PSNC Energy (Gas)- Green Building Rate Discount
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
This discounted rate is available to commercial customers whose building meets the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification or equivalent. To...
Duke Energy (Electric)- Energy Star Homes Rate Discount Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Duke Energy encourages residential customers to buy energy-efficient homes through the utility's Energy Star Homes Program, which awards a rate discount to customers living in Energy Star homes. To...
Duke Energy Carolinas (Electric)- Energy Star Homes Rate Discount Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Duke Energy Carolinas encourages residential customers to buy energy-efficient homes through the utility's Energy Star Homes Program, which awards a rate discount to customers living in Energy Star...
Duke Energy (Electric)- Energy Star Homes Rate Discount Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Duke Energy encourages residential customers to buy energy-efficient homes through the utility's Energy Star Homes Program, which awards a rate discount to customers living in Energy Star homes....
Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; Horowitz, Ira
2008-11-15
Should a lower discount rate be used for evaluating a tolling agreement than used for a renewable energy contract? The California Energy Commission seems to think so. An analysis suggests that a risk-adjusted discount rate is inappropriate. A correct approach should quantify the effect of risk on a contract's financial performance, thereby providing useful information for decision-making. (author)
Chatterjee, Bishu; Sharp, Peter A.
2006-07-15
Electric transmission and other rate cases use a form of the discounted cash flow model with a single long-term growth rate to estimate rates of return on equity. It cannot incorporate information about the appropriate time horizon for which analysts' estimates of earnings growth have predictive powers. Only a non-constant growth model can explicitly recognize the importance of the time horizon in an ROE calculation. (author)
Discount Power | Open Energy Information
Power Place: Texas Website: www.discountpowertx.com Twitter: @DiscountPowerTX Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesDiscount-Power-Texas1381444972140165 Outage Hotline:...
Xcel Energy- Lighting Discount Program
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Focus on Energy partners with retailers around Wisconsin to offer instant discounts on ENERGY STAR® qualified products in stores. Discounts do not apply to ENERGY STAR® qualified fixtures, fans or...
Randolph EMC- Energy Efficient Home Discount Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Randolph Electric Membership Corporation offers a special electric bill discount to members who increase the energy efficiency of homes through the Energy Efficient Home Discount Program. Members...
Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
... Discount Rate 3.0 % (DOE). Census Region 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont) ......
Utility Rate Discounts | Open Energy Information
Residential Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building Daylighting Passive Solar Space Heat Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Water Heat Wind Yes PSNC Energy (Gas) - Residential...
Utility Rate Discount | Open Energy Information
Residential Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building Daylighting Passive Solar Space Heat Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Water Heat Wind Yes PSNC Energy (Gas) - Residential...
Xcel Energy - Residential Lighting Discount Program | Department...
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in stores. Discounts do not apply to ENERGY STAR qualified fixtures, fans or lamps. Free Lighting Demonstrations Focus on Energy provides free lighting demonstrations at retail...
Microsoft Word - All Discounts updated January 2016
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January 2016 Amusement Parks & Resorts Get Away Today Vacations 1650 E 5700 S, South Ogden, UT 84403 (800) 523-6116 Get Away Today Vacations is pleased to offer HDC members discounted attraction tickets, hotel accommodations, transportation options, and more to the Disneyland Resort, San Diego, Las Vegas, Hawaii, cruises, the Caribbean, Mexico and more than 1,900 other destinations worldwide. Visit the web page at http://www.getawaytoday.com/partners/FluorHanfordInc.aspx. Recreation
Valuation of Solar Photovoltaic Systems Using a Discounted Cash...
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Valuation of Solar Photovoltaic Systems Using a Discounted Cash Flow Approach by Geoffrey T. Klise, Jamie L. Johnson, and Sandra K. Adomatis, SRA Solar energy systems include ...
Piedmont EMC- Rate Discount for Energy Star Homes
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Piedmont Electric Membership Corporation (PEMC) offers an incentive to residential customers for residing in an energy efficient home. To qualify, the home must meet the standards of the US...
Duke Energy Progress- Rate Discount for Energy Star Homes
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Progress Energy Carolinas (PEC) offers an incentive to residential customers for improving the energy efficiency of homes. To qualify, the home must meet the standards of the U.S. Environmental...
Progress Energy Carolinas - Rate Discount for Energy Star Homes...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
qualify, the home must meet the standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star-labeled home program and be verified by a registered third party. The...
Implicit integration methods for dislocation dynamics
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Gardner, D. J.; Woodward, C. S.; Reynolds, D. R.; Hommes, G.; Aubry, S.; Arsenlis, A.
2015-01-20
In dislocation dynamics simulations, strain hardening simulations require integrating stiff systems of ordinary differential equations in time with expensive force calculations, discontinuous topological events, and rapidly changing problem size. Current solvers in use often result in small time steps and long simulation times. Faster solvers may help dislocation dynamics simulations accumulate plastic strains at strain rates comparable to experimental observations. Here, this paper investigates the viability of high order implicit time integrators and robust nonlinear solvers to reduce simulation run times while maintaining the accuracy of the computed solution. In particular, implicit Runge-Kutta time integrators are explored as a waymore » of providing greater accuracy over a larger time step than is typically done with the standard second-order trapezoidal method. In addition, both accelerated fixed point and Newton's method are investigated to provide fast and effective solves for the nonlinear systems that must be resolved within each time step. Results show that integrators of third order are the most effective, while accelerated fixed point and Newton's method both improve solver performance over the standard fixed point method used for the solution of the nonlinear systems.« less
Implicit integration methods for dislocation dynamics
Gardner, D. J.; Woodward, C. S.; Reynolds, D. R.; Hommes, G.; Aubry, S.; Arsenlis, A.
2015-01-20
In dislocation dynamics simulations, strain hardening simulations require integrating stiff systems of ordinary differential equations in time with expensive force calculations, discontinuous topological events, and rapidly changing problem size. Current solvers in use often result in small time steps and long simulation times. Faster solvers may help dislocation dynamics simulations accumulate plastic strains at strain rates comparable to experimental observations. Here, this paper investigates the viability of high order implicit time integrators and robust nonlinear solvers to reduce simulation run times while maintaining the accuracy of the computed solution. In particular, implicit Runge-Kutta time integrators are explored as a way of providing greater accuracy over a larger time step than is typically done with the standard second-order trapezoidal method. In addition, both accelerated fixed point and Newton's method are investigated to provide fast and effective solves for the nonlinear systems that must be resolved within each time step. Results show that integrators of third order are the most effective, while accelerated fixed point and Newton's method both improve solver performance over the standard fixed point method used for the solution of the nonlinear systems.
Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Handbook describes the annual ...
Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis -
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
2015 | Department of Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Handbook describes the annual supplements to the NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709. Download the handbook. (564.47 KB) More Documents & Publications Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel-Neutral Studies of
A sequential implicit algorithm of chemo-thermo-poro-mechanics...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
A sequential implicit algorithm of chemo-thermo-poro-mechanics for fractured geothermal ...emo-thermo-poro-mechanics for fractured geothermal reservoirs Authors: Kim, Jihoon ; ...
Mean curl formulation on quadrilaterals with application to implicit...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Technical Report: Mean curl formulation on quadrilaterals with application to implicit magnetics diffusion equations in Alegra 2D. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mean ...
A set of parallel, implicit methods for a reconstructed discontinuous...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Journal Article: A set of parallel, implicit methods for a reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids Citation Details In-Document Search...
Mean curl formulation on quadrilaterals with application to implicit...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
formulation on quadrilaterals with application to implicit magnetics diffusion equations in Alegra 2D. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mean curl formulation on ...
Janečka, Adam Průša, Vít
2015-04-28
We discuss the benefits of using the so-called implicit type constitutive relations introduced by K. R. Rajagopal, J. Fluid Mech. 550, 243-249 (2006) and K. R. Rajagopal, Appl. Math. 48, 279-319 (2003) in the description of the behaviour of non-Newtonian fluids. In particular, we focus on the benefits of using the implicit type constitutive relations in the mathematical modelling of fluids in which the shear stress/shear rate dependence is given by an S-shaped curve, and in modelling of fluids that exhibit nonzero normal stress differences. We also discuss a thermodynamical framework that allows one to cope with the implicit type constitutive relations.
Four decades of implicit Monte Carlo
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Wollaber, Allan B.
2016-04-25
In 1971, Fleck and Cummings derived a system of equations to enable robust Monte Carlo simulations of time-dependent, thermal radiative transfer problems. Denoted the “Implicit Monte Carlo” (IMC) equations, their solution remains the de facto standard of high-fidelity radiative transfer simulations. Over the course of 44 years, their numerical properties have become better understood, and accuracy enhancements, novel acceleration methods, and variance reduction techniques have been suggested. In this review, we rederive the IMC equations—explicitly highlighting assumptions as they are made—and outfit the equations with a Monte Carlo interpretation. We put the IMC equations in context with other approximate formsmore » of the radiative transfer equations and present a new demonstration of their equivalence to another well-used linearization solved with deterministic transport methods for frequency-independent problems. We discuss physical and numerical limitations of the IMC equations for asymptotically small time steps, stability characteristics and the potential of maximum principle violations for large time steps, and solution behaviors in an asymptotically thick diffusive limit. We provide a new stability analysis for opacities with general monomial dependence on temperature. Here, we consider spatial accuracy limitations of the IMC equations and discussion acceleration and variance reduction techniques.« less
Cost comparison of energy projects: discounted cash flow and revenue requirement methods
Phung, D.L.
