Sample records for image optical glass

  1. Lead phosphate glass compositions for optical components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lead phosphate glass to which has been added indium oxide or scandium oe to improve chemical durability and provide a lead phosphate glass with good optical properties.

  2. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  3. Optical absorption and ionization of silicate glasses Leonid B. Glebov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    Optical absorption and ionization of silicate glasses Leonid B. Glebov School of Optics and hydroxyl), and induced (color centers) absorption of multicomponent silicate glasses in UV, visible-photon ionization was detected in alkaline-silicate glasses exposed to high-power laser radiation in nano

  4. Ferroelectric optical image comparator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Land, C.E.; Martin, S.J.; Pfeifer, K.B.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A ferroelectric optical image comparator has a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin-film device which is constructed with a semi-transparent or transparent conductive first electrode on one side of the thin film, a conductive metal second electrode on the other side of the thin film, and the second electrode is in contact with a nonconducting substrate. A photoinduced current in the device represents the dot product between a stored image and an image projected onto the first electrode. One-dimensional autocorrelations are performed by measuring this current while displacing the projected image. 7 figures.

  5. Non-photorealistic Rendering of Images as Evolutionary Stained Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashlock, Dan

    Non-photorealistic Rendering of Images as Evolutionary Stained Glass Daniel Ashlock Mathematics glass. A collection of points that are the centers of weighted Voronoi tilings are evolved to minimize. A fractal model of stained glass is then run to create a stained glass texture with a similar average color

  6. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  7. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V., E-mail: ravi.phy@pondiuni.edu.in [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014 (India); Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30ZnO-(70-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x?=?30, 35, 40, and 45?mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due to dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (?) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (?{sub e}) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.

  8. Lensless imaging of nanoporous glass with soft X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, Joshua J.; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Jacobsen, Chris

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent soft X-ray diffraction has been used to image nanoporous glass structure in two dimensions using different methods. The merit of the reconstructions was judged using a new method of Fourier phase correlation with a final, refined image. The porous structure was found to have a much larger average size then previously believed.

  9. Optical properties and structure of beryllium lead silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhidkov, I. S., E-mail: i.s.zhidkov@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002, Russia and Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, S. Kovalevskoi Str. 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A. F.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kuznetsova, Yu. A. [Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, Yekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Luminescence and optical properties and structural features of (BeO){sub x}(PbO?SiO{sub 2}){sub 1?x} glasses (x = 0 ÷ 0.3) are investigated by means of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The regularities of the formation of the optical absorption edge and static disorder are studied. It is shown that the optical absorption and luminescence are determined by transitions between localized states of lead ions. The impact of beryllium oxide on optical and luminescence properties and electronic structure of bands tails is discussed. The presence of two different concentration ranges with various short-range order structure and band tails nature has been established.

  10. Quantum vacuum radiation in optical glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Liberati; Angus Prain; Matt Visser

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent experimental claim of the detection of analogue Hawking radiation in an optical system [PRL 105 (2010) 203901] has led to some controversy [PRL 107 (2011) 149401, 149402]. While this experiment strongly suggests some form of particle creation from the quantum vacuum (and hence it is per se very interesting), it is also true that it seems difficult to completely explain all features of the observations by adopting the perspective of a Hawking-like mechanism for the radiation. For instance, the observed photons are emitted parallel to the optical horizon, and the relevant optical horizon is itself defined in an unusual manner by combining group and phase velocities. This raises the question: Is this really Hawking radiation, or some other form of quantum vacuum radiation? Naive estimates of the amount of quantum vacuum radiation generated due to the rapidly changing refractive index --- sometimes called the dynamical Casimir effect --- are not encouraging. However we feel that naive estimates could be misleading depending on the quantitative magnitude of two specific physical effects: "pulse steepening" and "pulse cresting". Plausible bounds on the maximum size of these two effects results in estimates much closer to the experimental observations, and we argue that the dynamical Casimir effect is now worth additional investigation.

  11. Hadamard multimode optical imaging transceiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, Bradly J; Guenther, David C; Tiee, Joe J; Kellum, Mervyn J; Olivas, Nicholas L; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R; Judd, Stephen L; Braun, Thomas R

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method and system for simultaneously acquiring and producing results for multiple image modes using a common sensor without optical filtering, scanning, or other moving parts. The system and method utilize the Walsh-Hadamard correlation detection process (e.g., functions/matrix) to provide an all-binary structure that permits seamless bridging between analog and digital domains. An embodiment may capture an incoming optical signal at an optical aperture, convert the optical signal to an electrical signal, pass the electrical signal through a Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) to create an LNA signal, pass the LNA signal through one or more correlators where each correlator has a corresponding Walsh-Hadamard (WH) binary basis function, calculate a correlation output coefficient for each correlator as a function of the corresponding WH binary basis function in accordance with Walsh-Hadamard mathematical principles, digitize each of the correlation output coefficient by passing each correlation output coefficient through an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), and performing image mode processing on the digitized correlation output coefficients as desired to produce one or more image modes. Some, but not all, potential image modes include: multi-channel access, temporal, range, three-dimensional, and synthetic aperture.

