, liquefied petroleum gas (propane) used as a motor vehicle fuel must be converted to gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) using the conversion factor of 4.24 pounds per gallon of liquid at 60 degrees Fahrenheit per GGE. Propane is taxed at a rate of $0.20 per GGE. (Reference

382

Economical production of transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, and other carbonaceous feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nation`s economy and security will continue to be vitally linked to an efficient transportation system of air, rail, and highway vehicles that depend on a continuous supply of liquid fuels at a reasonable price and with characteristics that can help the vehicle manufacturers meet increasingly strict environmental regulations. However, an analysis of US oil production and demand shows that, between now and 2015, a significant increase in imported oil will be needed to meet transportation fuel requirements. One element of an overall Department of Energy`s (DOE) strategy to address this energy security issue while helping meet emissions requirements is to produce premium transportation fuels from non-petroleum feedstocks, such as coal, natural gas, and biomass, via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) and other synthesis gas conversion technologies.

Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Winslow, J.C.; Venkataraman, V.K.; Driscoll, D.J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

383

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Distributed Ethanol Reforming  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Bio-derived liquid fuels can be produced from renewable agricultural products, such as wood chips. Background Bio-derived renewable fuels are attractive for their high energy density and ease of transport. One scenario for a sustainable hydrogen economy considers that these bio-derived liquid fuels will be produced at plants close to the biomass resource, and then transported to distributed hydrogen production centers (e.g., hydrogen refueling stations), where the fuels will be reformed via the steam reforming process, similar to the current centralized production of hydrogen by the steam reforming of natural gas. Hydrogen produced by reforming these fuels must first be purified and compressed to appropriate storage and dispensing pressures. Compressing

384

Novel Water-Neutral Diesel Fuel Processor and Sulfur Trap„Precision Combustion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Novel Water-Neutral Diesel Fuel Novel Water-Neutral Diesel Fuel Processor and Sulfur Trap-Precision Combustion Background Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology for auxiliary power units (APUs) offers the potential for major contributions toward Department of Energy (DOE) objectives such as clean energy deployment and improved efficiency. Reforming of conventional liquid fuels to produce synthesis gas (syngas) fuel for SOFC stacks is a practical approach for operating fuel cell APUs

385

A Methanol and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell Using Non-Noble Catalysts in Alkaline Solution.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A primary goal of this work is to develop a novel liquid-based microscale fuel cell using non-noble metal catalysts. The developed fuel cell is based (more)

Sung, Woosuk

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

LNG liquid-liquid immiscibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although natural gas species rarely exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility in binary systems, the presence of additional components can extend the domain of immiscibility in those few binary systems where it already exists or produce immiscibility in binary systems where it had not existed. If the solute has the proper molecular relation to the solvent mixture background, liquid-liquid-vapor (LLV) behavior will occur; such phenomena greatly complicate the design of LNG processing equipment. To aid LNG engineers, researchers mapped the thermodynamic behavior of four ternary LLV systems and examined the effects of the second solvents - ethane, propane, n-butane, and CO/sub 2/ - on the binary methane + n-octane system.

Luks, K.D.; Kohn, J.P.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Experimental Physical Sciences Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