1980-05-01
Both the discounted-cash-flow (DCF) and the revenue-requirement (RR) methods are frequently used in the cost analysis of energy projects. Each is uniquely needed in special circumstances, but in the early stages of most ventures, the RR method appears to be more useful. This paper provides simple formulations for the two methods and some special cases of interest to costing practices. Both formulations are applicable to either free or regulated enterprises and in constant or inflated dollars. It is stressed that the interpretation of cost results depends on the selection of cash-flow streams and/or the intent of revenue requirements. Several numerical examples are given.
Reduced Variance for Material Sources in Implicit Monte Carlo
Urbatsch, Todd J.
2012-06-25
Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC), a time-implicit method due to Fleck and Cummings, is used for simulating supernovae and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems where x-rays tightly and nonlinearly interact with hot material. The IMC algorithm represents absorption and emission within a timestep as an effective scatter. Similarly, the IMC time-implicitness splits off a portion of a material source directly into the radiation field. We have found that some of our variance reduction and particle management schemes will allow large variances in the presence of small, but important, material sources, as in the case of ICF hot electron preheat sources. We propose a modification of our implementation of the IMC method in the Jayenne IMC Project. Instead of battling the sampling issues associated with a small source, we bypass the IMC implicitness altogether and simply deterministically update the material state with the material source if the temperature of the spatial cell is below a user-specified cutoff. We describe the modified method and present results on a test problem that show the elimination of variance for small sources.
Improvements to the RELAP5-3D Nearly-Implicit Numerical Scheme
Richard A. Riemke; Walter L. Weaver; RIchard R. Schultz
2005-05-01
The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved with regard to its nearly-implicit numerical scheme for twophase flow and single-phase flow. Changes were made to the nearly-implicit numerical scheme finite difference momentum equations as follows: (1) added the velocity flip-flop mass/energy error mitigation logic, (2) added the modified Henry-Fauske choking model, (3) used the new time void fraction in the horizontal stratification force terms and gravity head, and (4) used an implicit form of the artificial viscosity. The code modifications allow the nearly-implicit numerical scheme to be more implicit and lead to enhanced numerical stability.
Harvey, C. . Coll. of Business Administration); Merkhofer, M.M.; Hamm, G.L. )
1990-07-02
This report presents a reassessment of the proposed standard for energy conservation in new federal residential buildings. The analysis uses the data presented in the report, Economic Analysis: In Support of Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings (June 1988)-to be referred to as the EASIECS report. The reassessment differs from that report in several respects. In modeling factual information, it uses more recent forecasts of future energy prices and it uses data from the Bureau of the Census in order to estimate the distribution of lifetimes of residential buildings rather than assuming a hypothetical 25-year lifetime. In modeling social preferences decision analysis techniques are used in order to examine issues of public values that often are not included in traditional cost-benefit analyses. The present report concludes that the public would benefit from the proposed standard. Several issues of public values regarding energy use are illustrated with methods to include them in a formal analysis of a proposed energy policy. The first issue places a value on costs and benefits that will occur in the future as an irreversible consequence of current policy choices. This report discusses an alternative method, called relative value discounting which permits flexible discounting of future events-and the possibility of placing greater values on future events. The second issue places a value on the indirect benefits of energy savings so that benefits accrue to everyone rather than only to the person who saves the energy. This report includes non-zero estimates of the indirect benefits. The third issue is how the costs and benefits discussed in a public policy evaluation should be compared. In summary, selection of individual projects with larger benefit to cost ratios leads to a portfolio of projects with the maximum benefit to cost difference. 30 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs. (JF)
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2013-12-14
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called “textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.
Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi
2010-09-01
Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations – so-called ‘‘textbook” multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss–Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field,more » which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.« less
Geometric multigrid for an implicit-time immersed boundary method
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Guy, Robert D.; Philip, Bobby; Griffith, Boyce E.
2014-10-12
The immersed boundary (IB) method is an approach to fluid-structure interaction that uses Lagrangian variables to describe the deformations and resulting forces of the structure and Eulerian variables to describe the motion and forces of the fluid. Explicit time stepping schemes for the IB method require solvers only for Eulerian equations, for which fast Cartesian grid solution methods are available. Such methods are relatively straightforward to develop and are widely used in practice but often require very small time steps to maintain stability. Implicit-time IB methods permit the stable use of large time steps, but efficient implementations of such methodsmore » require significantly more complex solvers that effectively treat both Lagrangian and Eulerian variables simultaneously. Moreover, several different approaches to solving the coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian equations have been proposed, but a complete understanding of this problem is still emerging. This paper presents a geometric multigrid method for an implicit-time discretization of the IB equations. This multigrid scheme uses a generalization of box relaxation that is shown to handle problems in which the physical stiffness of the structure is very large. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithms described herein. Finally, these tests show that using multigrid as a preconditioner for a Krylov method yields improvements in both robustness and efficiency as compared to using multigrid as a solver. They also demonstrate that with a time step 100–1000 times larger than that permitted by an explicit IB method, the multigrid-preconditioned implicit IB method is approximately 50–200 times more efficient than the explicit method.« less
A self-consistent phase-field approach to implicit solvation...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: A self-consistent phase-field approach to implicit solvation of charged molecules with Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatics This content will become...
Tuple spaces in hardware for accelerated implicit routing
Baker, Zachary Kent; Tripp, Justin
2010-12-01
Organizing and optimizing data objects on networks with support for data migration and failing nodes is a complicated problem to handle as systems grow. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that high levels of speedup can be achieved by moving responsibility for finding, fetching, and staging data into an FPGA-based network card. We present a system for implicit routing of data via FPGA-based network cards. In this system, data structures are requested by name, and the network of FPGAs finds the data within the network and relays the structure to the requester. This is acheived through successive examination of hardware hash tables implemented in the FPGA. By avoiding software stacks between nodes, the data is quickly fetched entirely through FPGA-FPGA interaction. The performance of this system is orders of magnitude faster than software implementations due to the improved speed of the hash tables and lowered latency between the network nodes.
A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems
Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.
2015-05-01
We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust.
Semi-Implicit Reversible Algorithms for Rigid Body Rotational Dynamics
Nukala, Phani K; Shelton Jr, William Allison
2006-09-01
This paper presents two semi-implicit algorithms based on splitting methodology for rigid body rotational dynamics. The first algorithm is a variation of partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) methodology that can be formulated as a splitting method. The second algorithm is akin to a multiple time stepping scheme and is based on modified Crouch-Grossman (MCG) methodology, which can also be expressed as a splitting algorithm. These algorithms are second-order accurate and time-reversible; however, they are not Poisson integrators, i.e., non-symplectic. These algorithms conserve some of the first integrals of motion, but some others are not conserved; however, the fluctuations in these invariants are bounded over exponentially long time intervals. These algorithms exhibit excellent long-term behavior because of their reversibility property and their (approximate) Poisson structure preserving property. The numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithms exhibit superior performance compared to some of the currently well known algorithms such as the Simo-Wong algorithm, Newmark algorithm, discrete Moser-Veselov algorithm, Lewis-Simo algorithm, and the LIEMID[EA] algorithm.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...
Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow-water equations in CAM-SE
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Lott, P. Aaron; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J.
2014-10-19
Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within themore » Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.« less
Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow-water equations in CAM-SE
Lott, P. Aaron; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J.
2014-10-19
Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...
A fully implicit method for 3D quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion.
Siefert, Christopher; Robinson, Allen Conrad
2009-09-01
We describe the implementation of a prototype fully implicit method for solving three-dimensional quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion problems. This method allows us to solve the magnetic advection diffusion equations in an Eulerian frame with a fixed, user-prescribed velocity field. We have verified the correctness of method and implementation on two standard verification problems, the Solberg-White magnetic shear problem and the Perry-Jones-White rotating cylinder problem.
Solution of dynamic contact problems by implicit/explicit methods. Final report
Salveson, M.W.; Taylor, R.L.
1996-10-14
The solution of dynamic contact problems within an explicit finite element program such as the LLNL DYNA programs is addressed in the report. The approach is to represent the solution for the deformation of bodies using the explicit algorithm but to solve the contact part of the problem using an implicit approach. Thus, the contact conditions at the next solution state are considered when computing the acceleration state for each explicit time step.
Fully implicit Particle-in-cell algorithms for multiscale plasma simulation
Chacon, Luis
2015-07-16
The outline of the paper is as follows: Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods for fully ionized collisionless plasmas, explicit vs. implicit PIC, 1D ES implicit PIC (charge and energy conservation, moment-based acceleration), and generalization to Multi-D EM PIC: Vlasov-Darwin model (review and motivation for Darwin model, conservation properties (energy, charge, and canonical momenta), and numerical benchmarks). The author demonstrates a fully implicit, fully nonlinear, multidimensional PIC formulation that features exact local charge conservation (via a novel particle mover strategy), exact global energy conservation (no particle self-heating or self-cooling), adaptive particle orbit integrator to control errors in momentum conservation, and canonical momenta (EM-PIC only, reduced dimensionality). The approach is free of numerical instabilities: ω_{pe}Δt >> 1, and Δx >> λ_{D}. It requires many fewer dofs (vs. explicit PIC) for comparable accuracy in challenging problems. Significant CPU gains (vs explicit PIC) have been demonstrated. The method has much potential for efficiency gains vs. explicit in long-time-scale applications. Moment-based acceleration is effective in minimizing N_{FE}, leading to an optimal algorithm.
