National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for imaging long-wave infrared

  1. Long-wave infrared imaging of vegetation for detecting leaking CO2 gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Resources and Environmental Sciences Department, Bozeman, Montana 59717-3120 c Energy Research Institute-microbolometer, long-wave infrared (LWIR) imagers, combined with advanced radiometric calibration methods developed at Montana State University, has led to new uses of thermal imagery in remote sensing applications. One

  2. Long-wave infrared imaging of vegetation for detecting leaking CO2 gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Long-wave infrared imaging of vegetation for detecting leaking CO2 gas Jennifer E. Johnson Joseph A for detecting leaking CO2 gas Jennifer E. Johnson,a Joseph A. Shaw,a Rick Lawrence,b Paul W. Nugent,a Laura M of these calibrated imagers is imaging of vegetation for CO2 gas leak detection. During a four-week period

  3. Geothermal Exploration with Visible through Long Wave Infrared...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wave Infrared Imaging Spectrometers Abstract Surface minerals of active geothermal systems have been mapped using visible-short wave infrared and mid wave and long wave imaging...

  4. Long-Wave Infrared | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressedListguided wavesLone StarEnergyInfrared

  5. Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriesel, J.M.; Gat, N.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    The development and testing of hollow core glass waveguides (i.e., fiber optics) for use in Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) spectroscopy systems is described. LWIR fiber optics are a key enabling technology needed to improve the utility and effectiveness of trace chemical detection systems based in the 8 to 12 micron region. This paper focuses on recent developments in hollow waveguide technology geared specifically for LWIR spectroscopy, including a reduction in both the length dependent loss and the bending loss while maintaining relatively high beam quality. Results will be presented from tests conducted with a Quantum Cascade Laser.

  6. Long wave infrared cavity-enhanced sensors using quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2005-12-30

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are becoming well known as convenient and stable semiconductor laser sources operating in the mid- to long-wave infrared, and are able to be fabricated to operate virtually anywhere in the 3.5 to 25 micron region. This makes them an ideal choice for infrared chemical sensing, a topic of great interest at present, spanning at least three critical areas: national security, environmental monitoring and protection, and the early diagnosis of disease through breath analysis. There are many different laser-based spectroscopic chemical sensor architectures in use today, from simple direct detection through to more complex and highly sensitive systems. Many current sensor needs can be met by combining QCLs and appropriate sensor architectures, those needs ranging from UAV-mounted surveillance systems, through to larger ultra-sensitive systems for airport security. In this paper we provide an overview of various laser-based spectroscopic sensing techniques, pointing out advantages and disadvantages of each. As part of this process, we include our own results and observations for techniques under development at PNNL. We also present the latest performance of our ultra-quiet QCL control electronics now being commercialized, and explore how using optimized supporting electronics enables increased sensor performance and decreased sensor footprint for given applications.

  7. Systems having optical absorption layer for mid and long wave infrared and methods for making the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J

    2013-10-01

    An optical system according to one embodiment includes a substrate; and an optical absorption layer coupled to the substrate, wherein the optical absorption layer comprises a layer of diamond-like carbon, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). A method for applying an optical absorption layer to an optical system according to another embodiment includes depositing a layer of diamond-like carbon of an optical absorption layer above a substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  8. Geothermal Exploration with Visible through Long Wave Infrared Imaging

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View New Pages Recent Changes AllGunneryData | Open Energy

  9. Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seeber, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be an important tool in numerous plant maintenance and energy conservation applications. Quantitative measurement, using infrared imaging instruments, is a powerful new dimension of infrared thermography...

  10. Thermo Tracer Infrared Thermal Imager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    -range area G Environment monitoring Volcano, ecology, vegetation, global warming, pollution G R&D Evaluation is a fixed installation type infrared thermal imaging camera to monitor important facilities Production line monitoring Quality anomalies in production processes G Facility monitoring Anomalies

  11. Uncooled infrared imaging using bimaterial microcantilever arrays...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    main figures of merit of the IR imager were found to be comparable to those of uncooled MEMS infrared detectors with substantially higher degree of fabrication complexity. In...

  12. Application of infrared imaging in ferrocyanide tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, K.L.; Mailhot, R.B. Jr.; McLaren, J.M.; Morris, K.L.

    1994-09-28

    This report analyzes the feasibility of using infrared imaging techniques and scanning equipment to detect potential hot spots within ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. this model determined the image an IR system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described, and conclusions based on laboratory and field data are presented. The report shows that infrared imaging is capable of detecting hot spots in ferrocyanide waste tanks with depths of up to 3.94 m (155 in.). The infrared imaging system is a useful technology for initial evaluation and assessment of hot spots in the majority of ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The system will not allow an exact hot spot and temperature determination, but it will provide the necessary information to determine the worst-case hot spot detected in temperature patterns. Ferrocyanide tanks are one type of storage tank on the Watch List. These tanks are identified as priority 1 Hanford Site Tank farm Safety Issues.

  13. Quantitative analysis of infrared contrast enhancement algorithms Seth Weith-Glushko1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    , and quantitatively evaluate infrared contrast enhancement algorithms for use in a real-time long-wave infrared imageQuantitative analysis of infrared contrast enhancement algorithms Seth Weith-Glushko1 and Carl range imagery output from current sensors are compressed in a pleasing way for display on lower dynamic

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos; Stavros (Livermore, CA), Staggs; Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  16. Uncooled Micro-Cantilever Infrared Imager Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis, Datskos G. [ORNL

    2008-02-05

    We report on the development, fabrication and characterization of microcantilever based uncooled focal plane array (FPA) for infrared imaging. By combining a streamlined design of microcantilever thermal transducers with a highly efficient optical readout, we minimized the fabrication complexity while achieving a competitive level of imaging performance. The microcantilever FPAs were fabricated using a straightforward fabrication process that involved only three photolithographic steps (i.e. three masks). A designed and constructed prototype of an IR imager employed a simple optical readout based on a noncoherent low-power light source. The main figures of merit of the IR imager were found to be comparable to those of uncooled MEMS infrared detectors with substantially higher degree of fabrication complexity. In particular, the NETD and the response time of the implemented MEMS IR detector were measured to be as low as 0.5K and 6 ms, respectively. The potential of the implemented designs can also be concluded from the fact that the constructed prototype enabled IR imaging of close to room temperature objects without the use of any advanced data processing. The most unique and practically valuable feature of the implemented FPAs, however, is their scalability to high resolution formats, such as 2000 x 2000, without progressively growing device complexity and cost. The overall technical objective of the proposed work was to develop uncooled infrared arrays based on micromechanical sensors. Currently used miniature sensors use a number of different readout techniques to accomplish the sensing. The use of optical readout techniques sensing require the deposition of thin coatings on the surface of micromechanical thermal detectors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is uniquely qualified to perform the required research and development (R&D) services that will assist our ongoing activities. Over the past decade ORNL has developed a number of unique methods and techniques that led to improved sensors using a number of different approaches.

  17. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korsah, Kofi (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R (Farragut, TN) [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  18. Restoration of chopped and nodded images in infrared astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boccacci, Patrizia

    Restoration of chopped and nodded images in infrared astronomy M Berteroy, P Boccacciz, F Di, the so­called chopped and nodded images, present large negative values and provide reliable of the problem of restoring the original image from its chopped and nodded version and we investigate

  19. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Grande, Nancy K. (San Leandro, CA); Durbin, Philip F. (Livermore, CA); Dolan, Kenneth W. (Livermore, CA); Perkins, Dwight E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  20. Monolithically integrated near-infrared and mid-infrared detector array for spectral imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, A. G. Unil

    detector test results ensure the high quality of material suitable for near-infrared/QWIP dual-band focal. A CTIS records spatial and spectral information by imaging a scene through an optical relay system

  1. OIL SPILL SENSOR USING MULTISPECTRAL INFRARED IMAGING VIA 1 MINIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Wotao

    OIL SPILL SENSOR USING MULTISPECTRAL INFRARED IMAGING VIA 1 MINIMIZATION Yingying Li , Wei Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University ABSTRACT Early detection of oil spill events is the key in detecting the early onset of a small-scale oil spill event. Based on an infrared oil-water contrast model

  2. Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Moderate Resolution the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Key goals were to assess the nature of these relationships as they varied between sensors

  3. Category:Long-Wave Infrared | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to: navigation,Ground GravityLists for IncentiveLists

  4. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

    1995-08-22

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

  5. Long wave expansions for water waves over random topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Walter

    Long wave expansions for water waves over random topography Anne de Bouard1 , Walter Craig2 interacting with the random bottom. We show that the resulting influence of the random topography is expressed numbers: 76B15, 35Q53, 76M50, 60F17 Keywords :Water waves, random topography, long wave asymptotics #12

  6. LONG WAVE EXPANSIONS FOR WATER WAVES OVER RANDOM TOPOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LONG WAVE EXPANSIONS FOR WATER WAVES OVER RANDOM TOPOGRAPHY ANNE DE BOUARD 1 , WALTER CRAIG 2 with the ran­ dom bottom. We show that the resulting influence of the random topography is expressed in terms of bottom topography a#ects the equations describing the limit of solutions in the long wave regime. We

  7. Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safitri, Anisa

    2012-07-16

    imaging techniques for gas detection and visualization. The infrared camera fundamentals and the camera detectors? algorithm to measure the thermal radiation emitted by a target object is described in Section 2. A semi-quantification approach... for detection is the contrast in transmitted radiation between the target and background, which generates a detector output voltage. The infrared camera can see certain gases, mostly hydrocarbons, because the camera?s detector is equipped with a filter which...

  8. Turbulent Flow and Transport Modeling by Long Waves and Currents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Dae Hong

    2010-10-12

    This dissertation presents models for turbulent flow and transport by currents and long waves in large domain. From the Navier-Stokes equations, a fully nonlinear depth-integrated equation model for weakly dispersive, ...

  9. Cancer diagnostics using dynamic near-infrared optical imaging and fluorescent contrast agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurfinkel, Mikhail

    2006-04-12

    A new optical imaging modality has been developed for small animal in vivo imaging of near-infrared fluorescence resulting from fluorescent contrast agents specifically targeted to molecular markers of cancer. The imaging ...

  10. Long-wave instabilities and saturation in thin film equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pugh, Mary

    to shorter wavelengths which then dissipate the energy. The nonlinearity in the KS equation is advective.2) The equation arises as an interface model in bio-fluids [15], solar convec- tion [19], and binary alloys [48Long-wave instabilities and saturation in thin film equations A. L. Bertozzi Department

  11. Deep NearInfrared Imaging with the Keck Matthew A. Bershady 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bershady, Matthew A.

    Deep Near­Infrared Imaging with the Keck Telescope Matthew A. Bershady 12 1 Penn State University of faint field galaxies in deep J and K band images from the Keck Telescope in several fields at high step in probing the galaxy distribution at high redshift. Deep near­infrared images offer a special

  12. The Phoenix Deep Survey: Optical and near infrared imaging catalogs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Sullivan; Andrew Hopkins; Jose Afonso; Antonis Georgakakis; Ben Chan; Lawrence Cram; Bahram Mobasher; Cesario Almeida

    2004-11-19

    The Phoenix Deep Survey is a multi-wavelength galaxy survey based on deep 1.4 GHz radio imaging (Hopkins et al., 2003). The primary goal of this survey is to investigate the properties of star formation in galaxies and to trace the evolution in those properties to a redshift z=1, covering a significant fraction of the age of the Universe. By compiling a sample of star-forming galaxies based on selection at radio wavelengths we eliminate possible biases due to dust obscuration, a significant issue when selecting objects at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths. In this paper, we present the catalogs and results of deep optical (UBVRI) and near-infrared (Ks) imaging of the deepest region of the existing decimetric radio imaging. The observations and data-processing are summarised and the construction of the optical source catalogs described, together with the details of the identification of candidate optical counterparts to the radio catalogs. Based on our UBVRIKs imaging, photometric redshift estimates for the optical counterparts to the radio detections are explored.

  13. Semi-Automated DIRSIG Scene Modeling from 3D LIDAR and Passive Imaging Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerekes, John

    powerful tool for algorithm testing and sensor evaluation. However, the extensive time required to create given the parameters of the sensor. This may be done to evaluate an existing sensor under a host synthetic multispectral and hyperspectral images from the visible to long wave infrared (0.4 to 20 microns

  14. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IMAGES OF NGC 6334-V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Lucas, Phil W.; Hough, James H.; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2013-03-01

    We present results from deep imaging linear and circular polarimetry of the massive star-forming region NGC 6334-V. These observations show high degrees of circular polarization (CP), as much as 22% in the K{sub s} band, in the infrared nebula associated with the outflow. The CP has an asymmetric positive/negative pattern and is very extended ({approx}80'' or 0.65 pc). Both the high CP and its extended size are larger than those seen in the Orion CP region. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo light-scattering models are used to show that the high CP may be produced by scattering from the infrared nebula followed by dichroic extinction by an optically thick foreground cloud containing aligned dust grains. Our results show not only the magnetic field orientation of around young stellar objects, but also the structure of circumstellar matter such as outflow regions and their parent molecular cloud along the line of sight. The detection of the large and extended CP in this source and the Orion nebula may imply the CP origin of the biological homochirality on Earth.

  15. THREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR EMJSSWITY EFFECTS USING RAY-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    . These routines require a sequence of images to evaluate tracking algorithms. The evaluation of sensor performanceTHREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR Memorial Drive Rochester, New York 14623-0887 ABSTRAO A technique for longwave infrared (LWIR) synthetic

  16. The Infrared Camera (IRC) for AKARI - Design and Imaging Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Onaka; H. Matsuhara; T. Wada; N. Fujishiro; H. Fujiwara; M. Ishigaki; D. Ishihara; Y. Ita; H. Kataza; W. Kim; T. Matsumoto; H. Murakami; Y. Ohyama; S. Oyabu; I. Sakon; T. Tanabe; T. Takagi; K. Uemizu; M. Ueno; F. Usui; H. Watarai; M. Cohen; K. Enya; T. Ootsubo; C. P. Pearson; N. Takeyama; T. Yamamuro; Y. Ikeda

    2007-05-29

    The Infrared Camera (IRC) is one of two focal-plane instruments on the AKARI satellite. It is designed for wide-field deep imaging and low-resolution spectroscopy in the near- to mid-infrared (1.8--26.5um) in the pointed observation mode of AKARI. IRC is also operated in the survey mode to make an all-sky survey at 9 and 18um. It comprises three channels. The NIR channel (1.8--5.5um) employs a 512 x 412 InSb array, whereas both the MIR-S (4.6--13.4um) and MIR-L (12.6--26.5um) channels use 256 x 256 Si:As impurity band conduction arrays. Each of the three channels has a field-of-view of about 10' x 10' and are operated simultaneously. The NIR and MIR-S share the same field-of-view by virtue of a beam splitter. The MIR-L observes the sky about $25' away from the NIR/MIR-S field-of-view. IRC gives us deep insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies, the evolution of planetary disks, the process of star-formation, the properties of interstellar matter under various physical conditions, and the nature and evolution of solar system objects. The in-flight performance of IRC has been confirmed to be in agreement with the pre-flight expectation. This paper summarizes the design and the in-flight operation and imaging performance of IRC.

  17. Rogue Wave Modes for the Long Wave-Short Wave Resonance Kwok Wing CHOW*(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Rogue Wave Modes for the Long Wave-Short Wave Resonance Model Kwok Wing CHOW*(1) , Hiu Ning CHAN.45.Yv; 47.35.Fg ABSTRACT The long wave-short wave resonance model arises physically when the phase velocity of a long wave matches the group velocity of a short wave. It is a system of nonlinear evolution

  18. Rogue Wave Modes for the Long WaveShort Wave Resonance Model Kwok Wing CHOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogue Wave Modes for the Long Wave­Short Wave Resonance Model Kwok Wing CHOW 1Ã , Hiu Ning CHAN 1 online June 11, 2013) The long wave­short wave resonance model arises physically when the phase velocity of a long wave matches the group velocity of a short wave. It is a system of nonlinear evolution equations

  19. Rogue Wave Modes for the Long Wave-Short Wave Resonance Kwok Wing CHOW*(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a long wave matches the group velocity of a short wave. Significant interactions and energy transfer can1 Rogue Wave Modes for the Long Wave-Short Wave Resonance Model Kwok Wing CHOW*(1) , Hiu Ning CHAN.45.Yv; 47.35.Fg ABSTRACT The long wave-short wave resonance model arises physically when the phase

  20. FUSION OF VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES USING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION TO IMPROVE FACE RECOGNITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koschan, Andreas

    FUSION OF VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES USING EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION TO IMPROVE FACE of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN-37996 ABSTRACT In this effort, we propose a new image fusion technique, utilizing). In this method, we decompose images from different imaging modalities into their IMFs. Fusion is performed

  1. Long wave expansions for water waves over random topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anne de Bouard; Walter Craig; Oliver Díaz-Espinosa; Philippe Guyenne; Catherine Sulem

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we study the motion of the free surface of a body of fluid over a variable bottom, in a long wave asymptotic regime. We assume that the bottom of the fluid region can be described by a stationary random process $\\beta(x, \\omega)$ whose variations take place on short length scales and which are decorrelated on the length scale of the long waves. This is a question of homogenization theory in the scaling regime for the Boussinesq and KdV equations. The analysis is performed from the point of view of perturbation theory for Hamiltonian PDEs with a small parameter, in the context of which we perform a careful analysis of the distributional convergence of stationary mixing random processes. We show in particular that the problem does not fully homogenize, and that the random effects are as important as dispersive and nonlinear phenomena in the scaling regime that is studied. Our principal result is the derivation of effective equations for surface water waves in the long wave small amplitude regime, and a consistency analysis of these equations, which are not necessarily Hamiltonian PDEs. In this analysis we compute the effects of random modulation of solutions, and give an explicit expression for the scattered component of the solution due to waves interacting with the random bottom. We show that the resulting influence of the random topography is expressed in terms of a canonical process, which is equivalent to a white noise through Donsker's invariance principle, with one free parameter being the variance of the random process $\\beta$. This work is a reappraisal of the paper by Rosales & Papanicolaou \\cite{RP83} and its extension to general stationary mixing processes.

  2. Wide-eld imaging at mid-infrared wavelengths : reconstruction of chopped and nodded data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boccacci, Patrizia

    Wide-#12;eld imaging at mid-infrared wavelengths : reconstruction of chopped and nodded data M most commonly used, the so-called \\chopping and nodding" di#11;erential technique, provides reliable

  3. Infrared birefringence imaging of residual stress and bulk defects in multicrystalline silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapati, Vidya

    This manuscript concerns the application of infrared birefringence imaging (IBI) to quantify macroscopic and microscopic internal stresses in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cell materials. We review progress to ...

  4. Detecting sources of heat loss in residential buildings from infrared imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Emily Chen

    2011-01-01

    Infrared image analysis was conducted to determine the most common sources of heat loss during the winter in residential buildings. 135 houses in the greater Boston and Cambridge area were photographed, stitched, and tallied ...

  5. Near-infrared fluorescence enhanced optical imaging: an analysis of penetration depth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Jessica Perea

    2002-01-01

    , but also may facilitate cancer staging and increase our understanding of tumor progression. Frequency domain photon migration imaging (FDPM) is a maturing optical tool that is based upon the propagation of near infrared (NIR) radiation through tissue...

  6. Infrared imaging systems for the ferrocyanide waste tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mailhot, R.B.; Morris, K.L.

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State has 24 radioactive storage tanks containing ferrocyanide. There is a concern that these tanks could become explosive. Infrared imaging was investigated as a method to determine if high-heat areas (i.e., hot spots'') exist in the tanks. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm [220[degrees]C (428[degrees]F)] temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. This model determined the temperature variation an infrared system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described and conclusions based on the laboratory data are presented. The report describes the system's capabilities and limitations. The infrared imaging system is able to detect the surface image of the modeled hot spot in most of the ferrocyanide tanks.

  7. Linear Adaptive Infrared Image Fusion Chuong T. Nguyen and Joseph P. Havlicek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Havlicek, Joebob

    Linear Adaptive Infrared Image Fusion Chuong T. Nguyen and Joseph P. Havlicek School of Electrical a new adaptive image fusion algorithm to address the decomposition level problem in the multiresolution fusion technique. The fusion scheme consists of two parallel processes which are linearly combined

  8. Through-Plane Water Transport Visualization in a PEMFC by Visible and Infrared Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Through-Plane Water Transport Visualization in a PEMFC by Visible and Infrared Imaging M. M. Daino and thermal profile in the through-plane direction of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) gas membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is widely studied due to its impact on performance.1­4 A variety of imaging

  9. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

  10. Near Infrared Surface Plasmon Resonance Phase Imaging and Nanoparticle-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Phase Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    utilized a near-infrared 860 nm light emitting diode (LED) light source and a wedge depolarizer to create

  11. Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth-space optical communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth- space optical communication Paul W. Nugent,1 Joseph A to the communication platform, so there is a need to measure spatial and temporal statistics of clouds at potential to provide continuous day-night cloud detection and classification according to the cloud optical depth

  12. Variability in Long-Wave Runup as a Function of Nearshore Bathymetric Features 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunkin, Lauren M.

    2011-08-08

    infrastructure. In this thesis, long-wave runup variation due to changing bathymetric features as determined with the numerical model XBeach is quantified (eXtreme Beach behavior model). Wave heights are analyzed to determine the energy through the surfzone...

  13. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Buizer, James M. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian, E-mail: jdebuizer@sofia.usra.edu [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2012-08-01

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of {approx}150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  14. Method and apparatus for coherent imaging of infrared energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Donald P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A coherent camera system performs ranging, spectroscopy, and thermal imaging. Local oscillator radiation is combined with target scene radiation to enable heterodyne detection by the coherent camera's two-dimensional photodetector array. Versatility enables deployment of the system in either a passive mode (where no laser energy is actively transmitted toward the target scene) or an active mode (where a transmitting laser is used to actively illuminate the target scene). The two-dimensional photodetector array eliminates the need to mechanically scan the detector. Each element of the photodetector array produces an intermediate frequency signal that is amplified, filtered, and rectified by the coherent camera's integrated circuitry. By spectroscopic examination of the frequency components of each pixel of the detector array, a high-resolution, three-dimensional or holographic image of the target scene is produced for applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric disturbance monitoring, and military weapons targeting.

  15. Method and apparatus for coherent imaging of infrared energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1998-05-12

    A coherent camera system performs ranging, spectroscopy, and thermal imaging. Local oscillator radiation is combined with target scene radiation to enable heterodyne detection by the coherent camera`s two-dimensional photodetector array. Versatility enables deployment of the system in either a passive mode (where no laser energy is actively transmitted toward the target scene) or an active mode (where a transmitting laser is used to actively illuminate the target scene). The two-dimensional photodetector array eliminates the need to mechanically scan the detector. Each element of the photodetector array produces an intermediate frequency signal that is amplified, filtered, and rectified by the coherent camera`s integrated circuitry. By spectroscopic examination of the frequency components of each pixel of the detector array, a high-resolution, three-dimensional or holographic image of the target scene is produced for applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric disturbance monitoring, and military weapons targeting. 8 figs.

  16. An Infrared Imaging Study of the Bipolar Proto-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16594-4656

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Volk; Bruce J. Hrivnak; Kate Y. L. Su; Sun Kwok

    2006-07-20

    High-resolution mid-infrared images have been obtained in N-band and Q-band for the proto-planetary nebula IRAS 16594-4656. A bright equatorial torus and a pair of bipolar lobes can clearly be seen in the infrared images. The torus appears thinner at the center than at the edges, suggesting that it is viewed nearly edge-on. The infrared lobes correspond to the brightest lobes of the reflection nebula seen in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical image, but with no sign of the point-symmetric structure seen in the visible image. The lobe structure shows a close correspondence with a molecular hydrogen map obtained with HST, suggesting that the dust emission in the lobes traces the distribution of the shocked gas. The shape of the bipolar lobes shows clearly that the fast outflow is still confined by the remnant circumstellar envelope of the progenitor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. However, the non-detection of the dust outside of the lobes suggests that the temperature of the dust in the AGB envelope is too low for it to be detected at 20 microns.

  17. ESO Imaging Survey. Hubble Deep Field South: Optical-Infrared Observations, Data Reduction and Photometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. da Costa; M. Nonino; R. Rengelink; S. Zaggia; C. Benoist; T. Erben; A. Wicenec; M. Scodeggio; L. F. Olsen; M. D. Guarnieri; E. Deul; S. D'Odorico; R. Hook; A. Moorwood; R. Slijkhuis

    1998-12-04

    This paper presents ground-based data obtained from deep optical and infrared observations of the HST Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) field carried out at the ESO 3.5 New Technology Telescope (NTT). These data were taken as part of the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) program, a public survey coordinated by ESO and member states, in preparation for the first year of operation of the VLT. Deep CCD images are available for five optical passbands, reaching 2 sigma limiting magnitudes of U_AB~27.0, B_AB~26.5, V_AB~26, R_AB~26, I_AB~25, covering a region of ~25 square arcmin, which includes the HST WPFC2 field. The infrared observations cover a total area of ~42 square arcmin and include both the HST WFPC2 and STIS fields. The observations of the WFPC2 region were conducted in JHKs passbands, reaching J_AB~25, and H_AB and K_AB~24.0. Due to time constraints, the adjacent field, covering the STIS field, has been observed only in R, I and JHKs, while no observations were conducted covering the NIC3 field. This paper describes the observations and data reduction. It also presents images of the surveyed region and lists the optical and infrared photometric parameters of the objects detected on the co-added images of each passband, as well as multicolor optical and infrared catalogs. These catalogs together with the astrometrically and photometrically calibrated co-added images are being made public world-wide and can be retrieved from the world-wide web (http://www.eso.org/eis).

  18. Long-Wave Infrared At Coso Geothermal Area (1968-1971) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma, Arizona:Oregon: EnergyLloyd, NewBranch Capital

  19. Experimental investigation of subcooled flow boiling using synchronized high speed video, infrared thermography, and particle image velocimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Bren Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Subcooled flow boiling of water was experimentally investigated using high-speed video (HSV), infrared (IR) thermography, and particle image velocimetry (PIV) to generate a unique database of synchronized data. HSV allowed ...

  20. Near Infrared (NIR) Imaging Techniques Using Lasers and Nonlinear Crystal Optical Parametric Oscillator/Amplifier (OPO/OPA) Imaging and Transferred Electron (TE) Photocathode Image Intensifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    YATES,GEORGE J.; MCDONALD,THOMAS E. JR.; BLISS,DAVID E.; CAMERON,STEWART M.; GREIVES,KENNETH H.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.

    2000-12-20

    Laboratory experiments utilizing different near-infrared (NIR) sensitive imaging techniques for LADAR range gated imaging at eye-safe wavelengths are presented. An OPO/OPA configuration incorporating a nonlinear crystal for wavelength conversion of 1.56 micron probe or broadcast laser light to 807 nm light by utilizing a second pump laser at 532 nm for gating and gain, was evaluated for sensitivity, resolution, and general image quality. These data are presented with similar test results obtained from an image intensifier based upon a transferred electron (TE) photocathode with high quantum efficiency (QE) in the 1-2 micron range, with a P-20 phosphor output screen. Data presented include range-gated imaging performance in a cloud chamber with varying optical attenuation of laser reflectance images.

  1. Infrared imaging systems for the ferrocyanide waste tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mailhot, R.B.; Morris, K.L.

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Washington State has 24 radioactive storage tanks containing ferrocyanide. There is a concern that these tanks could become explosive. Infrared imaging was investigated as a method to determine if high-heat areas (i.e., ``hot spots``) exist in the tanks. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm [220{degrees}C (428{degrees}F)] temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. This model determined the temperature variation an infrared system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described and conclusions based on the laboratory data are presented. The report describes the system`s capabilities and limitations. The infrared imaging system is able to detect the surface image of the modeled hot spot in most of the ferrocyanide tanks.

  2. InAs(ZnCdS) Quantum Dots Optimized for Biological Imaging in the Near-Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Peter M.

    We present the synthesis of InAs quantum dots (QDs) with a ZnCdS shell with bright and stable emission in the near-infrared (NIR, 700?900 nm) region for biological imaging applications. We demonstrate how NIR QDs can image ...

  3. ESO Imaging Survey. Deep Public Survey: Infrared Data for the Chandra Deep Field South

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Vandame; L. F. Olsen; H. E. Jorgensen; M. A. T. Groenewegen; M. Schirmer; S. Arnouts; C. Benoist; L. da Costa; R. P. Mignani; C. Rite'; R. Slijkhuis; E. Hatziminaoglou; R. Hook; R. Madejsky; A. Wicenec

    2001-02-19

    This paper presents new J and Ks near-infrared data obtained from observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) conducted at the ESO 3.5m New Technology Telescope (NTT). These data were taken as part of the ongoing Deep Public Survey (DPS) being carried out by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) program, extending the EIS-DEEP survey. Combined these surveys now provide a contiguous coverage over an area of 400 square arcmin in the near-infrared, nearly matching that covered by the deep X-ray observations of Chandra, four times the area of the original EIS-DEEP survey. The paper briefly describes the observations and the new techniques being employed for pipeline processing jittered infrared observations, which include unbiased de-fringing and sky-background subtraction, pixel-based astrometry and stacking and pixel registration based on a multi-resolution decomposition of the images. The astrometric solution is based on a pre-release of the GSC-II catalog and has an accuracy of < 0.15 arcsec. The final images for 12 pointings presented here reach median 5 sigma limiting magnitudes of J_AB~23.4 and K_AB~22.6 as measured within an aperture 2xFWHM. The frame to frame variation of the photometric zero-point is estimated to be <0.09 mag. The data are publicly available in the form of fully calibrated J and Ks pixel maps and source lists extracted for each pointing. These data can be requested through the URL ``http://www.eso.org/eis''.

  4. In situ calibration of an infrared imaging video bolometer in the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukai, K., E-mail: mukai.kiyofumi@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Peterson, B. J. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Pandya, S. N.; Sano, R. [The Graduate University for Advance Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful diagnostic to measure multi-dimensional radiation profiles in plasma fusion devices. In the Large Helical Device (LHD), four IRVBs have been installed with different fields of view to reconstruct three-dimensional profiles using a tomography technique. For the application of the measurement to plasma experiments using deuterium gas in LHD in the near future, the long-term effect of the neutron irradiation on the heat characteristics of an IRVB foil should be taken into account by regular in situ calibration measurements. Therefore, in this study, an in situ calibration system was designed.

  5. ISOCAM Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Quiescent Spiral Galaxy NGC 7331

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverly J. Smith

    1998-01-11

    Using the mid-infrared camera (ISOCAM) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), the Sb LINER galaxy NGC 7331 has been imaged in two broadband and four narrowband filters between 6.75 and 15 microns. These maps show a prominent circumnuclear ring of radius 0.25 arcminutes X 0.75 arcminutes (1.1 X 3.3 kpc) encircling an extended central source. The 7.7 and 11.3 micron dust emission features are strong in this galaxy, contributing approximately 1/3 of the total IRAS 12 micron broadband flux from this galaxy. In contrast to starburst galaxies, the 15 micron continuum is weak in NGC 7331. The mid-infrared spectrum does not vary dramatically with position in this quiescent galaxy, showing neither large-scale destruction of the carriers of the emission bands or a large increase in the 15 micron continuum in the star forming ring. In the bulge, there is some enhancement of the 6.75 micron flux, probably because of contributions from photospheric light, however, the 11.3 micron dust feature is also seen, showing additional emission from interstellar or circumstellar dust.

  6. Autonomous Observing and Control Systems for PAIRITEL, a 1.3m Infrared Imaging Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. S. Bloom; Dan L. Starr; Cullen H. Blake; M. F. Skrutskie; Emilio E. Falco

    2005-11-30

    The Peters Automated Infrared Imaging Telescope (PAIRITEL) is the first meter-class telescope operating as a fully robotic IR imaging system. Dedicated in October 2004, PAIRITEL began regular observations in mid-December 2004 as part of a 1.5 year commissioning period. The system was designed to respond without human intervention to new gamma-ray burst transients: this milestone was finally reached on November 9, 2005 but the telescope had a number of semi-automated sub-10 minute responses throughout early commissioning. When not operating in Target of Opportunity mode, PAIRITEL performs a number of queue scheduled transient monitoring campaigns. To achieve this level of automation, we have developed communicating tools to connect the various sub-systems: an intelligent queue scheduling database, run-time configurable observation sequence software, a data reduction pipeline, and a master state machine which monitors and controls all functions within and affecting the observatory.

  7. Ash plume properties retrieved from infrared images: a forward and inverse modeling approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerminara, Matteo; Valade, Sébastien; Harris, Andrew J L

    2014-01-01

    We present a coupled fluid-dynamic and electromagnetic model for volcanic ash plumes. In a forward approach, the model is able to simulate the plume dynamics from prescribed input flow conditions and generate the corresponding synthetic thermal infrared (TIR) image, allowing a comparison with field-based observations. An inversion procedure is then developed to retrieve ash plume properties from TIR images. The adopted fluid-dynamic model is based on a one-dimensional, stationary description of a self-similar (top-hat) turbulent plume, for which an asymptotic analytical solution is obtained. The electromagnetic emission/absorption model is based on the Schwarzschild's equation and on Mie's theory for disperse particles, assuming that particles are coarser than the radiation wavelength and neglecting scattering. [...] Application of the inversion procedure to an ash plume at Santiaguito volcano (Guatemala) has allowed us to retrieve the main plume input parameters, namely the initial radius $b_0$, velocity $U_...

  8. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K

    2010-03-26

    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  9. Uncooled thin film infrared imaging device with aerogel thermal isolation: Deposition and planarization techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sriram, C.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Bullington, J.A. [AMMPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors have successfully integrated a thermally insulating silica aerogel thin film into a new uncooled monolithic thin film infrared (IR) imaging device. Compared to other technologies (bulk ceramic and microbridge), use of an aerogel layer provides superior thermal isolation of the pyroelectric imaging element from the relatively massive heat sinking integrated circuit. This results in significantly higher thermal and temporal resolutions. They have calculated noise equivalent temperature differences of 0.04--0.10 C from a variety of Pb{sub x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PZT) and Pb{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PLZT) pyroelectric imaging elements in monolithic structures. In addition, use of aerogels results in an easier, less expensive fabrication process and a more robust device. Fabrication of these monolithic devices entails sol-gel deposition of the aerogel, sputter deposition of the electrodes, and solution chemistry deposition of the pyroelectric imaging elements. Uniform pyroelectric response is achieved across the device by use of appropriate planarization techniques. These deposition and planarization techniques are described. Characterization of the individual layers and monolithic structure using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Byer-Roundy techniques also is discussed.