388

Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) on Mono-uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US National Energy Policy of 2001 advocated the development of advanced fuel and fuel cycle technologies that are cleaner, more efficient, less waste-intensive, and more proliferation resistant. The need for advanced fuel development is emphasized in on-going DOE-supported programs, e.g., Global Nuclear Energy Initiative (GNEI), Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and GEN-IV Technology Development. The Directorates of Energy & Environment (E&E) and Chemistry & Material Sciences (C&MS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are interested in advanced fuel research and manufacturing using its multi-disciplinary capability and facilities to support a design concept of a small, secure, transportable, and autonomous reactor (SSTAR). The E&E and C&MS Directorates co-sponsored this Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) Project on Mono-Uranium Nitride Fuel Development for SSTAR and Space Applications. In fact, three out of the six GEN-IV reactor concepts consider using the nitride-based fuel, as shown in Table 1. SSTAR is a liquid-metal cooled, fast reactor. It uses nitride fuel in a sealed reactor vessel that could be shipped to the user and returned to the supplier having never been opened in its long operating lifetime. This sealed reactor concept envisions no fuel refueling nor on-site storage of spent fuel, and as a result, can greatly enhance proliferation resistance. However, the requirement for a sealed, long-life core imposes great challenges to research and development of the nitride fuel and its cladding. Cladding is an important interface between the fuel and coolant and a barrier to prevent fission gas release during normal and accidental conditions. In fabricating the nitride fuel rods and assemblies, the cladding material should be selected based on its the coolant-side corrosion properties, the chemical/physical interaction with the nitride fuel, as well as their thermal and neutronic properties. The US NASA space reactor, the SP-100 was designed to use mono-uranium nitride fuel. Although the SP-100 reactor was not commissioned, tens of thousand of nitride fuel pellets were manufactured and lots of them, cladded in Nb-1-Zr had been irradiated in fast test reactors (FFTF and EBR-II) with good irradiation results. The Russian Naval submarines also use nitride fuel with stainless steel cladding (HT-9) in Pb-Bi coolant. Although the operating experience of the Russian submarine is not readily available, such combination of fuel, cladding and coolant has been proposed for a commercial-size liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (BREST-300). Uranium mono-nitride fuel is studied in this LDRD Project due to its favorable properties such as its high actinide density and high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of mono-nitride is 10 times higher than that of oxide (23 W/m-K for UN vs. 2.3 W/m-K for UO{sub 2} at 1000 K) and its melting temperature is much higher than that of metal fuel (2630 C for UN vs. 1132 C for U metal). It also has relatively high actinide density, (13.51 gU/cm{sup 3} in UN vs. 9.66 gU/cm{sup 3} in UO{sub 2}) which is essential for a compact reactor core design. The objective of this LDRD Project is to: (1) Establish a manufacturing capability for uranium-based ceramic nuclear fuel, (2) Develop a computational capability to analyze nuclear fuel performance, (3) Develop a modified UN-based fuel that can support a compact long-life reactor core, and (4) Collaborate with the Nuclear Engineering Department of UC Berkeley on nitride fuel reprocessing and disposal in a geologic repository.

Choi, J; Ebbinghaus, B; Meiers, T; Ahn, J

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

389

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Carolina Incentives and Laws Carolina Incentives and Laws The following is a list of expired, repealed, and archived incentives, laws, regulations, funding opportunities, or other initiatives related to alternative fuels and vehicles, advanced technologies, or air quality. Biofuels Commercialization Grants Archived: 10/01/2013 The Biofuels Center of North Carolina (Center) is a private, nonprofit corporation the Legislature funds to implement the goal that by 2017, 10% of liquid fuels sold in North Carolina will come from biofuels grown and produced within the state. The Center awards funds to academic institutions, economic development organizations, nonprofit corporations, and other entities through an annual competitive awards process. Grants and contracts are designed to identify and bridge gaps in knowledge and

390

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Vehicles Vehicles Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices on AddThis.com... Fuel Prices As gasoline prices increase, alternative fuels appeal more to vehicle fleet managers and consumers. Like gasoline, alternative fuel prices can fluctuate based on location, time of year, and political climate. Alternative Fuel Price Report

391

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel License to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel License Any person acting as an alternative fuels dealer must hold a valid alternative fuel license and certificate from the Wisconsin Department of Administration. Except for alternative fuels that a dealer delivers into a

392

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Fuel License to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel License on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel License Alternative fuel providers, bulk users, and retailers, or any person who fuels an alternative fuel vehicle from a private source that does not pay

393

Cellulosic biomass could help meet Californias transportation fuel needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

al. 2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmentalan unfavorable energy balance preclude biomass ethanol fromethanol and other organic liquid fuels can improve energy

Wyman, Charles E.; Yang, Bin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Composition-Explicit Distillation Curves of Alternative Turbine Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305, United States ... In recent years, environmental considerations, the potential for supply disruptions, and rising fuel prices have led to the development of turbine fuels produced from non-petroleum feedstocks. ... We found that the distillation curves of the chicken-fat-derived fuel and the gasliquid turbine fuel were similar to those of JP-8, deviating the most at high distillate volume fractions. ...