A Generic Semi-Implicit Coupling Methodology for Use in RELAP5-3D
Weaver, Walter Leslie; Tomlinson, E. T.; Aumiller, D. L.
2002-01-01
A generic semi-implicit coupling methodology has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5-3D© computer program. This methodology allows RELAP5-3D© to be used with other computer programs to perform integrated analyses of nuclear power reactor systems and related experimental facilities. The coupling methodology potentially allows different programs to be used to model different portions of the system. The programs are chosen based on their capability to model the phenomena that are important in the simulation in the various portions of the system being considered and may use different numbers of conservation equations to model fluid flow in their respective solution domains. The methodology was demonstrated using a test case in which the test geometry was divided into two parts, each of which was solved as a RELAP5-3D© simulation. This test problem exercised all of the semi-implicit coupling features that were implemented in RELAP5-3D© The results of this verification test case show that the semi-implicit coupling methodology produces the same answer as the simulation of the test system as a single process.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
all of its costs in the rates it charges customers for wholesale electricity and transmission services. The agency is committed to careful cost management consistent with its...
A curvilinear, fully implicit, conservative electromagnetic PIC algorithm in multiple dimensions
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Chacon, L.; Chen, G.
2016-04-19
Here, we extend a recently proposed fully implicit PIC algorithm for the Vlasov–Darwin model in multiple dimensions (Chen and Chacón (2015) [1]) to curvilinear geometry. As in the Cartesian case, the approach is based on a potential formulation (Φ, A), and overcomes many difficulties of traditional semi-implicit Darwin PIC algorithms. Conservation theorems for local charge and global energy are derived in curvilinear representation, and then enforced discretely by a careful choice of the discretization of field and particle equations. Additionally, the algorithm conserves canonical-momentum in any ignorable direction, and preserves the Coulomb gauge ∇ • A = 0 exactly. Anmore » asymptotically well-posed fluid preconditioner allows efficient use of large cell sizes, which are determined by accuracy considerations, not stability, and can be orders of magnitude larger than required in a standard explicit electromagnetic PIC simulation. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency properties of the algorithm with numerical experiments in mapped meshes in 1D-3V and 2D-3V.« less
Application of the implicit TENSOR code to studies of containment of undergound nuclear tests
Burton, D.E.; Bryan, J.B.; Lettis, L.A. Jr.; Rambo, J.T.
1982-02-01
The TENSOR code, a two-dimensional finite-difference code, has been used extensively for the solution of stress wave propagation problems in materials, particularly those associated with the containment of underground nuclear test. These problems are typically characterized by shock waves at early times and by nearly incompressible flow at later times. To address this type of problem more economically, an implicit Newmark time integration has been implemented. Implicit differencing requires the solution of a coupled system of equations, by either direct or interative methods. An iterative technique has been selected to reduce the impact of the algorithm on the code structure and because it is the more economical method when only modest increases in timestep are desired. Although the algorithm is similar in some respects to the ICE method of Harlow and Amsden, substantial differences are required by the involvement of a complete stress tensor (instead of a scalar pressure) and by the highly nonlinear nature of the earth material constitutive relations.
Solving the Bateman equations in CASMO5 using implicit ode numerical methods for stiff systems
Hykes, J. M.; Ferrer, R. M.
2013-07-01
The Bateman equations, which describe the transmutation of nuclides over time as a result of radioactive decay, absorption, and fission, are often numerically stiff. This is especially true if short-lived nuclides are included in the system. This paper describes the use of implicit numerical methods for o D Es applied to the stiff Bateman equations, specifically employing the Backward Differentiation Formulas (BDF) form of the linear multistep method. As is true in other domains, using an implicit method removes or lessens the (sometimes severe) step-length constraints by which explicit methods must abide. To gauge its accuracy and speed, the BDF method is compared to a variety of other solution methods, including Runge-Kutta explicit methods and matrix exponential methods such as the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM). A preliminary test case was chosen as representative of a PWR lattice depletion step and was solved with numerical libraries called from a Python front-end. The Figure of Merit (a combined measure of accuracy and efficiency) for the BDF method was nearly identical to that for CRAM, while explicit methods and other matrix exponential approximations trailed behind. The test case includes 319 nuclides, in which the shortest-lived nuclide is {sup 98}Nb with a half-life of 2.86 seconds. Finally, the BDF and CRAM methods were compared within CASMO5, where CRAM had a FOM about four times better than BDF, although the BDF implementation was not fully optimized. (authors)
An Implicit Algorithm for the Numerical Simulation of Shape-Memory Alloys
Becker, R; Stolken, J; Jannetti, C; Bassani, J
2003-10-16
Shape-memory alloys (SMA) have the potential to be used in a variety of interesting applications due to their unique properties of pseudoelasticity and the shape-memory effect. However, in order to design SMA devices efficiently, a physics-based constitutive model is required to accurately simulate the behavior of shape-memory alloys. The scope of this work is to extend the numerical capabilities of the SMA constitutive model developed by Jannetti et. al. (2003), to handle large-scale polycrystalline simulations. The constitutive model is implemented within the finite-element software ABAQUS/Standard using a user defined material subroutine, or UMAT. To improve the efficiency of the numerical simulations, so that polycrystalline specimens of shape-memory alloys can be modeled, a fully implicit algorithm has been implemented to integrate the constitutive equations. Using an implicit integration scheme increases the efficiency of the UMAT over the previously implemented explicit integration method by a factor of more than 100 for single crystal simulations.
ISIS++Reference Guide (Iterative Scalable Implicit Solver in C++) Version 1.1
Alan B. Williams; Benjamin A. Allan; Kyran D. Mish; Robert L. Clay
1999-04-01
ISIS++ (Iterative Scalable Implicit Solver in C++) Version 1.1 is a portable, object-oriented framework for solving sparse linear systems of equations. It includes a collection of Krylov solution methods and preconditioners, as well as both uni-processor (serial) and multi-processor (scalable) matrix and vector classes. Though it was developed to solve systems of equations originating from large-scale, 3-D, finite element analyses, it has application in many other fields. This document supersedes the ISIS++ V1.0 Reference Guide, defines the V1. 1 interface specification, and includes the necessary instructions for building and running ISIS++ v 1.1 on Unix platforms. The interface is presented in annotated header format, along with background on design and implementation considerations. A finite difference modeling example problem is included to demonstrate the overall setup and use.
The iterative thermal emission method: A more implicit modification of IMC
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Long, A. R.; Gentile, N. A.; Palmer, T. S.
2014-08-19
For over 40 years, the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method has been used to solve challenging problems in thermal radiative transfer. These problems typically contain regions that are optically thick and diffusive, as a consequence of the high degree of “pseudo-scattering” introduced to model the absorption and reemission of photons from a tightly-coupled, radiating material. IMC has several well-known features that could be improved: a) it can be prohibitively computationally expensive, b) it introduces statistical noise into the material and radiation temperatures, which may be problematic in multiphysics simulations, and c) under certain conditions, solutions can be nonphysical, in thatmore » they violate a maximum principle, where IMC-calculated temperatures can be greater than the maximum temperature used to drive the problem.« less
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Shadid, J. N.; Pawlowski, R. P.; Cyr, E. C.; Tuminaro, R. S.; Chacon, L.; Weber, P. D.
2016-02-10
Here, we discuss that the computational solution of the governing balance equations for mass, momentum, heat transfer and magnetic induction for resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) systems can be extremely challenging. These difficulties arise from both the strong nonlinear, nonsymmetric coupling of fluid and electromagnetic phenomena, as well as the significant range of time- and length-scales that the interactions of these physical mechanisms produce. This paper explores the development of a scalable, fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for 3D incompressible resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of a stabilized FE formulation in context of the variational multiscale (VMS) method,more » and describes the scalable implicit time integration and direct-to-steady-state solution capability. The nonlinear solver strategy employs Newton–Krylov methods, which are preconditioned using fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners. These preconditioners are shown to enable a robust, scalable and efficient solution approach for the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-accuracy for the stabilized FE discretization. The approach is tested on a variety of prototype problems, that include MHD duct flows, an unstable hydromagnetic Kelvin–Helmholtz shear layer, and a 3D island coalescence problem used to model magnetic reconnection. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are also presented on up to 128K processors for problems with up to 1.8B unknowns on a CrayXK7.« less
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Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change
Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.
2015-11-11
A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as well as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.
Compressible, multiphase semi-implicit method with moment of fluid interface representation
Jemison, Matthew; Sussman, Mark; Arienti, Marco
2014-09-16
A unified method for simulating multiphase flows using an exactly mass, momentum, and energy conserving Cell-Integrated Semi-Lagrangian advection algorithm is presented. The deforming material boundaries are represented using the moment-of-fluid method. Our new algorithm uses a semi-implicit pressure update scheme that asymptotically preserves the standard incompressible pressure projection method in the limit of infinite sound speed. The asymptotically preserving attribute makes the new method applicable to compressible and incompressible flows including stiff materials; enabling large time steps characteristic of incompressible flow algorithms rather than the small time steps required by explicit methods. Moreover, shocks are captured and material discontinuities are tracked, without the aid of any approximate or exact Riemann solvers. As a result, wimulations of underwater explosions and fluid jetting in one, two, and three dimensions are presented which illustrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm at efficiently computing multiphase flows containing shock waves and material discontinuities with large “impedance mismatch.”
Smith, B.L.