  10. Infrared retina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay (Albuquerque, NM); Hayat, Majeed M. (Albuquerque, NM); Tyo, J. Scott (Tucson, AZ); Jang, Woo-Yong (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-12-06

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  11. Localization of polyhydroxybutyrate in sugarcane using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Smith-Moritz, Andreia; Singh, Seema; McQualter, Richard; Scheller, Henrik V.; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-07-10

    Background: Slow-degrading, fossil fuel-derived plastics can have deleterious effects on the environment, especially marine ecosystems. The production of bio-based, biodegradable plastics from or in plants can assist in supplanting those manufactured using fossil fuels. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one such biodegradable polyester that has been evaluated as a possible candidate for relinquishing the use of environmentally harmful plastics. Results: PHB, possessing similar properties to polyesters produced from non-renewable sources, has been previously engineered in sugarcane, thereby creating a high-value co-product in addition to the high biomass yield. This manuscript illustrates the coupling of a Fourier-transform infrared microspectrometer, equipped with a focalmore »plane array (FPA) detector, with multivariate imaging to successfully identify and localize PHB aggregates. Principal component analysis imaging facilitated the mining of the abundant quantity of spectral data acquired using the FPA for distinct PHB vibrational modes. PHB was measured in the chloroplasts of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, acquiescent with previously evaluated plant samples. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the power of IR microspectroscopy to rapidly image plant sections to provide a snapshot of the chemical composition of the cell. While PHB was localized in sugarcane, this method is readily transferable to other value-added co-products in different plants.« less

  12. Near to the Brain: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Lightweight Brain Imaging Technique for Visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Near to the Brain: Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Lightweight Brain Imaging Technique conditions. The brain activity plot is the mean change in deoxygenated hemoglobin over 130 trials of each and position judgment tasks in pie charts and bar graphs. The brain activity plot is the mean chance

  13. VLBI Imaging of Luminous Infrared Galaxies: AGN Cores in Mrk231, UGC 5101 & NGC 7469

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carol J. Lonsdale; Colin J. Lonsdale; Harding E. Smith; Philip J. Diamond

    2003-04-17

    We report 18cm VLBI continuum imaging observations at 5 mas resolution for UGC 5101, NGC 7469, and Mrk 231, all part of a sample of Luminous Infrared Galaxies which have been shown to have strong VLBI radio cores. The radio morphology of these three systems on VLBI scales is AGN-like, with well-defined ridgelines and high-brightness yet spatially resolved components. The structure and flux densities of these VLBI components are not consistent with starburst generated radio supernovae of the type found in Arp 220. On scales of 100pc the radio continuum in all three objects appears to be dominated by an AGN, not a starburst. Radio emission on larger scales may well originate in a less compact circumnuclear star-forming region. Confirming and extending VLBI imaging of Mrk 231 by Ulvestad et al. (1999), our continuum image shows a triple structure, with a core and two lobes, classifying it as a Compact Symmetric Object (CS0). If the southern (primary) lobe/hot-spot in Mrk 231 is confined by ram pressure, we estimate a lobe advance speed, $v_a \\sim 10^{-4}c$, and an age for the jet/compact source, $< 10^6 yr$. We have also imaged the 1667 MHz OH maser emission in Mrk 231, which is extended on scales of 50--100 milliarcsec (40--80 pc) and probably coincides with the inner region of the disk which is seen in CO emission and HI absorption. Among OH megamasers studied at high sensitivity with mas resolution, Mrk 231 is unique in the stringent upper limits placed upon the flux density of compact OH structures of the type found in Arp 220 and other LIGs. It is possible that the circumnuclear environment of Mrk 231 has been sufficiently disrupted by the emergent QSO that the cool, dense clouds necessary for such compact masers no longer exist.

  14. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, M. W.; Sahai, R.; Davis, J.; Livingston, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Lykou, F. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria); DE Buizer, J. [USRA SOFIA Science Center, M/S 211-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Division of Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Keller, L. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Adams, J.; Gull, G.; Henderson, C.; Herter, T.; Schoenwald, J., E-mail: Michael.W.Werner@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 ?m. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ?4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 ?m and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 ?m is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 ?m) and large (>1 ?m) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  15. High Resolution Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Pistol Nebula Evidence for Ejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figer, D F; Geballe, T R; Rich, R M; Serabyn, E; McLean, I S; Pütter, R C; Yahil, A; Figer, Donald F.; Morris, Mark; Serabyn, Eugene; Lean, Ian S. Mc; Yahil, Amos

    1999-01-01

    We present new NICMOS/HST infrared images and CGS4/UKIRT Br-alpha (4.05 um) spectroscopy of the Pistol Star and its associated nebula, finding strong evidence to support the hypothesis that the Pistol Nebula was ejected from the Pistol Star. The Pa-alpha NICMOS image shows that the nebula completely surrounds the Pistol Star, although the line intensity is much stronger on its northern and western edges. The Br-alpha spectra show the classical ring-like signature of quasi-spherical expansion, with weak blueshifted emission (V_max approx -60 km/s) and strong redshifted emission (V_max approx +10 km/s), where the velocities are with respect to the velocity of the Pistol Star; further, the redshifted emission appears to be "flattened" in the position-velocity diagram. These data suggest that the nebula was ejected from the star several thousand years ago, with a velocity between the current terminal velocity of the stellar wind (95 km/s) and the present expansion velocity of gas in the outer shell of the nebula ...

  16. New insights on the formation and assembly of M83 from deep near-infrared imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dale, Daniel A.; Staudaher, Shawn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Bullock, James S. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J., E-mail: barneskl@astro.indiana.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present results from new near-infrared (NIR) imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope that trace the low surface brightness features of the outer disk and stellar stream in the nearby spiral galaxy, M83. Previous observations have shown that M83 hosts a faint stellar stream to the northwest and a star-forming disk that extends to ?3 times the optical radius (R{sub 25}). By combining the NIR imaging with archival far-ultraviolet (FUV) and H I imaging, we study the star formation history of the system. The NIR surface brightness profile has a break at ?5.'8 (equivalent to 8.1 kpc and 0.9 R{sub 25}) with a shallower slope beyond this radius, which may result from the recent accretion of gas onto the outer disk and subsequent star formation. Additionally, the ratio of FUV to NIR flux increases with increasing radius in several arms throughout the extended star forming disk, indicating an increase in the ratio of the present to past star formation rate with increasing radius. This sort of inside-out disk formation is consistent with observations of gas infall onto the outer disk of M83. Finally, the flux, size, and shape of the stellar stream are measured and the origin of the stream is explored. The stream has a total NIR flux of 11.6 mJy, which implies a stellar mass of 1 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ?} in an area subtending ?80°. No FUV emission is detected in the stream at a level greater than the noise, confirming an intermediate-age or old stellar population in the stream.

  17. High Resolution Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Pistol Nebula: Evidence for Ejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donald F. Figer; Mark Morris; T. R. Geballe; R. Michael Rich; Eugene Serabyn; Ian S. McLean; R. C. Puetter; Amos Yahil

    1999-06-29

    We present new NICMOS/HST infrared images and CGS4/UKIRT Br-alpha (4.05 um) spectroscopy of the Pistol Star and its associated nebula, finding strong evidence to support the hypothesis that the Pistol Nebula was ejected from the Pistol Star. The Pa-alpha NICMOS image shows that the nebula completely surrounds the Pistol Star, although the line intensity is much stronger on its northern and western edges. The Br-alpha spectra show the classical ring-like signature of quasi-spherical expansion, with weak blueshifted emission (V_max approx -60 km/s) and strong redshifted emission (V_max approx +10 km/s), where the velocities are with respect to the velocity of the Pistol Star; further, the redshifted emission appears to be "flattened" in the position-velocity diagram. These data suggest that the nebula was ejected from the star several thousand years ago, with a velocity between the current terminal velocity of the stellar wind (95 km/s) and the present expansion velocity of gas in the outer shell of the nebula (60 km/s). The Pa-alpha image reveals several emission-line stars in the region, including two newly-identified emission-line stars north of the Pistol Star with spectral types earlier than WC8 (T_eff > 50,000 K). The presence of these stars, the morphology of the Pa-alpha emission, and the velocity field in the gas suggest that the side of the nebula furthest from us is approaching, and being ionized by, the hot stars of the Quintuplet, and that the highest velocity redshifted gas has been decelerated by winds from the Quintuplet stars. We also discuss the possibility that the nebular gas might be magnetically confined by the ambient magnetic field delineated by the nearby nonthermal filaments.

  18. THERMAP: a mid-infrared spectro-imager for space missions to small bodies in the inner solar system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groussin, O; Helbert, J; Reynaud, J -L; Levacher, P; García-Talavera, M Reyes; Alí-Lagoa, V; Blanc, P -E; Brageot, E; Davidsson, B; Delbó, M; Deleuze, M; Delsanti, A; Garcia, J J Diaz; Dohlen, K; Ferrand, D; Green, S; Jorda, L; Álvarez, E Joven; Knollenberg, J; Kührt, E; Lamy, P; Lellouch, E; Merrer, J Le; Marty, B; Mas, G; Rossin, C; Rozitis, B; Sunshine, J; Vernazza, P; Vives, S

    2015-01-01

    We present THERMAP, a mid-infrared (8-16 {\\mu}m) spectro-imager for space missions to small bodies in the inner solar system, developed in the framework of the MarcoPolo-R asteroid sample return mission. THERMAP is very well suited to characterize the surface thermal environment of a NEO and to map its surface composition. The instrument has two channels, one for imaging and one for spectroscopy: it is both a thermal camera with full 2D imaging capabilities and a slit spectrometer. THERMAP takes advantage of the recent technological developments of uncooled microbolometers detectors, sensitive in the mid-infrared spectral range. THERMAP can acquire thermal images (8-18 {\\mu}m) of the surface and perform absolute temperature measurements with a precision better than 3.5 K above 200 K. THERMAP can acquire mid-infrared spectra (8-16 {\\mu}m) of the surface with a spectral resolution {\\Delta}{\\lambda} of 0.3 {\\mu}m. For surface temperatures above 350 K, spectra have a signal-to-noise ratio >60 in the spectral rang...

  19. Book Review: Reiner Salzer and Heinz W. Siesler (Eds.): Infrared and Raman spectroscopic imaging, 2nd ed.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moore, David Steven

    2015-05-10

    This second edition of "Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging" propels practitioners in that wide-ranging field, as well as other readers, to the current state of the art in a well-produced and full-color, completely revised and updated, volume. This new edition chronicles the expanded application of vibrational spectroscopic imaging from yesterday's time-consuming point-by-point buildup of a hyperspectral image cube, through the improvements afforded by the addition of focal plane arrays and line scan imaging, to methods applicable beyond the diffraction limit, instructs the reader on the improved instrumentation and image and data analysis methods, and expounds on their application to fundamentalmore »biomedical knowledge, food and agricultural surveys, materials science, process and quality control, and many others.« less

  20. Near-Infrared Imaging of the Central Regions of Metal-Poor Inner Spheroid Globular Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Davidge

    2001-04-26

    JHK images obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Adaptive Optics Bonnette (AOB) are used to investigate the near-infrared photometric properties of red giant branch (RGB) and horizontal branch (HB) stars in eight metal-poor globular clusters with R_GC < 2 kpc. The slope of the RGB on the (K, J-K) CMDs confirms the metal-poor nature of these clusters, four of which appear to have metallicities comparable to M92. The luminosity functions of RGB stars in inner spheroid and outer halo clusters have similar slopes, although there is a tendency for core-collapsed clusters to have slightly flatter luminosity functions than non-collapsed clusters. The distribution of red HB stars on the (K, J-K) CMDs of inner spheroid clusters with [Fe/H] ~ -1.5 is very different from that of clusters with [Fe/H] ~ -2.2, suggesting that metallicity is the main parameter defining HB content among these objects. The RGB-bump is detected in four of the inner spheroid clusters, and this feature is used to compute distances to these objects. Finally, the specific frequency of globular clusters in the inner Galaxy is discussed in the context of the early evolution of the bulge. If the globular cluster formation efficiency for the inner Galaxy is similar to that measured in other spheroidal systems, then the main body of the bulge could have formed from gas that was chemically enriched in situ.

  1. Surface geometry of protoplanetary disks inferred from near-infrared imaging polarimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takami, Michihiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Gu, Pin-Gao; Karr, Jennifer L.; Chapillon, Edwige; Tang, Ya-Wen [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Dong, Ruobing [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hashimoto, Jun [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St. Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Akiyama, Eiji; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Itoh, Youchi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Carson, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Follette, Katherine B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Sitko, Michael [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Janson, Markus [Astrophysics Research Center, Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96402 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki, E-mail: hiro@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present a new method of analysis for determining the surface geometry of five protoplanetary disks observed with near-infrared imaging polarimetry using Subaru-HiCIAO. Using as inputs the observed distribution of polarized intensity (PI), disk inclination, assumed properties for dust scattering, and other reasonable approximations, we calculate a differential equation to derive the surface geometry. This equation is numerically integrated along the distance from the star at a given position angle. We show that, using these approximations, the local maxima in the PI distribution of spiral arms (SAO 206462, MWC 758) and rings (2MASS J16042165-2130284, PDS 70) are associated with local concave-up structures on the disk surface. We also show that the observed presence of an inner gap in scattered light still allows the possibility of a disk surface that is parallel to the light path from the star, or a disk that is shadowed by structures in the inner radii. Our analysis for rings does not show the presence of a vertical inner wall as often assumed in studies of disks with an inner gap. Finally, we summarize the implications of spiral and ring structures as potential signatures of ongoing planet formation.

  2. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2012-10-30

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  3. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter

    2013-07-16

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  4. Three-dimensional molecular imaging by infrared laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Nemes, Peter (Silver Spring, MD)

    2011-06-21

    The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).

  5. Research Announcement: Finite-time Blow Up and Long-wave Unstable Thin Film Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Chugunova; M. C. Pugh; Roman M. Taranets

    2010-08-02

    We study short--time existence, long--time existence, finite speed of propagation, and finite--time blow--up of nonnegative solutions for long-wave unstable thin film equations $h_t = -a_0(h^n h_{xxx})_x - a_1(h^m h_x)_x$ with $n>0$, $a_0 > 0$, and $a_1 >0$. The existence and finite speed of propagation results extend those of [Comm Pure Appl Math 51:625--661, 1998]. For $0

  6. M13 Phage-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes As Nanoprobes for Second Near-Infrared Window Fluorescence Imaging of Targeted Tumors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Hyunjung

    Second near-infrared (NIR) window light (950–1400 nm) is attractive for in vivo fluorescence imaging due to its deep penetration depth in tissues and low tissue autofluorescence. Here we show genetically engineered ...

  7. Infrared lock-in carrierography ,,photocarrier radiometric imaging... of Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    , Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies (CADIFT), University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada a near-infrared NIR InGaAs camera and a spread superband gap laser beam as an optoelectronic source electric fields applied to solar cells through their electrical contacts to infrared radia- tion emitted

  8. Near-Infrared Adaptive Optics Imaging of the Central Regions of Nearby Sc Galaxies: I. M33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Davidge

    1999-10-18

    Near-infrared images obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Adaptive Optics Bonnette (AOB) are used to investigate the stellar content within 18 arcsec of the center of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. AGB stars with near-infrared spectral-energy distributions similar to those of giants in the solar neighborhood and Baade's Window are detected over most of the field. The bolometric luminosity function (LF) of these stars has a discontinuity near M_{bol} = -5.25, and comparisons with evolutionary tracks suggest that most of the AGB stars formed in a burst of star formation 1 - 3 Gyr in the past. The images are also used to investigate the integrated near-infrared photometric properties of the nucleus and the central light concentration. The nucleus is bluer than the central light concentration, in agreement with previous studies at visible wavelengths. The CO index of the central light concentration 0.5 arcsec from the galaxy center is 0.05, which corresponds to [Fe/H] = -1.2 for simple stellar systems. Hence, the central light concentration could not have formed from the chemically-enriched material that dominates the present-day inner disk of M33.

  9. In A Different Light: An Examination of Artifacts Using Affordable Digital Infrared Imaging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuellar, Samuel Marshall

    2015-04-29

    the use of various filters in front of the camera sensor, allowing only light within the ‘visible’ range to pass. However, by replacing the IR and UV filters with one designed to block light in the visible spectrum, a camera capable of photographing... relying on infrared- sensitive films, the electronic sensors of digital cameras retain sensitivity into ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) areas of the EM spectrum. Manufacturers limit these extended EM spectrum ranges from affecting photographs through...

  10. A surface renewal model to analyze infrared image sequences of the ocean surface for the study of air-sea heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    A surface renewal model to analyze infrared image sequences of the ocean surface for the study on a model of surface renewal. Through the use of digital image processing techniques, temporally in which the surface renewal model is applicable. Experimental evidence is presented for the probability

  11. Restoration of chopped and nodded images in infrared astronomy This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertero, Mario

    Restoration of chopped and nodded images in infrared astronomy This article has been downloaded Problems 15 (1999) 345­372. Printed in the UK PII: S0266-5611(99)97670-0 Restoration of chopped and nodded-called chopped and nodded images, present large negative values and provide reliable representations uniquely

  12. Photoacoustic contrast imaging of biological tissues with nanodiamonds fabricated for high near-infrared absorbance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Su, Long-Jyun; Ren, Shengqiang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Yang, Xinmai; Forrest, M. Laird

    2013-02-12

    Radiation-damaged nanodiamonds (DNDs) are potentially ideal optical contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in biological tissues due to their low toxicity and high optical absorbance. PA imaging contrast agents have been limited to quantum...

  13. Photoacoustic contrast imaging of biological tissues with nanodiamonds fabricated for high near-infrared absorbance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Su, Long-Jyun; Ren, Shenqiang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Yang, Xinmai; Forrest, Marcus Laird

    2013-02-01

    Radiation-damaged nanodiamonds (DNDs) are potentially ideal optical contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in biological tissues due to their low toxicity and high optical absorbance. PA imaging contrast agents have been limited to quantum...

  14. Synchrotron based infrared imaging and spectroscopy via focal plane array on live fibroblasts in D2O enriched medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaroni, Luca; Zlateva, Theodora; Sarafimov, Blagoj; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Wehbe, Katia; Hegg, Eric L.; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2014-03-26

    We tested the viability of using synchrotron based infrared imaging to study biochemical processes inside living cells. As a model system, we studied fibroblast cells exposed to a medium highly enriched with D2O. We could show that the experimental technique allows us to reproduce at the cellular level measurements that are normally performed on purified biological molecules. We can obtain information about lipid conformation and distribution, kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and the formation of concentration gradients of H and O isotopes in water that are associated with cell metabolism. The implementation of the full field technique in a sequential imaging format gives a description of cellular biochemistry and biophysics that contains both spatial and temporal information.

  15. A Fast and Selective Near-Infrared Fluorescent Sensor for Multicolor Imaging of Biological Nitroxyl (HNO)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrobel, Alexandra T.

    The first near-infrared fluorescent turn-on sensor for the detection of nitroxyl (HNO), the one-electron reduced form of nitric oxide (NO), is reported. The new copper-based probe, CuDHX1, contains a dihydroxanthene (DHX) ...

  16. Two Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift ~2 : Improved Classification and Redshift Determination with Medium-band Infrared Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodney, Steven A; Scolnic, Daniel M; Jones, David O; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Molino, Alberto; McCully, Curtis; Mobasher, Bahram; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Graur, Or; Hayden, Brian; Casertano, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We present two supernovae (SNe) discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), an HST multi-cycle treasury program. We classify both objects as Type Ia SNe and find redshifts of z = 1.80+-0.02 and 2.26 +0.02 -0.10, the latter of which is the highest redshift Type Ia SN yet seen. Using light curve fitting we determine luminosity distances and find that both objects are consistent with a standard Lambda-CDM cosmological model. These SNe were observed using the HST Wide Field Camera 3 infrared detector (WFC3-IR), with imaging in both wide- and medium-band filters. We demonstrate that the classification and redshift estimates are significantly improved by the inclusion of single-epoch medium-band observations. This medium-band imaging approximates a very low resolution spectrum (lambda/delta lambda ~ 100) which can isolate broad spectral absorption features that differentiate Type Ia SNe from their most common core collapse cousins...

  17. Infrared Cloud Imager Measurements of Cloud Statistics from the 2003 Cloudiness Intercomparison Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THEVorticesInformation| U.S. DOE OfficeInfrared

  18. Polarization-dependent wavelength-selective structures for multispectral polarimetric infrared imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunmeyer, David Richard, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    The need for compact, rugged, low-cost multispectral-polarimetric filtering technology exists in both the civilian and defense communities. Such technology can be used for object detection, object recognition, and image ...

  19. Near-infrared InGaAs detectors for background-limited imaging and photometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Peter W.

    Originally designed for night-vision equipment, InGaAs detectors are beginning to achieve background-limited performance in broadband imaging from the ground. The lower cost of these detectors can enable multi-band ...

  20. Phase transition in bulk single crystals and thin films of VO2 by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Mengkun; Sternbach, Aaron J.; Wagner, Martin; Slusar, Tetiana V.; Kong, Tai; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Qazilbash, M. M.; McLeod, Alexander; Fei, Zhe; et al

    2015-06-29

    We have systematically studied a variety of vanadium dioxide (VO2) crystalline forms, including bulk single crystals and oriented thin films, using infrared (IR) near-field spectroscopic imaging techniques. By measuring the IR spectroscopic responses of electrons and phonons in VO2 with sub-grain-size spatial resolution (~20nm), we show that epitaxial strain in VO2 thin films not only triggers spontaneous local phase separations, but leads to intermediate electronic and lattice states that are intrinsically different from those found in bulk. Generalized rules of strain- and symmetry-dependent mesoscopic phase inhomogeneity are also discussed. Furthermore, these results set the stage for a comprehensive understanding ofmore »complex energy landscapes that may not be readily determined by macroscopic approaches.« less

  1. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma using a near-infrared caspase-9 probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Qiuhong; Cui, Huizhong; Cai, Shuang; Yang, Xinmai; Forrest, Marcus Laird

    2011-10-27

    of surgical biopsies and secondary responses, such as morphological changes, are used to verify efficacy of a treatment. Here, we developed a novel near-infrared dye-based imaging probe to directly detect apoptosis with high specificity in cancer cells...

  2. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, III: MIRIM, The MIRI Imager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchet, P; Lagage, P -O; Amiaux, J; Augueres, J -L; Bauwens, E; Blommaert, J A D L; Chen, C H; Detre, O H; Dicken, D; Dubreuil, D; Galdemard, Ph; Gastaud, R; Glasse, A; Gordon, K D; Gougnaud, F; Guillard, P; Justtanont, K; Krause, O; Leboeuf, D; Longval, Y; Martin, L; Mazy, E; Moreau, V; Olofsson, G; Ray, T P; Reess, J -M; Renotte, E; Ressler, M E; Ronayette, S; Salasca, S; Scheithauer, S; Sykes, J; Thelen, M P; Wells, M; Wright, D; Wright, G S

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe the MIRI Imager module (MIRIM), which provides broad-band imaging in the 5 - 27 microns wavelength range for the James Webb Space Telescope. The imager has a 0"11 pixel scale and a total unobstructed view of 74"x113". The remainder of its nominal 113"x113" field is occupied by the coronagraphs and the low resolution spectrometer. We present the instrument optical and mechanical design. We show that the test data, as measured during the test campaigns undertaken at CEA-Saclay, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, indicate that the instrument complies with its design requirements and goals. We also discuss the operational requirements (multiple dithers and exposures) needed for optimal scientific utilization of the MIRIM.

  3. Near-Infrared Imaging Polarmetry of LkCa 15: A Possible Wwarped Inner Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OH, Daehyun; Tamura, Motohide; Winsiewski, John; Akiyama, Eiji; Currie, Thayne; Mayama, Satoshi; Takami, Michihiro; Thalmann, Christian; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph C; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mcelwain, Michael W; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    We present high-contrast H-band polarized intensity images of the transitional disk around the young solar-like star LkCa 15. By utilizing Subaru/HiCIAO for polarimetric differential imaging, both the angular resolution and the inner working angle reach 0.07" and r=0.1", respectively. We obtained a clearly resolved gap (width <~ 27 AU) at ~ 48 AU from the central star. This gap is consistent with images reported in previous studies. We also confirmed the existence of a bright inner disk with a misaligned position angle of 13+/-4 degree with respect to that of the outer disk, i.e., the inner disk is possibly warped. The large gap and the warped inner disk both point to the existence of a multiple planetary system with a mass of <~1Mjup.

  4. FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Bradley M.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong; Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNL’s Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and waveguide couplers. Optical metrology tools were also developed to characterize optical waveguide structures and LWIR optical components.

  5. WAHRSIS: A Low-cost, High-resolution Whole Sky Imager With Near-Infrared Capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winkler, Stefan

    community for a variety of applications and domains, such as aviation, weather prediction, and solar energy Dev,a Florian M. Savoy,b Yee Hui Lee,a Stefan Winklerb aSchool of Electrical and Electronic of automatic whole sky imagers have been developed at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography, University

  6. The environment of the fast rotating star Achernar - High-resolution thermal infrared imaging with VISIR in BURST mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Kervella; Armando Domiciano De Souza

    2007-10-28

    Context: The geometry of the circumstellar envelopes (CSE) surrounding Be stars is still uncertain, although it is often assumed that they are formed by a disk around the stellar equator and a hot polar wind. Achernar (Alpha Eri) is the nearest Be star, and we recently detected a CSE using near-IR interferometry. Aims: Our initial goal was to constrain the geometry and flux contribution of the CSE of Achernar at distances of a few tens of AU from the star, in the thermal IR domain to complement our near-IR interferometric observations. Methods: We obtained diffraction-limited images of Achernar in the thermal infrared using VISIR at the VLT. In order to freeze the turbulence, we used the BURST mode of this instrument. Results: The images obtained in the PAH1 band show a point-like source located 0.280" north-west of Achernar (projected linear separation of 12.3 AU). Its emission is 1.8 % of the flux of Achernar in this band, but is not detected in the PAH2, SiC and NeII bands. We also provide new thermal IR photometry of Achernar in four bands. Conclusions: Being aligned with the expected azimuth of the equatorial plane of Achernar, the detected source could be a main sequence stellar companion. In this case, it apparent brightness would correspond to an A7V spectral type.

  7. The Water Abundance of the Directly Imaged Substellar Companion {\\kappa} And b Retrieved from a Near Infrared Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todorov, Kamen O; Pineda, Jaime E; Meyer, Michael R; Quanz, Sascha P; Hinkley, Sasha; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, spectral retrieval has proven to be a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties and atmospheric compositions of extrasolar planet atmospheres from observed spectra, primarily for transiting objects but also increasingly for directly imaged planets and brown dwarfs. Despite its strengths, this approach has been applied to only about a dozen targets. Determining the abundances of the main carbon and oxygen-bearing compounds in a planetary atmosphere can lead to the C/O ratio of the object, which is crucial in understanding its formation and migration history. We present a retrieval analysis on the published near-infrared spectrum of {\\kappa} And b, a directly imaged substellar companion to a young B9 star. We fit the emission spectrum model utilizing a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We estimate the abundance of water vapor, and its uncertainty, in the atmosphere of the object. We also place upper limits on the abundances of carbon dioxide and methane and constrain the pressure-temper...

  8. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Showing Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leskovjan, A.C.; Kretlow, A.; Miller, L.M.

    2010-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to visualize the unsaturated lipid content in specific regions of the hippocampus in the PSAPP mouse model of AD as a function of plaque formation. Specifically, the unsaturated lipid content was imaged using the olefinic {double_bond}CH stretching mode at 3012 cm{sup -1}. The axonal, dendritic, and somatic layers of the hippocampus were examined in the mice at 13, 24, 40, and 56 weeks old. Results showed that lipid unsaturation in the axonal layer was significantly increased with normal aging in control (CNT) mice (p < 0.01) but remained low and relatively constant in PSAPP mice. Thus, these findings indicate that unsaturated lipid content is reduced in hippocampal white matter during amyloid pathogenesis and that maintaining unsaturated lipid content early in the disease may be critical in avoiding progression of the disease.

  9. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM); Costin, Laurence S. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moya, Mary M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mercier, Jeffrey A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  10. Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors J. W. Cleary1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors J. W. Cleary1 , R. E. Peale1,2 , D, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816, U.S.A. 3 AFRL/RYHC, Sensors on silicon were evaluated as conducting hosts for surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in proposed long-wave IR

  11. The absolute age of the globular cluster M15 using near-infrared adaptive optics images from PISCES/LBT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monelli, M; Bono, G; Ferraro, I; Iannicola, G; Fiorentino, G; Arcidiacono, C; Massari, D; Boutsia, K; Briguglio, R; Busoni, L; Carini, R; Close, L; Cresci, G; Esposito, S; Fini, L; Fumana, M; Guerra, J C; Hill, J; Kulesa, C; Mannucci, F; McCarthy, D; Pinna, E; Puglisi, A; Quiros-Pacheco, F; Ragazzoni, R; Riccardi, A; Skemer, A; Xompero, M

    2015-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared (NIR) J, Ks photometry of the old, metal-poor Galactic globular cluster M\\,15 obtained with images collected with the LUCI1 and PISCES cameras available at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). We show how the use of First Light Adaptive Optics system coupled with the (FLAO) PISCES camera allows us to improve the limiting magnitude by ~2 mag in Ks. By analyzing archival HST data, we demonstrate that the quality of the LBT/PISCES color magnitude diagram is fully comparable with analogous space-based data. The smaller field of view is balanced by the shorter exposure time required to reach a similar photometric limit. We investigated the absolute age of M\\,15 by means of two methods: i) by determining the age from the position of the main sequence turn-off; and ii) by the magnitude difference between the MSTO and the well-defined knee detected along the faint portion of the MS. We derive consistent values of the absolute age of M15, that is 12.9+-2.6 Gyr and 13.3+-1.1 Gyr, respectiv...

  12. An Optical/Near-Infrared Study of Radio-Loud Quasar Environments II. Imaging Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick B. Hall; Richard F. Green

    1998-06-10

    We use optical and near-IR imaging to examine the properties of the significant excess population of K>=19 galaxies found in the fields of 31 z=1-2 radio-loud quasars by Hall, Green & Cohen (1998). The excess occurs on two spatial scales: a component at 40'' in the same fields, and a component roughly uniform to ~100'' significant compared to the galaxy surface density seen in random-field surveys in the literature. The r-K color distributions of the excess galaxy populations are indistinguishable and are significantly redder than the color distribution of the field population. The excess galaxies are consistent with being predominantly early-type galaxies at the quasar redshifts, and there is no evidence that they are associated with intervening MgII absorption systems. The average excess within 0.5 Mpc (~65'') of the quasars corresponds to Abell richness class ~0 compared to the galaxy surface density at >0.5 Mpc from the quasars, and to Abell richness class ~1.5 compared to that from the literature. We discuss the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies in fields with data in several passbands. Most candidate quasar-associated galaxies are consistent with being 2-3 Gyr old early-types at the quasar redshifts of z~1.5. However, some objects have SEDs consistent with being 4-5 Gyr old at z~1.5, and a number of others are consistent with ~2 Gyr old but dust-reddened galaxies at the quasar redshifts. These potentially different galaxy types suggest there may be considerable dispersion in the properties of early-type cluster galaxies at z~1.5. There is also a population of galaxies whose SEDs are best modelled by background galaxies at z>2.5.

  13. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF A z = 6.42 QUASAR HOST GALAXY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mechtley, M.; Windhorst, R. A.; Cohen, S. H.; Jansen, R. A.; Scannapieco, E.; Ryan, R. E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schneider, G.; Fan, X.; Hathi, N. P.; Keel, W. C.; Roettgering, H.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.; Yan, H. J.

    2012-09-10

    We report on deep near-infrared F125W (J) and F160W (H) Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images of the z = 6.42 quasar J1148+5251 to attempt to detect rest-frame near-ultraviolet emission from the host galaxy. These observations included contemporaneous observations of a nearby star of similar near-infrared colors to measure temporal variations in the telescope and instrument point-spread function (PSF). We subtract the quasar point source using both this direct PSF and a model PSF. Using direct subtraction, we measure an upper limit for the quasar host galaxy of m{sub J} > 22.8 and m{sub H} > 23.0 AB mag (2 {sigma}). After subtracting our best model PSF, we measure a limiting surface brightness from 0.''3 to 0.''5 radius of {mu}{sub J} > 23.5 and {mu}{sub H} > 23.7 AB mag arcsec{sup -2} (2 {sigma}). We test the ability of the model subtraction method to recover the host galaxy flux by simulating host galaxies with varying integrated magnitude, effective radius, and Sersic index, and conducting the same analysis. These models indicate that the surface brightness limit ({mu}{sub J} > 23.5 AB mag arcsec{sup -2}) corresponds to an integrated upper limit of m{sub J} > 22-23 AB mag, consistent with the direct subtraction method. Combined with existing far-infrared observations, this gives an infrared excess log (IRX) > 1.0 and corresponding ultraviolet spectral slope {beta} > -1.2 {+-} 0.2. These values match those of most local luminous infrared galaxies, but are redder than those of almost all local star-forming galaxies and z {approx_equal} 6 Lyman break galaxies.

  14. A reconsideration of the noise equivalent power and the data analysis procedure for the infrared imaging video bolometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandya, Shwetang N. Sano, Ryuichi; Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Pandya, Santosh P.

    2014-12-15

    The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) used for measurement of the two-dimensional (2D) radiation profiles from the Large Helical Device has been significantly upgraded recently to improve its signal to noise ratio, sensitivity, and calibration, which ultimately provides quantitative measurements of the radiation from the plasma. The reliability of the quantified data needs to be established by various checks. The noise estimates also need to be revised and more realistic values need to be established. It is shown that the 2D heat diffusion equation can be used for estimating the power falling on the IRVB foil, even with a significant amount of spatial variation in the thermal diffusivity across the area of the platinum foil found experimentally during foil calibration. The equation for the noise equivalent power density (NEPD) is re-derived to include the errors in the measurement of the thermophysical and the optical properties of the IRVB foil. The theoretical value estimated using this newly derived equation matches closely, within 5.5%, with the mean experimental value. The change in the contribution of each error term of the NEPD equation with rising foil temperature is also studied and the blackbody term is found to dominate the other terms at elevated operating temperatures. The IRVB foil is also sensitive to the charge exchange (CX) neutrals escaping from the plasma. The CX neutral contribution is estimated to be marginally higher than the noise equivalent power (NEP) of the IRVB. It is also established that the radiation measured by the IRVB originates from the impurity line radiation from the plasma and not from the heated divertor tiles. The change in the power density due to noise reduction measures such as data smoothing and averaging is found to be comparable to the IRVB NEPD. The precautions that need to be considered during background subtraction are also discussed with experimental illustrations. Finally, the analysis algorithm with all the improvements is validated and found to reproduce the input power well within 10% accuracy. This article answers many fundamental questions relevant to the IRVB and illustrates the care to be exercised while processing the IRVB data.

  15. Infrared photoconductive PbTe film processing and oxygen sensitization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klingshim, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) thermal detectors and photodetectors have significant applications including thermal imaging, infrared spectroscopy and chemical and biological sensing. In this work we focus on photodetectors, which typically ...

  16. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01

    C. Vieider, and H. Jakobsen. MEMS-based uncooled infraredin uncooled infrared imaging: A MEMS perspective. Bell Labsstudies of an uncooled MEMS capacitive infrared detector for

  17. MID-INFRARED HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF HD 114174 B: AN APPARENT AGE DISCREPANCY IN A ''SIRIUS-LIKE'' BINARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Christopher T.; Crepp, Justin R.; Skemer, Andrew; Hinz, Philip M.; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Defrere, Denis; Leisenring, Jarron; Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin; Skrutskie, Michael; Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio

    2014-03-10

    We present new observations of the faint ''Sirius-like'' companion discovered to orbit HD 114174. Previous attempts to image HD 114174 B at mid-infrared wavelengths using NIRC2 at Keck have resulted in a non-detection. Our new L'-band observations taken with the Large Binocular Telescope and L/M-band InfraRed Camera recover the companion (?L = 10.15 ± 0.15 mag, ? = 0.''675 ± 0.''016) with a high signal-to-noise ratio (10?). This measurement represents the deepest L' high-contrast imaging detection at subarcsecond separations to date, including extrasolar planets. We confirm that HD 114174 B has near-infrared colors consistent with the interpretation of a cool white dwarf (WD; J – L' = 0.76 ± 0.19 mag, K – L' = 0.64 ± 0.20). New model fits to the object's spectral energy distribution indicate a temperature T {sub eff} = 4260 ± 360 K, surface gravity log g = 7.94 ± 0.03, a cooling age t{sub c} ? 7.8 Gyr, and mass M = 0.54 ± 0.01 M {sub ?}. We find that the cooling ages given by theoretical atmospheric models do not agree with the age of HD 114174 A derived from both isochronological and gyrochronological analyses. We speculate on possible scenarios to explain the apparent age discrepancy between the primary and secondary. HD 114174 B is a nearby benchmark WD that will ultimately enable a dynamical mass estimate through continued Doppler and astrometric monitoring. Efforts to characterize its physical properties in detail will test theoretical atmospheric models and improve our understanding of WD evolution, cooling, and progenitor masses.