R. V. Gough; T. J. Bruno

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per

396

Alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust...

398

Petroleum & Other Liquids - Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

March 23, 2012: Interactive graphing has been added to the petroleum data March 23, 2012: Interactive graphing has been added to the petroleum data tables, complete with zooming and high quality downloads and printouts. Find statistics on crude oil, gasoline, diesel, propane, jet fuel, ethanol, and other liquid fuels. Click on the blue bars below for information on petroleum prices, crude reserves and production, refining and processing, imports/exports, stocks, and consumption/sales. + EXPAND ALL Summary Additional Formats Weekly Supply Estimates › Production, refinery inputs and utilization, stocks, days of supply, imports, exports, and product supplied estimates for crude oil and petroleum products by U.S., PAD District weekly and 4-week average Supply and Disposition Monthly Annual Release Date: September 27, 2013

399

Liquid-flow reactor and method of using  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tendency of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels, such as kerosene, diesel fuel, and jet fuel toward the formation of fuel-insoluble solids during thermal stress in an aircraft fuel system is assessed by an accelerated test method comprising passing a predetermined quantity of a sample of fuel through a heated test section maintained at a predetermined temperature, at a predetermined fuel flow rate. A metal test strip, weighed before the test, is clamped in the heated test section during the test. It is weighed again after the test and the weight of solids buildup during the test is determined. It is related directly to the tendency of the fuel to form fuel-insoluble solids during thermal stress. A filter is weighed before the test. It is then connected to the outlet of the test section, and liquid fuel leaving the test section during the test is passed through it. The filter is then weighed a second time and the weight increase of the filter due to its capture of fuel-insoluble solids is calculated. It also is directly related to the tendency of the fuel to form fuel-insoluble solids during thermal stress.

Hardy, D.R.; Beal, E.J.; Burnett, J.C.

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Solar Space Heating with Air and Liquid Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...several thousand solar space heating systems...can be supplied by solar energy delivered from flat-plate...liquid collection and storage systems, demand...Annual costs of solar heating equipment...current values of energy savings, but fuel...

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Electricity Fuel Electricity Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Electricity Basics Production & Distribution Research & Development Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Electricity Fuel Basics Photo of a plug-in hybrid vehicle fueling. Electricity is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act

403

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Definition The following fuels are defined as alternative fuels by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992: pure methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols; blends of

404

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuels Tax Fuels Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Tax A state excise tax is imposed on the use of alternative fuels. Alternative fuels include liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane), compressed natural gas (CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG). The current tax rates are as

405

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Standard RFS Volumes by Year Enlarge illustration The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a federal program that requires transportation fuel sold in the U.S. to contain a minimum volume of

406

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuels Tax Alternative Fuels Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Tax Excise taxes on alternative fuels are imposed on a gasoline gallon equivalent basis. The tax rate for each alternative fuel type is based on the number of motor vehicles licensed in the state that use the specific

407

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Loans Fuel Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Loans on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Loans The Oregon Department of Energy administers the State Energy Loan Program (SELP) which offers low-interest loans for qualified projects. Eligible alternative fuel projects include fuel production facilities, dedicated

408

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuels Tax Fuels Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Tax Alternative fuels are subject to an excise tax at a rate of $0.205 per gasoline gallon equivalent, with a variable component equal to at least 5% of the average wholesale price of the fuel. (Reference Senate Bill 454,

409

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuels Tax Fuels Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Tax The excise tax imposed on an alternative fuel distributed in New Mexico is $0.12 per gallon. Alternative fuels subject to the excise tax include liquefied petroleum gas (or propane), compressed natural gas, and liquefied

410

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Tax Alternative Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Tax The Minnesota Department of Revenue imposes an excise tax on the first licensed distributor that receives E85 fuel products in the state and on distributors, special fuel dealers, or bulk purchasers of other alternative