  12. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sitter, Jr., David N. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components.

  13. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Simpson, M.L.

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations is disclosed, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components. 2 figs.

  14. Optical Deformations in Solar Glass Filters for High Precision Astrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Boscardin, Sérgio Calderari; Penna, Jucira Lousada; Reis-Neto, Eugênio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring the solar diameter at all position angles gives the complete figure of the Sun. Their asphericities have implications in classical physics and general relativity, and the behavior of the optical systems used in the direct measurements is to be known accurately. A solar filter is a plane-parallel glass with given absorption, and here we study the departures from the parallelism of the faces of a crystal slab 5 mm thick, because of static deformations. These deformations are rescaled to the filter's dimensions. Related to the Solar Disk Sextant experiment and to the Reflecting Heliometer of Rio de Janeiro a simplified model of the influences of the inclination between the external and the internal surfaces of a glass solar filter, is discussed.

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS 1 Image-Based Stained Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Stephen

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS 1 Image-Based Stained Glass Stephen Brooks of a work of stained glass. To this end, we develop a novel approach which involves image warping is first segmented. Each segment is subsequently transformed to match real segments of stained glass

  16. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  17. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N. (Sunol, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  18. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  19. Study of optical properties of Erbium doped Tellurite glass-polymer composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sushama, D., E-mail: sushasukumar@gmail.com [Research Awardee, LAMP, Dept. of Physics, Nit, Calicut, India and Dept. of Physics, M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Chalcogenide glasses have wide applications in optical device technology. But it has some disadvantages like thermal instability. Among them Tellurite glasses exhibits high thermal Stability. Doping of rare earth elements into the Tellurite glasses improve its optical properties. To improve its mechanical properties composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared. Bulk samples of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped TeO{sub 2}?WO{sub 3}?La{sub 2}O{sub 3} Tellurite glasses are prepared from high purity oxide mixtures, melting in an alumina crucible in air atmosphere. Composites of this Tellurite glasses with polymer are prepared by powder mixing method and the thin films of these composites are prepared using polymer press. Variations in band gap of these composites are studied from the UV/Vis/NIR absorption.

  20. Optical loss reduction in HIC chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Juejun

    A rapid thermal reflow technique is applied to high-index-contrast, sub-micron waveguides in As[subscript 2]S[subscript 3] chalcogenide glass to reduce sidewall roughness and associated optical scattering loss. Up to 50% ...

  1. Method of producing optical quality glass having a selected refractive index

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical quality glass having a selected refractive index is produced by a two stage drying process. A gel is produced using sol-gel chemistry techniques and first dried by controlled evaporation until the gel volume reaches a pre-selected value. This pre-selected volume determines the density and refractive index of the finally dried gel. The gel is refilled with solvent in a saturated vapor environment, and then dried again by supercritical extraction of the solvent to form a glass. The glass has a refractive index less than the full density of glass, and the range of achievable refractive indices depends on the composition of the glass. Glasses having different refractive indices chosen from an uninterrupted range of values can be produced from a single precursor solution.

  2. Femtosecond pulse imaging: ultrafast optical oscilloscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Femtosecond pulse imaging: ultrafast optical oscilloscope P. C. Sun, Y. T. Mazurenko,* and Y as well as our ability to detect the shape of the ul- trashort pulses that can be seen as an ultrafast 12, 1996 A nonlinear optical processor that is capable of real-time conversion of a femtosecond pulse

  3. Positron emission tomography and optical tissue imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falen, Steven W. (Carmichael, CA); Hoefer, Richard A. (Newport News, VA); Majewski, Stanislaw (Yorktown, VA); McKisson, John (Hampton, VA); Kross, Brian (Yorktown, VA); Proffitt, James (Newport News, VA); Stolin, Alexander (Newport News, VA); Weisenberger, Andrew G. (Yorktown, VA)

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A mobile compact imaging system that combines both PET imaging and optical imaging into a single system which can be located in the operating room (OR) and provides faster feedback to determine if a tumor has been fully resected and if there are adequate surgical margins. While final confirmation is obtained from the pathology lab, such a device can reduce the total time necessary for the procedure and the number of iterations required to achieve satisfactory resection of a tumor with good margins.