  18. Near-Infrared Imaging of a Group or Cluster of Galaxies at a Redshift of 2.39

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian Waddington

    1998-01-15

    At z=2.39, the cluster around 53W002 is one of the most distant groups or clusters of galaxies known to date. At this redshift the 4000A-break falls between the J and H bands, thus our infrared observations are designed to identify cluster members by a red J-H colour. Out of the 42 objects we have detected in the field, we find ten galaxies with J-H>1.0 and K>18.8, redder and fainter than the radio galaxy, and consistent with the presence of a 4000A-break at the cluster redshift. Two of these reddest galaxies have been confirmed spectroscopically. The colours, sizes and location of these infrared-selected galaxies suggest a cluster much more similar to those nearby than revealed by Hubble Space Telescope observations alone.

  19. The Use of Infrared Technology To Detect Heat Loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, K.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared refers to electro magnetic energy with a wave length longer than those of visible light. Researchers developed methods to quantify, focus and form real-time images to infrared energy. This spawned the development of infrared Thenrography...

  20. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high resolution and low noise level, but they cannot reflect information about the temperature the properties of low resolution and high noise level, but IR images can reflect information about temperature variation of objects in the daytime via high-resolution EO images. The proposed novel framework

  1. Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Window Coatings Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings 1 of 5 An oxygen plasma etcher is used to clean test substrates for window coatings. Image: Pacific Northwest...

  2. A pilot study using deep infrared imaging to constrain the star formation history of the XUV stellar populations in NGC 4625

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, Stephanie J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Bresolin, Fabio

    2014-09-20

    In a ?CDM universe, disk galaxies' outer regions are the last to form. Characterizing their contents is critical for understanding the ongoing process of disk formation, but observing outer disk stellar populations is challenging due to their low surface brightness. We present extremely deep 3.6 ?m observations (Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera) of NGC 4625, a galaxy known for its radially extended ultraviolet-emitting stellar population. We combine the new imaging with archival UV imaging from the GALEX mission to derive multi-wavelength radial profiles for NGC 4625 and compare them to stellar populations models. The colors can be explained by the young stellar population that is responsible for the UV emission and indicate that the current star formation rates in the outermost disk are recent. Extended star formation in NGC 4625 may have been initiated by an interaction with neighboring galaxies NGC 4618 and NGC 4625a, supporting speculation that minor interactions are a common trigger for outer disk star formation and late stage disk growth.

  3. Infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, C.C. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    Infrared thermography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of problems in building systems. In instances where a building owner has several large buildings, an investment in a typical $30,000 infrared system may be cost effective. In most instances, however, the rental of an infrared system or the hiring of an infrared consulting service is a cost effective alternative. As can be seen from the several applications presented here, any mechanical problem manifesting itself in an atypical temperature pattern can usually be detected. The two primary savings generated from infrared analysis of building systems are maintenance and energy.

  4. Multi-channel infrared thermometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulrickson, Michael A. (East Windsor, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    A device for measuring the two-dimensional temperature profile of a surface comprises imaging optics for generating an image of the light radiating from the surface; an infrared detector array having a plurality of detectors; and a light pipe array positioned between the imaging optics and the detector array for sampling, transmitting, and distributing the image over the detector surfaces. The light pipe array includes one light pipe for each detector in the detector array.

  5. Deep thermal infrared imaging of HR 8799 bcde: new atmospheric constraints and limits on a fifth planet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Jayawardhana, Ray; Burrows, Adam; Girard, Julien H.; Fukagawa, Misato; Sorahana, Satoko; Kuchner, Marc; Kenyon, Scott J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Itoh, Yoichi; Matsumura, Soko; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2014-11-10

    We present new L' (3.8 ?m) and Br? (4.05 ?m) data and reprocessed archival L' data for the young, planet-hosting star HR 8799 obtained with Keck/NIRC2, VLT/NaCo, and Subaru/IRCS. We detect all four HR 8799 planets in each data set at a moderate to high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ? 6-15). We fail to identify a fifth planet, 'HR 8799 f', at r < 15 AU at a 5? confidence level: one suggestive, marginally significant residual at 0.''2 is most likely a point-spread function artifact. Assuming companion ages of 30 Myr and the Baraffe planet cooling models, we rule out an HR 8799 f with a mass of 5 M{sub J} (7 M{sub J} ), 7 M{sub J} (10 M{sub J} ), or 12 M{sub J} (13 M{sub J} ) at r {sub proj} ? 12 AU, 9 AU, and 5 AU, respectively. All four HR 8799 planets have red early T dwarf-like L' – [4.05] colors, suggesting that their spectral energy distributions peak in between the L' and M' broadband filters. We find no statistically significant difference in HR 8799 cde's color. Atmosphere models assuming thick, patchy clouds appear to better match HR 8799 bcde's photometry than models assuming a uniform cloud layer. While non-equilibrium carbon chemistry is required to explain HR 8799 b and c's photometry/spectra, evidence for it from HR 8799 d and e's photometry is weaker. Future, deep-IR spectroscopy/spectrophotometry with the Gemini Planet Imager, SCExAO/CHARIS, and other facilities may clarify whether the planets are chemically similar or heterogeneous.

  6. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Thomas J. (Alamo, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  7. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  8. Near-infrared and Mid-infrared Spectroscopy with the Infrared Camera (IRC) for AKARI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youichi Ohyama; Takashi Onaka; Hideo Matsuhara; Takehiko Wada; Woojung Kim; Naofumi Fujishiro; Kazunori Uemizu; Itsuki Sakon; Martin Cohen; Miho Ishigaki; Daisuke Ishihara; Yoshifusa Ita; Hirokazu Kataza; Toshio Matsumoto; Hiroshi Murakami; Shinki Oyabu; Toshihiko Tanabe; Toshinobu Takagi; Munetaka Ueno; Fumio Usui; Hidenori Watarai; Chris P. Pearson; Norihide Takeyama; Tomoyasu Yamamuro; Yuji Ikeda

    2007-08-31

    The Infrared Camera (IRC) is one of the two instruments on board the AKARI satellite. In addition to deep imaging from 1.8-26.5um for the pointed observation mode of the AKARI, it has a spectroscopic capability in its spectral range. By replacing the imaging filters by transmission-type dispersers on the filter wheels, it provides low-resolution (lambda/d_lambda ~ 20-120) spectroscopy with slits or in a wide imaging field-of-view (approximately 10'X10'). The IRC spectroscopic mode is unique in space infrared missions in that it has the capability to perform sensitive wide-field spectroscopic surveys in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. This paper describes specifications of the IRC spectrograph and its in-orbit performance.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of infrared quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Daniel Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of synthetic methods to create application ready quantum dots (QDs) in the infrared for biological imaging and optoelectronic devices. I concentrated primarily on controlling the size ...

  10. Real Time Pedestrian Tracking using Thermal Infrared Imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Moral , Pierre

    Real Time Pedestrian Tracking using Thermal Infrared Imagery Jianfu Li 1. Key Laboratory@cqu.edu.cn Abstract--In the study, a real time pedestrian tracking algortithm is presented using thermal infrared imagery. It makes use of the characteristics of pedestrian body regions in infrared images, which is based

  11. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat Pumpsfacility doe logo CH2M-WG logoImaging

  12. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D.FoodHydropower,PrincipalIdahoImaging Print The

  13. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D.FoodHydropower,PrincipalIdahoImaging Print

  14. Implications and mitigation of model mismatch and covariance contamination for hyperspectral chemical agent detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Sidi

    Most chemical gas detection algorithms for long-wave infrared hyperspectral images assume a gas with a perfectly known spectral signature. In practice, the chemical signature is either imperfectly measured and/or exhibits ...

  15. Infrared Surveys for AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, H E

    2002-01-01

    From the earliest extragalactic infrared studies AGN have shown themselves to be strong infrared sources and IR surveys have revealed new populations of AGN. I briefly review current motivations for AGN surveys in the infrared and results from previous IR surveys. The Luminous Infrared Galaxies, which in some cases house dust-enshrouded AGN, submillimeter surveys, and recent studies of the cosmic x-ray and infrared backgrounds suggest that there is a population of highly-obscured AGN at high redshift. ISO Surveys have begun to resolve the infrared background and may have detected this obscured AGN population. New infrared surveys, particularly the SIRTF Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (SWIRE), will detect this population and provide a platform for understanding the evolution of AGN, Starbursts and passively evolving galaxies in the context of large-scale structure and environment.

  16. Infrared Surveys for AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding E. Smith

    2002-03-06

    From the earliest extragalactic infrared studies AGN have shown themselves to be strong infrared sources and IR surveys have revealed new populations of AGN. I briefly review current motivations for AGN surveys in the infrared and results from previous IR surveys. The Luminous Infrared Galaxies, which in some cases house dust-enshrouded AGN, submillimeter surveys, and recent studies of the cosmic x-ray and infrared backgrounds suggest that there is a population of highly-obscured AGN at high redshift. ISO Surveys have begun to resolve the infrared background and may have detected this obscured AGN population. New infrared surveys, particularly the SIRTF Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (SWIRE), will detect this population and provide a platform for understanding the evolution of AGN, Starbursts and passively evolving galaxies in the context of large-scale structure and environment.

  17. Infrared Inspection Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, A. B.; Bevers, D. V.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared scanning equipment has been used at Amoco's Texas City refinery since 1971 as an inspection tool. A camera scans the field of view and focuses the infrared radiation on a detector which converts the infrared signal to an electrical signal...

  18. A THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING STUDY OF VERY LOW MASS, WIDE-SEPARATION BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS STARS: CONSTRAINING CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip M.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hoffmann, William F.; Rieke, George; Rodigas, Timothy; Skemer, Andrew; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)] [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Hill, John M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kim, Jihun [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron; Meyer, Michael [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland)] [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Murray-Clay, Ruth; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Nelson, Matthew J., E-mail: vbailey@as.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-04-10

    We present a 3-5 {mu}m LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low masses/mass ratios (M{sub BD} <25 M{sub Jup}; M{sub BD}/M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1%-2%) and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4 {mu}m and 24 {mu}m photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/circumsecondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing that this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24 {mu}m excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4 {mu}m excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24 {mu}m excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4 {mu}m colors of HIP 78530B match a spectral type of M3 {+-} 2, inconsistent with the M8 spectral type assigned based on its near-IR spectrum, indicating that it may be a low-mass star rather than a BD. We present new upper limits on additional low-mass companions in the system (<5 M{sub Jup} beyond 175 AU). Finally, we examine the utility of circumsecondary disks as probes of the formation histories of wide BD companions, finding that the presence of a disk may disfavor BD formation near the primary with subsequent outward scattering.

  19. A Thermal Infrared Video Benchmark for Visual Analysis The Mathworks Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zheng

    for a comprehensive benchmark for a now popular non-visible range sensor, the thermal infrared camera. This passive sensor captures the infrared radiation emitted from the scene and its objects. Thermal imaging quantitative evaluations and comparisons of detection and tracking algorithms. A few of thermal infrared

  20. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  1. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  2. Supplemental Discussion Infrared spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael E.

    Supplemental Discussion Infrared spectroscopy We obtained near infrared reflectance spectra of 26 /~160 (see Supplemental Figure 1). The region between 1.81 and 1.89 µm has residual contamination the 50 Myr time period (see Supplemental Figure 2). doi: 10.1038/nature05619 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

  3. High speed infrared imaging system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zehnder, Alan T. (Ithaca, NY); Rosakis, Ares J. (Altadena, CA); Ravichandran, G. (Arcadia, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A system and method for radiation detection with an increased frame rate. A semi-parallel processing configuration is used to process a row or column of pixels in a focal-plane array in parallel to achieve a processing rate up to and greater than 1 million frames per second.

  4. Infrared Imaging with COAST John Stephen Young

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, John

    in the passive voice, and the only one which might make you smile. Above all, I would like to thank my supervisor-time housemates Matt, Emma (honorary housemate), Tim, Steve, and Anna. I also want to thank Dave, Pip and Fred

  5. Microbolometer-infrared imaging Stokes polarimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dereniak, Eustace L.

    35801 Grant R. Gerhart, MEMBER SPIE United States Army Tank-Automotive Research Development instrument. However, it is susceptible to misregistration errors caused by platform or scene motion. In many applications, Stokes parameters are acquired from moving platforms. To remedy concerns regarding temporal

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Cloud Infrared Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012IIIAtlantic (ACE-ENA)Study the

  7. Uncooled infrared imaging using bimaterial microcantilever arrays

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and(Conference) |Article)(Technicalproperties

  8. Long Wave Breaking Effects on Fringing Reefs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goertz, John 1985-

    2012-12-12

    Modeling of wave energy transformation and breaking on fringing reefs is inherently difficult due to the unique topography of reefs. Prior methods of determining dissipation are based on empirical data from gently sloping beaches and offer only bulk...

  9. Objective assessment of image quality (OAIQ) in fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahu, Amit K.

    2009-05-15

    -enhanced optical imaging in the clinic. Herein, the imaging system is simulated by the diffusion approximation of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation, which describes near infra-red light propagation through clinically relevant volumes. We predict...

  10. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ACS IMAGING OF THE GOALS SAMPLE: QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.-C.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C. E-mail: aevans@virginia.edu; and others

    2013-05-10

    A Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys study of the structural properties of 85 luminous and ultraluminous (L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun }) infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample is presented. Two-dimensional GALFIT analysis has been performed on F814W ''I-band'' images to decompose each galaxy, as appropriate, into bulge, disk, central point-spread function (PSF) and stellar bar components. The fraction of bulge-less disk systems is observed to be higher in LIRGs (35%) than in ULIRGs (20%), with the disk+bulge systems making up the dominant fraction of both LIRGs (55%) and ULIRGs (45%). Further, bulge+disk systems are the dominant late-stage merger galaxy type and are the dominant type for LIRGs and ULIRGs at almost every stage of galaxy-galaxy nuclear separation. The mean I-band host absolute magnitude of the GOALS galaxies is -22.64 {+-} 0.62 mag (1.8{sup +1.4}{sub -0.4} L{sup *}{sub I}), and the mean bulge absolute magnitude in GOALS galaxies is about 1.1 mag fainter than the mean host magnitude. Almost all ULIRGs have bulge magnitudes at the high end (-20.6 to -23.5 mag) of the GOALS bulge magnitude range. Mass ratios in the GOALS binary systems are consistent with most of the galaxies being the result of major mergers, and an examination of the residual-to-host intensity ratios in GOALS binary systems suggests that smaller companions suffer more tidal distortion than the larger companions. We find approximately twice as many bars in GOALS disk+bulge systems (32.8%) than in pure-disk mergers (15.9%) but most of the disk+bulge systems that contain bars are disk-dominated with small bulges. The bar-to-host intensity ratio, bar half-light radius, and bar ellipticity in GOALS galaxies are similar to those found in nearby spiral galaxies. The fraction of stellar bars decreases toward later merger stages and smaller nuclear separations, indicating that bars are destroyed as the merger advances. In contrast, the fraction of nuclear PSFs increases toward later merger stages and is highest in late-stage systems with a single nucleus. Thus, light from an active galactic nucleus or compact nuclear star cluster is more visible at I band as ULIRGs enter their latter stages of evolution. Finally, both GOALS elliptical hosts and nearby Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ellipticals occupy the same part of the surface brightness versus half-light radius plot (i.e., the {sup K}ormendy Relation{sup )} and have similar slopes, consistent with the possibility that the GOALS galaxies belong to the same parent population as the SDSS ellipticals.

  11. Infrared source test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  12. Imaging bolometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wurden, Glen A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas.

  13. Imaging bolometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wurden, G.A.

    1999-01-19

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer is disclosed. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas. 2 figs.

  14. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  15. Autofluorescence detection and imaging of bladder cancer realized through a cystoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros G. (Livermore, CA); deVere White, Ralph W. (Sacramento, CA)

    2007-08-14

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence and utilizing interior examination techniques and equipment are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and/or tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  16. Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boas, David

    Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution States Available online 11 September 2004 Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse optical imaging currently being made and issues to consider for improving optical image quality. These include the optimal

  17. Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Near infrared surfaceplasmonpolariton with hyperbolic metamaterials....

  18. Infrared floodlight assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wierzbicki, Julian J. (Peabody, MA); Chakrabarti, Kirti B. (Danvers, MA)

    1987-09-22

    An infrared floodlight assembly (10) including a cast aluminum outer housing (11) defining a central chamber (15) therein. A floodlight (14), having a tungsten halogen lamp as the light source, is spacedly positioned within a heat conducting member (43) within chamber (15) such that the floodlight is securedly positioned in an aligned manner relative to the assembly's filter (35) and lens (12) components. The invention also includes venting means (51) to allow air passage between the interior of the member (43) and the adjacent chamber (15), as well as engagement means (85) for engaging a rear surface of the floodlight (14) to retain it firmly against an internal flange of the member (43). A reflector (61), capable of being compressed to allow insertion or removal, is located within the heat conducting member's interior between the floodlight (14) and filter (35) to reflect infrared radiation toward the filter (35) and spaced lens (12).

  19. Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Dr. Kyle J. Alvine, kyle.alvine@pnnl.gov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 21C...

  20. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise of an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.

  1. Feedback-Driven Evolution of the Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Chakrabarti; T. J. Cox; Lars Hernquist; Philip F. Hopkins; Brant Robertson; Tiziana Di Matteo

    2007-01-22

    We calculate infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from simulations of major galaxy mergers and study the effect of AGN and starburst driven feedback on the evolution of the SED as a function of time. We use a self-consistent three-dimensional radiative equilibrium code to calculate the emergent SEDs and to make images. To facilitate a simple description of our findings, we describe our results in reference to an approximate analytic solution for the far-IR SED. We focus mainly on the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) and ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) phases of evolution. We contrast the SEDs of simulations performed with AGN feedback to simulations performed with starburst driven wind feedback. We find that the feedback processes critically determine the evolution of the SED. Changing the source of illumination (whether stellar or AGN) has virtually no impact on the reprocessed far-infrared SED. We find that AGN feedback is particularly effective at dispersing gas and rapidly injecting energy into the ISM. The observational signature of such powerful feedback is a warm SED. In general, simulations performed with starburst driven winds have colder spectra and reprocess more of their emission into the infrared, resulting in higher infrared to bolometric luminosities compared to (otherwise equivalent) simulations performed with AGN feedback. We depict our results in IRAS bands, as well as in Spitzer's MIPS bands, and in Herschel's PACS bands.

  2. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerwert, Klaus

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy Klaus Gerwert, Lehrstuhl fu¨r Biophysik, Ruhr, Germany Based in part on the previous version of this Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS) article, Fourier Transform IR by Johannes Orphal. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an experimental technique

  3. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  4. IRIM -InfraRed Imaging Magnetogram The InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM) is an imaging solar spectropolarimeter employing a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) solar spectropolarimetry. IRIM is located in the NST Coudé Lab, and is fed light corrected by Adaptive

  5. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ROTATIONAL EMISSION TOWARDS TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SPITZER INFRARED...

  6. Development of fluorescent semi-conductor nanocrystal conjugates for in vitro and in vivo imaging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Hee-Sun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, also known as quantum dots (QDs), are promising imaging probes with characteristic optical properties: tunable bandgap from visible to infrared, narrow and symmetric emission features, broad ...

  7. Performance improvements of ultraviolet/infrared dual-band detectors A.G.U. Perera a,*, G. Ariyawansa a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    detection, UV imaging, solar UV detection, as well as applications for industries such as those focusing on mil- itary, agricultural, and automotive products. In the range of infrared, researchers have reported

  8. Industrial Use of Infrared Inspections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duch, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared is and has been an established technology in the military and aerospace fields. However, only relatively recently has this technology found a "use" in the industrial sector. Many reasons exist why the technology has not been used...

  9. The SNAP near infrared detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    it will detect Type Ia supernovæ between z = 1 and 1.7 andphotometry for all supernovæ. HgCdTe technology, with a cut-Keywords: Cosmology, Supernovae, Dark Energy, Near Infrared,

  10. Primer on Use of Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging for On-Site Inspections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, J R

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred in violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and to gather information which might assist in identifying the violator (CTBT, Article IV, Paragraph 35) Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging (MSIR) is allowed by the treaty to detect observables which might help reduce the search area and thus expedite an OSI and make it more effective. MSIR is permitted from airborne measurements, and at and below the surface to search for anomalies and artifacts (CTBT, Protocol, Part II, Paragraph 69b). The three broad types of anomalies and artifacts MSIR is expected to be capable of observing are surface disturbances (disturbed earth, plant stress or anomalous surface materials), human artifacts (man-made roads, buildings and features), and thermal anomalies. The purpose of this Primer is to provide technical information on MSIR relevant to its use for OSI. It is expected that this information may be used for general background information, to inform decisions about the selection and testing of MSIR equipment, to develop operational guidance for MSIR use during an OSI, and to support the development of a training program for OSI Inspectors. References are provided so readers can pursue a topic in more detail than the summary information provided here. The following chapters will provide more information on how MSIR can support an OSI (Section 2), a short summary what Multi-Spectral Imaging and Infra Red Imaging is (Section 3), guidance from the CTBT regarding the use of MSIR (Section 4), and a description of several nuclear explosion scenarios (Section 5) and consequent observables (Section 6). The remaining sections focus on practical aspects of using MSIR for an OSI, such as specification and selection of MSIR equipment, operational considerations for deployment of MISR equipment from an aircraft, and the conduct of field exercises to mature MSIR for an OSI. Finally, an appendix provides detail describing the magnitude and spatial extent of the surface shock expected from an underground nuclear explosion. If there is a seismic event or other data to suggest there has been a nuclear explosion in violation of the CTBT, an OSI may be conducted to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred and to gather information which may be useful in identifying the party responsible for conducting the explosion. The OSI must be conducted in the area where the event that triggered the inspection request occurred, and the inspected area must not exceed 1,000 square kilometers, or be more than 50 km on aside (CTBT Protocol, Part II, Paragraphs 2 and 3). One of the guiding principles for an inspection is that it be effective, minimally intrusive, timely, and cost-effective [Hawkins, Feb 1998]. In that context, MSIR is one of several technologies that can be used during an aircraft overflight to identify ground regions of high interest in a timely and cost-effective manner. This allows for an optimized inspection on the ground. The primary purpose for MSIR is to identify artifacts and anomalies that might be associated with a nuclear explosion, and to use the location of those artifacts and anomalies to reduce the search area that must be inspected from the ground. The MSIR measurements can have additional utility. The multi-spectral measurements of the ground can be used for terrain classification, which can aid in geological characterization of the Inspected Area. In conditions of where light smoke or haze is present, long-wave infrared imaging can provide better imaging of the ground than is possible with standard visible imagery.

  11. Enhanced visible and near-infrared capabilities of the JET mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomanowski, B. A. Sharples, R. M.; Meigs, A. G.; Conway, N. J.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Heesterman, P.; Kinna, D. [EURATOM Collaboration: JET-EFDA Team

    2014-11-15

    The mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy diagnostic on JET has been upgraded with a new visible and near-infrared grating and filtered spectroscopy system. New capabilities include extended near-infrared coverage up to 1875 nm, capturing the hydrogen Paschen series, as well as a 2 kHz frame rate filtered imaging camera system for fast measurements of impurity (Be II) and deuterium D?, D?, D? line emission in the outer divertor. The expanded system provides unique capabilities for studying spatially resolved divertor plasma dynamics at near-ELM resolved timescales as well as a test bed for feasibility assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy.

  12. PET/NIR Imaging DOI: 10.1002/anie.201205271

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Jianjun

    PET/NIR Imaging DOI: 10.1002/anie.201205271 Aptamer-Functionalized, Ultra-Small, Monodisperse staging.[5] Various techniques for sentinel LN imaging have been investigated, such as near-infrared (NIR of monodisperse, size-controlled silica NC probes for dual- modal LN imaging using PET and NIR fluorescence. Mono

  13. Electrically tunable infrared metamaterial devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brener, Igal; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-07-21

    A wavelength-tunable, depletion-type infrared metamaterial optical device is provided. The device includes a thin, highly doped epilayer whose electrical permittivity can become negative at some infrared wavelengths. This highly-doped buried layer optically couples with a metamaterial layer. Changes in the transmission spectrum of the device can be induced via the electrical control of this optical coupling. An embodiment includes a contact layer of semiconductor material that is sufficiently doped for operation as a contact layer and that is effectively transparent to an operating range of infrared wavelengths, a thin, highly doped buried layer of epitaxially grown semiconductor material that overlies the contact layer, and a metallized layer overlying the buried layer and patterned as a resonant metamaterial.

  14. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T; Schaich, David A

    2011-09-01

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore »does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  15. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  16. Apple detection in natural tree canopies from multimodal images J. P. Wachs1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wachs, Juan

    1 Apple detection in natural tree canopies from multimodal images J. P. Wachs1,2 , H. I. Stern2 , T apples within a tree canopy using infra-red and color images in order to achieve automated harvesting. Infra-red provides clues regarding the physical structure and location of the apples based

  17. Into the woods: visual surveillance of non-cooperative and camouflaged targets in complex outdoor settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boult, Terrance E.

    cameras, performing surveillance on vehicles at night with long-wave infrared sensors, or tracking-temporal grouping), background subtraction analyses, and an overall system evaluation. 1 Introduction There have Surveillance Fundamentals The visual surveillance problem pertains to the the use of imaging sensors to monitor

  18. Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device District: 8 Senate District: 5 Application: Nationwide Amount: $324,250 Term: November 1, 2010

  19. Drones, Infrared Imagery, and Body Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parks, L

    2015-01-01

    afar: The politics of drones and liminal security-scapes.of Communication 8 (2014) Drones, Infrared Imagery, and Body2521 1932–8036/2014FEA0002 Drones, Infrared Imagery, and

  20. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  1. Infrared Upconversion for Astronomy Robert W. Boyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Robert W.

    which collects the infrared radiation is designed so as to map each point in the field of view. Infrared radiation of frequency Figure 1. Schematic description of the upconversion process. Infrared radiation of frequency vIR is mixed with an intense laser beam of fre- quency vL in a nonlinear crystal

  2. Final LDRD report : infrared detection and power generation using self-assembled quantum dots.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Ellis, Robert; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2008-02-01

    Alternative solutions are desired for mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared radiation detection and imaging arrays. We have investigated quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) as a possible solution for long-wavelength infrared (8 to 12 {mu}m) radiation sensing. This document provides a summary for work done under the LDRD 'Infrared Detection and Power Generation Using Self-Assembled Quantum Dots'. Under this LDRD, we have developed QDIP sensors and made efforts to improve these devices. While the sensors fabricated show good responsivity at 80 K, their detectivity is limited by high noise current. Following efforts concentrated on how to reduce or eliminate this problem, but with no clear path was identified to the desired performance improvements.

  3. Fluorescence enhanced optical tomography on breast phantoms with measurements using a gain modulated intensified CCD imaging system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godavarty, Anuradha

    2005-08-29

    Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging using near-infrared (NIR) light developed for in-vivo molecular targeting and reporting of cancer provides promising opportunities for diagnostic imaging. However, prior to the ...

  4. NEAR INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY FOR BRAIN ACTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazici, Birsen

    emphasis on the techology's potential in security and defense applications. Keywords: functional brain

  5. Graphene for radio frequency electronics and infrared thermal imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Allen Long

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is two-fold: The first is to develop a reliable processing technology for CVD graphene devices for applications in graphene circuits, i.e. mixers, frequency multipliers and phase key shifters. The ...

  6. ARM - Evaluation Product - Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstps DocumentationAtlanticENA Contacts ENA Related Links(AVIRIS) ProductsAirborne

  7. Minisuperspace models as infrared contributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A direct correspondence of quantum mechanics as a minisuperspace model for a self-interacting scalar quantum-field theory is established by computing, in several models, the infrared contributions to 1-loop effective potentials of Coleman--Weinberg type. A minisuperspace approximation rather than truncation is thereby obtained. By this approximation, the spatial averaging scale of minisuperspace models is identified with an infrared scale (but not a regulator or cut-off) delimiting the modes included in the minisuperspace model. Some versions of the models studied here have discrete space or modifications of the Hamiltonian expected from proposals of loop quantum gravity. They shed light on the question of how minisuperspace models of quantum cosmology can capture features of full quantum gravity. While it is shown that modifications of the Hamiltonian can well be described by minisuperspace truncations, some related phenomena such as signature change, confirmed and clarified here for modified scalar field th...

  8. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lashley, Jason Charles (Sante Fe, NM); Opeil, Cyril P. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Smith, James Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-30

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  9. Infra-red detector and method of making and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Griffin, Jeffrey W. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-02-20

    A low-cost infra-red detector is disclosed including a method of making and using the same. The detector employs a substrate, a filtering layer, a converting layer, and a diverter to be responsive to wavelengths up to about 1600 nm. The detector is useful for a variety of applications including spectroscopy, imaging, and defect detection.

  10. A Wide-Field Infrared Camera for the Palomar 200-inch Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galis, Frietson

    A Wide-Field Infrared Camera for the Palomar 200-inch Telescope J. C. Wilsona, S. S. Eikenberrya, C that provides the Palomar 200-inch telescope with such an imaging capability. WIRC features a field-of-view (FOV Camera (WIRC) at the Palomar 200-inch telescope. Mounted at prime focus to take advantage

  11. Incorporation of time-dependent thermodynamic models and radiation propagation models into JR 3-D synthetic image generation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    images representing what an airborne or satellite thermal infrared imaging sensor would record. The scene sensors to a point where the model can be usedas a research tool to evaluate the limitations in our infrared (TIR) imagery generated by midwave (3-5 Rm) and longwave (8-14 pm) sensors is being increasingly

  12. Test Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Test Images. I hope to have a set of test images for the course soon. Some images are available now; some will have to wait until I can find another 100-200

  13. Infrared Observations of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Elbaz

    1997-11-28

    This short paper reviews some of the results obtained from ISO observations (ISOCAM and ISOPHOT) on galaxy clusters: Chap.1: "Intracluster dust": new evidence for the presence of dust outside galaxies. Chap.2:"Mid-Infrared Emission of Galaxies" origin of the mid-IR emission. Chap.3:"Star Formation in Nearby Clusters" correlation of the 7 and 15 microns fluxes with the SFR. Chap.4:"Star Formation in z=0.2 Galaxy clusters" Study of the mid-IR emission of A1732 and A1689. Chap.5:"Star Formation in z>0.4 Galaxy clusters" Preliminary.

  14. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  15. Image Registration for Stability Testing of MEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Blake, Peter N; Morey, Peter A; Landsman, Wayne B; Chambers, Victor J; Moseley, Samuel H; 10.1117/12.872076

    2013-01-01

    Image registration, or alignment of two or more images covering the same scenes or objects, is of great interest in many disciplines such as remote sensing, medical imaging, astronomy, and computer vision. In this paper, we introduce a new application of image registration algorithms. We demonstrate how through a wavelet based image registration algorithm, engineers can evaluate stability of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). In particular, we applied image registration algorithms to assess alignment stability of the MicroShutters Subsystem (MSS) of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This work introduces a new methodology for evaluating stability of MEMS devices to engineers as well as a new application of image registration algorithms to computer scientists.

  16. Discovery of a Boxy Peanut Shaped Bulge in the Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Quillen; L. E. Kuchinski; J. A. Frogel; D. L. DePoy

    1997-01-15

    We report on the discovery of a boxy/peanut shaped bulge in the highly inclined barred Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC~7582. The peanut shape is clearly evident in near infrared $JHK$ images but obscured by extinction from dust in visible $BVR$ images. This suggests that near infrared imaging surveys will discover a larger number of boxy/peanut morphologies than visible surveys, particularly in galaxies with heavy extinction such as NGC~7582. The bulge in NGC~7582 exhibits strong boxiness compared to other boxy/peanut shaped bulges. If the starburst was mediated by the bar, then it is likely that the bar formed in less than a few bar rotation periods or a few $\\times 10^8$ years ago. If the bar also caused the peanut, then the peanut would have formed quickly; on a timescale of a few bar rotation periods.

  17. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of California and the ALS has succeeded in probing the intrinsic electronic properties of the charge carriers in organic FETs using infrared spectromicroscopy. The...

  18. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been...

  19. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared...

  20. Nanomedicine (Lond) . Author manuscript Cancer optical imaging using fluorescent nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; medical imaging ; near-infrared ; photoacoustic ; phototherapy Developing imaging technologies in the drug development process very early in the laboratory, during the translation phase from in vitro to the acquisition of molecular information including Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single photon emission

  1. A Near Infrared Polarized Bipolar Cone in the CIRCINUS Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ruiz; D. M. Alexander; S. Young; J. Hough; S. L. Lumsden; C. A. Heisler

    2000-02-10

    We present near-infrared broad-band polarization images of the nuclear regions of the Circinus galaxy in the J, H and K bands. For the first time the south-eastern reflection cone is detected in polarized light, which is obscured at optical wavelengths behind the galactic disk. This biconical structure is clearly observed in J and H band polarized flux whilst in the K band a more compact structure is detected. Total flux J-K and H-K colour maps reveal a complex colour gradient toward the south-east direction (where the Circinus galactic disk is nearer to us). We find enhanced extinction in an arc shaped structure, at about 200pc from the nucleus, probably part of the star-formation ring. We model the polarized flux images with the scattering and torus model of Young etal, with the same basic input parameters as used by Alexander etal in the spectropolarimetry modelling of Circinus. The best fit to the polarized flux is achieved with a torus radius of ~16pc, and a visual extinction Av, through the torus, to the near-infrared emission regions of >66 mags.

  2. INFRARED MOLECULAR STARBURST FINGERPRINTS IN DEEPLY OBSCURED (ULTRA)LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NUCLEI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spoon, Henrik

    INFRARED MOLECULAR STARBURST FINGERPRINTS IN DEEPLY OBSCURED (ULTRA)LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NUCLEI: molecules 1. INTRODUCTION One of the holy grails in the study of luminous and ultra- luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) is to elucidate the true nature of the central energy source. (U)LIRGs emit

  3. First results from the MIT optical rapid imaging system (MORIS) on the IRTF: A stellar occultation by Pluto and a transit by exoplanet XO-2b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulbis, Amanda A. S.

    We present a high-speed, visible-wavelength imaging instrument: MORIS (the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System). MORIS is mounted on the 3 m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Its primary component is ...

  4. Methodology and apparatus for diffuse photon imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, S.C.; Zeng, F.; Zhao, H.L.

    1997-12-09

    Non-invasive near infrared optical medical imaging devices for both hematoma detection in the brain and early tumor detection in the breast is achieved using image reconstruction which allows a mapping of the position dependent contrast diffusive propagation constants, which are related to the optical absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient in the tissue, at near infrared wavelengths. Spatial resolutions in the range of 5 mm for adult brain sizes and breast sizes can be achieved. The image reconstruction utilizes WKB approximation on most probable diffusion paths which has as lowest order approximation the straight line-of-sight between the plurality of sources and the plurality of detectors. The WKB approximation yields a set of linear equations in which the contrast optical absorption coefficients are the unknowns and for which signals can be generated to produce a pixel map of the contrast optical resolution of the scanned tissue. 58 figs.