1988-08-01
The implicit continuous Eulerian (ICE) finite difference method in hydrodynamic computations has proven very successful when applied to flow situations in which there are excessive fluid distortions. Code logic becomes exceedingly complex, however, if the boundaries of the fluid domain are material interfaces whose orientations with respect to the Eulerian grid evolve during the calculation. It is shown in this article that within the ICE methodology it is possible to express the discrete mass conservation condition in an identical form for all computational cells, even those containing, or close to, moving fluid boundaries. From this basis a generalised ICE algorithm is built up alleviating many of the difficulties associated with complicated configurations of free and structure boundaries. In particular, an effective treatment of slug impact with fluid-structure interaction is readily formulated. To illustrate the technique in practical situations, the method has been incorporated into a version of the coupled fluid-structure code SEURBNUK-EURDYN, used for LMFBR safety analysis, and a number of fluid--gas, fluid--structure situations are analysed. Results are compared with analytic solutions, experimental measurement, and/or other code predictions, as appropriate. Two oblique, slug impact situations are included. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.
Compressible, multiphase semi-implicit method with moment of fluid interface representation
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Jemison, Matthew; Sussman, Mark; Arienti, Marco
2014-09-16
A unified method for simulating multiphase flows using an exactly mass, momentum, and energy conserving Cell-Integrated Semi-Lagrangian advection algorithm is presented. The deforming material boundaries are represented using the moment-of-fluid method. Our new algorithm uses a semi-implicit pressure update scheme that asymptotically preserves the standard incompressible pressure projection method in the limit of infinite sound speed. The asymptotically preserving attribute makes the new method applicable to compressible and incompressible flows including stiff materials; enabling large time steps characteristic of incompressible flow algorithms rather than the small time steps required by explicit methods. Moreover, shocks are captured and material discontinuities aremore » tracked, without the aid of any approximate or exact Riemann solvers. As a result, wimulations of underwater explosions and fluid jetting in one, two, and three dimensions are presented which illustrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm at efficiently computing multiphase flows containing shock waves and material discontinuities with large “impedance mismatch.”« less
Decreasing the temporal complexity for nonlinear, implicit reduced-order models by forecasting
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Carlberg, Kevin; Ray, Jaideep; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart
2015-02-14
Implicit numerical integration of nonlinear ODEs requires solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations at each time step. Each of these systems is often solved by a Newton-like method, which incurs a sequence of linear-system solves. Most model-reduction techniques for nonlinear ODEs exploit knowledge of system's spatial behavior to reduce the computational complexity of each linear-system solve. However, the number of linear-system solves for the reduced-order simulation often remains roughly the same as that for the full-order simulation. We propose exploiting knowledge of the model's temporal behavior to (1) forecast the unknown variable of the reduced-order system of nonlinear equationsmore » at future time steps, and (2) use this forecast as an initial guess for the Newton-like solver during the reduced-order-model simulation. To compute the forecast, we propose using the Gappy POD technique. As a result, the goal is to generate an accurate initial guess so that the Newton solver requires many fewer iterations to converge, thereby decreasing the number of linear-system solves in the reduced-order-model simulation.« less
Decreasing the temporal complexity for nonlinear, implicit reduced-order models by forecasting
Carlberg, Kevin; Ray, Jaideep; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart
2015-02-14
Implicit numerical integration of nonlinear ODEs requires solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations at each time step. Each of these systems is often solved by a Newton-like method, which incurs a sequence of linear-system solves. Most model-reduction techniques for nonlinear ODEs exploit knowledge of system's spatial behavior to reduce the computational complexity of each linear-system solve. However, the number of linear-system solves for the reduced-order simulation often remains roughly the same as that for the full-order simulation. We propose exploiting knowledge of the model's temporal behavior to (1) forecast the unknown variable of the reduced-order system of nonlinear equations at future time steps, and (2) use this forecast as an initial guess for the Newton-like solver during the reduced-order-model simulation. To compute the forecast, we propose using the Gappy POD technique. As a result, the goal is to generate an accurate initial guess so that the Newton solver requires many fewer iterations to converge, thereby decreasing the number of linear-system solves in the reduced-order-model simulation.
Fully-Implicit Orthogonal Reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin for Fluid Dynamics with Phase Change
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J. -P.
2015-11-11
A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method’s capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method’s accuracy (in both space and time), as wellmore » as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.« less
Spacecraft charging analysis with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D
Deca, J.; Lapenta, G. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Marchand, R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Markidis, S. [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)
2013-10-15
We present the first results on the analysis of spacecraft charging with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D, designed for running on massively parallel supercomputers. The numerical algorithm is presented, highlighting the implementation of the electrostatic solver and the immersed boundary algorithm; the latter which creates the possibility to handle complex spacecraft geometries. As a first step in the verification process, a comparison is made between the floating potential obtained with iPic3D and with Orbital Motion Limited theory for a spherical particle in a uniform stationary plasma. Second, the numerical model is verified for a CubeSat benchmark by comparing simulation results with those of PTetra for space environment conditions with increasing levels of complexity. In particular, we consider spacecraft charging from plasma particle collection, photoelectron and secondary electron emission. The influence of a background magnetic field on the floating potential profile near the spacecraft is also considered. Although the numerical approaches in iPic3D and PTetra are rather different, good agreement is found between the two models, raising the level of confidence in both codes to predict and evaluate the complex plasma environment around spacecraft.
Goudreau, G.L.
1983-05-01
The confrontation of the finite element technology with the awesome number crunching required for the nonlinear problem has forced a new assessment. The finite element community discovered that for impact, wave propagation and even slower impulsively driven dynamic problems, the finite difference hydrocodes were much more efficient, albeit requiring contorted mesh topologies to model practical geometries and fifty thousand time steps to follow a quasi-static process or reach static equilibrium. The experience of engineering analysis at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has straddled both worlds, and the intent of this lecture is to review choices in the context of the two and three dimensional implicit and explicit Lagrangian codes developed in our Methods Development Group. The explicit DYNA2D and DYNA3D and implicit NIKE2D and NIKE3D of Hallquist form the focus of this discussion.
Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)
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Current BPA Power Rates (pbl/rates)
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and Workshops WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...
An implicit energy-conservative 2D Fokker-Planck algorithm -- 2. Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver
Chacon, L.; Barnes, D.C.; Knoll, D.A.; Miley, G.H.
2000-01-20
Energy-conservative implicit integration schemes for the Fokker-Planck transport equation in multidimensional geometries require inverting a dense, non-symmetric matrix (Jacobian), which is very expensive to store and solve using standard solvers. However, these limitations can be overcome with Newton-Krylov iterative techniques, since they can be implemented Jacobian-free (the Jacobian matrix from Newton's algorithm is never formed nor stored to proceed with the iteration), and their convergence can be accelerated by preconditioning the original problem. In this document, the efficient numerical implementation of an implicit energy-conservative scheme for multidimensional Fokker-Planck problems using multigrid-preconditioned Krylov methods is discussed. Results show that multigrid preconditioning is very effective in speeding convergence and decreasing CPU requirements, particularly in fine meshes. The solver is demonstrated on grids up to 128 x 128 points in a 2D cylindrical velocity space ({upsilon}{sub r}, {upsilon}{sub p}) with implicit time steps of the order of the collisional time scale of the problem, {tau}. The method preserves particles exactly, and energy conservation is improved over alternative approaches, particularly in coarse meshes. Typical errors in the total energy over a time period of 10{tau} remain below a percent.
A generic semi-implicit coupling methodology for use in RELAP5-3D{copyright}
Aumiller, D.L.; Tomlinson, E.T.; Weaver, W.L.
2000-09-01
A generic semi-implicit coupling methodology has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5-3D{copyright} computer program. This methodology allows RELAP5-3D{copyright} to be used with other computer programs to perform integrated analyses of nuclear power reactor systems and related experimental facilities. The coupling methodology potentially allows different programs to be used to model different portions of the system. The programs are chosen based on their capability to model the phenomena that are important in the simulation in the various portions of the system being considered. The methodology was demonstrated using a test case in which the test geometry was divided into two parts each of which was solved as a RELAP5-3D{copyright} simulation. This test problem exercised all of the semi-implicit coupling features which were installed in RELAP5-3D0. The results of this verification test case show that the semi-implicit coupling methodology produces the same answer as the simulation of the test system as a single process.
Field simulation of axisymmetric plasma screw pinches by alternating-direction-implicit methods
Lambert, M.A.
1996-06-01
An axisymmetric plasma screw pinch is an axisymmetric column of ionized gaseous plasma radially confined by forces from axial and azimuthal currents driven in the plasma and its surroundings. This dissertation is a contribution to detailed, high resolution computer simulation of dynamic plasma screw pinches in 2-d {ital rz}-coordinates. The simulation algorithm combines electron fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) ion models to represent the plasma in a hybrid fashion. The plasma is assumed to be quasineutral; along with the Darwin approximation to the Maxwell equations, this implies application of Ampere`s law without displacement current. Electron inertia is assumed negligible so that advective terms in the electron momentum equation are ignored. Electrons and ions have separate scalar temperatures, and a scalar plasma electrical resistivity is assumed. Altemating-direction-implicit (ADI) methods are used to advance the electron fluid drift velocity and the magnetic fields in the simulation. The ADI methods allow time steps larger than allowed by explicit methods. Spatial regions where vacuum field equations have validity are determined by a cutoff density that invokes the quasineutral vacuum Maxwell equations (Darwin approximation). In this dissertation, the algorithm was first checked against ideal MM stability theory, and agreement was nicely demonstrated. However, such agreement is not a new contribution to the research field. Contributions to the research field include new treatments of the fields in vacuum regions of the pinch simulation. The new treatments predict a level of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence near the bulk plasma surface that is higher than predicted by other methods.