  4. Synthesis and optical properties of CsC1-doped gallium-sodium-sulfide glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bennett, Bryan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Darrick J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Castro, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}S (GNS) glasses doped with CsCl were synthesized in open crucibles under inert atmosphere. The evaporative loss of CsCl during glass melting was measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and corrected for by biasing the CsCl concentration in the mixture of starting materials to obtain glasses with accurately controlled stoichiometry. Glass transition temperatures, refractive index dispersions, and band edge energies were measured for four GNS:CsCl glasses, and the respective values were found to significantly improve over earlier studies that did not mitigate CsCl evaporative losses. The refractive index dispersion measurements indicate that the Cs{sup +} and Cl{sup -} radii are 16% larger in GNS:CsCl glass than in bulk crystalline CsCl. The band edge energy increases from 2.97 eV in GNS glass to 3.32 eV in GNS glass doped with 20 mol% CsCl as a result of introducing Cl{sup -} ions having a large optical electronegativity. The large bandgap of 3.32 eV and the low (450 cm{sup -1}) phonon energy make GNS:20%CsCl an attractive host material for rare-earth ions with radiative transitions in the near ultra-violet, visible, and near-infrared spectral regions.

  5. EELS Spectrum Imaging and Tomography Studies of Simulated Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Guang; Saghi, Zineb; Xu, Xiaojing; Hand, Russell; Moebus, Guenter [Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) fine structure is a powerful technique for analyzing oxidation levels of rare-earth oxides and coordination numbers in glasses and ceramics, especially for boron. To exploit the unique advantage of EELS over x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)/x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), namely nm-scale spatial resolution, EELS spectrum imaging across precipitates in glasses has been employed to detect lateral changes of EELS fine structure. Alkali borosilicate (ABS) glasses doped with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} or Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were melted to simulate high level radionuclide immobilization glasses. Precipitates with diameter in the range of {approx}20 nm to {approx}500 nm were found homogeneously distributed in the glasses. Ce valence was found to be mainly +3 in the glass matrix, and +4 in crystalline precipitates, while some amorphous particles show +3 as well. Another powerful TEM technique for the analysis of glass-nano-composites is electron tomography, as it is up to now the only technique for the three-dimensional reconstruction of nano-particles. A 3D reconstructed nuclear waste glass is presented in this paper by using a tilt series of ADF STEM images covering a glass fragment of {approx}3{mu}m field of view containing several tens of nano-particles distributed throughout its volume. (authors)

  6. Minimally invasive diagnostic imaging using high resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herz, Paul Richard, 1972-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in medical imaging have given researchers unprecedented capabilities to visualize, characterize and understand biological systems. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a high speed, high resolution imaging technique ...

  7. The characterization of particle clouds using optical imaging techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce, Elizabeth J. (Elizabeth Jane), 1972-

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical imaging techniques can be used to provide a better understanding of the physical properties of particle clouds. The purpose of this thesis is to design, perform and evaluate a set of experiments using optical imaging ...

  8. Imaging techniques utilizing optical fibers and tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke, M.; King, N.S.P.; Gray, N.; Johnson, D.; Esquibel, D.; Nedrow, P.; Ishiwata, S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional, time-dependent images generated by neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays incident on fast scintillators are relayed to streak and video cameras over optical fibers. Three dimensions, two spatial and one temporal, have been reduced to two, one in space and time utilizing sampling methods permitting reconstruction of a time-dependent, two-dimensional image subsequent to data recording. The manner in which the sampling is done optimized the ability to reconstruct the image via a maximization of entropy algorithm. This method uses four linear fiber optic arrays typically 30 meters long and up to 35 elements each. A further refinement of this technique collapses the linear array information into four single fibers by wavelength multiplexing. This permits economical transmission of the data over kilometer distances to the recording equipment.

  9. Structural and optical properties of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals in glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Rakesh K., E-mail: mishrarake@gmail.com; Kashyap, Raman, E-mail: mishrarake@gmail.com; Vedeshwar, A. G., E-mail: mishrarake@gmail.com; Tandon, R. P., E-mail: mishrarake@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 1-10007 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work conventional solid state precipitation method is adopted to fabricate Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals in glass. The glass composition is optimized for proper host glass matrix to grow antimony trisulphide semiconductor quantum dots. The dot size is modified by heat treatment of glass samples in the temperature range from 550°C to 700°C for various time durations. Structural studies are carried out by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and nanoparticles with size ranges from 8 nm to 70 nm are obtained. Quantum dots so grown were further characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy and a blue shift is observed for absorption edge energy that conform the quantum confinement effect.