  5. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01

    the fabrication of the MEMS sensors from the readout system,mechanical infrared sensors based on MEMS polymer-ceramicmechanical infrared sensors based on MEMS polymer-ceramic

  6. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Ray P.; Mao, Minnie; Afonso, Jose; Cava, Antonio; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Huynh, Minh T.; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Surace, Jason; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Middelberg, Enno; Seymour, Nick

    2011-07-20

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of {approx}1 {mu}Jy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S{sub 3.6{mu}m} {approx} 0.2 {mu}Jy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  7. Characterization of NIR InGaAs imager arrays for the JDEM SNAP mission concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of NIR InGaAs imager arrays for the JDEMapplications. Keywords: NIR, InGaAs, astronomy, low-1.7um band Near Infrared (NIR) focal plane mosaic with high

  8. The Infrared Camera (IRC) deep survey in the performance verification phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takehiko Wada; Shinki Oyabu; Yoshifusa Ita; Hideo Matsuhara; Chris P. Pearson; Takashi Onaka; Youichi Ohyama; Fumihiko Usui; Naofumi Fujishiro; Daisuke Ishihara; Hirokazu Kataza; Woojung Kim; Toshio Matsumoto; Hiroshi Murakami; Itsuki Sakon; Toshihiko Tanabe; Toshinobu Takagi; Kazunori Uemizu; Munetaka Ueno; Hidenori Watarai

    2007-08-19

    We report the first results of a near- and mid- infrared deep survey with the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard AKARI in the performance verification phase. Simultaneous observations by the NIR, MIR-S and MIR-L channels of the IRC with effective integration times of 4529, 4908, and 4417 seconds at 3, 7, and 15 micron, covering 86.0, 70.3, and 77.3 arcmin^2 area, detected 955, 298 and 277 sources, respectively. The 5 sigma detection limits of the survey are 6.0, 31.5 and 71.2 micro Jy and the 50% completeness limit are 24.0, 47.5, and 88.1 micro Jy at 3, 7, and 15 micron, respectively. The observation is limited by source confusion at 3 micron. We have confirmed the turnover in the 15 micron differential source counts around 400 micro Jy, previously detected by surveys with the Infrared Space Observatory. The faint end of 15 micron raw source counts agree with the results from the deep surveys in the GOODS fields carried out with the Spitzer IRS peak up imager and the predictions of current galaxy evolution models. These results indicate that deep surveys with comprehensive wavelength coverage at mid-infrared wavelength are very important to investigate the evolution of infrared galaxies at high redshifts.

  9. The far-infrared emission of the radio-loud quasar 3C318

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podigachoski, P; Peletier, R F; Steendam, S

    2015-01-01

    3C318, a radio-loud quasar at z=1.574, is a subgalactic-sized radio source, and a good test-bed for the interplay between black hole and galaxy growth in the high-z Universe. Based on its IRAS, ISO, and SCUBA detections, it has long been considered as one of the most intrinsically luminous (L$_{\\mathrm{IR}}$ > 10$^{13}$ L$_{\\odot}$) infrared sources in the Universe. Recent far-infrared data from the Herschel Space Observatory reveal that most of the flux associated with 3C318 measured with earlier instruments in fact comes from a bright nearby source. Optical imaging and spectroscopy show that this infrared-bright source is a strongly star-forming pair of interacting galaxies at z=0.35. Adding existing Spitzer and SDSS photometry, we perform a spectral energy distribution analysis of the pair, and find that it has a combined infrared luminosity of L$_{\\mathrm{IR}}$ = 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{12}$ L$_{\\odot}$, comparable to other intermediate-redshift ultra-luminous infrared galaxies studied with Herschel. Isolating ...

  10. Image alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  11. Deuteration in infrared dark clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lackington, Matias; Pineda, Jaime E; Garay, Guido; Peretto, Nicolas; Traficante, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Much of the dense gas in molecular clouds has a filamentary structure but the detailed structure and evolution of this gas is poorly known. We have observed 54 cores in infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) using N$_2$H$^+$ (1-0) and (3-2) to determine the kinematics of the densest material, where stars will form. We also observed N$_2$D$^+$ (3-2) towards 29 of the brightest peaks to analyse the level of deuteration which is an excellent probe of the quiescent of the early stages of star formation. There were 13 detections of N$_2$D$^+$ (3-2). This is one of the largest samples of IRDCs yet observed in these species. The deuteration ratio in these sources ranges between 0.003 and 0.14. For most of the sources the material traced by N$_2$D$^+$ and N$_2$H$^+$ (3-2) still has significant turbulent motions, however three objects show subthermal N$_2$D$^+$ velocity dispersion. Surprisingly the presence or absence of an embedded 70 $\\mu$m source shows no correlation with the detection of N$_2$D$^+$ (3-2), nor does it correl...

  12. Molecular Hydrogen in Infrared Cirrus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristen Gillmon; J. Michael Shull

    2005-07-25

    We combine data from our recent FUSE survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen absorption toward 50 high-latitude AGN with COBE-corrected IRAS 100 micron emission maps to study the correlation of infrared cirrus with H2. A plot of the H2 column density vs. IR cirrus intensity shows the same transition in molecular fraction, f_H2, as seen with total hydrogen column density, N_H. This transition is usually attributed to H2 self-shielding, and it suggests that many diffuse cirrus clouds contain H2 in significant fractions, f_H2 = 1-30%. These clouds cover approximately 50% of the northern sky at latitudes b > 30 degrees, at temperature-corrected 100 micron intensities D_100 > 1.5 MJy/sr. The sheetlike cirrus clouds, with hydrogen densities n_H > 30 cm^-3, may be compressed by dynamical processes at the disk-halo interface, and they are conducive to H2 formation on grain surfaces. Exploiting the correlation between N(H2) and 100 micron intensity, we estimate that cirrus clouds at b > 30 contain approximately 3000 M_sun in H2. Extrapolated over the inner Milky Way, the cirrus may contain 10^7 M_sun of H2 and 10^8 M_sun in total gas mass. If elevated to 100 pc, their gravitational potential energy is ~10^53 erg.

  13. Near Infrared Observations at 1.56 m of the 2003 October 29 X10 White-Light Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -infrared (NIR) continuum at 1.56 µm. This is the first report of a white-light flare observed in the NIR a newly developed high order adaptive optics (AO) system and a state-of-the-art NIR complex metal oxide) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) with the NIR continuum images. Since the NIR data

  14. Land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite observations for an all-weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aires, Filipe

    Land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. In the absence all the expected variations with solar flux, soil characteristics, and cloudiness. During daytime

  15. Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Scott Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

  16. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  17. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2003-12-23

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  18. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  19. Quantitative nondestructive testing using Infrared Thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manohar, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Wind Turbine Blade In- spection Tests at UCSD”, Sensors andWind Turbine Blades and Defect Depth Estimation using Infrared Thermography”, SensorsScalea. Wind turbine inspection tests at ucsd. Sensors and

  20. Carbon nanotubes as near infrared laser susceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Amir

    2011-01-11

    The coupling efficiency of carbon nanotubes with near infrared laser radiation at 940nm wavelength was investigated. Nanotubes treated with different post processing methods were irradiated at different laser power intensities as dry samples...

  1. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Wind Turbine Blades Using an Infrared Camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beattie, A.G.; Rumsey, M.

    1998-12-17

    The use of a digital infrared as a non-destructive evaluation thermography camera (NDE) tool was ex- plored in two separate wind turbine blade fatigue tests. The fwst test was a fatigue test of part of a 13.1 meter wood-epoxy-composite blade. The second test was on a 4.25 meter pultruded fiber glass blade section driven at several mechanical resonant frequencies. The digital infrared camera can produce images of either the static temperature distribution on the surface of the specimen, or the dynamic temperature distribution that is in phase with a specific frequency on a vibrating specimen. The dynamic temperature distribution (due to thermoplastic effects) gives a measure of the sum of the principal stresses at each point on the surface. In the wood- epoxy-composite blade fatigue test, the point of ultimate failure was detected long before failure occurred. The mode shapes obtained with the digital infrared camera, from the resonant blade tests, were in very good agree- ment with the finite-element calculations. In addition, the static temperature images of the resonating blade showed two areas that contained cracks. Close-up dy- namic inf%red images of these areas showed the crack structure that agreed with subsequent dye-penetrant analysis.

  2. INFRARED STUDIES OF EPSILON AURIGAE IN ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Wall, Randall E.; Hopkins, Jeffrey L.; Howell, Steve B.; Hoard, D. W.; Rayner, John; Bus, Schelte; Tokunaga, Alan; Sitko, Michael L.; Bradford, Suellen; Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.; Hammel, Heidi; Whitney, Barbara; Orton, Glenn; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma; Hora, Joseph L.; Hinz, Philip; Hoffmann, William; and others

    2011-11-15

    We report here on a series of medium resolution spectro-photometric observations of the enigmatic long period eclipsing binary epsilon Aurigae, during its eclipse interval of 2009-2011, using near-infrared spectra obtained with SpeX on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), mid-infrared spectra obtained with BASS on AOES and IRTF, MIRSI on IRTF, and MIRAC4 on the MMT, along with mid-infrared photometry using MIRSI on IRTF and MIRAC4 on the MMT, plus 1995-2000 timeframe published photometry and data obtained with Denver's TNTCAM2 at WIRO. The goals of these observations included: (1) comparing eclipse depths with prior eclipse data, (2) confirming the re-appearance of CO absorption bands at and after mid-eclipse, associated with sublimation in the disk, (3) seeking evidence for any mid-infrared solid state spectral features from particles in the disk, and (4) providing evidence that the externally irradiated disk has azimuthal temperature differences. IR eclipse depths appear similar to those observed during the most recent (1983) eclipse, although evidence for post-mid-eclipse disk temperature increase is present, due to F star heated portions of the disk coming into view. Molecular CO absorption returned 57 days after nominal mid-eclipse, but was not detected at mid-eclipse plus 34 days, narrowing the association with differentially heated sub-regions in the disk. Transient He I 10830A absorption was detected at mid-eclipse, persisting for at least 90 days thereafter, providing a diagnostic for the hot central region. The lack of solid-state features in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph, BASS, and MIRAC spectra to date suggests the dominance of large particles (micron-sized) in the disk. Based on these observations, mid-infrared studies out of eclipse can directly monitor and map the disk thermal changes, and better constrain disk opacity and thermal conductivity.

  3. Joint spatio-spectral based edge detection for multispectral infrared imagery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Bender, Steven C.; Sharma, Yagya D.; Jang, Woo-Yong; Paskalva, Biliana S.

    2010-06-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important and difficult tasks in digital image processing. It represents a key stage of automated image analysis and interpretation. Segmentation algorithms for gray-scale images utilize basic properties of intensity values such as discontinuity and similarity. However, it is possible to enhance edge-detection capability by means of using spectral information provided by multispectral (MS) or hyperspectral (HS) imagery. In this paper we consider image segmentation algorithms for multispectral images with particular emphasis on detection of multi-color or multispectral edges. More specifically, we report on an algorithm for joint spatio-spectral (JSS) edge detection. By joint we mean simultaneous utilization of spatial and spectral characteristics of a given MS or HS image. The JSS-based edge-detection approach, termed Spectral Ratio Contrast (SRC) edge-detection algorithm, utilizes the novel concept of matching edge signatures. The edge signature represents a combination of spectral ratios calculated using bands that enhance the spectral contrast between the two materials. In conjunction with a spatial mask, the edge signature give rise to a multispectral operator that can be viewed as a three-dimensional extension of the mask. In the extended mask, the third (spectral) dimension of each hyper-pixel can be chosen independently. The SRC is verified using MS and HS imagery from a quantum-dot in a well infrared (IR) focal plane array, and the Airborne Hyperspectral Imager.

  4. Thermal Imaging in the Chemistry Laboratory Thermal imaging devices take advantage of the fact that all objects with a temperature above absolute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    Thermal Imaging in the Chemistry Laboratory Thermal imaging devices take advantage of the fact that all objects with a temperature above absolute zero have thermal energy and will emit various wavelengths of thermal radiation (visible, infrared and ultra violet radiation). Thermal cameras convert

  5. Infrared curing simulations of liquid composites molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakouzi, S.; Pancrace, J.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Berthet, F. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, Mines Albi, ISAE, ICA - Institut Clement Ader, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Ecole des Mines Albi, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi (France)

    2011-05-04

    Infrared radiation is an effective energy source to cure thermosetting polymers. Its usage is expected to reduce curing time in comparison with thermal heating and mold thermally regulated. In addition, because of the polymerization mechanism and instant on-off control of this power, an improvement in the final properties of the material is also expected. In this paper, we studied the infrared interaction with carbon (or glass) fibers reinforced epoxy matrix, where Liquid resin infusion (LRI) is used to manufacture the composite. Temperature of the composite is a key parameter that affects its mechanical properties and is controlled by the infrared emitters and the exothermic heat released from the polymerization. Radiative heat flux is computed using the in-lab developed software RAYHEAT. Then, the heat flux (or absorbed energy for glass fibers) is exported to the finite element based program COMSOLMULTIPHYSICS where heat balance equation is solved. This equation is coupled with the exothermic heat released during the curing process in order to predict the composite temperature versus time and degree of cure. Numerical simulations will be performed on planar parts (sheet shape) as well as curvilinear shapes. Experimental validations of the infrared curing carbon (glass)-epoxy composite system are presented in this paper Sheet surface temperature distribution are measured thanks to infrared camera. Kinetic parameters were estimated from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimental data.

  6. THE WIRED SURVEY. II. INFRARED EXCESSES IN THE SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debes, John H.; Leisawitz, David T.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Cohen, Martin

    2011-12-01

    With the launch of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris and brown dwarfs (BDs) around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED Survey is sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs. In this paper, we present a cross-correlation of the preliminary Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) WD catalog between the WISE, Two-Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), and SDSS DR7 photometric catalogs. From {approx}18,000 input targets, there are WISE detections comprising 344 'naked' WDs (detection of the WD photosphere only), 1020 candidate WD+M dwarf binaries, 42 candidate WD+BD systems, 52 candidate WD+dust disk systems, and 69 targets with indeterminate infrared excess. We classified all of the detected targets through spectral energy distribution model fitting of the merged optical, near-IR, and WISE photometry. Some of these detections could be the result of contaminating sources within the large ( Almost-Equal-To 6'') WISE point-spread function; we make a preliminary estimate for the rates of contamination for our WD+BD and WD+disk candidates and provide notes for each target of interest. Each candidate presented here should be confirmed with higher angular resolution infrared imaging or infrared spectroscopy. We also present an overview of the observational characteristics of the detected WDs in the WISE photometric bands, including the relative frequencies of candidate WD+M, WD+BD, and WD+disk systems.

  7. Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GalnSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2-6 .mu.m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

  8. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THEVorticesInformation| U.S.InfraredInfrared

  9. Deep, noninvasive imaging and surgical guidance of submillimeter tumors using targeted M13-stabilized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Debadyuti

    Highly sensitive detection of small, deep tumors for early diagnosis and surgical interventions remains a challenge for conventional imaging modalities. Second-window near-infrared light (NIR2, 950–1,400 nm) is promising ...

  10. Main-belt asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared albedos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-601, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T., E-mail: Joseph.Masiero@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: cnugent@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: James.Bauer@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: Rachel.A.Stevenson@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: sarah.sonnett@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: tgrav@psi.edu [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We present revised near-infrared albedo fits of 2835 main-belt asteroids observed by WISE/NEOWISE over the course of its fully cryogenic survey in 2010. These fits are derived from reflected-light near-infrared images taken simultaneously with thermal emission measurements, allowing for more accurate measurements of the near-infrared albedos than is possible for visible albedo measurements. Because our sample requires reflected light measurements, it undersamples small, low-albedo asteroids, as well as those with blue spectral slopes across the wavelengths investigated. We find that the main belt separates into three distinct groups of 6%, 16%, and 40% reflectance at 3.4 ?m. Conversely, the 4.6 ?m albedo distribution spans the full range of possible values with no clear grouping. Asteroid families show a narrow distribution of 3.4 ?m albedos within each family that map to one of the three observed groupings, with the (221) Eos family being the sole family associated with the 16% reflectance 3.4 ?m albedo group. We show that near-infrared albedos derived from simultaneous thermal emission and reflected light measurements are important indicators of asteroid taxonomy and can identify interesting targets for spectroscopic follow-up.

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Infrared thermography investigations in transitional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuccher, Simone

    investigation. The additional advantage of no need for special apparatus, except for the infrared camera, makes IRT well suited for both wind-tunnel and in-flight testing. Practical problems and limitations downstream are responsi- ble for energy losses. In subsonic and transonic flight this type of drag

  12. ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Real-time implementation of remotely sensed hyperspectral image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaza, Antonio J.

    graphics processing units (GPUs). These hardware accel- erators offer a source of computational power instruments are capable of collect- ing hundreds of images, corresponding to different wave- length channels with instruments such as the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spec- trometer (AVIRIS

  13. A Total Variation Based Algorithm for Pixel Level Image Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dass, Sarat C.

    -band and infrared sensors. The results clearly indicate the feasibility of the proposed approach. Index Terms Image sensors. In this approach, fusion is posed as an inverse problem and a locally affine model is used, nondestructive evaluation etc. [7]­[9]. For example, in optical remote sensing, due to physical and technical

  14. Continuous Wave Terahertz Reflection Imaging of Human Colorectal Tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Continuous Wave Terahertz Reflection Imaging of Human Colorectal Tissue Pallavi Doradlaa,b , Karim cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. The high sensitivity of THz radiation to water concentration

  15. Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head Maria Angela Franceschini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head Maria Angela Franceschini Danny K. Joseph Theodore J@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu Abstract. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy NIRS and diffuse optical im- aging DOI are increasingly used to detect of optodes in NIRS instruments has hampered measurement of optical signals from diverse brain regions. Our

  16. Matching of Infrared Emitters with Textiles For Improved Energy Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, W. W.; Williamson, V. A.; Johnson, M. R.; Do, B. T.

    1994-01-01

    The successful utilization of infrared radiation is dependent on the spectral characteristics of the material being processed and on how well the spectral output of the infrared source matches those of the material being heated. Very little bas been...

  17. Infrared Brightness Temperature of Mars, 1983-2103

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Wright

    2007-03-25

    The predicted infrared brightness temperature of Mars using the 1976 model of Wright is tabulated here for the period 1983 to 2103. This model was developed for far-infrared calibration, and is still being used for JCMT calibration.

  18. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

  19. Transmissive infrared frequency selective surfaces and infrared antennas : final report for LDRD 105749.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Hadley, G. Ronald; Samora, Sally; Loui, Hung; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Davids, Paul; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William Arthur; Peters, David William

    2009-09-01

    Plasmonic structures open up new opportunities in photonic devices, sometimes offering an alternate method to perform a function and sometimes offering capabilities not possible with standard optics. In this LDRD we successfully demonstrated metal coatings on optical surfaces that do not adversely affect the transmission of those surfaces at the design frequency. This technology could be applied as an RF noise blocking layer across an optical aperture or as a method to apply an electric field to an active electro-optic device without affecting optical performance. We also demonstrated thin optical absorbers using similar patterned surfaces. These infrared optical antennas show promise as a method to improve performance in mercury cadmium telluride detectors. Furthermore, these structures could be coupled with other components to lead to direct rectification of infrared radiation. This possibility leads to a new method for infrared detection and energy harvesting of infrared radiation.

  20. Application of Infrared Thermography in Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y.; Chen, H.; Xu, Q.; I, D.; Wang, Z.; Fang, X.

    2006-01-01

    of infrared detector according to infrared radiation law. 4TE ??= ?? (1) Where E ? radiometric force, W/m2 ? ? emissivity ? ? the constant of radiation =5.67×10-8 , W/ ? m2?K4? T ? the absolute temperature of the surface , K... OF INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY According to the Planck?s radiation law (equation 1), radiometric force of common object has the biquadratic direct proportion with the absolute temperature of its surface. Infrared ray belongs to the electromagnetic wave, which...

  1. THE GALACTIC CENTER IN THE FAR-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etxaluze, M.; Smith, Howard A.; Tolls, V.; Stark, A. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gonzalez-Alfonso, E., E-mail: metxaluz@cfa.harvard.edu [CfA and Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares 28801 (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We analyze the far-infrared dust emission from the Galactic center region, including the circumnuclear disk (CND) and other structures, using Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric observations. These Herschel data are complemented by unpublished observations by the Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer (ISO-LWS), which used parallel mode scans to obtain photometric images of the region with a larger beam than Herschel but with a complementary wavelength coverage and more frequent sampling with 10 detectors observing at 10 different wavelengths in the range from 46 {mu}m to 180 {mu}m, where the emission peaks. We also include data from the Midcourse Space Experiment at 21.3 {mu}m for completeness. We model the combined ISO-LWS continuum plus Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric data toward the central 2 pc in Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), a region that includes the CND. We find that the far-infrared spectral energy distribution is best represented by a continuum that is the sum of three gray body curves from dust at temperatures of 90, 44.5, and 23 K. We obtain temperature and molecular hydrogen column density maps of the region. We estimate the mass of the inner part of the CND to be {approx}5.0 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}, with luminosities: L{sub cavity} {approx} 2.2 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} and L{sub CND} {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} in the central 2 pc radius around Sgr A*. We find from the Herschel and ISO data that the cold component of the dust dominates the total dust mass, with a contribution of {approx}3.2 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}; this important cold material had escaped the notice of earlier studies that relied on shorter wavelength observations. The hotter component disagrees with some earlier estimates, but is consistent with measured gas temperatures and with models that imply shock heating or turbulent effects are at work. We find that the dust grain sizes apparently change widely across the region, perhaps in response to the temperature variations, and we map that distribution.

  2. Room-temperature near-infrared silicon carbide nanocrystalline emitters based on optically aligned spin defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muzha, A.; Fuchs, F.; Simin, D.; Astakhov, G. V.; Tarakina, N. V.; Trupke, M.; Soltamov, V. A.; Mokhov, E. N.; Baranov, P. G.; Dyakonov, V.; and others

    2014-12-15

    Bulk silicon carbide (SiC) is a very promising material system for bio-applications and quantum sensing. However, its optical activity lies beyond the near infrared spectral window for in-vivo imaging and fiber communications due to a large forbidden energy gap. Here, we report the fabrication of SiC nanocrystals and isolation of different nanocrystal fractions ranged from 600?nm down to 60?nm in size. The structural analysis reveals further fragmentation of the smallest nanocrystals into ca. 10-nm-size clusters of high crystalline quality, separated by amorphization areas. We use neutron irradiation to create silicon vacancies, demonstrating near infrared photoluminescence. Finally, we detect room-temperature spin resonances of these silicon vacancies hosted in SiC nanocrystals. This opens intriguing perspectives to use them not only as in-vivo luminescent markers but also as magnetic field and temperature sensors, allowing for monitoring various physical, chemical, and biological processes.

  3. Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    multijunction solar cells offer the prospect of exceeding 40% efficiency7 through the inclusion of infrared and optimized to this purpose. Organic solar cells have already achieved 6.5% solar conversion efficien- cies.6-bandgap materials. In this context, infrared single-junction solar cells should be optimized for infrared power

  4. Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conversion ef- ficiency rather than solar power conversion efficiency. For double- and triple-junction solar-bandgap materials. In this context, infrared single-junction solar cells should be optimized for infrared power in the infrared. As a result, the optimal bandgaps for solar cells in both the single-junction and even the tandem

  5. Imaging Scatterometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal

    2015-01-01

    We present an optical metrology system for characterization of topography of micro/nano-structures on a surface or embedded in a semi-transparent material. Based on the principles of scatterometry, where the intensity of scattered light is used as a 'fingerprint' to reconstruct a surface, this new imaging scatterometer can easily find areas of interest on the cm scale and measure multiple segments simultaneously. The imaging scatterometer measures structural features, such as height, width, and sidewall angle of a grating locally on few um2 areas with nm resolution. We demonstrate two imaging scatterometers, one built into an optical microscope and one in a split configuration. The two scatterometers are targeted characterization of mm2 and cm2 areas, respectively, and both setups are validated using nano-textured samples.

  6. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The team is now exploring techniques that would permit two- and three-dimensional mapping of catalytic reactions. Multidimensional imaging will give the ability to know...

  7. Hubble Space Telescope Near-Infrared Snapshot Survey of 3CR radio source counterparts at low redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan P. Madrid; Marco Chiaberge; David Floyd; William B. Sparks; Duccio Macchetto; George K. Miley; David Axon; Alessandro Capetti; Christopher P. O'Dea; Stefi Baum; Eric Perlman; Alice Quillen

    2006-03-09

    We present newly acquired images of the near-infrared counterpart of 3CR radio sources. All the sources were selected to have a redshift of less than 0.3 to allow us to obtain the highest spatial resolution. The observations were carried out as a snapshot program using the Near-Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrograph (NICMOS) on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In this paper we describe 69 radio galaxies observed for the first time with NICMOS during HST cycle 13. All the objects presented here are elliptical galaxies. However, each of them has unique characteristics such as close companions, dust lanes, unresolved nuclei, arc-like features, globular clusters and jets clearly visible from the images or with basic galaxy subtraction.

  8. Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing with Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigo, Daniel; Janner, Davide; Etezadi, Dordaneh; de Abajo, F Javier García; Pruneri, Valerio; Altug, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is the technique of choice for chemical identification of biomolecules through their vibrational fingerprints. However, infrared light interacts poorly with nanometric size molecules. Here, we exploit the unique electro-optical properties of graphene to demonstrate a high-sensitivity tunable plasmonic biosensor for chemically-specific label-free detection of protein monolayers. The plasmon resonance of nanostructured graphene is dynamically tuned to selectively probe the protein at different frequencies and extract its complex refractive index. Additionally, the extreme spatial light confinement in graphene, up to two orders of magnitude higher than in metals, produces an unprecedentedly high overlap with nanometric biomolecules, enabling superior sensitivity in the detection of their refractive index and vibrational fingerprints. The combination of tunable spectral selectivity and enhanced sensitivity of graphene opens exciting prospects for biosensing.

  9. THE INFRARED COLORS OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casagrande, L.; Asplund, M.; Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.

    2012-12-10

    Solar infrared colors provide powerful constraints on the stellar effective temperature scale, but they must be measured with both accuracy and precision in order to do so. We fulfill this requirement by using line-depth ratios to derive in a model-independent way the infrared colors of the Sun, and we use the latter to test the zero point of the Casagrande et al. effective temperature scale, confirming its accuracy. Solar colors in the widely used Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and WISE W1-4 systems are provided: (V - J){sub Sun} = 1.198, (V - H){sub Sun} = 1.484, (V - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 1.560, (J - H){sub Sun} = 0.286, (J - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.362, (H - K{sub s} ){sub Sun} = 0.076, (V - W1){sub Sun} = 1.608, (V - W2){sub Sun} = 1.563, (V - W3){sub Sun} = 1.552, and (V - W4){sub Sun} = 1.604. A cross-check of the effective temperatures derived implementing 2MASS or WISE magnitudes in the infrared flux method confirms that the absolute calibration of the two systems agrees within the errors, possibly suggesting a 1% offset between the two, thus validating extant near- and mid-infrared absolute calibrations. While 2MASS magnitudes are usually well suited to derive T{sub eff}, we find that a number of bright, solar-like stars exhibit anomalous WISE colors. In most cases, this effect is spurious and can be attributed to lower-quality measurements, although for a couple of objects (3% {+-} 2% of the total sample) it might be real, and may hint at the presence of warm/hot debris disks.

  10. Thermal wave image processing for characterization of subsurface of flaws in materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, K.; Gopalsami, N.

    1993-08-01

    Infrared images resulting from back-scattered thermal waves in composite materials are corrupted by instrument noise and sample heat-spread function. This paper demonstrates that homomorphic deconvolution and {open_quotes}demultiplication{close_quotes} result in enhanced image quality for characterization of subsurface flaws in Kevlar and graphics composites. The choice of processing depends on the material characteristics and the extent of noise in the original image.

  11. Status of thermal imaging technology as applied to conservation-update 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, F.J.; Wood, J.T.; Barthle, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    This document updates the 1978 report on the status of thermal imaging technology as applied to energy conservation in buildings. Thermal imaging technology is discussed in terms of airborne surveys, ground survey programs, and application needs such as standards development and lower cost equipment. Information on the various thermal imaging devices was obtained from manufacturer's standard product literature. Listings are provided of infrared projects of the DOE building diagnostics program, of aerial thermographic firms, and of aerial survey programs. (LCL)

  12. Andromeda (M31) optical and infrared disk survey. I. Insights in wide-field near-IR surface photometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sick, Jonathan; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; McDonald, Michael; De Jong, Roelof; Tully, R. Brent

    2014-05-01

    We present wide-field near-infrared J and K{sub s} images of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) taken with WIRCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope as part of the Andromeda Optical and Infrared Disk Survey. This data set allows simultaneous observations of resolved stars and near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness across M31's entire bulge and disk (within R = 22 kpc), permitting a direct test of the stellar composition of near-infrared light in a nearby galaxy. Here we develop NIR observation and reduction methods to recover a uniform surface brightness map across the 3° × 1° disk of M31 with 27 WIRCam fields. Two sky-target nodding strategies are tested, and we find that strictly minimizing sky sampling latency cannot improve background subtraction accuracy to better than 2% of the background level due to spatio-temporal variations in the NIR skyglow. We fully describe our WIRCam reduction pipeline and advocate using flats built from night-sky images over a single night, rather than dome flats that do not capture the WIRCam illumination field. Contamination from scattered light and thermal background in sky flats has a negligible effect on the surface brightness shape compared to the stochastic differences in background shape between sky and galaxy disk fields, which are ?0.3% of the background level. The most dramatic calibration step is the introduction of scalar sky offsets to each image that optimizes surface brightness continuity. Sky offsets reduce the mean surface brightness difference between observation blocks from 1% to <0.1% of the background level, though the absolute background level remains statistically uncertain to 0.15% of the background level. We present our WIRCam reduction pipeline and performance analysis to give specific recommendations for the improvement of NIR wide-field imaging methods.

  13. Spectroscopic infrared near-field microscopy and x-ray reflectivity studies of order and clustering in lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Generosi, J.; Margaritondo, G.; Sanghera, J. S.; Aggarwal, I. D.; Tolk, N. H.; Piston, D. W.; Castellano, A. Congiu; Cricenti, A.

    2006-12-04

    Lipid membranes were studied by infrared scanning near-field optical microscopy at several wavelengths and by x-ray reflectivity. Together with the x-ray data, the optical images indicate the formation of locally ordered multiple bilayers, and the topographical micrographs reveal the presence of islands at the surface, both critically important features for biotechnology and medical applications such as biosensors and gene therapy.

  14. Laser Microperforated Biodegradable Microbial Polyhydroxyalkanoate Substrates for Tissue Repair Strategies: An Infrared Microspectroscopy Studey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Ellis; P Cano; M Jadraque; M Martin; L Lopez; T Nunez; E de la Pena; C Marco; L Garrido

    2011-12-31

    Flexible and biodegradable film substrates prepared by solvent casting from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) solutions in chloroform were microperforated by ultraviolet laser ablation and subsequently characterized using infrared (IR) microspectroscopy and imaging techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both transmission synchrotron IR microspectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance microspectroscopy measurements demonstrate variations in the polymer at the ablated pore rims, including evidence for changes in chemical structure and crystallinity. SEM results on microperforated PHBHV substrates after cell culture demonstrated that the physical and chemical changes observed in the biomaterial did not hinder cell migration through the pores.

  15. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  16. GOODS–Herschel: an infrared main sequence for star-forming galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Graham Wallace; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Dí az-Santos, T.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Le Borgne, D.; Galliano, F.; Pannella, M.; Chanial, P.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Daddi, E.

    2011-09-01

    , stellar masses and photometric redshifts. The IR main se- quence is presented in Sect. 4 where the so-called “mid-IR ex- cess problem” is addressed and a solution proposed using the IR8 bolometric correction factor. This parameter, which relies on the same... Spitzer IRS peak-up array A119, page 6 of 26 D. Elbaz et al.: GOODS–Herschel: an infrared main sequence for star-forming galaxies imaging (Teplitz et al. 2011); here again, 16?m catalog fluxes are extracted using IRAC priors. In this study, we make partic...

  17. Near-infrared Study of the Carina Nebula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchawala, Kaushar; Ojha, Devendra; Ghosh, Swarna Kanti; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Baba, Daisuke; Sato, Shuji; Tsujimoto, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations of the Carina Nebula for an area of ~400 sq. arcmin. including the star clusters Trumpler 14 (Tr 14) and Trumpler 16 (Tr 16). With 10 sigma limiting magnitudes of J ~ 18.5, H ~ 17.5 and K_s ~ 16.5, we identified 544 Class II and 11 Class I young star candidates. We find some 40 previously unknown very red sources with H-K_s > 2, most of which remain undetected at the J band. The red NIR sources are found to be concentrated to the south-east of Tr 16, along the `V' shaped dust lane, where the next generation of stars seems to be forming. In addition, we find indications of ongoing star formation near the three MSX point sources, G287.51-0.49, G287.47-0.54, and G287.63-0.72. A handful of red NIR sources are seen to populate around each of these MSX sources. Apart from this, we identified two hard Chandra X-ray sources near G287.47-0.54, one of which does not have an NIR counterpart and may be associated with a Class I/Class 0 object. The majority of t...

  18. Nuclear Imaging | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Jefferson Lab's Radiation Detector and Imaging Group Members of Jefferson Lab's Radiation Detector & Medical Imaging Group design and build unique imaging devices based on...

  19. Deep radio imaging of the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field : the nature of the faint radio population, and the star-formation history of the Universe 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Vinodiran

    2013-07-01

    The centrepiece of this thesis is a deep, new, high-resolution 1.4-GHz image covering the United Kingdom Infrared (IR) Telescope IR Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) legacy field. Deep pseudo-continuum ...

  20. Invited Article: An integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kühne, P., E-mail: kuehne@huskers.unl.edu; Schubert, M., E-mail: schubert@engr.unl.edu; Hofmann, T., E-mail: thofmann@engr.unl.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Herzinger, C. M., E-mail: cherzinger@jawoollam.com; Woollam, J. A., E-mail: jwoollam@jawoollam.com [J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., 645 M Street, Suite 102, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508-2243 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    We report on the development of the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, covering an ultra wide spectral range from 3 cm{sup ?1} to 7000 cm{sup ?1} (0.1–210 THz or 0.4–870 meV). The instrument comprises four sub-systems, where the magneto-cryostat-transfer sub-system enables the usage of the magneto-cryostat sub-system with the mid-infrared ellipsometer sub-system, and the far-infrared/terahertz ellipsometer sub-system. Both ellipsometer sub-systems can be used as variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometers in reflection or transmission mode, and are equipped with multiple light sources and detectors. The ellipsometer sub-systems are operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration granting access to the upper left 3 × 3 block of the normalized 4 × 4 Mueller matrix. The closed cycle magneto-cryostat sub-system provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T, enabling the detection of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field-induced birefringence. We discuss theoretical background and practical realization of the integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, as well as acquisition of optical Hall effect data and the corresponding model analysis procedures. Exemplarily, epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC, a tellurium doped bulk GaAs sample and an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure are investigated. The selected experimental datasets display the full spectral, magnetic field and temperature range of the instrument and demonstrate data analysis strategies. Effects from free charge carriers in two dimensional confinement and in a volume material, as well as quantum mechanical effects (inter-Landau-level transitions) are observed and discussed exemplarily.

  1. RESTORATION OF CHOPPED AND NODDED IMAGES BY JIAN-FENG CAI, RAYMOND CHAN, LIXIN SHEN, AND ZUOWEI SHEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Raymond

    RESTORATION OF CHOPPED AND NODDED IMAGES BY FRAMELETS JIAN-FENG CAI, RAYMOND CHAN, LIXIN SHEN, AND ZUOWEI SHEN§ Abstract. In infrared astronomy, an observed image from a chop and nod process can the efficiency of our method over the projected Landweber method. Key words. Tight frame, chopped and nodded

  2. Resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K. K. Sun, J.; Olver, K.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Waczynski, A.

    2013-11-11

    We applied a recent electromagnetic model to design the resonator-quantum well infrared photodetector (R-QWIP). In this design, we used an array of rings as diffractive elements to diffract normal incident light into parallel propagation and used the pixel volume as a resonator to intensify the diffracted light. With a proper pixel size, the detector resonates at certain optical wavelengths and thus yields a high quantum efficiency (QE). To test this detector concept, we fabricated a number of R-QWIPs with different quantum well materials and detector geometries. The experimental result agrees satisfactorily with the prediction, and the highest QE achieved is 71%.