411

Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGLs) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical LNG like fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Performance characteristics of the annular core research reactor fuel motion detection system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent proof tests have shown that the annular core research reactor (ACRR) fuel motion detection system has reached its design goals of providing high temporal and spatial resolution pictures of fuel distributions in the ACRR. The coded aperture imaging system (CAIS) images the fuel by monitoring the fission gamma rays from the fuel that pass through collimators in the reactor core. The gamma-ray beam is modulated by coded apertures before producing a visible light coded image in thin scintillators. Each coded image is then amplified and recorded by an opticalimage-intensifier/fast-framing-camera combination. The proximity to the core and the coded aperture technique provide a high data collection rate and high resolution. Experiments of CAIS at the ACRR conducted under steady-state operation have documented the beneficial effects of changes in the radiation shielding and imaging technique. The spatial resolutions are 1.7 mm perpendicular to the axis of a single liquid-metal fast breeder reactor fuel pin and 9 mm in the axial dimension. Changes in mass of 100 mg in each resolution element can be detected each frame period, which may be from 5 to 100 ms. This diagnostic instrument may help resolve important questions in fuel motion phenomenology.

Kelly, J.G.; Stalker, K.T.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Fuel Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... FUEL research was discussed by Sir Harry McGowan, who succeeds Sir William Larke as president of the Institute of Fuel, in ... has a ragged front, and new knowledge is continually changing relative national positions. Sir Harry McGowan referred to the domestic use of raw coal, which is still preferred to ...

1934-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

415

Flow fields and heat transfer of liquid falling film on horizontal cylinders.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A liquid film flowing over horizontal cylinders is of great importance as a high rate of heat transfer exists between the falling liquid film and (more)

Jafar, Farial A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuels Renewable Fuels Assessment to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Assessment on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuels Assessment The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) prepared a report, Opportunities for DOD Use of Alternative and Renewable Fuels, on the use and potential use of

417

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Basics Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fuel Basics Related Information National Biofuels Action Plan Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be

418

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Standard At least 2% of all diesel fuel sold in Washington must be biodiesel or renewable diesel. This requirement will increase to 5% 180 days after the

419

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Biodiesel Fuel Use to Biodiesel Fuel Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Fuel Use The Iowa Department of Transportation (IDOT) may purchase biodiesel for use in IDOT vehicles through the biodiesel fuel revolving fund created in the state treasury. The fund consists of money received from the sale of Energy

420

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Tax Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Tax Special fuels, including biodiesel, biodiesel blends, biomass-based diesel, biomass-based diesel blends, and liquefied natural gas, have a reduced tax rate of $0.27 per gallon. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane) and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Special Fuel Tax to Special Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Special Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Special Fuel Tax Effective January 1, 2014, certain special fuels sold or used to propel motor vehicles are subject to a license tax. Liquefied natural gas is subject to a tax of $0.16 per diesel gallon equivalent. Compressed natural

422

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Basics to Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Fuel Basics Related Information National Biofuels Action Plan Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials collectively

423

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Use to Fuel Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fuel Use on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Fuel Use The South Dakota Department of Transportation and employees using state diesel vehicles must stock and use fuel blends containing a minimum of 2% biodiesel (B2) that meets or exceeds the most current ASTM specification

424

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen Fuel Specifications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Specifications on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Hydrogen Fuel Specifications The California Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Measurement Standards (DMS) established interim specifications for hydrogen fuels for

425

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Ethanol Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Availability Conversions Emissions Laws & Incentives Flexible Fuel Vehicles Photo of a flexible fuel vehicle.

426

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Use Fuel Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Use on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Use All state employees operating flexible fuel or diesel vehicles as part of the state fleet must use E85 or biodiesel blends whenever reasonably available. Additionally, the Nebraska Transportation Services Bureau and

427

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuels Tax Fuels Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Tax Alternative fuels used to propel vehicles of any kind on public highways are taxed at a rate determined on a gasoline gallon equivalent basis. The tax rates are posted in the Pennsylvania Bulletin. (Reference Title 75

428

California Fuel Cell Partnership: Alternative Fuels Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation by Chris White of the California Fuel Cell Partnership provides information about alternative fuels research.