  10. Ion assisted deposition of optical and protective coatings for heavy metal fluoride glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNally, J.J.; Al-Jumaily, G.A.; McNeil, J.R.

    1986-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy metal fluoride glass materials are attractive for optical applications in the near UV through IR wavelength regions. However, many compositions are relatively soft and hygroscopic and possess low softening temperature (250--300/sup 0/C). We have applied ion assisted deposition (IAD) techniques to deposit MgF/sub 2/, SiO/sub 2/, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//SiO/sub 2/ thin film structures on fluoride glass substrates at ambient substrate temperature (--100/sup 0/C). The coatings deposited using IAD improve the environmental durability of the fluoride glass and appear to have reasonably good optical characteristics; without application of IAD, the deposited coatings are not durable and have poor adhesion.

  11. Nonlinear Optics in Doped Silica Glass Integrated Waveguide Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchesne, David; Razzari, Luca; Morandotti, Roberto; Little, Brent; Chu, Sai T; Moss, David J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated photonic technologies are rapidly becoming an important and fundamental milestone for wideband optical telecommunications. Future optical networks have several critical requirements, including low energy consumption, high efficiency, greater bandwidth and flexibility, which must be addressed in a compact form factor.

  12. Spectral background and transmission characteristics of fiber optic imaging bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gmitro, Arthur F.

    Spectral background and transmission characteristics of fiber optic imaging bundles Joshua Anthony August 2008 The emission and transmission properties of three commercially produced coherent fiber optic optical fibers are used in many imaging applications to allow the flexible relay of image planes over

  13. Absolute instruments and perfect imaging in geometrical optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyc, Tomas

    Absolute instruments and perfect imaging in geometrical optics Tom´as Tyc, Lenka Herz symmetric absolute instruments that provide perfect imaging in the sense of geometrical optics. We derive to propose several new absolute instruments, in particular a lens providing a stigmatic image of an optically

  14. Some Computational Problems Arising in Adaptive Optics Imaging Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plemmons, Robert J.

    Some Computational Problems Arising in Adaptive Optics Imaging Systems Robert J. Plemmons \\Lambda numerical linear algebra tech­ niques in adaptive optics imaging control computations. Real­time adaptive optics is a means for enhancing the resolution of ground based, optical telescopes beyond the limits

  15. Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution, and accuracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boas, David

    Diffuse optical imaging of brain activation: approaches to optimizing image sensitivity, resolution States Available online 11 September 2004 Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse optical imaging currently being made and issues to consider for improving optical image quality. These include the optimal

  16. Hydex Glass and Amorphous Silicon for Integrated Nonlinear Optical Signal Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morandotti, Roberto

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic integrated circuits that exploit nonlinear optics in order to generate and process signals all-optically have achieved performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon-on-insulator has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics for some time, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. We review the recent achievements based in new CMOS-compatible platforms that are better suited than SOI for nonlinear optics, focusing on amorphous silicon and Hydex glass. We highlight their potential as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement.

  17. Optically erasable samarium-doped fluorophosphate glasses for high-dose measurements in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrell, B.; Okada, G.; Vahedi, S.; Koughia, C., E-mail: cyril.koughia@usask.ca; Kasap, S. O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada); Edgar, A.; Varoy, C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences and MacDiarmid Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Belev, G.; Wysokinski, T.; Chapman, D. [Canadian Light Source, Inc., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada); Sammynaiken, R. [Saskatchewan Structural Sciences Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous work has demonstrated that fluorophosphate (FP) glasses doped with trivalent samarium (Sm{sup 3+}) can be used as a dosimetric detector in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) to measure high radiation doses and large dose variations with a resolution in the micrometer range. The present work addresses the use of intense optical radiation at 405?nm to erase the recorded dose information in Sm{sup 3+}-doped FP glass plates and examines the underlying physics. We have evaluated both the conversion and optical erasure of Sm{sup 3+}-doped FP glasses using synchrotron-generated high-dose x-rays at the Canadian Light Source. The Sm-ion valency conversion is accompanied by the appearance of x-ray induced optical absorbance due to the trapping of holes and electrons into phosphorus-oxygen hole (POHC) and electron (POEC) capture centers. Nearly complete Sm{sup 2+} to Sm{sup 3+} reconversion (erasure) may be achieved by intense optical illumination. Combined analysis of absorbance and electron spin resonance measurements indicates that the optical illumination causes partial disappearance of the POHC and the appearance of new POEC. The suggested model for the observed phenomena is based on the release of electrons during the Sm{sup 2+} to Sm{sup 3+} reconversion process, the capture of these electrons by POHC (and hence their disappearance), or by PO groups, with the appearance of new and/or additional POEC. Optical erasure may be used as a practical means to erase the recorded data and permits the reuse of these Sm-doped FP glasses in monitoring dose in MRT.