  3. Defining the infrared systems for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, R.; Andrew, P.; Drevon, J.-M.; Encheva, A.; Janeschitz, G.; Levesy, B.; Martin, A.; Pitcher, C. S.; Pitts, R.; Thomas, D.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Kusama, Y.

    2010-10-15

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor will have wide angle viewing systems and a divertor thermography diagnostic, which shall provide infrared coverage of the divertor and large parts of the first wall surfaces with spatial and temporal resolution adequate for operational purposes and higher resolved details of the divertor and other areas for physics investigations. We propose specifications for each system such that they jointly respond to the requirements. Risk analysis driven priorities for future work concern mirror degradation, interfaces with other diagnostics, radiation damage to refractive optics, reflections, and the development of calibration and measurement methods for varying optical and thermal target properties.

  4. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THEVorticesInformation| U.S.Infrared Mapping

  5. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THEVorticesInformation| U.S.Infrared

  6. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy,ImpactScientificInfluence ofMedia onInfrared Mapping Helps

  7. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy,ImpactScientificInfluence ofMedia onInfrared Mapping

  8. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy,ImpactScientificInfluence ofMedia onInfrared

  9. AEGIS: Infrared Spectroscopy of an Infrared-luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z = 3.01

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, J.-S.; Rigopoulou, D.; Papovich, C.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Ivison, R.; Laird, E. S.; Webb, T.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Barmby, P.; Chapman, S.; Conselice, C. J.; McLeod, B.; Shu, C. G.; Smith, H. A.; Le Floc'h, E.; Egami, E.; Willmer, C. A. N.; Fazio, G. G.

    2007-05-01

    We report the detection of rest-frame 6.2 and 7.7 ?m emission features arising from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Spitzer IRS spectrum of an infrared-luminous Lyman break galaxy at z = 3.01. This is currently ...

  10. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near...

  11. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    therefore can provide some of the most interesting information about the electronic properties of a material. In this work, the researchers employed infrared synchrotron radiation...

  12. X-ray and Near-infrared Studies of a Star-forming Cloud; L1448

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; N. Kobayashi; Y. Tsuboi

    2005-06-27

    We present the results of X-ray and near-infrared (NIR) observations of L1448, a star-forming region in the Perseus cloud complex using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the 4 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. We detect 72 X-ray sources in a ~17 arcmin x 17 arcmin region with a ~68 ks ACIS exposure, for which we conduct follow-up NIR imaging observations in a concentric ~11 arcmin x 11 arcmin region with FLAMINGOS down to m_Ks ~ 17 mag. Twelve X-ray sources have NIR or optical counterparts. By plotting X-ray mean energy versus NIR to X-ray flux ratio, the X-ray sources are clearly separated into two groups. The X-ray spectral and temporal features as well as NIR magnitudes and colors indicate that one group mainly consists of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud and the other of background extragalactic sources. Ten X-ray-emitting YSO candidates are thus newly identified, which are low-mass or brown dwarf mass sources from their NIR magnitudes. In addition, a possible X-ray signal is found from a mid-infrared protostar L1448 IRS 3(A). The lack of detection of this source in our deep NIR images indicates that this source has a very steep spectral slope of > 3.2 in 2--10 micron.

  13. Infrared Freezing of Euclidean QCD observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul M. Brooks; C. J. Maxwell

    2006-08-22

    We consider the leading one-chain term in a skeleton expansion for QCD observables and show that for energies Q^2>\\Lambda^2, where Q^2=\\Lambda^2 is the Landau pole in the coupling, the skeleton expansion result is equivalent to the standard Borel integral representation, with ambiguities related to infrared (IR) renormalons. For Q^2freezing behaviour, vanishing at Q^2=0. Finiteness at Q^2=\\Lambda^2 implies specific relations between the residues of IR and UV renormalons in the Borel plane. These relations, only one of which has previously been noted (though it remained unexplained) are shown to follow from the continuity of the characteristic function in the skeleton expansion. By considering the compensation of non-perturbative and perturbative ambiguities we are led to a result for the Q^2 dependence of these observables at all Q^2, in which there is a single undetermined non-perturbative parameter, and which involves the skeleton expansion characteristic function. The observables freeze to zero in the infrared. We briefly consider the freezing behaviour of the Minkowskian R_{e+e-} ratio.

  14. RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelizzari, Charles A.

    RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion: Introduction to the Technology Charles A. Pelizzari, Ph.D. Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology The University of Chicago #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion "Fusion and limitations) ·Where do we need to go? (future directions) #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Terminology

  15. Image Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D.FoodHydropower,PrincipalIdaho NationalA pIlyaImage

  16. Evolution of mid-infrared galaxy luminosity functions from the entire AKARI NEP-Deep field with new CFHT photometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Ohyama, Youichi; Malkan, Matthew; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Nakagawa, Takao; Buat, Veronique; Burgarella, Denis; Sedgwick, Chris; Toba, Yoshiki; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Marchetti, Lucia; Ma?ek, Katarzyna; Koptelova, Ekaterina; Chao, Dani; Wu, Yi-Han; Pearson, Chris; Takagi, Toshinobu; Lee, Hyung Mok; Serjeant, Stephen; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T; Kim, Seong Jin

    2015-01-01

    We present infrared galaxy luminosity functions (LFs) in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) deep field using recently-obtained, wider CFHT optical/near-IR images. AKARI has obtained deep images in the mid-infrared (IR), covering 0.6 deg$^2$ of the NEP deep field. However, our previous work was limited to the central area of 0.25 deg$^2$ due to the lack of optical coverage of the full AKARI NEP survey. To rectify the situation, we recently obtained CFHT optical and near-IR images over the entire AKARI NEP deep field. These new CFHT images are used to derive accurate photometric redshifts, allowing us to fully exploit the whole AKARI NEP deep field. AKARI's deep, continuous filter coverage in the mid-IR wavelengths (2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7, 9, 11, 15, 18, and 24$\\mu$m) exists nowhere else, due to filter gaps of other space telescopes. It allows us to estimate restframe 8$\\mu$m and 12$\\mu$m luminosities without using a large extrapolation based on spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, which was the largest uncer...

  17. Interstellar Weather Vanes: GLIMPSE Mid-Infrared Stellar-Wind Bowshocks in M17 and RCW49

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew S. Povich; Robert A. Benjamin; Barbara A. Whitney; Brian L. Babler; Remy Indebetouw; Marilyn R. Meade; Ed Churchwell

    2008-08-15

    We report the discovery of six infrared stellar-wind bowshocks in the Galactic massive star formation regions M17 and RCW49 from Spitzer GLIMPSE (Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire) images. The InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope clearly resolves the arc-shaped emission produced by the bowshocks. We combine Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), Spitzer, MSX, and IRAS observations to obtain the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the bowshocks and their individual driving stars. We use the stellar SEDs to estimate the spectral types of the three newly-identified O stars in RCW49 and one previously undiscovered O star in M17. One of the bowshocks in RCW49 reveals the presence of a large-scale flow of gas escaping the H II region at a few 10^2 km/s. Radiation-transfer modeling of the steep rise in the SED of this bowshock toward longer mid-infrared wavelengths indicates that the emission is coming principally from dust heated by the star driving the shock. The other 5 bowshocks occur where the stellar winds of O stars sweep up dust in the expanding H II regions.

  18. Visible and Infrared Photometry of Fourteen Kuiper Belt Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, John Keith

    Visible and Infrared Photometry of Fourteen Kuiper Belt Objects John K. Davies Joint Astronomy\\GammaJ colors of 14 Kuiper Belt objects using new infrared (J) data combined, in most cases, with simultaneous. Kuiper Belt objects exhibit a wide range of V\\GammaJ colors but there is no correlation with heliocentric

  19. Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil H. Child, Kenyon College effect is seen in the infrared absorption spectrum of mineral oil. The frequency of two peaks increases as pressure is applied to the mineral oil. At a pressure of about 1 kbar (100 MPa), both peaks are distinct

  20. Fast-Response Infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Phase Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Fast-Response Infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Phase Modulators Ju-Hyun Lee Yung-Hsun Wu Shin (about 2.3p at k ¼ 1.55 lm under E ¼ 2.5 V=lm) and fast response time ( at an infrared wavelength, say k ¼ 1.55 mm. On the contrary, ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) show very fast

  1. Multivariate classification of infrared spectra of cell and tissue samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Howland D. T. (Albuquerque, NM); Thomas, Edward V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Multivariate classification techniques are applied to spectra from cell and tissue samples irradiated with infrared radiation to determine if the samples are normal or abnormal (cancerous). Mid and near infrared radiation can be used for in vivo and in vitro classifications using at least different wavelengths.

  2. Measurement of Paint Layer Thickness with Photothermal Infrared Radiometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, Alfred K.

    Measurement of Paint Layer Thickness with Photothermal Infrared Radiometry P. Dorr, A. K. Louis-physical, optical and geometrical properties of multi-layered samples of paint on a metalic substrate. A special infrared radiometry, paint-#12;lm-thickness is measured using lock-in ampli#12;ers. The phase-di#11;erence

  3. Using Near-Infrared Light To Detect Breast Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fantini, Sergio

    Using Near-Infrared Light To Detect Breast Cancer Using Near-Infrared Light To Detect Breast Cancer News 25 T he idea of using light to non- invasively detect breast cancer has been revisited in the past of selectively labeling breast tumors may open new opportunities in the optical detection of breast cancer

  4. CONSTRAINING THE EXOZODIACAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: COMPLETE RESULTS FROM THE KECK NULLER MID-INFRARED SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M.; Bryden, G.; Doré, O.; Traub, W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Millan-Gabet, R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Absil, O. [Département d'Astrophysique, Géophysique et Océanographie, Université de Liège, 17 Allée du Six Août, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Wyatt, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Danchi, W.; Kuchner, M.; Stapelfeldt, K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Defrère, D.; Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ragland, S. [Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Scott, N. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Woillez, J., E-mail: Bertrand.Mennesson@jpl.nasa.gov [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust. Observations of a subset of the sample have already been reported, focusing essentially on stars with no previously known dust. Here we extend this previous analysis to the whole KIN sample, including 22 more stars with known near- and/or far-infrared excesses. In addition to an analysis similar to that of the first paper of this series, which was restricted to the 8-9 ?m spectral region, we present measurements obtained in all 10 spectral channels covering the 8-13 ?m instrumental bandwidth. Based on the 8-9 ?m data alone, which provide the highest signal-to-noise measurements, only one star shows a large excess imputable to dust emission (? Crv), while four more show a significant (>3?) excess: ? Leo, ? UMa, ? Lep, and ? Oph. Overall, excesses detected by KIN are more frequent around A-type stars than later spectral types. A statistical analysis of the measurements further indicates that stars with known far-infrared (? ? 70 ?m) excesses have higher exozodiacal emission levels than stars with no previous indication of a cold outer disk. This statistical trend is observed regardless of spectral type and points to a dynamical connection between the inner (zodi-like) and outer (Kuiper-Belt-like) dust populations. The measured levels for such stars are clustering close to the KIN detection limit of a few hundred zodis and are indeed consistent with those expected from a population of dust that migrated in from the outer belt by Poynting-Robertson drag. Conversely, no significant mid-infrared excess is found around sources with previously reported near-infrared resolved excesses, which typically have levels of the order of 1% over the photospheric flux. If dust emission is really at play in these near-infrared detections, the absence of a strong mid-infrared counterpart points to populations of very hot and small (submicron) grains piling up very close to the sublimation radius. For solar-type stars with no known infrared excess, likely to be the most relevant targets for a future exo-Earth direct imaging mission, we find that their median zodi level is 12 ± 24 zodis and lower than 60 (90) zodis with 95% (99%) confidence, if a lognormal zodi luminosity distribution is assumed.

  5. Relative Infrared (IR) and Terahertz (THz) Signatures of Common Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sheen, David M.; Atkinson, David A.

    2006-11-13

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has recently recorded the infrared (IR) and far-infrared (sometimes called the terahertz, THz) spectral signatures of four common explosives, in the condensed phase. The signatures of RDX, PETN, TNT and Tetryl were recorded both in the infrared and the THz domains, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Samples consisted of thin films and were made by depositing and subsequent evaporation of an acetone-explosive mixture. The complete spectrum spanned the range from 4,000 to 8 cm-1 at 2.0 cm-1 spectral resolution. Preliminary results in the infrared agree with those of previous workers, while the THz signatures are one order of magnitude weaker than the strongest IR bands.

  6. Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

    2014-10-21

    A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

  7. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  8. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales Rodriguez, Marissa E [ORNL; Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated an infrared (IR) microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the IR photothermal spectra of molecules absorbed on the surface of uncooled thermal micromechanical detectors. IR microcalorimetric spectroscopy requires no chemical specific coatings and the chemical specificity of the presented method is a consequence of the wavelength-specific absorption of IR photons from tunable quantum cascade lasers due to vibrational spectral bands of the analyte. We have obtained IR photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of RDX and a monolayer of 2-mercaptoethanol, over the wavelength region from 6 to 10 m. We found that in this wavelength region both chemicals exhibit a number of photothermal absorption features that are in good agreement with their respective IR spectra.

  9. Mid-Infrared Spectra of Be Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Rinehart; J. R. Houck; J. D. Smith

    1999-10-11

    We present the first medium-resolution ($R\\sim 600$) mid-infrared (8-13.3\\micron) spectra of 11 Be stars. A large number of lines are observed and identified in these spectra, including, as an example, 39 hydrogen recombination lines in the spectrum of $\\gamma$ Cas. In the majority of our spectra, all of the observed lines are attributable to hydrogen recombination. Two of the sources, $\\beta$ Lyr and MWC 349 also show emission from other species. Both of these objects show evidence of [Ne II] emission, and $\\beta$ Lyr also shows evidence of He I emission. We tabulate the effective line strength and line widths for the observed lines, and briefly discuss the physical implications of the observed line series. We also use a simple model of free-free emission to characterize the disks around these sources.

  10. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  11. Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L. (Stanford, CA); Herbst, Richard L. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

  12. THE COORDINATED RADIO AND INFRARED SURVEY FOR HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION. II. SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purcell, C. R.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Urquhart, J. S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, E.C. Stoner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, E.C. Stoner Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Cotton, W. D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States)] [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Chandler, C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Array Operations Center, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States)] [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Array Operations Center, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Churchwell, E. B. [The University of Wisconsin, Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)] [The University of Wisconsin, Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Diamond, P.; Fuller, G.; Garrington, S. T. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)] [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dougherty, S. M. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, British Columbia V2A 6J9 (Canada)] [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, British Columbia V2A 6J9 (Canada); Fender, R. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Gledhill, T. M. [Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)] [Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Goldsmith, P. F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)] [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Hindson, L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)] [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Jackson, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kurtz, S. E. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico - Morelia, Apartado Postal 3-72, C.P. 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)] [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico - Morelia, Apartado Postal 3-72, C.P. 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Marti, J., E-mail: C.R.Purcell@leeds.ac.uk [Departamento de Fisica, EPSJ, Universidad de Jaen, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, Edif. A3, E-23071 Jaen (Spain); and others

    2013-03-01

    The CORNISH project is the highest resolution radio continuum survey of the Galactic plane to date. It is the 5 GHz radio continuum part of a series of multi-wavelength surveys that focus on the northern GLIMPSE region (10 Degree-Sign < l < 65 Degree-Sign ), observed by the Spitzer satellite in the mid-infrared. Observations with the Very Large Array in B and BnA configurations have yielded a 1.''5 resolution Stokes I map with a root mean square noise level better than 0.4 mJy beam{sup -1}. Here we describe the data-processing methods and data characteristics, and present a new, uniform catalog of compact radio emission. This includes an implementation of automatic deconvolution that provides much more reliable imaging than standard CLEANing. A rigorous investigation of the noise characteristics and reliability of source detection has been carried out. We show that the survey is optimized to detect emission on size scales up to 14'' and for unresolved sources the catalog is more than 90% complete at a flux density of 3.9 mJy. We have detected 3062 sources above a 7{sigma} detection limit and present their ensemble properties. The catalog is highly reliable away from regions containing poorly sampled extended emission, which comprise less than 2% of the survey area. Imaging problems have been mitigated by down-weighting the shortest spacings and potential artifacts flagged via a rigorous manual inspection with reference to the Spitzer infrared data. We present images of the most common source types found: H II regions, planetary nebulae, and radio galaxies. The CORNISH data and catalog are available online at http://cornish.leeds.ac.uk.

  13. Achieving molecular selectivity in imaging using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtom, Gary R. ); Thrall, Brian D. ); Chin, Beek Yoke ); Wiley, H Steven ); Colson, Steven D. )

    2000-12-01

    In the case of most imaging methods, contrast is generated either by physical properties of the sample (Differential Image Contrast, Phase Contrast), or by fluorescent labels that are localized to a particular protein or organelle. Standard Raman and infrared methods for obtaining images are based upon the intrinsic vibrational properties of molecules, and thus obviate the need for attached flurophores. Unfortunately, they have significant limitations for live-cell imaging. However, an active Raman method, called Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), is well suited for microscopy, and provides a new means for imaging specific molecules. Vibrational imaging techniques, such as CARS, avoid problems associated with photobleaching and photo-induced toxicity often associated with the use of fluorescent labels with live cells. Because the laser configuration needed to implement CARS technology is similar to that used in other multiphoton microscopy methods, such as two -photon fluorescence and harmonic generation, it is possible to combine imaging modalities, thus generating simultaneous CARS and fluorescence images. A particularly powerful aspect of CARS microscopy is its ability to selectively image deuterated compounds, thus allowing the visualization of molecules, such as lipids, that are chemically indistinguishable from the native species.

  14. Visible and infrared photometry of Kuiper Belt objects: searching for evidence of trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    Visible and infrared photometry of Kuiper Belt objects: searching for evidence of trends Neil Mc. © 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. Keywords: Kuiper Belt objects; Photometry; Infrared

  15. Sandia Energy - Advanced Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Imaging Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Reacting Flow Experiments Advanced Imaging Advanced ImagingAshley Otero2015-10-30T01:47:37+00:00...

  16. BRIGHTNESS AND FLUCTUATION OF THE MID-INFRARED SKY FROM AKARI OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyo, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Woong-Seob [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Matsumoto, Toshio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Matsuura, Shuji, E-mail: jhpyo@kasi.re.kr [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    We present the smoothness of the mid-infrared sky from observations by the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. AKARI monitored the north ecliptic pole (NEP) during its cold phase with nine wave bands covering from 2.4 to 24 {mu}m, out of which six mid-infrared bands were used in this study. We applied power-spectrum analysis to the images in order to search for the fluctuation of the sky brightness. Observed fluctuation is explained by fluctuation of photon noise, shot noise of faint sources, and Galactic cirrus. The fluctuations at a few arcminutes scales at short mid-infrared wavelengths (7, 9, and 11 {mu}m) are largely caused by the diffuse Galactic light of the interstellar dust cirrus. At long mid-infrared wavelengths (15, 18, and 24 {mu}m), photon noise is the dominant source of fluctuation over the scale from arcseconds to a few arcminutes. The residual fluctuation amplitude at 200'' after removing these contributions is at most 1.04 {+-} 0.23 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} or 0.05% of the brightness at 24 {mu}m and at least 0.47 {+-} 0.14 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} or 0.02% at 18 {mu}m. We conclude that the upper limit of the fluctuation in the zodiacal light toward the NEP is 0.03% of the sky brightness, taking 2{sigma} error into account.

  17. Image Georeferencing Lesson 4: Image Georeferencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Christopher J.

    vector digitizing. You should read the section "Coordinate Transformation", in Chapter 4 of the GIS georeferencing, also known as image registration or image transformation. We'll then update a data layers through mapping vegetation, wetlands, and land use change. While many images are provided in digital formats

  18. Fermilab | Press Room | Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fermilab constructs pioneering accelerator test facility: photos, videos & graphics Click on links below images for medium and high-resolution jpeg images. When using this...

  19. Segmentation of thermographic images of hands using a genetic Payel Ghosha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Melanie

    contour (an individual) is evaluated for its fitness based on the texture of the region it encloses evaluation of the segmentation performed by all the methods. We conclude that LSGA successfully segments's Ergonomics and Work Physiology Lab where far-infrared images of hands were acquired using ThermaCAM AM40

  20. OSU_2/20/2006_Davis.1 Coastal Waters Imaging and Proposed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    sensors in low earth orbit will not provide the required coverage. · Coastal Ocean Applications in 2010 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) · Being built by Raytheon SBRS ­ SeaWiFS, MODIS Director of COAST. · Initial activity to evaluate geostationary ocean color requirements and suggest

  1. On the Use of Cluster Computing Architectures for Implementation of Hyperspectral Image Analysis Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaza, Antonio J.

    of applications aimed at detecting and/or tracking natural disasters such as forest fires, oil spills, and other sensors represent the most advanced instruments currently available for remote sensing of the Earth. The high spatial and spectral resolution of the images supplied by systems like the Airborne Visible Infra-Red

  2. Radiant energy required for infrared neural stimulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Xiaodong; Rajguru, Suhrud; Young, Hunter; Xia, Nan; Stock, Stuart R.; Xiao, Xianghui; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-08-25

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been proposed as an alternative method to electrical stimulation because of its spatial selective stimulation. Independent of the mechanism for INS, to translate the method into a device it is important to determine the energy for stimulation required at the target structure. Custom-designed, flat and angle polished fibers, were used to deliver the photons. By rotating the angle polished fibers, the orientation of the radiation beam in the cochlea could be changed. INS-evoked compound action potentials and single unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded. X-ray computed tomography wasmore »used to determine the orientation of the optical fiber. Maximum responses were observed when the radiation beam was directed towards the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), whereas little responses were seen when the beam was directed towards the basilar membrane. The radiant exposure required at the SGNs to evoke compound action potentials (CAPs) or ICC responses was on average 18.9 ± 12.2 or 10.3 ± 4.9 mJ/cm2, respectively. For cochlear INS it has been debated whether the radiation directly stimulates the SGNs or evokes a photoacoustic effect. The results support the view that a direct interaction between neurons and radiation dominates the response to INS.« less

  3. Infrared Transmission Spectra for Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Tinetti; M. C. Liang; A. Vidal-Madjar; D. Ehrenreich; A. Lecavelier des Etangs; Y. Yung

    2006-11-06

    Among the hot Jupiters that transit their parent stars known to date, the two best candidates to be observed with transmission spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (MIR) are HD189733b and HD209458b, due to their combined characteristics of planetary density, orbital parameters and parent star distance and brightness. Here we simulate transmission spectra of these two planets during their primary eclipse in the MIR, and we present sensitivity studies of the spectra to the changes of atmospheric thermal properties, molecular abundances and C/O ratios. Our model predicts that the dominant species absorbing in the MIR on hot Jupiters are water vapor and carbon monoxide, and their relative abundances are determined by the C/O ratio. Since the temperature profile plays a secondary role in the transmission spectra of hot Jupiters compared to molecular abundances, future primary eclipse observations in the MIR of those objects might give an insight on EGP atmospheric chemistry. We find here that the absorption features caused by water vapor and carbon monoxide in a cloud-free atmosphere, are deep enough to be observable by the present and future generation of space-based observatories, such as Spitzer Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope. We discuss our results in light of the capabilities of these telescopes.

  4. Infrared Thermographic Study of Laser Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohler, Jonathan H.; Chow, Charles T. S.

    1986-07-01

    Pyrotechnic ignition has been studied in the past by making a limited number of discrete temperature-time observations during ignition. Present-day infrared scanning techniques make it possible to record thermal profiles, during ignition, with high spacial and temporal resolution. Data thus obtained can be used with existing theory to characterize pyrotechnic materials and to develop more precise kinetic models of the ignition process. Ignition has been studied theoretically and experimentally using various thermal methods. It has been shown that the whole process can, ideally, be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the sample pellet behaves like an inert body heated by an external heat source. The second stage is governed by the chemical reaction in the heated volume produced during the first stage. High speed thermographic recording of the temperature distribution in the test sample during laser ignition makes it possible to calculate the heat content at any instant. Thus, one can actually observe laser heating and the onset of self-sustained combustion in the pellet. The experimental apparatus used to make these observations is described. The temperature distributions recorded are shown to be in good agreement with those predicted by heat transfer theory. Heat content values calculated from the observed temperature distributions are used to calculate thermal and kinetic parameters for several samples. These values are found to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  5. Infrared thermographic study of laser ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohler, J.H.; Chow, C.T.S.

    1986-07-21

    Pyrotechnic ignition has been studied in the past by making a limited number of discrete temperature-time observations during ignition. Present-day infrared scanning techniques make it possible to record thermal profiles, during ignition, with high spacial and temporal resolution. Data thus obtained can be used with existing theory to characterize pyrotechnic materials and to develop more precise kinetic models of the ignition process. Ignition has been studied theoretically and experimentally using various thermal methods. It has been shown that the whole process can, ideally, be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the sample pellet behaves like an inert body heated by an external heat source. The second stage is governed by the chemical reaction in the heated volume produced during the first stage. High speed thermographic recording of the temperature distribution in the test sample during laser ignition makes it possible to calculate the heat content at any instant. Thus, one can actually observe laser heating and the onset of self-sustained combustion in the pellet.

  6. Infrared spectral properties of M giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, G C; Ramirez, R M; Kraemer, K E; Engelke, C W

    2015-01-01

    We observed a sample of 20 M giants with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Most show absorption structure at 6.6-6.8 um which we identify as water vapor, and in some cases, the absorption extends from 6.4 um into the SiO band at 7.5 um. Variable stars show stronger H2O absorption. While the strength of the SiO fundamental at 8 um increases monotonically from spectral class K0 to K5, the dependence on spectral class weakens in the M giants. As with previously studied samples, the M giants show considerable scatter in SiO band strength within a given spectral class. All of the stars in our sample also show OH band absorption, most noticeably in the 14-17 um region. The OH bands behave much like the SiO bands, increasing in strength in the K giants but showing weaker dependence on spectral class in the M giants, and with considerable scatter. An examination of the photometric properties reveals that the V-K color may be a better indicator of molecular band strength than the spectral class...

  7. Supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. II. The correlation with near-infrared luminosity revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Läsker, Ronald; Van de Ven, Glenn [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ferrarese, Laura [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E2E7 (Canada); Shankar, Francesco, E-mail: laesker@mpia.de [GEPI Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2014-01-01

    We present an investigation of the scaling relations between supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses, M {sub •}, and their host galaxies' K-band bulge (L {sub bul}) and total (L {sub tot}) luminosities. The wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope was used to obtain the deepest and highest resolution near-infrared images available for a sample of 35 galaxies with securely measured M {sub •}, selected irrespective of Hubble type. For each galaxy, we derive bulge and total magnitudes using a two-dimensional image decomposition code that allows us to account, if necessary, for large- and small-scale disks, cores, bars, nuclei, rings, envelopes, and spiral arms. We find that the present-day M {sub •}-L {sub bul} and M {sub •}-L {sub tot} relations have consistent intrinsic scatter, suggesting that M {sub •} correlates equally well with bulge and total luminosity of the host. Our analysis provides only mild evidence of a decreased scatter if the fit is restricted to elliptical galaxies. The log-slopes of the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} and M {sub •}-L {sub tot} relations are 0.75 ± 0.10 and 0.92 ± 0.14, respectively. However, while the slope of the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} relation depends on the detail of the image decomposition, the characterization of M {sub •}-L {sub tot} does not. Given the difficulties and ambiguities of decomposing galaxy images into separate components, our results indicate that L {sub tot} is more suitable as a tracer of SMBH mass than L {sub bul}, and that the M {sub •}-L {sub tot} relation should be used when studying the co-evolution of SMBHs and galaxies.

  8. Absolute diffuse calibration of IRAC through mid-infrared and radio study of HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Cohen; Anne J. Green; Marilyn R. Meade; Brian Babler; Remy Indebetouw; Barbara A. Whitney; Christer Watson; Mark Wolfire; Mike J. Wolff; John S. Mathis; Edward B. Churchwell; .

    2006-10-19

    We investigate the diffuse absolute calibration of the InfraRed Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope at 8.0microns using a sample of 43 HII regions with a wide range of morphologies near GLON=312deg. For each region we carefully measure sky-subtracted,point-source- subtracted, areally-integrated IRAC 8.0-micron fluxes and compare these with Midcourse Space eXperiment (MSX) 8.3-micron images at two different spatial resolutions, and with radio continuum maps. We determine an accurate median ratio of IRAC 8.0-micron/MSX\\8.3-micron fluxes, of 1.55+/-0.15. From robust spectral energy distributions of these regions we conclude that the present 8.0-micron diffuse calibration of the SST is 36% too high compared with the MSX validated calibration, perhaps due to scattered light inside the camera. This is an independent confirmation of the result derived for the diffuse calibration of IRAC by the Spitzer Science Center (SSC). From regression analyses we find that 843-MHz radio fluxes of HII regions and mid-infrared (MIR) fluxes are linearly related for MSX at 8.3-microns and Spitzer at 8.0 microns, confirming the earlier MSX result by Cohen & Green. The median ratio of MIR/843-MHz diffuse continuum fluxes is 600 times smaller in nonthermal than thermal regions, making it a sharp discriminant. The ratios are largely independent of morphology up to a size of ~24 arcsec. We provide homogeneous radio and MIR morphologies for all sources. MIR morphology is not uniquely related to radio structure. Compact regions may have MIR filaments and/or diffuse haloes, perhaps infrared counter- parts to weakly ionized radio haloes found around compact HII regions. We offer two IRAC colour-colour plots as quantitative diagnostics of diffuse HII regions.

  9. Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13...

  10. Combustion Control Using Infrared and Visible Light Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    Economics and overall experience have acted against the installation of infrared carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide analyzers on smaller systems for air fuel ratio control. This paper discusses an interesting control signal which can be derived from...

  11. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA); Jones, Roger W. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-24

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the solid material.

  12. Characterization of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burghoff, David Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers provide some of the highest output powers available for light in the mid-infrared range (from 3 to 8 m). As many of their applications require portability, designs that have a high wall-plug efficiency ...

  13. Infrared thermometry study of nanofluid pool boiling phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerardi, Craig

    Abstract Infrared thermometry was used to obtain first-of-a-kind, time- and space-resolved data for pool boiling phenomena in water-based nanofluids with diamond and silica nanoparticles at low concentration (<0.1 vol.%). ...

  14. Infra-Red Process for Colour Fixation on Fabrics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biau, D.; Raymond, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Infra-red radiations find wide application in industrial processes as heating, drying, stoving and forming. The results are often far better than those from the other techniques: convection oven, gas IR etc . They come from the electric IR specific...

  15. Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application Of High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Sensors For Geothermal Exploration At The Salton Sea, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  16. Seeing the invisible : single molecule microscopy in the shortwave infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Correa, Raoul Emile

    2013-01-01

    Infrared-active nanostructures play an increasingly important role in the nanoscience toolbox, yet little is known about their optical properties at the single nanoparticle level. In this thesis, we detail efforts to extend ...

  17. Engineering adenylate cyclases regulated by near-infrared window light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Min-Hyung

    Bacteriophytochromes sense light in the near-infrared window, the spectral region where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and their chromophore, biliverdin IX?, is naturally present in animal cells. These properties ...

  18. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01

    et al. , Trilayered Ceramic-Metal-Polymer MicrocantileversPolymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors byLin Spring 2010 Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal

  19. Design of novel dyes towards the near-infrared 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudet, Aurore

    2009-05-15

    A series of seven functionalized near-infrared aza-BODIPY dyes have been synthesized and their spectroscopic properties measured. Their fluorescence emissions could be tuned by altering the electronic substituents on the aryl-groups. A through...

  20. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Graphene-a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice-has very high conductivity that can be tuned...

  1. On the performance of infrared sensors in earth observations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Luther Franklin

    1972-01-01

    systems is depen- dent upon the radiative properties of targets in addition to constraints imposed by system components . The unclas- sified state-of-the-art of infrared system performance figures is reviewed to indicate the relevance to system... of unclassified infrared literature reveals in- frared systems applications in industry, medicine, and science. Indeed, any detection application is possible if a measurable variation in radiation is caused by the tar- get property of interest. Hudson [10] has...

  2. Accurate, practical simulation of satellite infrared radiometer spectral data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study's purpose is to determine whether a relatively simple random band model formulation of atmospheric radiation transfer in the infrared region can provide valid simulations of narrow interval satellite-borne infrared sounder system data. Detailed ozonesondes provide the pertinent atmospheric information and sets of calibrated satellite measurements provide the validation. High resolution line-by-line model calculations are included to complete the evaluation.

  3. Cosmogenic Neutrinos from Cosmic Ray Interactions with Extragalactic Infrared Photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel De Marco; Todor Stanev; F. W. Stecker

    2005-12-19

    We discuss the production of cosmogenic neutrinos on extragalactic infrared photons in a model of its cosmological evolution. The relative importance of these infrared photons as a target for proton interactions is significant, especially in the case of steep injection spectra of the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. For an E$^{-2.5}$ cosmic ray injection spectrum, for example, the event rate of neutrinos of energy above 1 PeV is more than doubled.

  4. Evaluating undeveloped urban forest resources using color infrared imagery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snelgrove, Robert Todd

    2002-01-01

    EVALUATING UNDEVELOPED URBAN FOREST RESOURCES USING COLOR INFRARED IMAGERY A Thesis by ROBERT TODD SNELGROVE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2002 Major Subject: Forestry EVALUATING UNDEVELOPED URBAN FOREST RESOURCES USING COLOR INFRARED IMAGERY A Thesis by ROBERT TODD SNELGROVE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  5. Probabilistic Web Image Gathering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanai, Keiji

    1 Probabilistic Web Image Gathering 1. Objective & background 2. Related work 3. Method 4, JAPAN (UEC) (Long-term) Objective of our Web Image Gathering Gather several hundreds of images associated with one concept from the Web without human intervention It's not image search. Non

  6. SOFIA Infrared Spectrophotometry of Comet C/2012 K1 (Pan-STARRS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodward, Charles E; Harker, David E; Ryan, Erin L; Wooden, Diane H; Sitko, Michael L; Russell, Ray W; Reach, William T; de Pater, Imke; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Gehrz, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    We present pre-perihelion infrared 8 to 31 micron spectrophotometric and imaging observations of comet C/2012 K1 (Pan-STARRS), a dynamically new Oort Cloud comet, conducted with NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) facility (+FORCAST) in 2014 June. As a "new" comet (first inner solar system passage), the coma grain population may be extremely pristine, unencumbered by a rime and insufficiently irradiated by the Sun to carbonize its surface organics. The comet exhibited a weak 10 micron silicate feature ~1.18 +/- 0.03 above the underlying best-fit 215.32 +/- 0.95 K continuum blackbody. Thermal modeling of the observed spectral energy distribution indicates that the coma grains are fractally solid with a porosity factor D = 3 and the peak in the grain size distribution, a_peak = 0.6 micron, large. The sub-micron coma grains are dominated by amorphous carbon, with a silicate-to-carbon ratio of 0.80 (+0.25) (- 0.20). The silicate crystalline mass fraction is 0.20 (+0.30) (-0.10), simila...