429

energy imports | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

imports imports Dataset Summary Description No description given. Source World Bank Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords coal energy imports energy production energy use fossil fuels Fuel global Hydroelectric international nuclear oil renewables statistical statistics world bank Data application/zip icon Data in XML Format (zip, 1 MiB) application/zip icon Data in Excel Format (zip, 1.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 1970 - 2007 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Summary of Usage Terms ---------------------- You are free to copy, distribute, adapt, display or include the data in other products for commercial and noncommercial purposes at no cost subject to certain limitations summarized below. You must include attribution for the data you use in the manner indicated in the metadata included with the data. You must not claim or imply that The World Bank endorses your use of the data by or use The World Bank's logo(s) or trademark(s) in conjunction with such use. Other parties may have ownership interests in some of the materials contained on The World Bank Web site. For example, we maintain a list of some specific data within the Datasets that you may not redistribute or reuse without first contacting the original content provider, as well as information regarding how to contact the original content provider. Before incorporating any data in other products, please check the list: Terms of use: Restricted Data. The World Bank makes no warranties with respect to the data and you agree The World Bank shall not be liable to you in connection with your use of the data. Links ----- Summary of Terms: http://data.worldbank.org/summary-terms-of-use Detailed Usage Terms: http://www.worldbank.org/terms-datasets

430

Fuel Processing Valri Lightner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, ORNL, NETL #12;Accomplishments · Demonstrated in the lab an advanced fuel flexible fuel processor

431

Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Program Accomplishments of the Instantaneous Radiative Flux (IRF) Working Group August 2006 AERI Observations at Southern Great Plains Improve Infrared Radiative Transfer Models Turner et al., JAS, 2004 * AERI observations used to evaluate clear sky IR radiative transfer models * Long-term comparisons have improved - Spectral line database parameters - Water vapor continuum absorption models * Reduced errors in computation of downwelling radiative IR flux by approx 4; current uncertainty is on the order of 1.5 W/m 2 AERI - (Pre-ARM Model) AERI - (Model in 2003) 1 RU = 1 mW / (m 2 sr cm -1 ) Excellent Agreement in Clear Sky Shortwave Radiative Transfer Between Obs and Calcs Shortwave Flux Bias (Solid) Shortwave Flux RMS (Hatched) W m -2 * Comparison of shortwave radiative flux at the surface

432

Radiative Importance of ThinŽ Liquid Water Clouds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Program Accomplishments of the Cloud Properties Working Group (CPWG) August 2006 Cloud Radiative Forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Using ARM Data to Establish Testable Metrics for GCM Predictions of Cloud Feedback Gerald Mace University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah The scientific underpinning of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is largely based on the premise that long term ground-based measurements of certain quantities provide information sufficient to test the skill of general circulation models (GCMs) to predict radiative heating and cloud feedbacks (Stokes and Schwartz, 1994; Ackerman and Stokes, 2003). This hypothesis is based on the assumption that some set of long-term ground-based measurements provide sufficient information to characterize the physical state of the atmospheric

433

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Biofuels Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biofuels Projects Biofuels Projects NREL biofuels projects help overcome technical barriers and expand markets for renewable, biodegradable vehicle fuels. These new liquid fuels include higher-level ethanol blends, butanol, biodiesel, renewable diesel, and other biomass-derived fuels. NREL's biofuels research and development helps improve engine efficiency, reduce polluting emissions, and improve U.S. energy security by reducing petroleum dependency. Biofuels for Diesel Engines NREL's diesel biofuels research and development focuses on developing fuel quality standards and demonstrating compatibility with engines and emission control systems. Highly efficient heavy-duty diesel truck engines are the primary power source for global transportation of freight. Light-duty diesel-fueled passenger vehicles have much higher fuel economy than