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Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...
Direct Numerical Simulation of Interfacial Flows: Implicit Sharp-Interface Method (I-SIM)
Robert Nourgaliev; Theo Theofanous; HyeongKae Park; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll
2008-01-01
In recent work (Nourgaliev, Liou, Theofanous, JCP in press) we demonstrated that numerical simulations of interfacial flows in the presence of strong shear must be cast in dynamically sharp terms (sharp interface treatment or SIM), and that moreover they must meet stringent resolution requirements (i.e., resolving the critical layer). The present work is an outgrowth of that work aiming to overcome consequent limitations on the temporal treatment, which become still more severe in the presence of phase change. The key is to avoid operator splitting between interface motion, fluid convection, viscous/heat diffusion and reactions; instead treating all these non-linear operators fully-coupled within a Newton iteration scheme. To this end, the SIMs cut-cell meshing is combined with the high-orderaccurate implicit Runge-Kutta and the recovery Discontinuous Galerkin methods along with a Jacobian-free, Krylov subspace iteration algorithm and its physics-based preconditioning. In particular, the interfacial geometry (i.e., markers positions and volumes of cut cells) is a part of the Newton-Krylov solution vector, so that the interface dynamics and fluid motions are fully-(non-linearly)-coupled. We show that our method is: (a) robust (L-stable) and efficient, allowing to step over stability time steps at will while maintaining high-(up to the 5th)-order temporal accuracy; (b) fully conservative, even near multimaterial contacts, without any adverse consequences (pressure/velocity oscillations); and (c) highorder-accurate in spatial discretization (demonstrated here up to the 12th-order for smoothin-the-bulk-fluid flows), capturing interfacial jumps sharply, within one cell. Performance is illustrated with a variety of test problems, including low-Mach-number manufactured solutions, shock dynamics/tracking with slow dynamic time scales, and multi-fluid, highspeed shock-tube problems. We briefly discuss preconditioning, and we introduce two physics-based preconditioners
An Integrated RELAP5-3D and Multiphase CFD Code System Utilizing a Semi Implicit Coupling Technique
D.L. Aumiller; E.T. Tomlinson; W.L. Weaver
2001-06-21
An integrated code system consisting of RELAP5-3D and a multiphase CFD program has been created through the use of a generic semi-implicit coupling algorithm. Unlike previous CFD coupling work, this coupling scheme is numerically stable provided the material Courant limit is not violated in RELAP5-3D or at the coupling locations. The basis for the coupling scheme and details regarding the unique features associated with the application of this technique to a four-field CFD program are presented. Finally, the results of a verification problem are presented. The coupled code system is shown to yield accurate and numerically stable results.
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Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...
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DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Carroll, Susan
Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Carroll, Susan
2013-07-01
Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.
Category:Lists for Incentive Types | Open Energy Information
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Shi, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Feng-Hua; Wu, Yuan-Yan; Tan, Zhi-Jie
2014-09-14
To bridge the gap between the sequences and 3-dimensional (3D) structures of RNAs, some computational models have been proposed for predicting RNA 3D structures. However, the existed models seldom consider the conditions departing from the room/body temperature and high salt (1M NaCl), and thus generally hardly predict the thermodynamics and salt effect. In this study, we propose a coarse-grained model with implicit salt for RNAs to predict 3D structures, stability, and salt effect. Combined with Monte Carlo simulated annealing algorithm and a coarse-grained force field, the model folds 46 tested RNAs (?45 nt) including pseudoknots into their native-like structures from their sequences, with an overall mean RMSD of 3.5 and an overall minimum RMSD of 1.9 from the experimental structures. For 30 RNA hairpins, the present model also gives the reliable predictions for the stability and salt effect with the mean deviation ? 1.0 C of melting temperatures, as compared with the extensive experimental data. In addition, the model could provide the ensemble of possible 3D structures for a short RNA at a given temperature/salt condition.
Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Chris Newman
2009-08-01
Reactor fuel performance is sensitive to microstructure changes during irradiation (such as fission gas and pore formation). This study proposes an approach to capture microstructural changes in the fuel by a two-way coupling of a mesoscale phase field irradiation model to an engineering scale, finite element calculation. This work solves the multiphysics equation system at the engineering-scale in a parallel, fully-coupled, fully-implicit manner using a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method (JFNK). A sampling of the temperature at the Gauss points of the coarse scale is passed to a parallel sequence of mesoscale calculations within the JFNK function evaluation phase of the calculation. The mesoscale thermal conductivity is calculated in parallel, and the result is passed back to the engineering-scale calculation. As this algorithm is fully contained within the JFNK function evaluation, the mesoscale calculation is nonlinearly consistent with the engineering-scale calculation. Further, the action of the Jacobian is also consistent, so the composite algorithm provides the strong nonlinear convergence properties of Newton's method. The coupled model using INL's \\bison\\ code demonstrates quadratic nonlinear convergence and good parallel scalability. Initial results predict the formation of large pores in the hotter center of the pellet, but few pores on the outer circumference. Thus, the thermal conductivity is is reduced in the center of the pellet, leading to a higher internal temperature than that in an unirradiated pellet.
Final Report - National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure...
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National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure Final Report - National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure Awardee: Illinois State University Location: Normal, IL ...
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include the following: * Load Following Customers (Line 5): Irrigation Rate Discount (IRD), Unauthorized Increase Charge (UAI), Low Density Discount (LDD), and unanticipated...
Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate
Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.
1986-08-01
Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.
Improving Entrainment Rate Parameterization
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Entrainment Rate Parameterization For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Parameterization of entrainment rate is critical for improving representation of cloud- and convection-related processes in climate models; however, much remains unclear. This work seeks to improve understanding and parameterization of entrainment rate by use of aircraft observations and large-eddy simulations of shallow cumulus clouds over
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For Regional Dialogue Discussion Purposes Only Pre-Decisional Draft Tiered Rates Methodology March 7, 2008 Pre-decisional, Deliberative, For Discussion Purposes Only March 7,...
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Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Wollaeger, Ryan T.; Wollaber, Allan B.; Urbatsch, Todd J.; Densmore, Jeffery D.
2016-05-04
Here, the non-linear thermal radiative-transfer equations can be solved in various ways. One popular way is the Fleck and Cummings Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method. The IMC method was originally formulated with piecewise-constant material properties. For domains with a coarse spatial grid and large temperature gradients, an error known as numerical teleportation may cause artificially non-causal energy propagation and consequently an inaccurate material temperature. Source tilting is a technique to reduce teleportation error by constructing sub-spatial-cell (or sub-cell) emission profiles from which IMC particles are sampled. Several source tilting schemes exist, but some allow teleportation error to persist. We examinemore » the effect of source tilting in problems with a temperature-dependent opacity. Within each cell, the opacity is evaluated continuously from a temperature profile implied by the source tilt. For IMC, this is a new approach to modeling the opacity. We find that applying both source tilting along with a source tilt-dependent opacity can introduce another dominant error that overly inhibits thermal wavefronts. We show that we can mitigate both teleportation and under-propagation errors if we discretize the temperature equation with a linear discontinuous (LD) trial space. Our method is for opacities ~ 1/T3, but we formulate and test a slight extension for opacities ~ 1/T3.5, where T is temperature. We find our method avoids errors that can be incurred by IMC with continuous source tilt constructions and piecewise-constant material temperature updates.« less
Audit Letter Report: OAS-L-07-01
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The Bonneville Power Administration's Conservation and Renewables Discount Conservation and Rate Credit Programs
Best Practices: Escalation Rates
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Best Practices Escalation Rates Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Best Practices: Escalation Rate Value of future energy savings * Provides purchasing power for implementing a robust, comprehensive and customized ECM set * Provides an option for paying back financing in the shortest possible
2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)
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Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...
WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Meetings & Workshops Rate Case Parties Web Site WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...
Woodward, Carol S.; Gardner, David J.; Evans, Katherine J.
2015-01-01
Efficient solutions of global climate models require effectively handling disparate length and time scales. Implicit solution approaches allow time integration of the physical system with a step size governed by accuracy of the processes of interest rather than by stability of the fastest time scales present. Implicit approaches, however, require the solution of nonlinear systems within each time step. Usually, a Newton's method is applied to solve these systems. Each iteration of the Newton's method, in turn, requires the solution of a linear model of the nonlinear system. This model employs the Jacobian of the problem-defining nonlinear residual, but this Jacobian can be costly to form. If a Krylov linear solver is used for the solution of the linear system, the action of the Jacobian matrix on a given vector is required. In the case of spectral element methods, the Jacobian is not calculated but only implemented through matrix-vector products. The matrix-vector multiply can also be approximated by a finite difference approximation which may introduce inaccuracy in the overall nonlinear solver. In this paper, we review the advantages and disadvantages of finite difference approximations of these matrix-vector products for climate dynamics within the spectral element shallow water dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Woodward, Carol S.; Gardner, David J.; Evans, Katherine J.