  7. A Constant Spectral Index for Sagittarius A* During Infrared/X-ray Intensity Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. D. Hornstein; K. Matthews; A. M. Ghez; J. R. Lu; M. Morris; E. E. Becklin; M. Rafelski; F. K. Baganoff

    2007-06-12

    We report the first time-series of broadband infrared (IR) color measurements of Sgr A*, the variable emission source associated with the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center. Using the laser and natural guide star AO systems on the Keck II telescope, we imaged Sgr A* in multiple near-infrared broadband filters with a typical cycle time of ~3 min during 4 observing runs (2005-2006), two of which were simultaneous with Chandra X-ray measurements. In spite of the large range of dereddened flux densities for Sgr A* (2-30 mJy), all of our near-IR measurements are consistent with a constant spectral index of alpha = -0.6+-0.2. Furthermore, this value is consistent with the spectral indices observed at X-ray wavelengths during nearly all outbursts; which is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton model for the production of the X-ray emission. During the coordinated observations, one IR outburst occurs 1 GeV is generated, and it is this high-energy tail that gives rise to the X-ray outbursts. One possible explanation for this type of variation is from the turbulence induced by a magnetorotational instability, in which the outer scale length of the turbulence varies and changes the high-energy cutoff.

  8. CfAIR2: Near Infrared Light Curves of 94 Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Andrew S; Marion, G H; Challis, Peter; Mandel, Kaisey S; Bloom, Joshua S; Modjaz, Maryam; Narayan, Gautham; Hicken, Malcolm; Foley, Ryan; Klein, Christopher R; Starr, Dan L; Morgan, Adam; Rest, Armin; Blake, Cullen H; Miller, Adam A; Falco, Emilio E; Wyatt, William F; Mink, Jessica; Skrutskie, Michael F; Kirshner, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    CfAIR2 is a large homogeneously reduced set of near-infrared (NIR) light curves for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) obtained with the 1.3m PAIRITEL (Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope). This data set includes 4607 measurements of 94 SN Ia and 4 additional SN Iax observed from 2005-2011 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. CfAIR2 includes JHKs photometric measurements for 88 normal and 6 spectroscopically peculiar SN Ia in the nearby universe, with a median redshift of z~0.021 for the normal SN Ia. CfAIR2 data span the range from -13 days to +127 days from maximum in the B-band. More than half of the light curves begin before the time of maximum and the coverage typically contains ~13-18 epochs of observation, depending on the filter. We present extensive tests that verify the fidelity of the CfAIR2 data pipeline, including comparison to the excellent data of the Carnegie Supernova Project. CfAIR2 contributes to a firm local anchor for supernova cosmology studies in the NIR. ...

  9. Near-infrared detection of WD 0806-661 B with the Hubble space telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.; Morley, C. V.; Burgasser, A. J.; Bochanski, J. J.

    2014-10-10

    WD 0806-661 B is one of the coldest known brown dwarfs (T {sub eff} = 300-345 K) based on previous mid-infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. In addition, it is a benchmark for testing theoretical models of brown dwarfs because its age and distance are well constrained via its primary star (2 ± 0.5 Gyr, 19.2 ± 0.6 pc). We present the first near-infrared detection of this object, which has been achieved through F110W imaging (?Y + J) with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure a Vega magnitude of m {sub 110} = 25.70 ± 0.08, which implies J ? 25.0. When combined with the Spitzer photometry, our estimate of J helps to better define the empirical sequence of the coldest brown dwarfs in M {sub 4.5} versus J – [4.5]. The positions of WD 0806-661 B and other Y dwarfs in that diagram are best matched by the cloudy models of Burrows et al. and the cloudless models of Saumon et al., both of which employ chemical equilibrium. The calculations by Morley et al. for 50% cloud coverage differ only modestly from the data. Spectroscopy would enable a more stringent test of the models, but based on our F110W measurement, such observations are currently possible only with Hubble, and would require at least ?10 orbits to reach a signal-to-noise ratio of ?5.

  10. A new mid-infrared map of the BN/KL region using the Keck telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuping, R Y; Bally, J; Morris, Mark; Bally, John

    2004-01-01

    We present a new mid-infrared (12.5micron) map of the BN/KL high-mass star-forming complex in Orion using the LWS instrument at Keck I. Despite poor weather we achieved nearly diffraction-limited images (FWHM = 0.38'') over a roughly 25'' X 25'' region centered on IRc2 down to a flux limit of ~250 mJy. Many of the known infrared (IR) sources in the region break up into smaller sub-components. We have also detected 6 new mid-IR sources. Nearly all of the sources are resolved in our mosaic. The near-IR source ''n'' is slightly elongated in the mid-IR along a NW--SE axis and perfectly bisects the double-peaked radio source ''L''. Source n has been identified as a candidate for powering the large IR luminosity of the BN/KL region (L = 10^5 L_sun). We postulate that the 12 micron emission arises in a circumstellar disk surrounding source n. The morphology of the mid-IR emission and the Orion ''hot core'' (as seen in NH_3 emission), along with the location of water and OH masers, is very suggestive of a bipolar cav...

  11. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION SURVEY IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CORRELATIONS AND TRENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Lucas, Phil W.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2014-11-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of 10 sub-regions in 6 star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65 pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20%, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star-forming regions.

  12. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  13. Femtosecond measurements of near-infrared pulse induced mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hong; Liu, Sheng; Lalanne, Elaine; Guo, Dingkai; Chen, Xing; Choa, Fow-Sen; Wang, Xiaojun; Johnson, Anthony M.

    2014-05-26

    We temporally resolved the ultrafast mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using a near-infrared pump/mid-infrared probe technique at room temperature. Two different femtosecond wavelength pumps were used with photon energy above and below the quantum well (QW) bandgap. The shorter wavelength pump modulates the mid-infrared probe transmission through interband transition assisted mechanisms, resulting in a high transmission modulation depth and several nanoseconds recovery lifetime. In contrast, pumping with a photon energy below the QW bandgap induces a smaller transmission modulation depth but much faster (several picoseconds) recovery lifetime, attributed to intersubband transition assisted mechanisms. The latter ultrafast modulation (>60?GHz) could provide a potential way to realize fast QCL based free space optical communication.

  14. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 ?m, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate model projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m?² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m?², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.

  15. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-03

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 ?m, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate modelmore »projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8–2.0 W m?² difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m?², and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. The calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.« less

  16. Near-infrared Study of the Carina Nebula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaushar Sanchawala; Wen-Ping Chen; Devendra Ojha; Swarna Kanti Ghosh; Yasushi Nakajima; Motohide Tamura; Daisuke Baba; Shuji Sato; Masahiro Tsujimoto

    2007-06-13

    We have carried out near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations of the Carina Nebula for an area of ~400 sq. arcmin. including the star clusters Trumpler 14 (Tr 14) and Trumpler 16 (Tr 16). With 10 sigma limiting magnitudes of J ~ 18.5, H ~ 17.5 and K_s ~ 16.5, we identified 544 Class II and 11 Class I young star candidates. We find some 40 previously unknown very red sources with H-K_s > 2, most of which remain undetected at the J band. The red NIR sources are found to be concentrated to the south-east of Tr 16, along the `V' shaped dust lane, where the next generation of stars seems to be forming. In addition, we find indications of ongoing star formation near the three MSX point sources, G287.51-0.49, G287.47-0.54, and G287.63-0.72. A handful of red NIR sources are seen to populate around each of these MSX sources. Apart from this, we identified two hard Chandra X-ray sources near G287.47-0.54, one of which does not have an NIR counterpart and may be associated with a Class I/Class 0 object. The majority of the Class II candidates, on the other hand, are seen to be distributed in the directions of the clusters, demarcating different evolutionary stages in this massive star-forming region. A comparison of the color-magnitude diagrams of the clusters with pre-main sequence model tracks shows that the stellar population of these clusters is very young (< 3 Myr). The K_s band luminosity function (KLF) of Tr 14 shows structure at the faint end, including a sharp peak due to the onset of deuterium burning, implying an age of 1-2 Myr for the cluster. The KLF of Tr 16, in contrast, is found to rise smoothly until it turns over. The slopes of the mass functions derived for the clusters are found to be in agreement with the canonical value of the field star initial mass function derived by Salpeter.

  17. Image registration method for medical image sequences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, Timothy F.; Goddard, James S.

    2013-03-26

    Image registration of low contrast image sequences is provided. In one aspect, a desired region of an image is automatically segmented and only the desired region is registered. Active contours and adaptive thresholding of intensity or edge information may be used to segment the desired regions. A transform function is defined to register the segmented region, and sub-pixel information may be determined using one or more interpolation methods.

  18. Experimental Characterization of Shape Memory Alloys using Digital Image Correlation and Infra-Red Thermography 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cornell, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    zxtznsomztry Video extensometry (Francois, Gaucher, & Seguela, 1994) is a non-contact mea- surement technique for recording local deformations in real time. G’Sell, Hiver, Da- houn, and Souahi (1992) performed plastic deformation analysis of hourglass...

  19. Measurement of Nucleate Pool Boiling with Synchronized Particle Imaging Velocimetry and Infrared Thermometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, X.

    Nucleate boiling is important in many energy systems including light water reactors. Currently significant efforts are underway to develop mechanisticmodels for nucleate boiling based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). ...

  20. Eye localization from thermal infrared images Shangfei Wang a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the effectiveness of our approach, experiments are performed on NVIE and Equinox databases. The eyeglass detection results on NVIE database and Equinox database are 99.36% and 95%, respectively, which demonstrate

  1. Infrared birefringence imaging of residual stress and bulk defects in multicrystalline silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the cost of pho- tovoltaic power PV .1 Significant resources have been in- vested toward improving to the underdevelopment of PV technology path- ways with cost reduction potential. For example, thinner wafers represent a promising path toward reduced materials costs and higher efficiency,18 yet these benefits have been offset

  2. Deep Infrared Imaging of the R Coronae Australis Cloud Core Bruce A. Wilking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilking, Bruce A.

    @ssl.msfc.nasa.gov John T. Rayner Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 rayner regions (e.g., Hodapp & Rayner 1991; Rayner, Hodapp, & Zinnecker 1991; Carpenter et al. 1993; Zinnecker

  3. Applications of thermal infrared imaging for research in aeroecology Nickolay I. Hristov,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betke, Margrit

    of this tool: behavioral observations, thermographic analysis of animal energetics, and censusing large

  4. Infrared Imaging of the Nanometer-Thick Accumulation Layer in Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is P3HT. (bottom panel) The I-V curve of a representative TiO2-based FET. NANO LETTERS 2006 Vol. 6, No with excep- tionally high mobility.10 Devices employing a high dielectric constant () insulator TiO2 11 such as films of polymer chains,3 nanotubes,4 molecules,5 and possibly even DNA bundles,6 all of which can

  5. Ralph: A Visible/Infrared Imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, S. Alan

    , Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), 1050 Walnut St., Suite 400, Boulder CO, 80302 3 SwRI, 6220 Culebra Rd, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 7 Dept. of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute (Sw for atmospheric studies and to map the surface temperature. It is a compact, low-mass (10.5 kg) power efficient (7

  6. Thermal infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions using the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    hazard mitigation-ash can be extremely hazardous to aircraft through ingestion into jet engines , T. Yua a Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931-1295, USA b Visualization and Scientific Animation, Jet

  7. Lymphatic trafficking kinetics and near-infrared imaging using star polymer architectures with controlled anionic character

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagby, Taryn Rochelle; Cai, Shuang; Duan, Shaofeng; Yang, Qiuhong; Thati, Sharadvi; Berkland, Cory J.; Aires, Daniel J.; Forrest, Marcus Laird

    2012-04-22

    with enhanced lymphatic uptake up to a zeta potential of ca. -40 mV; further negative charge did not affect lymphatic uptake. Compared to the 20% acid-conjugate, the 40 to 90% acid-star-polymer conjugates exhibited a 2.5- to 3.5-fold increase in lymphatic uptake...

  8. Short-Term Arctic Cloud Statistics at NSA from the Infrared Cloud Imager

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 UnlimitedShift End Shift End A shift endsNovember3 13

  9. Infrared Cloud Imager Deployment at the North Slope of Alaska During Early 2002

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THEVorticesInformation| U.S. DOE Office

  10. NEAR-INFRARED THERMAL EMISSION DETECTIONS OF A NUMBER OF HOT JUPITERS AND THE SYSTEMATICS OF GROUND-BASED NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert, Loic

    We present detections of the near-infrared thermal emission of three hot Jupiters and one brown dwarf using the Wide-field Infrared Camera (WIRCam) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These include Ks-band secondary ...

  11. OPTICAL IMAGES AND SOURCE CATALOG OF AKARI NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE WIDE SURVEY FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Yiseul; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Induk [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ibrahimov, Mansur [Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, 33 Astronomicheskaya str., Tashkent, 100052 (Uzbekistan); Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon, E-mail: ysjeon@astro.snu.ac.k, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.k [Astronomy Program, FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    We present the source catalog and the properties of the B-, R-, and I-band images obtained to support the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide (NEP-Wide) survey. The NEP-Wide is an AKARI infrared imaging survey of the north ecliptic pole covering a 5.8 deg{sup 2} area over 2.5-6 {mu}m wavelengths. The optical imaging data were obtained at the Maidanak Observatory in Uzbekistan using the Seoul National University 4k x 4k Camera on the 1.5 m telescope. These images cover 4.9 deg{sup 2} where no deep optical imaging data are available. Our B-, R-, and I-band data reach the depths of {approx}23.4, {approx}23.1, and {approx}22.3 mag (AB) at 5{sigma}, respectively. The source catalog contains 96,460 objects in the R band, and the astrometric accuracy is about 0.''15 at 1{sigma} in each R.A. and decl. direction. These photometric data will be useful for many studies including identification of optical counterparts of the infrared sources detected by AKARI, analysis of their spectral energy distributions from optical through infrared, and the selection of interesting objects to understand the obscured galaxy evolution.

  12. An X-ray Imaging Study of the Stellar Population in RCW49

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, M; Broos, P S; Churchwell, E B; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P; Getman, K V; Nagayama, T; Tamura, M; Townsley, L K; Wang, J

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a high-resolution X-ray imaging study of the stellar population in the Galactic massive star-forming region RCW49 and its central OB association Westerlund 2. We obtained a 40 ks X-ray image of a 17'x17' field using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and deep NIR images using the Infrared Survey Facility in a concentric 8'3x8'3 region. We detected 468 X-ray sources and identified optical, NIR, and Spitzer Space Telescope MIR counterparts for 379 of them. The unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity of the X-ray image, enhanced by optical and infrared imaging data, yielded the following results: (1) The central OB association Westerlund 2 is resolved for the first time in the X-ray band. X-ray emission is detected from all spectroscopically-identified early-type stars in this region. (2) Most (86%) X-ray sources with optical or infrared identifications are cluster members in comparison with a control field in the Galactic Plane. (3) A loose constraint (2--5 kpc) for the distance to...

  13. Supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. I. Bulge luminosities from dedicated near-infrared data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Läsker, Ronald; Van de Ven, Glenn [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Ferrarese, Laura, E-mail: laesker@mpia.de [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E2E7 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine, and supplement the relation between central supermassive black hole masses, M {sub •}, and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, L {sub bul}, we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured M {sub •}, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sérsic-bulge+exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observed in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings, and envelopes. In such cases, we adopted profile modifications and/or more complex models with additional components. The derived bulge magnitudes are very sensitive to the details and number of components used in the models, although total magnitudes remain almost unaffected. Usually, but not always, the luminosities and sizes of the bulges are overestimated when a simple bulge+disk decomposition is adopted in lieu of a more complex model. Furthermore, we found that some spheroids are not well fit when the ellipticity of the Sérsic model is held fixed. This paper presents the details of the image processing and analysis, while we discuss how model-induced biases and systematics in bulge magnitudes impact the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} relation in a companion paper.

  14. Multivariate calibration techniques applied to NIRA (near infrared reflectance analysis) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C.L.

    1991-02-01

    Multivariate calibration techniques can reduce the time required for routine testing and can provide new methods of analysis. Multivariate calibration is commonly used with near infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two feasibility studies were performed to determine the capability of NIRA, using multivariate calibration techniques, to perform analyses on the types of samples that are routinely analyzed at this laboratory. The first study performed included a variety of samples and indicated that NIRA would be well-suited to perform analyses on selected materials properties such as water content and hydroxyl number on polyol samples, epoxy content on epoxy resins, water content of desiccants, and the amine values of various amine cure agents. A second study was performed to assess the capability of NIRA to perform quantitative analysis of hydroxyl numbers and water contents of hydroxyl-containing materials. Hydroxyl number and water content were selected for determination because these tests are frequently run on polyol materials and the hydroxyl number determination is time consuming. This study pointed out the necessity of obtaining calibration standards identical to the samples being analyzed for each type of polyol or other material being analyzed. Multivariate calibration techniques are frequently used with FTIR data to determine the composition of a large variety of complex mixtures. A literature search indicated many applications of multivariate calibration to FTIR data. Areas identified where quantitation by FTIR would provide a new capability are quantitation of components in epoxy and silicone resins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in oils, and additives to polymers. 19 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Practical image based lighting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jaemin

    2003-01-01

    information is lighting. Image based lighting that is developed to recover illumination information of the real world from photographs has recently been popular in computer graphics. In this thesis we present a practical image based lighting method. Our...

  16. Computational ghost imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    A computational ghost-imaging arrangement that uses only a single-pixel detector is described. It affords a new 3D sectioning capability and matches the resolution of pseudothermal ghost imaging.

  17. The Red Radio Ring: a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared radio galaxy at z=2.553 discovered through citizen science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geach, J E; Verma, A; Marshall, P J; Jackson, N; Belles, P -E; Beswick, R; Baeten, E; Chavez, M; Cornen, C; Cox, B E; Erben, T; Erickson, N J; Garrington, S; Harrison, P A; Harrington, K; Hughes, D H; Ivison, R J; Jordan, C; Lin, Y -T; Leauthaud, A; Lintott, C; Lynn, S; Kapadia, A; Kneib, J -P; Macmillan, C; Makler, M; Miller, G; Montana, A; Mujica, R; Muxlow, T; Narayanan, G; Briain, D O; O'Brien, T; Oguri, M; Paget, E; Parrish, M; Ross, N P; Rozo, E; Rusu, E; Rykoff, E S; Sanchez-Arguelles, D; Simpson, R; Snyder, C; Schloerb, F P; Tecza, M; Van Waerbeke, L; Wilcox, J; Viero, M; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S; Zeballos, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a gravitationally lensed hyperluminous infrared galaxy (L_IR~10^13 L_sun) with strong radio emission (L_1.4GHz~10^25 W/Hz) at z=2.553. The source was identified in the citizen science project SpaceWarps through the visual inspection of tens of thousands of iJKs colour composite images of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs), groups and clusters of galaxies and quasars. Appearing as a partial Einstein ring (r_e~3") around an LRG at z=0.2, the galaxy is extremely bright in the sub-millimetre for a cosmological source, with the thermal dust emission approaching 1 Jy at peak. The redshift of the lensed galaxy is determined through the detection of the CO(3-2) molecular emission line with the Large Millimetre Telescope's Redshift Search Receiver and through [OIII] and H-alpha line detections in the near-infrared from Subaru/IRCS. We have resolved the radio emission with high resolution (300-400 mas) eMERLIN L-band and JVLA C-band imaging. These observations are used in combination with the near-...

  18. User Science Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research | URL: https:www.fin.ucar.edunetpubserver.np?find&siteimagelibrary&catalogcatalog&templatedetail.np&fielditemid&opmatches&value3438 Download Image:...

  19. Long wave fluorophore sensor compounds and other fluorescent sensor compounds in polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Joseph C.; Heiss, Aaron M.; Noronha, Glenn; Vachon, David J.; Lane, Stephen M.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Peyser, Thomas A.; Van Antwerp, William Peter; Mastrototaro, John Joseph

    2004-07-20

    Fluorescent biosensor molecules, fluorescent biosensors and systems, as well as methods of making and using these biosensor molecules and systems are described. Embodiments of these biosensor molecules exhibit fluorescence emission at wavelengths greater than about 650 nm. Typical biosensor molecules include a fluorophore that includes an iminium ion, a linker moiety that includes a group that is an anilinic type of relationship to the fluorophore and a boronate substrate recognition/binding moiety, which binds glucose. The fluorescence molecules modulated by the presence or absence of polyhydroxylated analytes such as glucose. This property of these molecules of the invention, as well as their ability to emit fluorescent light at greater than about 650 nm, renders these biosensor molecules particularly well-suited for detecting and measuring in-vivo glucose concentrations.

  20. Long-wave radiative analysis of cloudy scattering atmospheres using a net exchange formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    . Eymeta,*, J.L. Dufresneb , P. Ricchiazzic , R. Fourniera , S. Blancoa a Laboratoire d'Energe´tique, UFR

  1. A numerical investigation of long waves in the atmosphere produced by flow over various mountain profiles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Ralph Warren

    1968-01-01

    . . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY. 51 REFiERENGES. 54 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Domain of the Model Over-relaxation Coefficient vs. Number of Iterations Required for Conversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Case I... - Pattern of Vorticity after Two Days. . 19 10. 12. 13. 15. Case II - Pattern of Vorticity after Three Days. . . . . 21 Case III - Pattern of Vorticity after Two Days. . . . . . 23 Case IV - Pattern of Vorticity after Three Days. . . . . 24 Case V...

  2. Long waves in water over a visco-elastic muddy seabed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Erell-Isis

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of surface waves over a flat muddy seabed are studied. Mud is first considered as a Newtonian fluid. Water and mud equations are derived in order to obtain governing equation for surface and interface waves. ...

  3. Shear stabilization of a solidifying front: Weakly nonlinear analysis in a long-wave limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulze, Tim

    The manufacturing of single crystals of multi-component materials with uniform material properties is frequently--including metal- lic alloys, semiconductor materials and crystals for optical devices--fall into this category materials. The control of fluid motion and interfaces during these processes is essen- tial

  4. Nonlinear Interactions between Longs Waves in a Two-Layer Fluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tahvildari, Navid

    2012-02-14

    The nonlinear interactions between long surface waves and interfacial waves in a two-layer fluid are studied theoretically. The fluid is density-stratified and the thicknesses of the top and bottom layers are both assumed to be shallow relative...

  5. Technical report on a long-wave unstable thin film equation with convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Chugunova; M. C. Pugh; R. M. Taranets

    2009-10-27

    In this technical report, we consider a nonlinear 4th-order degenerate parabolic partial differential equation that arises in modelling the dynamics of an incompressible thin liquid film on the outer surface of a rotating horizontal cylinder in the presence of gravity. The parameters involved determine a rich variety of qualitatively different flows. Depending on the initial data and the parameter values, we prove the existence of nonnegative periodic weak solutions. In addition, we prove that these solutions and their gradients cannot grow any faster than linearly in time; there cannot be a finite-time blow-up. Finally, we present numerical simulations of solutions.

  6. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.B.; Seib, D.H.; Stetson, S.B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.; Schoenwald, J.

    1989-02-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10 x 50 element Si:As Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) detectors (cut-off wavelength = 28 ..mu..m) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity band conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear radiation hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in this paper is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increase quantum efficiency (particular at short wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the Blocked-Impurity-Band detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Read noise and dark current for different temperatures have been measured and are also described. The hybrid array performance achieved clearly demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  7. A Young White Dwarf with an Infrared Excess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, S; Pantoja, B; Klein, B; Zuckerman, B; Su, K Y L; Meng, H Y A

    2015-01-01

    Using observations of Spitzer/IRAC, we report the serendipitous discovery of excess infrared emission from a single white dwarf PG 0010+280. At a temperature of 27,220 K and a cooling age of 16 Myr, it is the hottest and youngest white dwarf to display an excess at 3-8 $\\mu$m. The infrared excess can be fit by either an opaque dust disk within the tidal radius of the white dwarf or a 1300 K blackbody, possibly from an irradiated substellar object or a re-heated giant planet. PG 0010+280 has two unique properties that are different from white dwarfs with a dust disk: (i) relatively low emission at 8 $\\mu$m and (ii) non-detection of heavy elements in its atmosphere from high-resolution spectroscopic observations with Keck/HIRES. The origin of the infrared excess remains unclear.

  8. Noise Reduction Efforts for the ALS Infrared Beamlines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarvie, Tom; Andresen, Nord; Baptiste, Ken; Byrd, John; Chin, Mike; Martin, Michael; McKinney, Wayne; Steier, Christoph

    2004-05-12

    The quality of infrared microscopy and spectroscopy data collected at synchrotron based sources is strongly dependent on signal-to-noise. We have successfully identified and suppressed several noise sources affecting Beamlines 1.4.2, 1.4.3, and 1.4.4 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), resulting in a significant increase in the quality of FTIR spectra obtained. In this paper, we present our methods of noise source analysis, the negative effect of noise on the infrared beam quality, and the techniques used to reduce the noise. These include reducing the phase noise in the storage ring radio-frequency (RF) system, installing an active mirror feedback system, analyzing and changing physical mounts to better isolate portions of the beamline optics from low-frequency environmental noise, and modifying the input signals to the main ALS RF system. We also discuss the relationship between electron beam energy oscillations at a point of dispersion and infrared beamline noise.

  9. Apparatus for generating coherent infrared energy of selected wavelength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A tunable source (11) of coherent infrared energy includes a heat pipe (12) having an intermediate region (24) at which cesium (22) is heated to vaporizing temperature and end regions (27, 28) at which the vapor is condensed and returned to the intermediate region (24) for reheating and recirculation. Optical pumping light (43) is directed along the axis of the heat pipe (12) through a first end window (17) to stimulate emission of coherent infrared energy which is transmitted out through an opposite end window (18). A porous walled tubulation (44) extends along the axis of the heat pipe (12) and defines a region (46) in which cesium vapor is further heated to a temperature sufficient to dissociate cesium dimers which would decrease efficiency by absorbing pump light (43). Efficient generation of any desired infrared wavelength is realized by varying the wavelength of the pump light (43).

  10. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markham, James R. (Middlefield, CT)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  11. Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

    2008-06-02

    Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

  12. Analyzing and improving image quality in reflective ghost imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Nicholas D. (Nicholas David)

    2011-01-01

    Ghost imaging is a transverse imaging technique that relies on the correlation between a pair of light fields, one that has interacted with the object to be imaged and one that has not. Most ghost imaging experiments have ...

  13. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review #12;2 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain ImagingThe Wellcome Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales, no's role in supporting human functional brain imaging and have informed `our' speculations for the future

  14. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

  15. Image Sensor Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    ; #12; #12; Image Sensor Lens Metadata Actions Flash ... Application Processor Con gure 1 and Statistics #12; Image Sensor Lens Metadata Actions Flash ... Application Processor Con gure 1 Expose 2 and Statistics #12; Image Sensor Lens Metadata Actions Flash ... Application Processor Con gure 1 Expose 2

  16. Medical imaging systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  17. Near-electrode imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL); Woelk, Klaus (Wachtberg, DE); Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager uses the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  18. ANIR : Atacama Near-Infrared Camera for the 1.0-m miniTAO Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konishi, Masahiro; Tateuchi, Ken; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kato, Natsuko; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K; Toshikawa, Koji; Ohsawa, Ryou; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu; Asano, Kentaro; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Komugi, Shinya; Koshida, Shintaro; Manabe, Sho; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nakashima, Asami; Takagi, Toshinobu; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Handa, Toshihiro; Kato, Daisuke; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kohno, Kotaro; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi; Soyano, Takao; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanaka, Masuo; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a near-infrared camera called ANIR (Atacama Near-InfraRed camera) for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 1.0m telescope (miniTAO) installed at the summit of Cerro Chajnantor (5640 m above sea level) in northern Chile. The camera provides a field of view of 5'.1 $\\times$ 5'.1 with a spatial resolution of 0".298 /pixel in the wavelength range of 0.95 to 2.4 $\\mu$m. Taking advantage of the dry site, the camera is capable of hydrogen Paschen-$\\alpha$ (Pa$\\alpha$, $\\lambda=$1.8751 $\\mu$m in air) narrow-band imaging observations, at which wavelength ground-based observations have been quite difficult due to deep atmospheric absorption mainly from water vapor. We have been successfully obtaining Pa$\\alpha$ images of Galactic objects and nearby galaxies since the first-light observation in 2009 with ANIR. The throughputs at the narrow-band filters ($N1875$, $N191$) including the atmospheric absorption show larger dispersion (~10%) than those at broad-band filters (a few %), indicating that ...

  19. The Infrared Cloud Monitor for the MAGNUM Robotic Telescope at Haleakala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Suganuma; Y. Kobayashi; N. Okada; Y. Yoshii; T. Minezaki; T. Aoki; K. Enya; H. Tomita; S. Koshida

    2007-04-18

    We present the most successful infrared cloud monitor for a robotic telescope. This system was originally developed for the MAGNUM 2-m telescope, which has been achieving unmanned and automated monitoring observation of active galactic nuclei at Haleakala on the Hawaiian island of Maui since 2001. Using a thermal imager and two aspherical mirrors, it at once sees almost the whole sky at a wavelength of $\\lambda\\sim 10\\mu{\\rm m}$. Its outdoor part is weather-proof and is totally maintenance-free. The images obtained every one or two minutes are analysed immediately into several ranks of weather condition, from which our automated observing system not only decides to open or close the dome, but also selects what types of observations should be done. The whole-sky data accumulated over four years show that 50$-$60 % of all nights are photometric, and about 75 % are observable with respect to cloud condition at Haleakala. Many copies of this system are now used all over the world such as Mauna Kea in Hawaii, Atacama in Chile, and Okayama and Kiso in Japan.

  20. Modelling Herschel observations of infrared-dark clouds in the Hi-GAL survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatellos, D; Kirk, J; Molinari, S; Sibthorpe, B; Ward-Thompson, D; Whitworth, A; Wilcock, L

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of the 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code PHAETHON to model infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) that are externally illuminated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). These clouds are believed to be the earliest observed phase of high-mass star formation, and may be the high-mass equivalent of lower-mass prestellar cores. We model three different cases as examples of the use of the code, in which we vary the mass, density, radius, morphology and internal velocity field of the IRDC. We show the predicted output of the models at different wavelengths chosen to match the observing wavebands of Herschel and Spitzer. For the wavebands of the long- wavelength SPIRE photometer on Herschel, we also pass the model output through the SPIRE simulator to generate output images that are as close as possible to the ones that would be seen using SPIRE. We then analyse the images as if they were real observations, and compare the results of this analysis with the results of the radiative transfer mod...

  1. Automation in image cytometry : continuous HCS and kinetic image cytometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charlot, David J.

    2012-01-01

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Automation in Image Cytometry:xiv Abstract of Dissertation Automation in Image Cytometry:

  2. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and chemical kinetics of free radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curl, R.F.; Glass, G.P. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. During the last year, infrared kinetic spectroscopy using excimer laser flash photolysis and color-center laser probing has been employed to study the high resolution spectrum of HCCN, the rate constant of the reaction between ethynyl (C{sub 2}H) radical and H{sub 2} in the temperature region between 295 and 875 K, and the recombination rate of propargyl (CH{sub 2}CCH) at room temperature.

  3. Transit and secondary eclipse photometry in the near-infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignas Snellen

    2007-05-02

    Near-infrared photometry of transiting extrasolar planets can be of great scientific value. It is however not straightforward to reach the necessary millimagnitude precision. Here we report on our attempts to observe transits and secondary eclipses of several extrasolar planets at 2.2 micron. Best results have been obtained on OGLE-TR-113b using the SOFI near-infrared camera on ESO's New Technology Telescope. Its K-band transit shows a remarkably flat bottom indicating low stellar limb darkening. Secondary eclipse photometry has resulted in a formal 3 sigma detection, but residual systematic effects make this detection rather uncertain.

  4. Antenna-coupled microcavities for enhanced infrared photo-detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nga Chen, Yuk; Todorov, Yanko Askenazi, Benjamin; Vasanelli, Angela; Sirtori, Carlo; Biasiol, Giorgio; Colombelli, Raffaele

    2014-01-20

    We demonstrate mid-infrared detectors embedded into an array of double-metal nano-antennas. The antennas act as microcavities that squeeze the electric field into thin semiconductor layers, thus enhancing the detector responsivity. Furthermore, thanks to the ability of the antennas to gather photons from an area larger than the device's physical dimensions, the dark current is reduced without hindering the photo-generation rate. In these devices, the background-limited performance is improved with a consequent increase of the operating temperature. Our results illustrate how the antenna-coupled microcavity concept can be applied to enhance the performances of infrared opto-electronic devices.

  5. Improving the Infra-red of Holographic Descriptions of QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Evans; Andrew Tedder; Tom Waterson

    2007-01-03

    A surprisingly good holographic description of QCD can be obtained from naive five dimensional gauge theory on a truncated AdS space. We seek to improve the infra-red description of QCD in such models by using a more sophisticated metric and an action derived from string theory duals of chiral symmetry breaking. Our metric is smooth into the infra-red and the chiral condensate is a prediction of the dynamics. The theory reproduces QCD meson data at the 10% level.

  6. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  7. High Spatial Resolution KAO Far-Infrared Observations of the Central Regions of Infrared-Bright Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverly J. Smith; P. M. Harvey

    1996-05-06

    We present new high spatial resolution Kuiper Airborne Observatory 50 micron and/or 100 micron data for 11 infrared-bright galaxies. We also tabulate previously published KAO data for 11 other galaxies, along with the IRAS data for the bulges of M 31 and M 81. We find that L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) correlate with CO (1 - 0) intensity and tau(100). Galaxies with optical or near-infrared signatures of OB stars in their central regions have higher values of I(CO) and tau(100), as well as higher far-infrared surface brightnesses and L(FIR)/L(B) and L(FIR)/L(H) ratios. L(FIR)/L(H(alpha)) does not correlate strongly with CO and tau(100). These results support a scenario in which OB stars dominate dust heating in the more active galaxies and older stars are important in quiescent bulges.

  8. UVUDF: Ultraviolet Through Near-infrared Catalog and Photometric Redshifts of Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafelski, Marc; Gardner, Jonathan P; Coe, Dan; Bond, Nicholas A; Koekemoer, Anton M; Grogin, Norman; Kurczynski, Peter; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Bourque, Matthew; Atek, Hakim; Brown, Thomas M; Colbert, James W; Codoreanu, Alex; Ferguson, Henry C; Finkelstein, Steven L; Gawiser, Eric; Giavalisco, Mauro; Gronwall, Caryl; Hanish, Daniel J; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Mehta, Vihang; de Mello, Duilia F; Ravindranath, Swara; Ryan, Russell E; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Soto, Emmaris; Voyer, Elysse N

    2015-01-01

    We present photometry and derived redshifts from up to eleven bandpasses for 9927 galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep field (UDF), covering an observed wavelength range from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to the near-infrared (NIR) with Hubble Space Telescope observations. Our Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/UV F225W, F275W, and F336W image mosaics from the ultra-violet UDF (UVUDF) imaging campaign are newly calibrated to correct for charge transfer inefficiency, and use new dark calibrations to minimize background gradients and pattern noise. Our NIR WFC3/IR image mosaics combine the imaging from the UDF09 and UDF12 campaigns with CANDELS data to provide NIR coverage for the entire UDF field of view. We use aperture-matched point-spread function corrected photometry to measure photometric redshifts in the UDF, sampling both the Lyman break and Balmer break of galaxies at z~0.8-3.4, and one of the breaks over the rest of the redshift range. Our comparison of these results with a compilation of robust spectroscopic redsh...

  9. Deep Near Infrared Observations of the X-ray Emitting Class 0 Protostar Candidates in the Orion Molecular Cloud-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; K. Koyama; Y. Tsuboi; G. Chartas; M. Goto; N. Kobayashi; H. Terada; A. T. Tokunaga

    2002-03-09

    We obtained near infrared (NIR) imaging with the Subaru Telescope of the class 0 protostar candidates in the Orion Molecular Cloud-3, two of which were discovered to have X-ray emission by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We found strong evidence for the class~0 nature of the X-ray sources. First, our deep K-band image shows no emission brighter than 19.6 mag from both of these X-ray sources. Since class I protostars or class II T Tauri stars should be easily detected in the NIR with this sensitivity, the lack of K-band detection suggests that they are likely much more obscured than class I protostars. Second, our H2 v=1-0 S(1) image shows a bubble-like feature from one of the X-ray class 0 protostar candidates, which reinforces the idea that this is a class 0 protostar. We also discuss the nature of nine NIR sources found in our deep image based on their colors, spatial coincidence with millimeter cores, and the properties of their X-ray counterparts.