434

Global Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Data (ASCII, Fixed Format) Data graphic Data (ASCII, Fixed Format) Data graphic Data (ASCII, Comma-delimited) Trends Since 1751 approximately 337 billion metric tonnes of carbon have been released to the atmosphere from the consumption of fossil fuels and cement production. Half of these emissions have occurred since the mid 1970s. The 2007 global fossil-fuel carbon emission estimate, 8365 million metric tons of carbon, represents an all-time high and a 1.7% increase from 2006. Globally, liquid and solid fuels accounted for 76.3% of the emissions from fossil-fuel burning and cement production in 2007. Combustion of gas fuels (e.g., natural gas) accounted for 18.5% (1551 million metric tons of carbon) of the total emissions from fossil fuels in 2007 and reflects a gradually increasing global utilization of natural gas. Emissions from

435

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

436

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuels Renewable Fuels Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuels Mandate All gasoline sold in the state must be blended with 10% ethanol (E10). Gasoline with an octane rating of 91 or above is exempt from this mandate,

437

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Quality Standards Fuel Quality Standards to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Quality Standards on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Fuel Quality Standards The South Dakota Department of Public Safety may promulgate rules establishing: Standards for the maximum volume percentages of ethanol and methanol

438

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuels Renewable Fuels Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuels Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuels Mandate One year after in-state production has reached 350 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol and sustained this volume for three months, all gasoline

439

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuels Alternative Fuels Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Promotion The state of Hawaii has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the U.S. Department of Energy to collaborate to produce 70% of the state's

440

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Tax Alternative Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Tax The excise tax imposed on compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane) used to operate a vehicle can be paid through an annual flat rate sticker tax based on the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Promotion The Texas Bioenergy Policy Council and the Texas Bioenergy Research Committee were established to promote the goal of making biofuels a

442

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Standard Within six months following the point at which monthly production of denatured ethanol produced in Louisiana equals or exceeds a minimum annualized production volume of 50 million gallons, at least 2% of the

443

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Fuel Tax Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Tax The state road tax for vehicles that operate on propane (liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG) or natural gas is paid through the purchase of an annual flat fee sticker, and the amount is based on the vehicle's gross

444

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Stations to someone by E-mail Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Fueling Stations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Propane Fueling Stations Photo of a liquefied petroleum gas fueling station. Thousands of liquefied petroleum gas (propane) fueling stations are

445

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Alternative Fuel Study Alternative Fuel Study to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Study on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Study As directed by the Nevada Legislature, the Legislative Commission (Commission) conducted an interim study in 2011 concerning the production and use of energy in the state. The study included information on the use

446

New and Underutilized Technology: Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner New and Underutilized Technology: Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner October 4, 2013 - 4:40pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for liquid desiccant air conditioners (LDACs) within the Federal sector. Benefits Liquid desiccant air conditioners deeply dry air using natural gas, solar energy, waste heat, bio-fuel, or other fossil fuels to drive the system. By providing mostly latent cooling, the LDAC controls indoor humidity without overcooling and reheating. This unit is supplemented by an electric chiller or DX air conditioner that sensibly cools the building's recirculation air. The liquid desiccant is a concentrated salt solution that directly absorbs moisture. Application LDACs are applicable in hospital, office, prison, school, and service

447

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Some heat engine cycles in which liquids can work  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some heat engine cycles in which liquids can work...inefficiency of liquids working in heat engines, and the third factor is Carnot's...Improvementsfor Diminishing the Consumption of Fuel, and in Particular on Engines Capable of Being Applied to the...