2015-01-01
Efficient solutions of global climate models require effectively handling disparate length and time scales. Implicit solution approaches allow time integration of the physical system with a step size governed by accuracy of the processes of interest rather than by stability of the fastest time scales present. Implicit approaches, however, require the solution of nonlinear systems within each time step. Usually, a Newton's method is applied to solve these systems. Each iteration of the Newton's method, in turn, requires the solution of a linear model of the nonlinear system. This model employs the Jacobian of the problem-defining nonlinear residual, but thismore » Jacobian can be costly to form. If a Krylov linear solver is used for the solution of the linear system, the action of the Jacobian matrix on a given vector is required. In the case of spectral element methods, the Jacobian is not calculated but only implemented through matrix-vector products. The matrix-vector multiply can also be approximated by a finite difference approximation which may introduce inaccuracy in the overall nonlinear solver. In this paper, we review the advantages and disadvantages of finite difference approximations of these matrix-vector products for climate dynamics within the spectral element shallow water dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model.« less
Tegze, Gyoergy Bansel, Gurvinder; Toth, Gyula I.; Pusztai, Tamas; Fan, Zhongyun; Granasy, Laszlo
2009-03-20
We present an efficient method to solve numerically the equations of dissipative dynamics of the binary phase-field crystal model proposed by Elder et al. [K.R. Elder, M. Katakowski, M. Haataja, M. Grant, Phys. Rev. B 75 (2007) 064107] characterized by variable coefficients. Using the operator splitting method, the problem has been decomposed into sub-problems that can be solved more efficiently. A combination of non-trivial splitting with spectral semi-implicit solution leads to sets of algebraic equations of diagonal matrix form. Extensive testing of the method has been carried out to find the optimum balance among errors associated with time integration, spatial discretization, and splitting. We show that our method speeds up the computations by orders of magnitude relative to the conventional explicit finite difference scheme, while the costs of the pointwise implicit solution per timestep remains low. Also we show that due to its numerical dissipation, finite differencing can not compete with spectral differencing in terms of accuracy. In addition, we demonstrate that our method can efficiently be parallelized for distributed memory systems, where an excellent scalability with the number of CPUs is observed.
Gardner, David; Woodward, Carol S.; Evans, Katherine J
2015-01-01
Efficient solution of global climate models requires effectively handling disparate length and time scales. Implicit solution approaches allow time integration of the physical system with a time step dictated by accuracy of the processes of interest rather than by stability governed by the fastest of the time scales present. Implicit approaches, however, require the solution of nonlinear systems within each time step. Usually, a Newton s method is applied for these systems. Each iteration of the Newton s method, in turn, requires the solution of a linear model of the nonlinear system. This model employs the Jacobian of the problem-defining nonlinear residual, but this Jacobian can be costly to form. If a Krylov linear solver is used for the solution of the linear system, the action of the Jacobian matrix on a given vector is required. In the case of spectral element methods, the Jacobian is not calculated but only implemented through matrix-vector products. The matrix-vector multiply can also be approximated by a finite-difference which may show a loss of accuracy in the overall nonlinear solver. In this paper, we review the advantages and disadvantages of finite-difference approximations of these matrix-vector products for climate dynamics within the spectral-element based shallow-water dynamical-core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM).
Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2008-01-22
The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less
Residential Solar Valuation Rates
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rábago Rábago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff ‣ Fair to the utility and non-solar customers ‣ Fair compensation to the solar customer ‣ Decouple compensation from incentives ‣ Align public policy goals (decouple compensation from consumption) ‣ Intuitively sound and administratively simple 2 Historical Antecedents ‣ Externalities ‣ Price ≠ Cost ‣ Green Power ‣ Small Is Profitable (http://www.smallisprofitable.org/) ‣ Local
Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)
2002-01-01
A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.
Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR) At the end of the performance cycle, the rating official must prepare an ISR in ePerformance for each SES member who has ...
Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR)
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR) At the end of the performance cycle, the rating official must prepare an ISR in ePerformance for each SES member who has completed at least 90 days on an established performance plan. Rating officials must take into account the SES member's accomplishments achieved during the performance cycle and the impact to the organization's performance. Rating officials must appraise executives realistically and fairly and avoid ratings inflation.
October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
affecting a specific power purchase. For more specific information see: 1996 Final Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules: Power Rates (PDF, 84 pages, 188 kb) Ancillary...
McDonald, H.C. Jr.
1962-12-18
A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)
Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Rate | Open...
Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier5Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...
Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier1Rate | Open...
Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier1Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...
Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...
Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...
Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...
Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...
Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open...
Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier4Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...
Microsoft Word - All Discounts updated July 2015
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
our complete selection and to place your order. For additional assistance, please feel free to contact our customer service department at (800) 801-7220. Remember to state "HRA"...
WP-02 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
WP-02 Power Rate Case (Updated on May 7, 2004) In May of 2000, the BPA Administrator signed a Record of Decision (ROD) on the 2002 Final Power Rate Proposal for the October 2001...
2007-2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates (pbl/rates)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
(PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates In BPAs 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Case (WP-07), BPA agreed that it would post reports about BPAs power...
October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 30.56% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...
April - September 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 40.77% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...
October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
The PDF documents above provide tables of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with the LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustments for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply...
April - September 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 36.93% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...
October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.66% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply a...
October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.91% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...
October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 46% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...
April - September 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 49.50% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...
April - September 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 47.00% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...
FPS-96R Rate Adjustment (rates/ratecases)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Final Firm Power Products and Services (FPS-96R) Rate Adjustment In August 1999, BPA proposed to correct errors in the Firm Power Products and Services rate schedule (FPS-96), and...
National Utility Rate Database: Preprint
Ong, S.; McKeel, R.
2012-08-01
When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.
Project Definition Rating Index Workbook
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
The Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI) Workbook is a tool that was developed to support DOE G-413.3-12A, U. S. Department of Energy Project Definition Rating Index Guide for Traditional Nuclear...
Lee, S. Y.; Park, C. E.; Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M.; Ransom, V. H.
2012-07-01
The well-posedness, convergence and the stability of the two-fluid code has been studied for a long time. Most of the investigations concern the semi-implicit upwind solution scheme for the six equation two-fluid model such as used in RELAP5 3 or TRACE 21. Since the system code, SPACE 2, adopts one more field, a droplet field, it consists of nine equations (3 mass, 3 momentum and 3 energy balance equations) and thus more involved investigations are necessary to confirm the stability and convergence. For this objective, the old issue of the well-posedness, convergence and the stability is revisited and some general guidelines to develop a well-posed numerical multi-fluid model are derived as follows; (1) Hyperbolicity of the corresponding system of partial differential equations is not a necessary condition for the development of a numerical model for multi-phase flow, but whether or not it is hyperbolic can provide guidance relative to initial conditions, boundary conditions, and expected high frequency behavior of the model. (2) A necessary condition for a well-posed numerical model is stability in the von Neumann sense, i.e. growth factor less than 1.0 for the shortest wave-length, 2{Delta}x. (3) The smallest node size used for convergence studies should be of the order of the characteristic dimension of the average description, i.e. smaller nodes can be used so long as they do not result in unphysical growth of wave-lengths less than the characteristic dimension. The usual mathematical definition of convergence i.e. the behavior of the solution as the node size approaches zero, is not appropriate for the discrete averaged numerical model, since there is diminished physical meaning to behavior at wavelengths less than the characteristic dimension of the average description. Under these guidelines, dispersion analysis and von Neumann stability analysis are performed for the three field multi-fluid, semi-implicit, upwind numerical model to show that the necessary
Richard C. Martineau; Ray A. Berry
2003-04-01
A new semi-implicit pressure-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) scheme for simulating a wide range of transient and steady, inviscid and viscous compressible flow on unstructured finite elements is presented here. This new CFD scheme, termed the PCICEFEM (Pressure-Corrected ICE-Finite Element Method) scheme, is composed of three computational phases, an explicit predictor, an elliptic pressure Poisson solution, and a semiimplicit pressure-correction of the flow variables. The PCICE-FEM scheme is capable of second-order temporal accuracy by incorporating a combination of a time-weighted form of the two-step Taylor-Galerkin Finite Element Method scheme as an explicit predictor for the balance of momentum equations and the finite element form of a time-weighted trapezoid rule method for the semi-implicit form of the governing hydrodynamic equations. Second-order spatial accuracy is accomplished by linear unstructured finite element discretization. The PCICE-FEM scheme employs Flux-Corrected Transport as a high-resolution filter for shock capturing. The scheme is capable of simulating flows from the nearly incompressible to the high supersonic flow regimes. The PCICE-FEM scheme represents an advancement in mass-momentum coupled, pressurebased schemes. The governing hydrodynamic equations for this scheme are the conservative form of the balance of momentum equations (Navier-Stokes), mass conservation equation, and total energy equation. An operator splitting process is performed along explicit and implicit operators of the semi-implicit governing equations to render the PCICE-FEM scheme in the class of predictor-corrector schemes. The complete set of semi-implicit governing equations in the PCICE-FEM scheme are cast in this form, an explicit predictor phase and a semi-implicit pressure-correction phase with the elliptic pressure Poisson solution coupling the predictor-corrector phases. The result of this predictor-corrector formulation is that the pressure Poisson
SN-03 Rate Case Workshops (rates/meetings)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Materials Related Link: SN-03 Power Rate Case May 1 & 13, 2003 - Debt and Liquidity Strategies workshops (on BPA Corporate web site) March 27, 2003 - SN CRAC Prescheduling...
What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: “What is the Right Rate?” call slides and discussion summary, December 1, 2011.
ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin
2016-03-09
This work represents a first-of-its-kind successful application to employ advanced numerical methods in solving realistic two-phase flow problems with two-fluid six-equation two-phase flow model. These advanced numerical methods include high-resolution spatial discretization scheme with staggered grids (high-order) fully implicit time integration schemes, and Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK) method as the nonlinear solver. The computer code developed in this work has been extensively validated with existing experimental flow boiling data in vertical pipes and rod bundles, which cover wide ranges of experimental conditions, such as pressure, inlet mass flux, wall heat flux and exit void fraction. Additional code-to-code benchmark with the RELAP5-3Dmore » code further verifies the correct code implementation. The combined methods employed in this work exhibit strong robustness in solving two-phase flow problems even when phase appearance (boiling) and realistic discrete flow regimes are considered. Transitional flow regimes used in existing system analysis codes, normally introduced to overcome numerical difficulty, were completely removed in this work. As a result, this in turn provides the possibility to utilize more sophisticated flow regime maps in the future to further improve simulation accuracy.« less
Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...
Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary
Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.
2006-07-01
The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.
Rate Schedules | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate levels and these studies for each of Southeastern's four power marketing systems are ...
BPA revises oversupply rate proposal
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
comments until May 22, 2013. The rate-setting process will end with the administrator making a decision based on the record developed in the case. BPA expects to issue a final...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
at a Tier 2 rate 3) Combination of the two On Nov 1, 2009, customers made their elections for how they will serve their Above-RHWM Load during the FY 2012-2014 purchase...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
August 27, 2010 MEMORANDUM FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DIRECTORS FROM: SARA"iJ. Boku1, DIRECToR OF HUMAN CTAL MANAGEMENT SUBJECT: GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 10 CATEGORY RATING The purpose of ...
Final Report- National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
One of the key informational barriers for consumers, installers, regulators and policymakers, is the proper comparison cost of utility-supplied electricity that will be replaced with a Photovoltaic (PV) system. Oftentimes, these comparisons are made with national or statewide averages which results in inaccurate comparisons and conclusions. Illinois State University seeks to meet the need for accurate information about electricity costs and rate structure by building a national database of utility rates and rate structures. The database will build upon the excellent framework that was developed by the OpenEI.org initiative and extend it in several important ways. First, the data will be populated and monitored by a team of trained regulatory economists. Second, the database will be more comprehensive because it will be populated with data from newer competitive retail suppliers for states that have restructured their electricity markets to allow such suppliers. Third, the University and its Institute for Regulatory Policy Studies will maintain the database and ensure that it contains the most recent rate information.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
rates, please see the transmission rates web site. Inactive Rate Cases Integrated Business Review (IBR) Integrated Program Review (IPR) Quarterly Business Review (QBR) Content...
Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis
Reports and Publications (EIA)
2005-01-01
On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.
Henry, J.J.
1961-09-01
A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.
An Introduction to Implicit Bias
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Floating Rate Agreement | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Floating Rate Agreement Floating Rate Agreement Floating Rate Agreement (99.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Fixed Rate Agreement Energy Efficiency Loan Program Agreement Template Energy Efficiency Loan Program Agreement-Template
Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher
Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul
1997-02-11
A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.
Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher
Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.
1997-02-11
A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.
Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.
1976-01-01
A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.
Evaluation Ratings Definitions (Excluding Utilization of Small...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
(Excluding Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ... Definitions (Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ...
1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.
US Bonneville Power Administration
1993-10-01
Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.
What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" ...
Purchasing Energy-Efficient Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
... Future electricity price trends and a 3% discount rate are from Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015: Annual Supplement to NIST Handbook ...
Covered Product Category: Light Commercial Heating and Cooling...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
... Future electricity prices and a 3% discount rate are from "Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015." (NISTIR 85-3273-27). Explore FEMP's ...
Rating fenestration for energy efficiency
Markway, R.
1993-09-01
The grading of windows and doors by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) opens a new era regarding the energy efficiency of fenestration products. For the first time, architects, designers, and other specifiers will find themselves on a level playing field when it comes to comparing the thermal performance of fenestration products. Although only one state, California, now requires the use of fenestration products that have gone through the NFRC's simulation and testing procedures, five other states will soon be doing so, including Washington, Alaska, Oregon, Idaho, and Wisconsin. Others will follow suit; Florida, Arizona, Texas, Louisiana, New York, Massachusetts, and Colorado have shown interest. Exactly what does this mean to architects The NFRC, which was established last year, has developed a procedure to determine accurately the U-value of fenestration products. Under the NFRC program a number of independent simulation and testing laboratories have been approved. These laboratories are charged with the responsibility of determining whether products conform to the U-values represented by the manufacturers. The rating procedure and benefits from it are described.
Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2011 CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Big Rivers and Henderson, KY System: CU October 1, 2011 CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate...
Utility Rate | OpenEI Community
Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: electric load data Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...
Utility Rate | OpenEI Community
Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: DOE Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry DOE...
Utility Rate | OpenEI Community
Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: API Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry API...
Utility Rate | OpenEI Community
Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: EZFeed Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...
Utility Rate | OpenEI Community
Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Database Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...
Utility Rate | OpenEI Community
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utility rate | OpenEI Community
utility Utility Companies utility rate Utility Rates version 1 version 2 version 3 web service Smart meter After several months of development and testing, the next...
LB CRAC Workshops (rates/meetings)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Load-Based (LB) CRAC Power Rate Adjustment Workshop Materials Related Links: Power Rate Adjustments > Load-Based (LB) CRAC December 13, 2006 LB CRAC Workshop Materials (updated...
Residential Solar Valuation Rates | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Residential Solar Valuation Rates Residential Solar Valuation Rates This presentation summarizes the information discussed by Rabago Energy during the Best Practices in the Design ...
Fixed Rate Agreement | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Fixed Rate Agreement Fixed Rate Agreement Fixed Rate Agreement (110.33 KB) More Documents & Publications Floating Rate Agreement Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (August 6, 2009) Federal Loan Guarantees for Projects that Manufacture Commercial Technology Renewable Energy Systems and Components: August 10, 2010
Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Feng, Zhe
2013-02-22
Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.
Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Feng, Zhe
Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.
Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Rate Schedules » Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2015 KP-AP-1-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 KP-AP-2-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 KP-AP-3-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 CU-CC-1-J Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke Energy Progress, Western
Attachments Energy Ratings Council | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Attachments Energy Ratings Council Attachments Energy Ratings Council Attachments Energy Ratings Council Lead Performer: Window Covering Manufacturing Association - New York, NY DOE Funding: $1,600,000 Project Term: October 1, 2014 - September 30, 2018 Funding Opportunity Announcement: Certification and Rating Attachments for Fenestration Technologies DE-FOA-001000-1504 Project Objective This project is to develop an independent rating, certification, labeling, and performance verification
Utility Rate | OpenEI Community
Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: American Clean Skies Foundation Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...
2014-2015 Power Rate Schedules
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
4 Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration 905 N.E. 11th Avenue...
Utility Rate | OpenEI Community
Utility Rate Home > Groups > Groups > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds There are no feeds from external sites for this group. Groups Menu You must login in...
Category:Utility Rates | Open Energy Information
Rates Jump to: navigation, search Add a new Utility Rate This category currently contains no pages or media. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:Utility...
Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...
Public Utilities Specialist (Rates) | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Area Power Administration Locations Phoenix, Arizona Announcement Number ... Southwest Region, Power Marketing, Rates and Alternative Financing, Phoenix, AZ (G6100). ...
POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #10 Category Rating
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This memorandum is to establish the Department of Energy's (DOE's) policy for the use of Category Rating.
Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Workshop
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
DOE commercial building energy asset rating program information presented to stakeholders at the workshop held in Washington, DC, December 2011
A Program for Calculating Radiation Dose Rates.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
1986-01-27
Version 00 SMART calculates radiation dose rate at the center of the outer cask surface. It can be applied to determine the radiation dose rate on each cask if source conditions, characteristic function, and material conditions in the bottle regions are given. MANYCASK calculates radiation dose rate distribution in a space surrounded by many casks. If the dose rate on each cask surface can be measured, MANYCASK can be applied to predict dose spatial dosemore » rate distribution for any case of cask configuration.« less
NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Validation Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods Validation The Photovoltaic (PV) Engineering group at NREL validates energy ratings methods by standards committees to establish an energy rating methodology. We are evaluating techniques to account for the impact on PV performance from variations in the spectral distribution of solar radiation. Two types of methods were evaluated for correcting the short-circuit current of PV modules for variations in the solar spectrum under clear skies: (1)
CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Availability:This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter...
Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review: Preprint
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Photovoltaic Degradation Rates - An Analytical Review Dirk C. Jordan and Sarah R. Kurtz To ... Abstract As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of ...
Method of controlling fusion reaction rates
Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.
1983-05-09
This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.
OpenEI Community - utility rate
title"" >After several months of development and testing, the next generation web service for the utility rate database is finally here I encourage you to check out...
Introducing the Attachments Energy Ratings Council
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Window Covering Manufacturers Association (WCMA) has launched the Attachments Energy Ratings Council (AERC).
BPA proposes rate increase to bolster
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
proposed a 9.6 percent average wholesale power rate increase to compensate for reduced revenue expectations from surplus power sales and to continue funding needed investments in...
BPA issues final decision on oversupply rate
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
is consistent with our multiple statutory responsibilities, is rooted in the basic principles of cost causation and fairness that underlie BPA's rate directives, and...
Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review
Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.
2012-06-01
As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.
Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance; Liquid water content; Liquid water path; Radiative heating rate Dataset File size NAView Dataset View Dataset DOI: 10.5439116949
Method of controlling fusion reaction rates
Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice
1988-03-01
A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.
Method of controlling fusion reaction rates
Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice
1988-01-01
A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.
Revenue-stability-target rate making
Chernick, P.L.
1983-02-17
The commonly used rate-making approaches necessarily base themselves on assumptions, vital to their success, about future levels of utility aservice sales. But since sales are a function of random variables beyond the control of the utility as well as actions by the utility itself, the resulting rates fail to protect the utility's revenue stream and its realized rate of return. This article proposes an alternative approach which would decouple utility revenues from sales, thus stabilizing revenue streams with respect to sales fluctuations and rate design changes. Among the benefits would be a lower cost of capital for the utility, as well as decreased utility resistance to conservation by consumers and to efficient rate design.
Low rate entrainment feeder for fine solids
Scott, D.S.; Piskorz, J.
1982-08-01
A mechanically stirred entrainment-type feeder for fine solids has been developed which will give rates constant to +/- 5% for 1 h or more. The feeder was constructed in connection with a mini-fluidized bed flash pyrolysis project for both biomass and Canadian coals. It has been used to feed coal, sawdust and ground bark in sizes below 600 micro m at rates as low as 6 g/h. Gas to solids weight ratios obtained were from about 3:1 to 1:3. The effect on feed rates of most of the operating and geometric parameters was investigated at low feed rates. A mechanism for control of the feed rate was tested and found to be satisfactory.
Considerations for How to Rate CPV
Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.
2011-02-01
The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.
Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data
Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.
2011-02-01
A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.
Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Period | Open...
This is a property of type Number. The allowed values for this property are: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructurePeriod" Showing...
Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Sell | Open...
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Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Adjustment...
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Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Sell | Open...
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Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier2Adjustment...
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Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Max | Open...
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Getting Rate Information from the utility_rates api | OpenEI...
Getting Rate Information from the utilityrates api Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hello, I am trying to use the API to generate information similar to what you can see here: http:...
Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor
Valentine, Kenneth H.
1988-01-01
An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov BPA Fuel Mix 2012 2013 2014...
Revenue instability induced by conservation rates
Chesnutt, T.W.; McSpadden, C.; Christianson, J.
1996-01-01
The shift toward conservation rate structures, although they may provide better incentives to use scarce water wisely, changes who pays what and can increase the variability of future revenue streams to the water agency. Though the definition of the correct rate structure varies by community, the managerial strategies necessary to cope with the uncertainty brought about by conservation rate structures apply universally. Revenue instability directly increases water supplier`s borrowing costs and adds indirect costs in the form of more complicated planning to provide for a reliable future water supply. This article describes an empirical study using data from two water agencies that have adopted conservation rate structures. The article proposes ways quantitative tools may be used to (1) measure and cope with added uncertainty and (2) make explicit the magnitude of trade-offs between revenue stability, equity, and the provision of incentives for efficient use of water resources.
Historical river flow rates for dose calculations
Carlton, W.H.
1991-06-10
Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.
Contract and Tiered Rate Methodology Overview
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
historical demand to provide incentive to lower their peak by providing a marginal price signal on an incremental component of demand. The CDQs are calculated outside of the rate...
Utility Rate | OpenEI Community
Utility Rate Home > Groups Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Share your own status updates, and follow the updates & activities of others by creating your own account. Or,...
Utility Rate | OpenEI Community
> Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Global Atlas Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry Global Atlas IRENA...
Utility Rates | OpenEI Community
Rates I'm considering removing the "Show Preview" button, since it does not work (javascript validation issue that could be fixed), and it doesn't make sense. The reason to...
Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)
Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.
2014-04-01
Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.
Minority Utility Rate Design Assessment Model
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)
2003-01-20
Econometric model simulates consumer demand response to various user-supplied, two-part tariff electricity rate designs and assesses their economic welfare impact on black, hispanic, poor and majority households.
Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation
Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West
2014-07-01
Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.
Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint
Emery, K.
2012-06-01
Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.
DWPF Macrobatch 2 Melt Rate Tests
Stone, M.E.
2001-01-03
The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister production rate must be increased to meet canister production goals. Although a number of factors exist that could potentially increase melt rate, this study focused on two: (1) changes in frit composition and (2) changes to the feed preparation process to alter the redox of the melter feed. These two factors were investigated for Macrobatch 2 (sludge batch 1B) utilizing crucible studies and a specially designed ''melt rate'' furnace. Other potential factors that could increase melt rate include: mechanical mixing via stirring or the use of bubblers, changing the power skewing to redistribute the power input to the melter, and elimination of heat loss (e.g. air in leakage). The melt rate testing in FY00 demonstrated that melt rate can be improved by adding a different frit or producing a much more reducing glass by the addition of sugar as a reductant. The frit that melted the fastest in the melt rate testing was Frit 165. A paper stud y was performed using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to determine the impact on predicted glass viscosity, liquidus, durability, and operating window if the frit was changed from Frit 200 to Frit 165. PCCS indicated that the window was very similar for both frits. In addition, the predicted viscosity of the frit 165 glass was 46 poise versus 84 poise for the Frit 200 glass. As a result, a change from Frit 200 to Frit 165 is expected to increase the melt rate in DWPF without decreasing waste loading.
Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates
Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert
2013-09-25
The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.
Realization rates of the National Energy Audit
Berry, L.G.; Gettings, M.B.
1998-11-01
Engineering estimates of savings resulting from installation of energy conservation measures in homes are often greater than the savings actually realized. A brief review of prior studies of realization rates prefaces this study of rates from an engineering audit tool, NEAT, (developed for the Department of Energy`s Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program) used in a New York state utility`s low-income program. Estimates of metered and predicted savings are compared for 49 homes taken from a data base of homes that participated in the first year of the utility`s program. Average realization rates ranging from 57% to 69% result, depending on the data quality. Detailed examinations of two houses using an alternate engineering method, the DOE-2 computer program (considered an industry standard), seem to indicate that the low realization rates mainly result from factors other than inaccuracies in the audit`s internal algorithms. Causes of the low realization rates are examined, showing that the strongest single factor linked to the low rates in this study is the use of secondary heating fuels that supplement the primary heating fuel. This study, like the other similar studies, concludes that engineering estimates are valuable tools in determining ranked lists of cost-effective weatherization measures, but may not be accurate substitutes for measured results in evaluating program performance.
Pump-2 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy
2 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Pump-2 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Carters & ... Document Available for Download PDF icon Pump-2 Rate Schedule More Documents & ...
Pump-1-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
1-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Pump-1-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Carters & ... Document Available for Download PDF icon Pump-1-A Rate Schedule More Documents & ...
MISS-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
MISS-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule MISS-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: South Mississippi Electric Power Association System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina This rate ...
Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Rating and Feedback Systems Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Better Buildings Residential Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating and ...
Replacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Replacement Energy System: Kerr-Philpott This rate schedule shall be available to public...
CK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
quantities. Document Available for Download PDF icon CK-1-H Rate Schedule More Documents & Publications CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CTV-1-H Wholesale Power Rate ...
Widget:UtilityRateNamingHelper | Open Energy Information
UtilityRateNamingHelper Jump to: navigation, search This widget displays the utility rate database form. For example: Widget:UtilityRateNamingHelper Retrieved from "http:...
Analysis of Water Rate Escalations Across the United States ...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Analysis of Water Rate Escalations Across the United States Analysis of Water Rate Escalations Across the United States Report describes an analysis of water rate escalations ...
Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination
Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.
2011-02-01
As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.
Determination of corrosion rate by ac impedance
Novitskii, V.S.; Orishchenko, M.Ya.; Kuzub, V.S.
1988-07-01
Computerized graphical and chemical analyses were used to study the effect of frequency on corrosion impedance for the systems: Armco iron/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and St3 steel/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with and without the addition of propargyl alcohol inhibitor, St3/NaCl, and St3/circulated water. The Epelboin equation for the effect of frequency on the impedance of anodic iron dissolution in sulfuric acid was confirmed between 10/sup /minus/2/ and 10/sup /minus/3/ Hz. The equation was analyzed theoretically. Corrosion rates found by extrapolating low-frequency conductance to zero frequency, with correction for nonlinearity, agreed with rates obtained gravimetrically with a root-mean-square deviation of no more than 20%. The impedance method was found to be useful for continuously monitoring corrosion rates in industry.
Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials
S. Arthur
2004-10-08
The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.
DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Rate our Site
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Rate our Site U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Rate our website The Nevada Field Office is committed to providing high-quality products and services that meet your needs. Your participation in our customer satisfaction survey will help us achieve this goal. NFO would appreciate your taking the time to complete this survey. Responses are confidential. The survey should take approximately 15 minutes or 1 minute per question. You do not have to answers all the questions. How did you feel working
Utility experience with real time rates
Tabors, R.D.; Schweppe, F.C.; Caramanis, M.C.
1989-05-01
The structure of electric utility is undergoing dramatic changes as new and expanded service options are added. The concepts of unbundling or of priority service are expanding the options open to customers. Spot pricing, or real time pricing of electricity provides the economic structure for many of these new service options. It is frequently stated that customers can not adapt to real time prices. This paper identifies the dimensions of real time rates and identifies existing rate structures in the United States and other OECD countries which incorporate these dimensions.
Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
discount on the purchase of selected Energy Star rated LED products, such as screw-in LEDs and LED fixtures, which are... Eligibility: Residential, Multifamily Residential...