  10. Cooperative Infrared and Visible Band Tracking V. Deodeshmukh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Sumantra Dutta

    of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 {vivek@cc, sc@ee, sumantra@ee}.iitb.ac.in Abstract Trackers based on cameras images. We further discuss how to map the motion window from IR image to visible band image and vice

  11. USE OF INFRARED RADIATION IN THE STUDY OF FISH BEHAVIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 000° K. (high -temperature tungsten lamp) . Relative emission from sun. #12;#12;The Eye of experimental facilities - ·^ Figure 4. Distribution of fingerling Pacific salmon (O^. kisutch) under ordinary room lighting 9 Figure 5. Distribution of fingerling Pacific salmon (O. kisutch) with infrared

  12. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, J.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Soil Science; Balick, L.K. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  13. Dielectric function of diluted magnetic semiconductors in the infrared regime 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguado, R.; Lopez-Sancho, MP; Sinova, Jairo; Brey, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the dielectric function of metallic (III,Mn)V diluted magnetic semiconductors in the infrared regime. Our theoretical approach is based on the kinetic exchange model for carrier induced (III,Mn)V ferromagnetism. The dielectric...

  14. COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE ) Explanatory Supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebenmorgen, Ralf

    COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE ) Explanatory Supplement edited by M. G. Hauser Supplement that describes the DIRBE data products, most of Chapter 4 (Data Processing and Instrument Characterization) was omitted from the present version. The complete Explanatory Supplement will be released

  15. Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migdall, Alan

    metrologia Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements radiance using correlated photons are presented. The method has the remarkable feature that it allows be measured using correlated photons [1-4]. That work outlined some of the useful features of the method. One

  16. Physical retrieval of surface emissivity spectrum from hyperspectral infrared radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Physical retrieval of surface emissivity spectrum from hyperspectral infrared radiances Jun Li,1 emissivity. Using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities typically results in large temperature and moisture profile errors, particularly over semi-arid or arid areas where the variation in emissivity

  17. Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of the pyroxene mineral series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Victoria E.

    Thermal infrared emission spectroscopy of the pyroxene mineral series Victoria E. Hamilton within the two structural groups, as well as minerals within solid solution series. The exact number of reststrahlen features observed and their positions are dependent on mineral structure and cation occupancy

  18. LAND MINE DETECTION IN BARE SOILS USING THERMAL INFRARED SENSORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    LAND MINE DETECTION IN BARE SOILS USING THERMAL INFRARED SENSORS Sung-ho Hong, Timothy W. Miller, The Netherlands. lensen@fel.tno.nl ABSTRACT Soil surface temperatures not only exhibit daily and annual cycles of soil surface temperatures, it will be difficult to determine what times of day are most suitable

  19. Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials M. E. Rodri sensitivity to the electronic transport properties of the laser photoexcited material.3 Using two information. INTRODUCTION The nondestructive, nonintrusive evaluation of semicon- ductor materials has been of common

  20. Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Graphene surface plasmons at the near-infrared optical regime Qiming Zhang1,2 *, Xiangping Li1. Graphene has been identified as an emerging horizon for a nanoscale photonic platform because the Fermi level of intrinsic graphene can be engineered to support surface plasmons (SPs). The current solid back

  1. Infrared radiometry-based background-compensated thermometric instrument for noncontact temperature and friction measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Infrared radiometry-based background-compensated thermometric instrument for noncontact temperature and performance of a novel thermometric instrument featuring thermal- emission-intensity harmonic modulation, noncontact infrared radiometric detection, and stray background suppression is described. The instrumental

  2. The rapid differentiation of Streptomyces isolates using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, Gareth

    putative Streptomyces spp. isolated from soil were selected to be analysed using Fourier transform infrared-organism fingerprint- ing techniques such as Curie-point pyrolysis mass spectrometry [2], Fourier transform infrared

  3. The Design of Novel Microwave-Heated Reaction Cells for Infrared Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silverwood, Ian P

    Two novel microreactor cells for the investigation of catalysts by in-situ infrared spectroscopy under microwave and conventional heating are presented. A transmission infrared microreactor cell is demonstrated which ...

  4. The discovery of y dwarfs using data from the wide-field infrared survey explorer (WISE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushing, Michael C.

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H[subscript 2]O and CH[subscript 4] that ...

  5. Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunt, Richard R.

    We fabricate near-infrared absorbing organic photovoltaics that are highly transparent to visible light. By optimizing near-infrared optical-interference, we demonstrate power efficiencies of 1.3±0.1% with simultaneous ...

  6. Pressure-sensitive blackbody point radiation induced by infrared diode laser irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Pressure-sensitive blackbody point radiation induced by infrared diode laser irradiation Feng Qin,1, by irradiation of well-matched infrared (IR) lasers upon the Yb3þ ions, ultrabroadband luminescence can

  7. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  8. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi-Yung (San Francisco, CA); Petrich, Loren I. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  9. Characterizing Wolf-Rayet stars in the near- and mid-infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Shara, Michael M.; Zurek, David; Kanarek, Graham; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2014-05-01

    We present refined color-color selection criteria for identifying Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars using available mid-infrared (MIR) photometry from WISE in combination with near-infrared (NIR) photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Using a sample of spectrally classified objects, we find that WR stars are well distinguished from the field stellar population in the (W1 – W2) versus (J – K{sub s} ) color-color diagram, and further distinguished from other emission line objects such as planetary nebulae, Be, and cataclysmic variable stars using a combination of NIR and MIR color constraints. As proof of concept we applied the color constraints to a photometric sample in the Galactic plane, located WR star candidates, and present five new spectrally confirmed and classified WC (1) and WN (4) stars. Analysis of the 0.8-5.0 ?m spectral data for a subset of known, bright WC and WN stars shows that emission lines (primarily He I) extend into the 3.0-5.0 ?m spectral region, although their strength is greatly diminished compared to the 0.8-2.5 ?m region. The WR population stands out relative to background field stars at NIR and MIR colors due to an excess continuum contribution, likely caused by free-free scattering in dense winds. Mean photometric properties of known WRs are presented and imply that reddened late-type WN and WC sources are easier to detect than earlier-type sources at larger Galactic radii. WISE W3 and W4 images of 10 WR stars show evidence of circumstellar shells linked to mass ejections from strong stellar winds.

  10. The Gemini Planet Imager: From Science to Design to Construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J R; Palmer, D; Doyon, R; Dunn, J; Gavel, D; Larkin, J; Oppenheimer, B; Saddlemyer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Wallace, J K; Bauman, B; Erickson, D; Marois, C; Poyneer, L; Soummer, R

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a facility instrument under construction for the 8-m Gemini South telescope. It combines a 1500 subaperture AO system using a MEMS deformable mirror, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a high-accuracy IR interferometer calibration system, and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph to allow detection and characterization of self-luminous extrasolar planets at planet/star contrast ratios of 10{sup -7}. I will discuss the evolution from science requirements through modeling to the final detailed design, provide an overview of the subsystems and show models of the instrument's predicted performance.

  11. Noise reduction for the infrared beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noise reduction for the infrared beamline at the Advanced Light Source J. M. Byrd, M. Chin, M, California 94720 ABSTRACT Significant reductions in the noise of the infrared light have been made at Beamline 1.4.3 infrared source at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The primary source of vibrational noise

  12. Arduino Remote Infrared Network Adapter Rene Neff, Thomas Trimborn and Matthias Wubbeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clausen, Michael

    ARINA: Arduino Remote Infrared Network Adapter Ren´e Neff, Thomas Trimborn and Matthias W}@cs.uni-bonn.de Abstract In this paper we present ARINA, a light-weight Arduino based system for forwarding infrared signals via Ethernet. Short introductions on infrared communication and Arduino as a development platform

  13. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  14. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, Rex E. II; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  15. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Land, C.E.; Martin, S.J.; Pfeifer, K.B.

    1993-11-30

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image. 7 figures.

  16. Graphics and Image Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For EERE websites and applications, follow these requirements and best practices for designing graphics and developing images. This includes making them Section 508-compliant.

  17. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erwin, David N. (San Antonio, TX); Kiel, Johnathan L. (San Antonio, TX); Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Stahl, Kurt A. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopie imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber.

  18. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erwin, D.N.; Kiel, J.L.; Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.

    1990-08-14

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopic imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber. 22 figs.

  19. Fermilab | Press Room | Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    When using these images, please credit Fermilab. Return to Press Release Med Res | Hi Res According to the Standard Model of particles and forces, the Higgs mechanism gives...

  20. Fermilab | Press Room | Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using these images, please credit them as specified. Return to Press Release Med Res | Hi Res The Standard Model describes the interactions of the fundamental particle of the...

  1. Edge-based correlation image registration for multispectral imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nandy, Prabal (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-17

    Registration information for images of a common target obtained from a plurality of different spectral bands can be obtained by combining edge detection and phase correlation. The images are edge-filtered, and pairs of the edge-filtered images are then phase correlated to produce phase correlation images. The registration information can be determined based on these phase correlation images.

  2. Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics images of the Trapezium Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Bouy; J. Kolb; E. Marchetti; E. L. Martin; N. Huelamo; D. Barrado y Navascues

    2007-09-25

    Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) combines the advantages of standard adaptive optics, which provides high contrast and high spatial resolution, and of wide field ~1' imaging. Up to recently, MCAO for astronomy was limited to laboratory experiments. In this paper, we present the first scientific results obtained with the first MCAO instrument put on the sky. We present a new study of the Trapezium cluster using deep MCAO images with a field of view of 1'x1' obtained at the VLT. We have used deep J, H and Ks images recently obtained with the prototype MCAO facility MAD at the VLT in order to search for new members and new multiple systems in the Trapezium cluster. On bright targets (Ks~9mag), these images allow us to reach DeltaKs~6mag as close as 0.4" We report the detection of 128 sources, including 10 new faint objects in the magnitude range between 16.1report the detection in J, H and Ks of a very red extended embedded protostellar object, HC419, previously detected in the thermal infrared only. The analysis of the first MCAO images obtained on the sky demonstrates not only the technical feasibility of MCAO but also its great potential and versatility in terms of scientific outputs.

  3. A detailed investigation on the impact of post-growth annealing on the materials and device characteristics of 35-layer In{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 0.50}As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector with quaternary In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As capping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikary, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Subhananda

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? We investigated the effect of ex situ annealing on InGaAs/GaAs QDIP with InAlGaAs layer. ? As-grown defect was removed by using post-growth annealing treatment. ? Increase in the compressive strain due to annealing is calculated from XRD curve. ? Three-fold enhancement in responsivity is observed in the QDIPs annealed at 650 °C. ? Two-fold enhancement in D* is observed sample annealed at 650 °C compared to as grown. -- Abstract: The effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on 35-layer In{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 0.50}As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) with quaternary In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As capping has been investigated. Transmission electron microscopy showed some as-grown defects were removed by post growth annealing treatment. An increase in the compressive strain in the heterostructure due to annealing was identified from X-ray diffraction curve. A two-color photoresponse in the long-wave region (8.5 and 10.2 ?m) was observed in both as-grown device and those annealed at 650 °C temperature. A three-fold enhancement in peak responsivity was observed in the QDIPs annealed at 650 °C (1.19 A/W) compared to that in the as-grown (0.34 A/W). Detectivity also increased by two fold from as-grown to 650 °C annealed device. The changes are attributed to the removal of as-grown defects and dislocations during epitaxial growth. These removals changed the confinement potential profile, which resulted in an improvement in the detectivity and responsivity of the annealed sample.

  4. Wide-angle point-to-point x-ray imaging with almost arbitrarily large angles of incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Scott, S.; Feder, R.; Ko, Jinseok; Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.

    2008-10-15

    The paper describes a new scheme for wide-angle point-to-point x-ray imaging with almost arbitrarily large angles of incidence by a matched pair of spherically bent crystals to eliminate the astigmatism, which is a well-known imaging error of spherical mirrors. In addition to x rays, the scheme should be applicable to a very broad spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation, including microwaves, infrared and visible light, as well as UV and extreme UV radiation, if the crystals are replaced with appropriate spherical reflectors. The scheme may also be applicable to the imaging with ultrasound.

  5. Scandinavian Workshop on Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    Barcode Imaging of Chocolate Milk Quan.fica.on of Microstructures in Freeze.on of Fat Content in Raw Beef Cut Meat Evalua.on by RGB-to-spectrum Imaging.on to Visualizing Meat Products Characteriza.on of Commercial Danish Apple Cul.var Using Novel

  6. Medical imaging systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frangioni, John V. (Wayland, MA)

    2012-07-24

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remains in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may also employ dyes or other fluorescent substances associated with antibodies, antibody fragments, or ligands that accumulate within a region of diagnostic significance. In one embodiment, the system provides an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide that is used to capture images. In another embodiment, the system is configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. More broadly, the systems described herein may be used in imaging applications where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by an image formed from fluorescent emissions from a fluorescent substance that marks areas of functional interest.

  7. COVER IMAGE Mechanical metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    COVER IMAGE Mechanical metamaterials are artificial structures whose properties originate from a range of structural deformations. Letter p153; News & Views p95 IMAGE: JAYSON PAULOSE COVER DESIGN in elementary optical excitations of monolayer WSe2 Ajit Srivastava, Meinrad Sidler, Adrien V. Allain, Dominik S

  8. Heart imaging method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA); Busse, Lawrence J. (Littleton, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  9. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Franklin D. (Library, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  10. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Ding (Henderson, NV)

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  11. Content-Aware Image enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schettini, Raimondo

    Content-Aware Image enhancement R. Schettini www.ivl.disco.unimib.it #12;8 Faculties, 61 Degree Recognition Content-based retrieval Quality Assessment #12;Content-Aware Image Enhancement Presentation Image Processing Content aware image enhancement We focus here on image based features. And show how

  12. Infrared freezing of Euclidean observables and analyticity in perturbative QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irinel Caprini; Jan Fischer

    2006-12-21

    The renormalization-group improved finite order expansions of the QCD observables have an unphysical singularity in the Euclidean region, due to the Landau pole of the running coupling. Recently it was claimed that, by using a modified Borel representation, the leading one-chain term in a skeleton expansion of the Euclidean QCD observables is finite and continuous across the Landau pole, and then exhibits an infrared freezing behaviour, vanishing at $Q^2=0$. In the present paper we show, using for illustration the Adler-${\\cal D}$ function, that the above Borel prescription violates the causality properties expressed by energy-plane analyticity: the function ${\\cal D}(Q^2)$ thus defined is the boundary value of a piecewise analytic function in the complex plane, instead of being a standard analytic function. So, the price to be paid for the infrared freezing of Euclidean QCD observables is the loss of a fundamental property of local quantum field theory.

  13. Near-infrared photodetector with reduced dark current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2012-10-30

    A photodetector is disclosed for the detection of near-infrared light with a wavelength in the range of about 0.9-1.7 microns. The photodetector, which can be formed as either an nBp device or a pBn device on an InP substrate, includes an InGaAs light-absorbing layer, an InAlGaAs graded layer, an InAlAs or InP barrier layer, and an InGaAs contact layer. The photodetector can detect near-infrared light with or without the use of an applied reverse-bias voltage and is useful as an individual photodetector, or to form a focal plane array.

  14. Perturbative study of Yang-Mills theory in the infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siringo, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Pure Yang-Mills SU(N) theory is studied in four dimensional space and Landau gauge by a double perturbative expansion based on a massive free-particle propagator. By dimensional regularization, all diverging mass terms cancel exactly in the double expansion, without the need to include mass counterterms that would spoil the symmetry of the original Lagrangian. The emerging perturbation theory is safe in the infrared and shares the same behaviour of the standard perturbation theory in the UV. At one-loop, Gluon and ghost propagators are found in excellent agreement with the data of lattice simulations and an infrared-safe running coupling is derived. A natural scale m=0.5-0.6 GeV is extracted from the data for N=3.

  15. Non-destructive component separation using infrared radiant energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Russell, Steven W. (Knoxville, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN)

    2011-03-01

    A method for separating a first component and a second component from one another at an adhesive bond interface between the first component and second component. Typically the method involves irradiating the first component with infrared radiation from a source that radiates substantially only short wavelengths until the adhesive bond is destabilized, and then separating the first component and the second component from one another. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is placed inside an enclosure and the assembly is illuminated from an IR source that is external to the enclosure. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is simultaneously irradiated by a multi-planar array of IR sources. Often the IR radiation is unidirectional. In some embodiments the IR radiation is narrow-band short wavelength infrared radiation.

  16. Image forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

    1996-01-01

    In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

  17. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  18. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  19. CHARACTERIZING ULTRAVIOLET AND INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES FOR GALAXIES. I. INFLUENCES OF DUST ATTENUATION AND STELLAR POPULATION AGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao Yewei; Kong Xu [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hao, Cai-Na [Tianjin Astrophysics Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhou Xu, E-mail: owen81@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-09-20

    The correlation between infrared-to-ultraviolet luminosity ratio and ultraviolet color (or ultraviolet spectral slope), i.e., the IRX-UV (or IRX-{beta}) relation, found in studies of starburst galaxies is a prevalent recipe for correcting extragalactic dust attenuation. Considerable dispersion in this relation discovered for normal galaxies, however, complicates its usability. In order to investigate the cause of the dispersion and to have a better understanding of the nature of the IRX-UV relation, in this paper, we select five nearby spiral galaxies, and perform spatially resolved studies on each of the galaxies, with a combination of ultraviolet and infrared imaging data. We measure all positions within each galaxy and divide the extracted regions into young and evolved stellar populations. By means of this approach, we attempt to discover separate effects of dust attenuation and stellar population age on the IRX-UV relation for individual galaxies. In this work, in addition to dust attenuation, stellar population age is interpreted to be another parameter in the IRX-UV function, and the diversity of star formation histories is suggested to disperse the age effects. At the same time, strong evidence shows the need for more parameters in the interpretation of observational data, such as variations in attenuation/extinction law. Fractional contributions of different components to the integrated luminosities of the galaxies suggest that the integrated measurements of these galaxies, which comprise different populations, would weaken the effect of the age parameter on IRX-UV diagrams. The dependence of the IRX-UV relation on luminosity and radial distance in galaxies presents weak trends, which offers an implication of selective effects. The two-dimensional maps of the UV color and the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio are displayed and show a disparity in the spatial distributions between the two galaxy parameters, which offers a spatial interpretation of the scatter in the IRX-UV relation.

  20. Convective rainfall estimation from digital GOES-1 infrared data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sickler, Gary L

    1979-01-01

    scheme was adapted for this study and used with the digital geostationary satellite data. The concept of enhancement curves with respect to rainfall approxima- tion is discussed. Raingage rainfall analyses and satellite-derived rainfall estimation... digital geostationary infrared satellite data is feasible. A CKNOWLE DG EMENT S The author's graduate program was sponsored and financed by the Air Force Institute of Technology, United States Air Force. I would like to express my appreciation...

  1. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  2. An Infrared Renormalization Group Limit Cycle in QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Braaten; H. -W. Hammer

    2003-09-22

    We conjecture that QCD can be tuned to an infrared limit cycle in the three-nucleon system by adjusting the up and down quark masses to critical values at which the binding energies of the deuteron and its spin-singlet partner are tuned to zero. At the critical point, the triton would have infinitely many arbitrarily-shallow excited states with the ratio of the binding energies of successive states approaching a universal constant close to 515.

  3. Metal oxides for efficient infrared to visible upconversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etchart, Isabelle

    2010-10-12

    Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Metal Oxides for Efficient Infrared to Visible Upconversion Isabelle Etchart Corpus Christi College A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Preface i... to the investigation of lanthanide-doped metal oxide hosts due to their good chemical, thermal and mechanical stabilities. Chapter 1 : General i ntroductio n 4 1 .4 . Previo us w ork In this thesis, we present results obtained on Y 2...

  4. Sensitized near infrared emission from lanthanide-exchanged zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monguzzi, A.; Macchi, G.; Meinardi, F.; Tubino, R.; Burger, M.; Calzaferri, G.

    2008-03-24

    In this work, we present an alternative approach to sensitize the near infrared emission of Er{sup 3+} ions (used in telecom applications) by exploiting the geometrical confinement occurring in porous zeolites structures. The sensitization of the Ln ion is obtained by energy transfer between a suitable organic molecule acting as an antenna and the emitting ion arranged in closed proximity, thus, avoiding the limits imposed by the coordination chemistry.

  5. A PHOTOMETRICALLY AND MORPHOLOGICALLY VARIABLE INFRARED NEBULA IN L483

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connelley, Michael S. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy, 640 N. Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Fuller, Gary A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    We present narrow and broad K-band observations of the Class 0/I source IRAS 18148-0440 that span 17 years. The infrared nebula associated with this protostar in the L483 dark cloud is both morphologically and photometrically variable on a timescale of only a few months. This nebula appears to be an infrared analog to other well known optically visible variable nebulae associated with young stars, such as Hubble's Variable Nebula. Along with Cepheus A, this is one of the first large variable nebulae to be found that is only visible in the infrared. The variability of this nebula is most likely due to changing illumination of the cloud rather than any motion of the structure in the nebula. Both morphological and photometric changes are observed on a timescale only a few times longer than the light crossing time of the nebula, suggesting very rapid intrinsic changes in the illumination of the nebula. Our narrowband observations also found that H{sub 2} knots are found nearly twice as far to the east of the source as to its west, and that H{sub 2} emission extends farther east of the source than the previously known CO outflow.

  6. Ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the AKARI all-sky survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilerci Eser, E., E-mail: ecekilerci@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Goto, T. [National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Doi, Y., E-mail: tomo@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: doi@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    We present a new catalog of 118 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and one hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HLIRG) by cross-matching the AKARI all-sky survey with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10) and the final data release of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey. Forty of the ULIRGs and one HLIRG are new identifications. We find that ULIRGs are interacting pair galaxies or ongoing or postmergers. This is consistent with the widely accepted view: ULIRGs are major mergers of disk galaxies. We confirm the previously known positive trend between the active galactic nucleus fraction and infrared luminosity. We show that ULIRGs have a large offset from the main sequence up to z ? 1; their offset from the z ? 2 'main sequence' is relatively smaller. We find a result consistent with the previous studies showing that, compared to local star-forming SDSS galaxies of similar mass, local ULIRGs have lower oxygen abundances. We demonstrate for the first time that ULIRGs follow the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR). The scatter of ULIRGs around the FMR (0.09 dex-0.5 dex) is comparable to the scatter of z ? 2-3 galaxies. We provide the largest local (0.050

  7. Quantitative infrared absorption cross sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sharpe, S. W.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-11-19

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) and is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Isoprene is produced primarily by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, and its OH- and O3-initiated oxidations are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via remote or in situ infrared detection. We thus report absorption cross sections and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600–6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298, and 323 Kmore »in a 19.94 cm path-length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker IFS 66v/S Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures, each at one of three temperatures, and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atm.« less

  8. The potential for detecting gamma-ray burst afterglows from population III stars with the next generation of infrared telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macpherson, D. [ICRAR, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Coward, D. M. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Zadnik, M. G., E-mail: damien.macpherson@icrar.org [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2013-12-10

    We investigate the detectability of a proposed population of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the collapse of Population III (Pop III) stars. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will be able to observe the late time infrared afterglows. We have developed a new method to calculate their detectability, which takes into account the fundamental initial mass function and formation rates of Pop III stars, from which we find the temporal variability of the afterglows and ultimately the length of time JWST and SPICA can detect them. In the range of plausible Pop III GRB parameters, the afterglows are always detectable by these instruments during the isotropic emission, for a minimum of 55 days and a maximum of 3.7 yr. The average number of detectable afterglows will be 2.96× 10{sup –5} per SPICA field of view (FOV) and 2.78× 10{sup –6} per JWST FOV. These are lower limits, using a pessimistic estimate of Pop III star formation. An optimal observing strategy with SPICA could identify a candidate orphan afterglow in ?1.3 yr, with a 90% probability of confirmation with further detailed observations. A beamed GRB will align with the FOV of the planned GRB detector Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope once every 9 yr. Pop III GRBs will be more easily detected by their isotropic emissions (i.e., orphan afterglows) rather than by their prompt emissions.

  9. Vibrational spectroscopy of polyatomic materials: Semiempirical calculations of anharmonic couplings and infrared and Raman linewidths in naphthalene and PETN crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tretiak, Sergei

    couplings and infrared and Raman linewidths in naphthalene and PETN crystals Andrei Piryatinski,* Sergei

  10. Design and implementation of a rapid-mixer flow-cell for time-resolved infrared microspectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Syun-Ru

    -resolved infrared microspectroscopy Nebojsa S. Marinkovic,a) Aleksandar R. Adzic, and Michael Sullivan Center

  11. 49 new T dwarfs identified using methane imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, C V; Smart, R L; van Spaandonk, L; Baker, D; Smith, L C; Andrei, A H; Bucciarelli, B; Dhital, S; Jones, H R A; Lattanzi, M G; Magazzu, A; Pinfield, D J; Tinney, C G

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of 49 new photometrically classified T dwarfs from the combination of large infrared and optical surveys combined with follow-up TNG photometry. We used multi-band infrared and optical photometry from the UKIRT and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys to identify possible brown dwarf candidates, which were then confirmed using methane filter photometry. We have defined a new photometric conversion between CH4s - CH4l colour and spectral type for T4 to T8 brown dwarfs based on a part of the sample that has been followed up using methane photometry and spectroscopy. Using methane differential photometry as a proxy for spectral type for T dwarfs has proved to be a very efficient technique. Of a subset of 45 methane selected brown dwarfs that were observed spectroscopically, 100% were confirmed as T dwarfs. Future deep imaging surveys will produce large samples of faint brown dwarf candidates, for which spectroscopy will not be feasible. When broad wavelength coverage is unavailable, methane imaging...

  12. The galaxy cluster mid-infrared luminosity function at 1.3 < z < 3.2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Vernet, Joël; De Breuck, Carlos; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jarvis, Matt; Hatch, Nina; Seymour, Nick; Stanford, Spencer A.

    2014-05-01

    We present 4.5 ?m luminosity functions for galaxies identified in 178 candidate galaxy clusters at 1.3 < z < 3.2. The clusters were identified as Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color-selected overdensities in the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN project, which imaged 420 powerful radio-loud active galactic nuclei (RLAGNs) at z > 1.3. The luminosity functions are derived for different redshift and richness bins, and the IRAC imaging reaches depths of m* + 2, allowing us to measure the faint end slopes of the luminosity functions. We find that ? = –1 describes the luminosity function very well in all redshift bins and does not evolve significantly. This provides evidence that the rate at which the low mass galaxy population grows through star formation gets quenched and is replenished by in-falling field galaxies does not have a major net effect on the shape of the luminosity function. Our measurements for m* are consistent with passive evolution models and high formation redshifts (z{sub f} ? 3). We find a slight trend toward fainter m* for the richest clusters, implying that the most massive clusters in our sample could contain older stellar populations, yet another example of cosmic downsizing. Modeling shows that a contribution of a star-forming population of up to 40% cannot be ruled out. This value, found from our targeted survey, is significantly lower than the values found for slightly lower redshift, z ? 1, clusters found in wide-field surveys. The results are consistent with cosmic downsizing, as the clusters studied here were all found in the vicinity of RLAGNs—which have proven to be preferentially located in massive dark matter halos in the richest environments at high redshift—and they may therefore be older and more evolved systems than the general protocluster population.

  13. Mid-infrared second-order susceptibility of -quartz and its application to visible-infrared surface sum-frequency spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    the infrared beam polarization. To circumvent this problem, many systems make use of periscopes that change the polarization of the infrared beam by reflection. Since a separate periscope must be installed for s or p periscopes to have exactly the same path length, resulting in small but significant differences in f

  14. Wide-Field InfrarRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets WFIRST-AFTA 2015 Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spergel, D; Baltay, C; Bennett, D; Breckinridge, J; Donahue, M; Dressler, A; Gaudi, B S; Greene, T; Guyon, O; Hirata, C; Kalirai, J; Kasdin, N J; Macintosh, B; Moos, W; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Rauscher, B; Rhodes, J; Wang, Y; Weinberg, D; Benford, D; Hudson, M; Jeong, W -S; Mellier, Y; Traub, W; Yamada, T; Capak, P; Colbert, J; Masters, D; Penny, M; Savransky, D; Sterns, D; Zimmerman, N; Barry, R; Bartusek, L; Carpenter, K; Cheng, E; Content, D; Dekens, F; Demers, R; Grady, K; Jackson, C; Kuan, G; Kruk, J; Melton, M; Nemati, B; Parvin, B; Poberezhskiy, I; Peddie, C; Ruffa, J; Wallace, J K; Whipple, A; Wollack, E; Zhao, F

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the 2014 study by the Science Definition Team (SDT) of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission. It is a space observatory that will addresses the most compelling scientific problems in dark energy, exoplanets and general astrophysics using a 2.4m telescope with a wide-field infrared instrument and an optical coronagraph. The Astro2010 Decadal Survey recommended a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its top priority for a new large space mission. As conceived by the decadal survey, WFIRST would carry out a dark energy science program, a microlensing program to determine the demographics of exoplanets, and a general observing program utilizing its ultra wide field. In October 2012, NASA chartered a Science Definition Team (SDT) to produce, in collaboration with the WFIRST Study Office at GSFC and the Program Office at JPL, a Design Reference Mission (DRM) for an implementation of WFIRST using one of the 2.4-m, Hubble-quality telescope assemblies recently made availabl...

  15. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  16. Limits on the Short Term Variability of Sagittarius A* in the Near-Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornstein, S D; Tanner, A; Morris, M; Becklin, E E; Wizinowich, P

    2002-01-01

    The recent detection of a 3-hr X-ray flare by the Chandra Observatory has raised the possibility of enhanced emission over a broad range of wavelengths from Sgr A*, the suspected 2.6 x 10^6 solar mass black hole at the Galactic Center, during a flaring event. We have, therefore, reconstructed 3-hr data sets from 2 micron speckle and adaptive optics images (theta_core = 50 - 100 mas) obtained with the W. M. Keck 10-m telescopes between 1995 and 2001. In 25 separate observations, no evidence of any significant excess emission associated with Sgr A* was detected. The lowest of our detection limits gives an observed limit for the quiescent state of Sgr A* of 0.09+/-0.005 mJy, or, equivalently, a dereddened value of 2.0+/-0.1 mJy, which is a factor of 2 lower than the best previously published quiescent value. Under the assumption that there are random 3-hr flares producing both enhanced X-ray and near-infrared emission, our highest limit constrains the variable state of Sgr A* to <0.8 mJy (observed) or 19 mJy ...

  17. Ground-based near-infrared observations of water vapour in the Venus troposphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamberlain, S; Crisp, D; Meadows, V S; 10.1016/j.icarus.2012.11.014

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of water vapour in the Venus troposphere obtained by modelling specific water vapour absorption bands within the 1.18 \\mu m window. We compare the results with the normal technique of obtaining the abundance by matching the peak of the 1.18 \\mu m window. Ground-based infrared imaging spectroscopy of the night side of Venus was obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope and IRIS2 instrument with a spectral resolving power of R ~ 2400. The spectra have been fitted with modelled spectra simulated using the radiative transfer model VSTAR. We find a best fit abundance of 31 ppmv (-6 + 9 ppmv), which is in agreement with recent results by B\\'ezard et al. 2011 using VEX/SPICAV (R ~ 1700) and contrary to prior results by B\\'ezard et al. 2009 of 44 ppmv (+/-9 ppmv) using VEX/VIRTIS-M (R ~ 200) data analyses. Comparison studies are made between water vapour abundances determined from the peak of the 1.18 \\mu m window and abundances determined from different water vapour absorption features within t...

  18. Mid-Infrared Source Multiplicity within Hot Molecular Cores traced by Methanol Masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Longmore; M. G. Burton; V. Minier; A. J. Walsh

    2006-04-12

    We present high resolution, mid-infrared images toward three hot molecular cores signposted by methanol maser emission; G173.49+2.42 (S231, S233IR), G188.95+0.89 (S252, AFGL-5180) and G192.60-0.05 (S255IR). Each of the cores was targeted with Michelle on Gemini North using 5 filters from 7.9 to 18.5 microns. We find each contains both large regions of extended emission and multiple, luminous point sources which, from their extremely red colours (F[18.5]/F[7.9] >= 3), appear to be embedded young stellar objects. The closest angular separations of the point sources in the three regions are 0.79, 1.00 and 3.33 arcseconds corresponding to linear separations of 1,700, 1,800 and 6,000AU respectively. The methanol maser emission is found closest to the brightest MIR point source (within the assumed 1 arcsecond pointing accuracy). Mass and luminosity estimates for the sources range from 3-22 Msol and 50-40,000 Lsol. Assuming the MIR sources are embedded objects and the observed gas mass provides the bulk of the reservoir from which the stars formed, it is difficult to generate the observed distributions for the most massive cluster members from the gas in the cores using a standard form of the IMF.

  19. Faint CO Line Wings in Four Star-Forming (Ultra)luminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leroy, Adam K; Decarli, Roberto; Bolatto, Alberto; Zschaechner, Laura; Weiss, Axel

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a search for large velocity width, low-intensity line wings - a commonly used signature of molecular outflows - in four low redshift (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) that appear to be dominated by star formation. The targets were drawn from a sample of fourteen such galaxies presented in Chung et al. (2011), who showed the stacked CO spectrum of the sample to exhibit 1000 km/s-wide line wings. We obtained sensitive, wide bandwidth imaging of our targets using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We detect each target at very high significance but do not find the claimed line wings in these four targets. Instead, we constrain the flux in the line wings to be only a few percent. Casting our results as mass outflow rates following Cicone et al. (2014) we show them to be consistent with a picture in which very high mass loading factors preferentially occur in systems with high AGN contributions to their bolometric luminosity. We identify one of our targets, IRAS05083 (VII Z...

  20. X-ray and Near-infrared Studies of a Star-forming Cloud; L1448

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, M; Tsuboi, Y

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of X-ray and near-infrared (NIR) observations of L1448, a star-forming region in the Perseus cloud complex using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the 4 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. We detect 72 X-ray sources in a ~17 arcmin x 17 arcmin region with a ~68 ks ACIS exposure, for which we conduct follow-up NIR imaging observations in a concentric ~11 arcmin x 11 arcmin region with FLAMINGOS down to m_Ks ~ 17 mag. Twelve X-ray sources have NIR or optical counterparts. By plotting X-ray mean energy versus NIR to X-ray flux ratio, the X-ray sources are clearly separated into two groups. The X-ray spectral and temporal features as well as NIR magnitudes and colors indicate that one group mainly consists of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud and the other of background extragalactic sources. Ten X-ray-emitting YSO candidates are thus newly identified, which are low-mass or brown dwarf mass sources from their NIR magnitudes. In addition, a possible X-ray signal is fou...

  1. Colour Image Segmentation Wladyslaw Skarbek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koschan, Andreas

    Colour Image Segmentation A Survey Wladyslaw Skarbek Institute of Computer Science Polish Academy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.2.1 Colour image segmentation and labeling through multiediting and condensing

  2. Imaging through obscurations for sluicing operations in the waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.J.; McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Chieda, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    Waste remediators have identified that surveillance of waste remediation operations and periodic inspections of stored waste are required under very demanding and difficult viewing environments. In many cases, obscurants such as dust or water vapor are generated as part of the remediation activity. Methods are required for viewing or imaging beyond the normal visual spectrum. Work space images guide the movement of remediation equipment, creating a need for rapidly updated, near real-time imaging capability. In addition, there is a need for three-dimensional topographical data to determine the contours of the wastes, to plan retrieval campaigns, and to provide a three-dimensional map of a robot`s work space as basis for collision avoidance. Three basic imaging techniques were evaluated: optical, acoustic and radar. The optical imaging methods that were examined used cameras which operated in the visible region and near-infrared region and infrared cameras which operated in the 3--5 micron and 8--12 micron wavelength regions. Various passive and active lighting schemes were tested, as well as the use of filters to eliminate reflection in the visible region. Image enhancement software was used to extend the range where visual techniques could be used. In addition, the operation of a laser range finder, which operated at 0.835 microns, was tested when fog/water droplets were suspended in the air. The acoustic technique involved using commercial acoustic sensors, operating at approximately 50 kHz and 215 kHz, to determine the attenuation of the acoustic beam in a high-humidity environment. The radar imaging methods involved performing millimeter wave (94 GHz) attenuation measurement sin the various simulated sluicing environments and performing preliminary experimental imaging studies using a W-Band (75--110 GHz) linearly scanned transceiver in a laboratory environment. The results of the tests are discussed.