P. C. Allen; D. N. Paulson; J. C. Wheatley

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Transportation Fuel Basics - Propane | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Propane Propane Transportation Fuel Basics - Propane July 30, 2013 - 4:31pm Addthis Photo of a man standing next to a propane fuel pump with a tank in the background. Propane, also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or LP-gas), or autogas in Europe, is a high-energy alternative fuel. It has been used for decades to fuel light-duty and heavy-duty propane vehicles. Propane is a three-carbon alkane gas (C3H8). Stored under pressure inside a tank, propane turns into a colorless, odorless liquid. As pressure is released, the liquid propane vaporizes and turns into gas that is used for combustion. An odorant, ethyl mercaptan, is added for leak detection. Propane has a high octane rating and excellent properties for spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It is nontoxic and presents no threat to soil,

450

Direct methanol fuel cell and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

451

Oxygenated fuels for clean heavy-duty diesel engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For diesel engines, changing the fuel composition is an alternative route towards achieving lower emission levels. The potential of oxygenated fuels to significantly reduce particulate matter emissions has already been demonstrated earlier. In this study, this research has been extrapolated towards lower emission levels. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was applied to a modern EURO-3-type HD diesel engine. Tests were done at different engine working points, with EGR-levels and start of fuel delivery timings set to give NOx emissions between 3.5 and 2.0 g/kWh with regular diesel fuel. Fourteen blends of a low-sulphur diesel fuel respectively of a gas-to-liquid synthetic diesel fuel with different oxygenates were tested. The corresponding fuel matrix covers a range of fuel oxygen mass fractions up to 15%. Results are presented and the impact of fuel oxygen mass fraction and Cetane Number are analysed and compared with results from previous research.

P.J.M. Frijters; R.S.G. Baert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Thermodynamics of an Aqueous-Alkaline/Carbonate Carbon Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In view of the fact that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial Black Cab in London, these recent results suggest the potential use of aqueous-alkaline carbon fuel cells for vehicular transportation. ... Thus, biocarbons can be a sustainable, environmentally friendly fuel for carbon fuel cell applications, whose production complements the production of bioethanol and biodiesel fuels in a biomass refinery. ... Our interest in the aqueous-alkaline biocarbon fuel cell is stimulated by the fact that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial London Black Cab.29-31 Thus, the development of a functional aqueous-alkaline carbon fuel cell could facilitate the replacement of non-renewable, liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels by renewable, solid biocarbons. ...

Michael Jerry Antal, Jr.; Grard C. Nihous

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

453

Development and Demonstration of Fischer-Tropsch Fueled Heavy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

(F-T) Fuels in the U.S. -- An Overview APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Coal-Derived Liquids to Enable HCCI Technology...

454

UNDERSTANDING DIRECT BOROHYDRIDE - HYDROGEN PEROXIDE FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs) generate electrical power by oxidizing aqueous BH4- at the anode and reducing an oxidizer, like aqueous H2O2 for an all-liquid (more)

Stroman, Richard O'Neil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Chapter 8 - Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Fuel Cell Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hydrogen has long been advocated as the ultra-clean fuel because its combustion produces pure water and no pollutants. As long ago as the 1930s, a German engineer demonstrated that an internal-combustion engine could be made to run on hydrogen. More recently, the automotive company BMW has built and demonstrated a small fleet of cars fuelled by hydrogen with the fuel stored on board as cryogenic liquid. An alternative approach to utilizing hydrogen is in an electrochemical fuel cell to generate electricity to drive an electric motor. This mode of transport is the counterpart of the battery electric vehicle (BEV). Fuel cell vehicles provide greater driving range and faster refuelling than \\{BEVs\\} and are therefore clearly a desirable way forward for electric traction. Unfortunately, there remain problems with the generation, the distribution and the storage of hydrogen, as well as with the cost of the fuel cells themselves. This chapter discusses these matters and concludes that, with the possible exception of fleets of buses, it will be some while yet before fuel cell vehicles become commonplace.

Ronald M. Dell; Patrick T. Moseley; David A.J. Rand

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Fuels - Biodiesel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

* Biodiesel * Biodiesel * Butanol * Ethanol * Hydrogen * Natural Gas * Fischer-Tropsch Batteries Cross-Cutting Assessments Engines GREET Hybrid Electric Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Materials Modeling, Simulation & Software Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles PSAT Smart Grid Student Competitions Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Clean Diesel Fuels Background Reducing our country's dependence on foreign oil and the rising costs of crude oil are primary reasons for a renewed interest in alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Stringent emissions regulations and public concern about mobile sources of air pollution provide additional incentives to develop fuels that generate fewer emissions, potentially reducing the need for sophisticated, expensive exhaust after-treatment devices.