  3. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-01-08

    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  4. Imaging through scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satat, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we demonstrate novel methods to overcome optical scattering in order to resolve information about hidden scenes, in particular for biomedical applications. Imaging through scattering media has long been a ...

  5. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  6. Quantum-mimetic imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatraman, Dheera

    2015-01-01

    Many recent experiments have explored the use of nonclassical states of light to perform imaging or sensing. Although these experiments require quantum descriptions of light to explain their behavior, the advantages they ...

  7. Building an urban image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russin, Andrew J

    1992-01-01

    This design project explores the principles of "urban legibility" and "shared space". The readability, or imageability (in Kevin Lynch's term) of a city results from the recognition of larger urban patterns, organizations, ...

  8. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  9. The SDSS Imaging Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Lupton; James E. Gunn; Zeljko Ivezic; Gillian R. Knapp; Stephen Kent; Naoki Yasuda

    2001-05-24

    We summarise the properties of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) project, discuss our software infrastructure, and outline the architecture of the SDSS image processing pipelines. We then discuss two of the algorithms used in the SDSS image processing; the KL-transform based modelling of the spatial variation of the PSF, and the use of galaxy models in star/galaxy separation. We conclude with the first author's personal opinions on the challenges that the astronomical community faces with major software projects.

  10. An X-ray Imaging Study of the Stellar Population in RCW49

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; E. D. Feigelson; L. K. Townsley; P. S. Broos; K. V. Getman; J. Wang; G. P. Garmire; D. Baba; T. Nagayama; M. Tamura; E. B. Churchwell

    2007-05-04

    We present the results of a high-resolution X-ray imaging study of the stellar population in the Galactic massive star-forming region RCW49 and its central OB association Westerlund 2. We obtained a 40 ks X-ray image of a 17'x17' field using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and deep NIR images using the Infrared Survey Facility in a concentric 8'3x8'3 region. We detected 468 X-ray sources and identified optical, NIR, and Spitzer Space Telescope MIR counterparts for 379 of them. The unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity of the X-ray image, enhanced by optical and infrared imaging data, yielded the following results: (1) The central OB association Westerlund 2 is resolved for the first time in the X-ray band. X-ray emission is detected from all spectroscopically-identified early-type stars in this region. (2) Most (86%) X-ray sources with optical or infrared identifications are cluster members in comparison with a control field in the Galactic Plane. (3) A loose constraint (2--5 kpc) for the distance to RCW49 is derived from the mean X-ray luminosity of T Tauri stars. (4) The cluster X-ray population consists of low-mass pre--main-sequence and early-type stars as obtained from X-ray and NIR photometry. About 30 new OB star candidates are identified. (5) We estimate a cluster radius of 6'--7' based on the X-ray surface number density profiles. (6) A large fraction (90%) of cluster members are identified individually using complimentary X-ray and MIR excess emission. (7) The brightest five X-ray sources, two Wolf-Rayet stars and three O stars, have hard thermal spectra.

  11. Spectral calibration in the mid-infrared: Challenges and solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, G. C. [Cornell University, Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Herter, T. L.; Houck, J. R. [Cornell University, Astronomy Department, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Burgdorf, M., E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.edu [HE Space Operations, Flughafenallee 24, D-28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    We present spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope of 33 K giants and 20 A dwarfs to assess their suitability as spectrophotometric standard stars. The K giants confirm previous findings that the strength of the SiO absorption band at 8 ?m increases for both later optical spectral classes and redder (B–V){sub 0} colors, but with considerable scatter. For K giants, the synthetic spectra underpredict the strengths of the molecular bands from SiO and OH. For these reasons, the assumed true spectra for K giants should be based on the assumption that molecular band strengths in the infrared can be predicted accurately from neither optical spectral class or color nor synthetric spectra. The OH bands in K giants grow stronger with cooler stellar temperatures, and they are stronger than predicted by synthetic spectra. As a group, A dwarfs are better behaved and more predictable than the K giants, but they are more likely to show red excesses from debris disks. No suitable A dwarfs were located in parts of the sky continuously observable from Spitzer, and with previous means of estimating the true spectra of K giants ruled out, it was necessary to use models of A dwarfs to calibrate spectra of K giants from observed spectral ratios of the two groups and then use the calibrated K giants as standards for the full database of infrared spectra from Spitzer. We also describe a lingering artifact that affects the spectra of faint blue sources at 24 ?m.

  12. Chiral-Scale Perturbation Theory About an Infrared Fixed Point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Crewther; Lewis C. Tunstall

    2014-01-31

    We review the failure of lowest order chiral $SU(3)_L \\times SU(3)_R$ perturbation theory $\\chi$PT$_3$ to account for amplitudes involving the $f_0(500)$ resonance and $O(m_K)$ extrapolations in momenta. We summarize our proposal to replace $\\chi$PT$_3$ with a new effective theory $\\chi$PT$_\\sigma$ based on a low-energy expansion about an infrared fixed point in 3-flavour QCD. At the fixed point, the quark condensate $\\langle\\bar{q}q\\rangle_\\mathrm{vac}\

  13. Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation with infrared double optical gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan Pengfei; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Midorikawa, Katsumi [Extreme Photonics Research Group, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate an infrared two-color polarization gating scheme for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) in the multicycle regime. Our simulations show that an IAP can be produced using a multicycle two-color driving pulse with a duration up to 60 fs. Moreover, the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the driving laser is not required to be stabilized, although the IAP intensity changes with the CEP slip. Such a gating scheme significantly relaxes the requirements for driving lasers and opens the door to easily create intense IAPs with a high-power conventional multicycle laser pulse.

  14. Mid Infrared Spectra of Radio Galaxies and Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Ogle; R. R. J. Antonucci; D. Whysong

    2006-12-15

    Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of 3C radio galaxies and quasars shed new light on the nature of the central engines of AGN. Emission from silicate dust obscuring the central engine can be used to estimate the bolometric luminosity of an AGN. Emission lines from ions such as O IV and Ne V give another indication of the presence or lack of a hidden source of far-UV photons in the nucleus. Radio-loud AGN with relative-to-Eddington luminosity ratios of L/L_Edd jet shocks in the interstellar medium.

  15. Category:Near Infrared Surveys | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to: navigation,GroundNear Infrared Surveys Jump to:

  16. Fluid Imaging of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Attempting to Image EGS Fracture & Fluid Networks; Employing joint Geophysical Imaging Technologies.

  17. Content-Aware Image enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schettini, Raimondo

    1 Content-Aware Image enhancement R. Schettini www.ivl.disco.unimib.it 8 Faculties, 61 Degree Recognition Content-based retrieval Quality Assessment Content-Aware Image Enhancement Presentation Outline Processing Content aware image enhancement We focus here on image based features. And show how to exploit

  18. Comment on "Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    of solar radia- tion and the long-wave cooling due to reduced downwelling infrared radiation from the colder stratosphere (Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007; Chapter 10 of SPARC CCMVal

  19. Development of an infrared absorption spectroscope based on linear variable filters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira, Felipe Guimaraes

    2009-05-15

    ).....................................15 7 Schematic of an LVF based detector..............................................................18 8 Diagram of the infrared radiation path in a dispersive infrared spectrometer. Adapted from ("FT-IR vs. Dispersive Infrared " 2002... radiation path as it passes through the LVF and reaches a detector array. Bottom-left: a display of the linear wavelength output characteristic of the LVF. Bottom-right: rendering of the LVF?s physical aspects (JDSU, 2006...

  20. A New Infra-Red Camera for COAST Software Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, John

    serves to relaythe PulseBlaster, and also serves to relay incoming data from the ADC shows the QuickUSB module under test.][The background image shows the QuickUSB module under test

  1. A new mid-infrared map of the BN/KL region using the Keck telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Y. Shuping; Mark Morris; John Bally

    2004-04-06

    We present a new mid-infrared (12.5micron) map of the BN/KL high-mass star-forming complex in Orion using the LWS instrument at Keck I. Despite poor weather we achieved nearly diffraction-limited images (FWHM = 0.38'') over a roughly 25'' X 25'' region centered on IRc2 down to a flux limit of ~250 mJy. Many of the known infrared (IR) sources in the region break up into smaller sub-components. We have also detected 6 new mid-IR sources. Nearly all of the sources are resolved in our mosaic. The near-IR source ''n'' is slightly elongated in the mid-IR along a NW--SE axis and perfectly bisects the double-peaked radio source ''L''. Source n has been identified as a candidate for powering the large IR luminosity of the BN/KL region (L = 10^5 L_sun). We postulate that the 12 micron emission arises in a circumstellar disk surrounding source n. The morphology of the mid-IR emission and the Orion ''hot core'' (as seen in NH_3 emission), along with the location of water and OH masers, is very suggestive of a bipolar cavity centered on source n and aligned with the rotation axis of the hypothetical circumstellar disk. IRc2, once thought to be the dominant energy source for the BN/KL region, clearly breaks into 4 sub-sources in our mosaic, as seen previously at 3.8 -- 5.0 micron. The anti-correlation of mid-IR emission and NH_3 emission from the nearby hot core indicates that the IRc2 sources are roughly coincident (or behind) the dense hot core. The nature of IRc2 is not clear: neither self-luminous sources (embedded protostars) nor external heating by source I can be definitively ruled out. We also report the discovery of a new arc-like feature SW of the BN object, and some curious morphology surrounding near-IR source ''t".

  2. BAYESIAN ENSEMBLE LEARNING FOR MEDICAL IMAGE DENOISING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Hyuntaek

    2012-08-31

    Medical images are often affected by random noise because of both image acquisition from the medical modalities and image transmission from modalities to workspace in the main computer. Medical image denoising removes noise from the CT or MR images...

  3. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kienholz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Akutan Fumaroles Area (Kienholz, Et Al., 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or...

  4. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or Near...

  5. Near-infrared surface plasmon polariton dispersion control with hyperbolic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    density of states using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. B 100(for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of

  6. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal And-Or...

  7. Observations of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope II: The IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Armus; V. Charmandaris; J. Bernard-Salas; H. W. W. Spoon; J. A. Marshall; S. J. U Higdon; V. Desai; H. I. Teplitz; L. Hao; D. Devost; B. R. Brandl; Y. Wu; G. C. Sloan; B. T. Soifer; J. R. Houck; T. L. Herter

    2006-10-06

    We present spectra taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer covering the 5-38 micron region of the ten Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) found in the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample. Among the BGS ULIRGs, we find a factor of 50 spread in the rest-frame mid to far-infrared spectral slope. The 9.7 micron silicate optical depths range from less than 0.4 more than 4.2, implying line of sight extinctions of A(V) ~ 8 - 78 mag. There is evidence for water ice and hydrocarbon absorption and C2H2 and HCN absorption features in four and possibly six of the 10 BGS ULIRGs, indicating shielded molecular clouds and a warm, dense ISM. We have detected [NeV] emission in three of the ten BGS ULIRGs, at flux levels of 5-18E-14 erg/cm^2/sec and [NeV] 14.3/[NeII] 12.8 line flux ratios of 0.12-0.85. The remaining BGS ULIRGs have limits on their [NeV]/[NeII] line flux ratios which range from less than 0.15 to less than 0.01. Among the BGS ULIRGs, the AGN fractions implied by either the [NeV]/[NeII] or [OIV]/[NeII] line flux ratios (or their upper limits) are significantly lower than implied by the MIR slope or EQW of the 6.2 micron PAH feature. Fitting the SEDs, we see evidence for hot (T > 300K) dust in five of the BGS ULIRGs, with the fraction of hot dust to total dust luminosity ranging from ~1-23%, before correcting for extinction. When integrated over the IRAC-8, IRS blue peakup, and MIPS-24 filter bandpasses, the IRS spectra imply very blue colors for some ULIRGs at z ~ 1.3. This is most extreme for sources with significant amounts of warm dust and deep silicate absorption.

  8. A 600 minute near-infrared lightcurve of Sagittarius A*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Meyer; T. Do; A. Ghez; M. R. Morris; G. Witzel; A. Eckart; G. Belanger; R. Schoedel

    2008-09-15

    We present the longest, by a factor of two, near-infrared lightcurve from Sgr A* - the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. Achieved by combining Keck and VLT data from one common night, which fortuitously had simultaneous Chandra and SMA data, this lightcurve is used to address two outstanding problems. First, a putative quasi-periodicity of ~20 min reported by groups using ESO's VLT is not confirmed by Keck observations. Second, while the infrared and mm-regimes are thought to be related based on reported time lags between lightcurves from the two wavelength domains, the reported time lag of 20 min inferred using the Keck data of this common VLT/Keck night only is at odds with the lag of ~100 min reported earlier. With our long lightcurve, we find that (i) the simultaneous 1.3 millimeter observations are in fact consistent with a ~100 min time lag, (ii) the different methods of NIR photometry used by the VLT and Keck groups lead to consistent results, (iii) the Lomb-Scargle periodogram of the whole NIR lightcurve is featureless and follows a power-law with slope -1.6, and (iv) scanning the lightcurve with a sliding window to look for a transient QPO phenomenon reveals for a certain part of the lightcurve a 25 min peak in the periodogram. Using Monte Carlo simulations and taking the number of trials into account, we find it to be insignificant.

  9. Thermal infrared survey of Sunlight Basin, Park County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vice, D.H.; Crowley, J.P.; Vice, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Thermal infrared surveys were flown over the Sunlight mining region and Sulphur Camp area of the Sunlight Basin to substantiate whether reported fumaroles are indicative of contemporary geothermal activity in the area. Thermal infrared imagery shows areas of warm ground along and warm water discharge into Sunlight Creek and Sulphur Lake. Sulphur deposits are found on north- and south-facing hill slopes associated with a second warm ground anomaly adjacent to Gas Creek. Warming is also manifested in the thermal characteristics of vegetation, and several fumaroles are identifiable. Aeromagnetic data show a 200 gamma low at Sulphur Camp which cannot be explained topographically. Major northeast-trending lineaments provide potential conduits for thermal fluids from the magma plume in Yellowstone National Park, 50 km (30 mi) to the southwest. The floor of the Yellowstone caldera is topographically higher and could provide the necessary hydraulic head to move the fluids outward. Other geothermal resources may exhibit the same characteristics. This example suggests that geothermal resources may occur at considerable distances from a heat source.

  10. Predictions for surveys with the SPICA Mid-infrared Instrument

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonato, M; Cai, Z -Y; De Zotti, G; Bressan, A; Wada, T; Kohno, K; Maiolino, R; Gruppioni, C; Pozzi, F; Lapi, A

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions for number counts and redshift distributions of galaxies detectable in continuum and in emission lines with the Mid-infrared (MIR) Instrument (SMI) proposed for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA). We have considered 24 MIR fine-structure lines, four Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) bands (at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3$\\mu$m) and two silicate bands (in emission and in absorption) at 9.7$\\mu$m and 18.0$\\mu$m. Six of these lines are primarily associated with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), the others with star formation. A survey with the SMI spectrometers of 1 hour integration per field-of-view (FoV) over an area of $1\\,\\hbox{deg}^2$ will yield $5\\,\\sigma$ detections of $\\simeq 140$ AGN lines and of $\\simeq 5.2\\times10^{4}$ star-forming galaxies, $\\simeq 1.6\\times10^{4}$ of which will be detected in at least two lines. The combination of a shallow ($20.0\\,\\hbox{deg}^{2}$, $1.4\\times10^{-1}$ h integration per FoV) and a deep survey ($6.9\\times10^{-3}\\,\\hbox...

  11. THE INFRARED TELESCOPE FACILITY (IRTF) SPECTRAL LIBRARY: COOL STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, John T.; Cushing, Michael C.; Vacca, William D. E-mail: michael.cushing@gmail.com

    2009-12-01

    We present a 0.8-5 {mu}m spectral library of 210 cool stars observed at a resolving power of R {identical_to} {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} {approx} 2000 with the medium-resolution infrared spectrograph, SpeX, at the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The stars have well-established MK spectral classifications and are mostly restricted to near-solar metallicities. The sample not only contains the F, G, K, and M spectral types with luminosity classes between I and V, but also includes some AGB, carbon, and S stars. In contrast to some other spectral libraries, the continuum shape of the spectra is measured and preserved in the data reduction process. The spectra are absolutely flux calibrated using the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Potential uses of the library include studying the physics of cool stars, classifying and studying embedded young clusters and optically obscured regions of the Galaxy, evolutionary population synthesis to study unresolved stellar populations in optically obscured regions of galaxies and synthetic photometry. The library is available in digital form from the IRTF Web site.

  12. Tunable ultrasonic phononic crystal controlled by infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Ezekiel; Neogi, Arup, E-mail: zhmwang@gmail.com, E-mail: arup@unt.edu [Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); University of North Texas, Department of Physics, Denton, Texas 76201 (United States); Reyes, Delfino [University of North Texas, Department of Physics, Denton, Texas 76201 (United States); Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca 50120 (Mexico); Rojas, Miguel Mayorga [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca 50120 (Mexico); Krokhin, Arkadii [University of North Texas, Department of Physics, Denton, Texas 76201 (United States); Wang, Zhiming, E-mail: zhmwang@gmail.com, E-mail: arup@unt.edu [Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-06

    A tunable phononic crystal based ultrasonic filter was designed by stimulating the phase of the polymeric material embedded in a periodic structure using infrared radiation. The acoustic filter can be tuned remotely using thermal stimulation induced by the infrared radiation. The filter is composed of steel cylinder scatterers arranged periodically in a background of bulk poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) polymer hydrogel. The lattice structure creates forbidden bands for certain sets of mechanical waves that cause it to behave as an ultrasonic filter. Since the bandstructure is determined by not only the arrangement of the scatterers but also the physical properties of the materials composing the scatterers and background, modulating either the arrangement or physical properties will alter the effect of the crystal on propagating mechanical waves. Here, the physical properties of the filter are varied by inducing changes in the polymer hydrogel using an electromagnetic thermal stimulus. With particular focus on the k{sub 00}-wave, the transmission of ultrasonic wave changes by as much as 20 dBm, and band widths by 22% for select bands.

  13. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-08-14

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500?nm, and the range of dopant densities between ?10{sup 18} and 3?×?10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}. Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis.

  14. Spectroscopic Needs for Imaging Dark Energy Experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Slosar, Anze; Abate, Alexandra; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Allam, Sahar; Allen, Steven W.; Ansari, Reza; Bailey, Stephen; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Beers, Timothy C.; et al

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing and near-future imaging-based dark energy experiments are critically dependent upon photometric redshifts (a.k.a. photo-z’s): i.e., estimates of the redshifts of objects based only on flux information obtained through broad filters. Higher-quality, lower-scatter photo-z’s will result in smaller random errors on cosmological parameters; while systematic errors in photometric redshift estimates, if not constrained, may dominate all other uncertainties from these experiments. The desired optimization and calibration is dependent upon spectroscopic measurements for secure redshift information; this is the key application of galaxy spectroscopy for imaging-based dark energy experiments. Hence, to achieve their full potential, imaging-based experiments will require large setsmore »of objects with spectroscopically-determined redshifts, for two purposes: Training: Objects with known redshift are needed to map out the relationship between object color and z (or, equivalently, to determine empirically-calibrated templates describing the rest-frame spectra of the full range of galaxies, which may be used to predict the color-z relation). The ultimate goal of training is to minimize each moment of the distribution of differences between photometric redshift estimates and the true redshifts of objects, making the relationship between them as tight as possible. The larger and more complete our “training set” of spectroscopic redshifts is, the smaller the RMS photo-z errors should be, increasing the constraining power of imaging experiments; Requirements: Spectroscopic redshift measurements for ~30,000 objects over >~15 widely-separated regions, each at least ~20 arcmin in diameter, and reaching the faintest objects used in a given experiment, will likely be necessary if photometric redshifts are to be trained and calibrated with conventional techniques. Larger, more complete samples (i.e., with longer exposure times) can improve photo-z algorithms and reduce scatter further, enhancing the science return from planned experiments greatly (increasing the Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit by up to ~50%); Options: This spectroscopy will most efficiently be done by covering as much of the optical and near-infrared spectrum as possible at modestly high spectral resolution (?/?? > ~3000), while maximizing the telescope collecting area, field of view on the sky, and multiplexing of simultaneous spectra. The most efficient instrument for this would likely be either the proposed GMACS/MANIFEST spectrograph for the Giant Magellan Telescope or the OPTIMOS spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope, depending on actual properties when built. The PFS spectrograph at Subaru would be next best and available considerably earlier, c. 2018; the proposed ngCFHT and SSST telescopes would have similar capabilities but start later. Other key options, in order of increasing total time required, are the WFOS spectrograph at TMT, MOONS at the VLT, and DESI at the Mayall 4 m telescope (or the similar 4MOST and WEAVE projects); of these, only DESI, MOONS, and PFS are expected to be available before 2020. Table 2-3 of this white paper summarizes the observation time required at each facility for strawman training samples. To attain secure redshift measurements for a high fraction of targeted objects and cover the full redshift span of future experiments, additional near-infrared spectroscopy will also be required; this is best done from space, particularly with WFIRST-2.4 and JWST; Calibration: The first several moments of redshift distributions (the mean, RMS redshift dispersion, etc.), must be known to high accuracy for cosmological constraints not to be systematics-dominated (equivalently, the moments of the distribution of differences between photometric and true redshifts could be determined instead). The ultimate goal of calibration is to characterize these moments for every subsample used in analyses - i.e., to minimize the uncertainty in their mean redshift, RMS dispersion, etc. – rather than to make the m

  15. Spectroscopic Needs for Imaging Dark Energy Experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Newman, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh and PITT PACC, PA (United States). Dept of Physics and Astronomy; Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Abate, Alexandra [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abdalla, Filipe B. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Allam, Sahar [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Allen, Steven W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ansari, Reza [LAL Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Bailey, Stephen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barkhouse, Wayne A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observations, Tucson, AZ (United States); Blanton, Michael R. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Univ. of Missouri at Kansas City, Kansas City, MO (United States); Brownstein, Joel R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Brunner, Robert J. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Carrasco-Kind, Matias [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Cervantes-Cota, Jorge [Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Escandon (Mexico); Chisari, Nora Elisa [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Colless, Matthew [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Comparat, Johan [Campus of International Excellence UAM and CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Coupon, Jean [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland). Astronomical Observatory; Cheu, Elliott [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Cunha, Carlos E. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; de la Macorra, Alex [UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Fisica Teorica and Inst. Avanzado de Cosmologia; Dell’Antonio, Ian P. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Frye, Brenda L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Gawiser, Eric J. [State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gehrels, Neil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Grady, Kevin [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Hagen, Alex [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Hall, Patrick B. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Hearin, Andrew P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hildebrandt, Hendrik [Argelander-Inst. fuer Astronomie, Bonn (Germany); Hirata, Christopher M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Ho, Shirley [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). McWilliams Center for Cosmology; Honscheid, Klaus [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huterer, Dragan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ivezic, Zeljko [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kneib, Jean -Paul [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Swizerland); Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (France); Kruk, Jeffrey W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Lahav, Ofer [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Mandelbaum, Rachel [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). McWilliams Center for Cosmology; Marshall, Jennifer L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Matthews, Daniel J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh and PITT PACC, PA (United States). Dept of Physics and Astronomy; Menard, Brice [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Miquel, Ramon [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Fisica d'Altes Energies (IFAE); Moniez, Marc [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Moos, H. W. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Moustakas, John [Siena College, Loudonville, NY (United States); Papovich, Casey [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Peacock, John A. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. for Astronomy, Royal Observatory; Park, Changbom [Korea Inst. for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhodes, Jason [Jet Propulsion Lab./Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Ongoing and near-future imaging-based dark energy experiments are critically dependent upon photometric redshifts (a.k.a. photo-z’s): i.e., estimates of the redshifts of objects based only on flux information obtained through broad filters. Higher-quality, lower-scatter photo-z’s will result in smaller random errors on cosmological parameters; while systematic errors in photometric redshift estimates, if not constrained, may dominate all other uncertainties from these experiments. The desired optimization and calibration is dependent upon spectroscopic measurements for secure redshift information; this is the key application of galaxy spectroscopy for imaging-based dark energy experiments. Hence, to achieve their full potential, imaging-based experiments will require large sets of objects with spectroscopically-determined redshifts, for two purposes: Training: Objects with known redshift are needed to map out the relationship between object color and z (or, equivalently, to determine empirically-calibrated templates describing the rest-frame spectra of the full range of galaxies, which may be used to predict the color-z relation). The ultimate goal of training is to minimize each moment of the distribution of differences between photometric redshift estimates and the true redshifts of objects, making the relationship between them as tight as possible. The larger and more complete our “training set” of spectroscopic redshifts is, the smaller the RMS photo-z errors should be, increasing the constraining power of imaging experiments; Requirements: Spectroscopic redshift measurements for ~30,000 objects over >~15 widely-separated regions, each at least ~20 arcmin in diameter, and reaching the faintest objects used in a given experiment, will likely be necessary if photometric redshifts are to be trained and calibrated with conventional techniques. Larger, more complete samples (i.e., with longer exposure times) can improve photo-z algorithms and reduce scatter further, enhancing the science return from planned experiments greatly (increasing the Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit by up to ~50%); Options: This spectroscopy will most efficiently be done by covering as much of the optical and near-infrared spectrum as possible at modestly high spectral resolution (?/?? > ~3000), while maximizing the telescope collecting area, field of view on the sky, and multiplexing of simultaneous spectra. The most efficient instrument for this would likely be either the proposed GMACS/MANIFEST spectrograph for the Giant Magellan Telescope or the OPTIMOS spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope, depending on actual properties when built. The PFS spectrograph at Subaru would be next best and available considerably earlier, c. 2018; the proposed ngCFHT and SSST telescopes would have similar capabilities but start later. Other key options, in order of increasing total time required, are the WFOS spectrograph at TMT, MOONS at the VLT, and DESI at the Mayall 4 m telescope (or the similar 4MOST and WEAVE projects); of these, only DESI, MOONS, and PFS are expected to be available before 2020. Table 2-3 of this white paper summarizes the observation time required at each facility for strawman training samples. To attain secure redshift measurements for a high fraction of targeted objects and cover the full redshift span of future experiments, additional near-infrared spectroscopy will also be required; this is best done from space, particularly with WFIRST-2.4 and JWST; Calibration: The first several moments of redshift distributions (the mean, RMS redshift dispersion, etc.), must be known to high accuracy for cosmological constraints not to be systematics-dominated (equivalently, the moments of the distribution of differences between photometric and true redshifts could be determined instead). The ultimate goal of calibration is to characterize these moments for every subsample used in analyses - i.e., to minimize the uncertainty in their mean redshift, RMS dispersion, etc. – rather than to make the moments themselve

  16. Spectroscopic Needs for Imaging Dark Energy Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, Jeffrey A.; Slosar, Anze; Abate, Alexandra; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Allam, Sahar; Allen, Steven W.; Ansari, Reza; Bailey, Stephen; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Beers, Timothy C.; Blanton, Michael R.; Brodwin, Mark; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brunner, Robert J.; Carrasco-Kind, Matias; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Colless, Matthew; Comparat, Johan; Coupon, Jean; Cheu, Elliott; Cunha, Carlos E.; de la Macorra, Alex; Dell’Antonio, Ian P.; Frye, Brenda L.; Gawiser, Eric J.; Gehrels, Neil; Grady, Kevin; Hagen, Alex; Hall, Patrick B.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hirata, Christopher M.; Ho, Shirley; Honscheid, Klaus; Huterer, Dragan; Ivezic, Zeljko; Kneib, Jean -Paul; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Lahav, Ofer; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Matthews, Daniel J.; Menard, Brice; Miquel, Ramon; Moniez, Marc; Moos, H. W.; Moustakas, John; Papovich, Casey; Peacock, John A.; Park, Changbom; Rhodes, Jason; Sadeh, Iftach; Schmidt, Samuel J.; Stern, Daniel K.; Tyson, J. Anthony; von der Linden, Anja; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Zentner, A.

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing and near-future imaging-based dark energy experiments are critically dependent upon photometric redshifts (a.k.a. photo-z’s): i.e., estimates of the redshifts of objects based only on flux information obtained through broad filters. Higher-quality, lower-scatter photo-z’s will result in smaller random errors on cosmological parameters; while systematic errors in photometric redshift estimates, if not constrained, may dominate all other uncertainties from these experiments. The desired optimization and calibration is dependent upon spectroscopic measurements for secure redshift information; this is the key application of galaxy spectroscopy for imaging-based dark energy experiments. Hence, to achieve their full potential, imaging-based experiments will require large sets of objects with spectroscopically-determined redshifts, for two purposes: Training: Objects with known redshift are needed to map out the relationship between object color and z (or, equivalently, to determine empirically-calibrated templates describing the rest-frame spectra of the full range of galaxies, which may be used to predict the color-z relation). The ultimate goal of training is to minimize each moment of the distribution of differences between photometric redshift estimates and the true redshifts of objects, making the relationship between them as tight as possible. The larger and more complete our “training set” of spectroscopic redshifts is, the smaller the RMS photo-z errors should be, increasing the constraining power of imaging experiments; Requirements: Spectroscopic redshift measurements for ~30,000 objects over >~15 widely-separated regions, each at least ~20 arcmin in diameter, and reaching the faintest objects used in a given experiment, will likely be necessary if photometric redshifts are to be trained and calibrated with conventional techniques. Larger, more complete samples (i.e., with longer exposure times) can improve photo-z algorithms and reduce scatter further, enhancing the science return from planned experiments greatly (increasing the Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit by up to ~50%); Options: This spectroscopy will most efficiently be done by covering as much of the optical and near-infrared spectrum as possible at modestly high spectral resolution (?/?? > ~3000), while maximizing the telescope collecting area, field of view on the sky, and multiplexing of simultaneous spectra. The most efficient instrument for this would likely be either the proposed GMACS/MANIFEST spectrograph for the Giant Magellan Telescope or the OPTIMOS spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope, depending on actual properties when built. The PFS spectrograph at Subaru would be next best and available considerably earlier, c. 2018; the proposed ngCFHT and SSST telescopes would have similar capabilities but start later. Other key options, in order of increasing total time required, are the WFOS spectrograph at TMT, MOONS at the VLT, and DESI at the Mayall 4 m telescope (or the similar 4MOST and WEAVE projects); of these, only DESI, MOONS, and PFS are expected to be available before 2020. Table 2-3 of this white paper summarizes the observation time required at each facility for strawman training samples. To attain secure redshift measurements for a high fraction of targeted objects and cover the full redshift span of future experiments, additional near-infrared spectroscopy will also be required; this is best done from space, particularly with WFIRST-2.4 and JWST; Calibration: The first several moments of redshift distributions (the mean, RMS redshift dispersion, etc.), must be known to high accuracy for cosmological constraints not to be systematics-dominated (equivalently, the moments of the distribution of differences between photometric and true redshifts could be determined instead). The ultimate goal of calibration is to characterize these moments for every subsample used in analyses - i.e., to minimize the uncertainty in their mean redshift, RMS dispersion, etc. – rather than to make the moments the

  17. In-orbit focal adjustment of the AKARI telescope with IRC images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kaneda; W. Kim; T. Onaka; T. Wada; Y. Ita; I. Sakon; T. Takagi

    2007-06-01

    AKARI currently in space carries onboard a cryogenically-cooled lightweight telescope with silicon carbide mirrors. The wavefront error of the AKARI telescope obtained in laboratory measurements at 9 K showed that expected in-orbit imaging performance was diffraction-limited at a wavelength of 6.2 um. The AKARI telescope has a function of focus adjustment by shifting the secondary mirror in parallel to the optical axis. On the 4th day after the jettison of the cryostat aperture lid in the orbit, we observed a star with the InfraRed Camera (IRC) onboard AKARI. Since the initial star images observed in the near-infrared (IR) bands were significantly blurred, we twice moved the secondary mirror for the focal adjustment based on the results of model analyses as well as data analyses of the near-IR images. In consequence, we have successfully adjusted the focus of the telescope. The in-orbit imaging performance thus obtained for the AKARI telescope is diffraction-limited at a wavelength of 7.3 um, slightly degraded from that expected from the laboratory measurement.

  18. Microbial Cell Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Sullivan, Claretta; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is finding increasing application in a variety of fields including microbiology. Until the emergence of AFM, techniques for ivnestigating processes in single microbes were limited. From a biologist's perspective, the fact that AFM can be used to generate high-resolution images in buffers or media is its most appealing feature as live-cell imaging can be pursued. Imaging living cells by AFM allows dynamic biological events to be studied, at the nanoscale, in real time. Few areas of biological research have as much to gain as microbiology from the application of AFM. Whereas the scale of microbes places them near the limit of resolution for light microscopy. AFM is well suited for the study of structures on the order of a micron or less. Although electron microscopy techniques have been the standard for high-resolution imaging of microbes, AFM is quickly gaining favor for several reasons. First, fixatives that impair biological activity are not required. Second, AFM is capable of detecting forces in the pN range, and precise control of the force applied to the cantilever can be maintained. This combination facilitates the evaluation of physical characteristics of microbes. Third, rather than yielding the composite, statistical average of cell populations, as is the case with many biochemical assays, the behavior of single cells can be monitored. Despite the potential of AFM in microbiology, there are several limitations that must be considered. For example, the time required to record an image allows for the study of gross events such as cell division or membrane degradation from an antibiotic but precludes the evaluation of biological reactions and events that happen in just fractions of a second. Additionally, the AFM is a topographical tool and is restricted to imaging surfaces. Therefore, it cannot be used to look inside cells as with opticla and transmission electron microscopes. other practical considerations are the limitation on the maximum scan size (roughly 100 x 100 {mu}m) and the restricted movement of the cantilever in the Z (or height) direction. In most commercial AFMs, the Z range is restricted to roughly 10 {mu}m such that the height of cells to be imaged must be seriously considered. Nevertheless, AFM can provide structural-functional information at nanometer resolution and do so in physiologically relevant environments. Further, instrumentation for scanning probe microscopy continues to advance. Systems for high-speed imaging are becoming available, and techniques for looking inside the cells are being demonstrated. The ability to combine AFM with other imaging modalities is likely to have an even greater impact on microbiological studies. AFM studies of intact microbial cells started to appear in the literature in the 1990s. For example, AFM studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae examined buddings cars after cell division and detailed changes related to cell growth processes. Also, the first AFM studies of bacterial biofilms appeared. In the late 1990s, AFM studies of intact fungal spores described clear changes in spore surfaces upon germination, and studies of individual bacterial cells were also described. These early bacterial imaging studies examined changes in bacterial morphology due to antimicrobial peptides exposure and bacterial adhesion properties. The majority of these early studies were carried out on dried samples and took advantage of the resolving power of AFM. The lack of cell mounting procedures presented an impediment for cell imaging studies. Subsequently, several approaches to mounting microbial cells have been developed, and these techniques are described later. Also highlighted are general considerations for microbial imaging and a description of some of the various applications of AFM to microbiology.

  19. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  20. PHOTOACOUSTIC NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND IMAGING OF CARIES IN DENTAL SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J. [Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-22

    Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 deg. C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.