457

Nuclear Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The core of a nuclear reactor is composed of a controlled critical configuration of a fissile material, which in strict a sense is the fuel. This fissile material is contained in a matrix, normally a ceramic c...

Rudy J. M. Konings; Thierry Wiss

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Fuel economizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel economizer device for use with an internal combustion engine fitted with a carburetor is disclosed. The fuel economizer includes a plate member which is mounted between the carburetor and the intake portion of the intake manifold. The plate member further has at least one aperture formed therein. One tube is inserted through the at least one aperture in the plate member. The one tube extends longitudinally in the passage of the intake manifold from the intake portion toward the exit portion thereof. The one tube concentrates the mixture of fuel and air from the carburetor and conveys the mixture of fuel and air to a point adjacent but spaced away from the inlet port of the internal combustion engine.

Zwierzelewski, V.F.

1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

459

Comprehensive, Consistent and Systematic Approach to the Mathematical Modeling of PEM Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are a promising zero-emission power source for transportation applications. An important tool for advancing PEM fuel cell technology is (more)

Baschuk, Jeffrey

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - ReFUEL Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Research Research Search More Search Options Site Map NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development focuses on overcoming barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass, and improving vehicle efficiency. Using biofuels and improving vehicle efficiency reduces our dependence on imported petroleum and enhances our national energy security. The ReFUEL Laboratory houses the following specialized equipment: Heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with a simulation capability of 8,000 to 80,000 lbs for vehicle performance and emissions research Heavy-duty (up to 600 hp) and light-duty (up to 75 hp) engine

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "imported liquid fuels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Definition to someone by E-mail Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Definition Alternative fuel is defined as compressed natural gas, propane, ethanol, or any mixture containing 85% or more ethanol (E85) with gasoline or other

462

Investigation of failed fuel detection and location using a flux tilting method in a fast breeder reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detection and location of failed fuel in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) are very important both for safety and availability. When a fuel failure is detected, it is desirable to identify the failed subassembly quickly to reduce plant shutdown time. The flux tilting method is expected to effectively identify the defective subassembly. The feasibility of the flux tilting method is investigated for an LMFBR with a 100-MW (electric) homogeneous core. A numerical simulation is performed to estimate the viability of the flux tilting method, and a combination of the flux tilting method and the sipping method is found to be very effective in identifying the failed subassembly. In this paper a functional scheme for a computer-aided failed fuel detection and location system is discussed as part of a future on-line support system.

Hamada, M.; Uehara, K.; Muramatsu, K. (Japan Atomic Power Co., 1-6-1 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 (JP)); Kamei, T.; Tamaoki, T.; Yamaoka, M.; Sonada, Y.; Sano, Y. (Toshiba Corp., Nuclear Engineering Lab., 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210 (JP))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Low NO/sub x/ heavy fuel combustor concept program. Final report, 23 Oct 1979 - Jul 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gas turbine technology program to improve and optimize the staged rich lean low NOx combustor concept is described. Subscale combustor tests to develop the design information for optimization of the fuel preparation, rich burn, quick air quench, and lean burn steps of the combustion process were run. The program provides information for the design of high pressure full scale gas turbine combustors capable of providing environmentally clean combustion of minimally of minimally porcessed and synthetic fuels. It is concluded that liquid fuel atomization and mixing, rich zone stoichiometry, rich zone liner cooling, rich zone residence time, and quench zone stoichiometry are important considerations in the design and scale up of the rich lean combustor.

Russell, P.; Beal, G.; Hinton, B.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank Matthew J. Daigle1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank Matthew J. Daigle1 and Vadim N. Smelyanskiy2 temperature stratification effects driven by natural convec- tion in a liquid hydrogen cryogenic fuel tank has liquid and ullage spaces. Temperature and ve- locity boundary layers at the tank walls are taken

Daigle, Matthew