  18. Design and implementation of a fiber optic doppler optical coherence microscopy system for cochlear imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Logan P

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, the design and implementation of a fiber optic Doppler optical coherence microscopy (FO-DOCM) system for cochlear imaging applications is presented. The use of a fiber optic design significantly reduces ...

  19. Optical Picosecond MCPI-Based Imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckles, R. A.; guyton, R. L.; Ross, P. W.

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the design, construction, and initial test results of a custom MCPI design which incorporates a wideband strip transmission line drive structure. A special 16:1 series transmission-line-transformer (STLT) is utilized to distribute the drive signal from a 50-ohm, 1.85 mm coaxial vacuum feedthrough to a 3-ohm strip across the MCP. Transformer circuit material is a flexible Teflon/Kapton laminate for minimal loss and dispersion. A novel vialess multilayer structure composed of embedded, symmetrical strips, preserves ideal impulse response. Impedance matched interfaces and transitions are designed with method of moments, empirical codes, and finite element analysis. Millimeter-wave time-domain reflectometer and vector network analyzer measurements are presented, with comparison to time-domain and swept frequency 3D finite element simulation. Gain compression is expected to produce a 20 ps optical impulse response, dominated by the leaded MCP glass dielectric dispersion. Follow-on work will complete the optical impulse response tests, and extrapolation to more expensive silicon MCP and 1-mm feedthroughs promises an impulse response of 5 ps.

  20. Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic fatigue characteristics of silica fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA c Laboratory of Optical Fiber Technology, UMCS, Lublin, 20031, Poland, ABSTRACT Specialty optical fibers operating in harsh aerospace environments

  1. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IV. Mass reconstruction of the lensing cluster Abell 2744 from frontier field imaging and GLASS spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X; Huang, K; Treu, T; Bradac, M; Schmidt, K B; Brammer, G B; Vulcani, B; Jones, T A; Ryan, R; Amorin, R; Castellano, M; Fontana, A; Merlin, E; Trenti, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep \\emph{Hubble Frontier Field} (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the \\emph{Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space} (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using GLASS spectra, we obtain 5 secure spectroscopic redshifts and 2 tentative ones. We confirm 1 strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all 3 multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photo-z estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectrosco...

  2. Optical studies on Eu{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheshvaran, K.; Marimuthu, K. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute - Deemed University, Gandhigram - 624 302 (India)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Eu{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (39-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+30TeO{sub 2}+15MgO+15K{sub 2}O +xEu{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3 wt%) have been prepared by following conventional melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic properties of the Eu{sup 3+} doped boro-tellurite glasses have been studied by recording the optical absorption and luminescence measurements. Through the optical absorption spectra, bonding parameters ({beta}-bar, {delta}) have been calculated to identify the ionic/covalent nature of the glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis have been carried out using the luminescence spectra. The JO parameters ({Omega}{sub {lambda}}= 2, 4 and 6) were used to calculate the radiative properties for the {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 1, 2, 3 and 4) emission transitions of the Eu{sup 3+} ions. The change in optical properties with the variation of Eu{sup 3+} ion concentration have been studied and discussed with similar studies.

  3. Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography for ophthalmic imaging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jonathan Jaoshin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-contact, non-invasive, micron-scale optical imaging technology that has become a standard clinical tool in ophthalmology. Fourier domain OCT detection methods have enabled higher ...

  4. Picosecond Optical MCPI-Based Imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the desired performance specifications for an advanced optical imager, which borrows practical concepts in high-speed microchannel plate (MCP) intensified x-ray stripline imagers and time-dilation techniques. With a four-fold speed improvement in state-of-the-art high-voltage impulse drivers, and novel atomic-layer deposition MCPs, we tender a design capable of 5 ps optical gating without the use of magnetic field confinement of the photoelectrons. We analyze the electron dispersion effects in the MCP and their implications for gating pulses shorter than the MCP transit time. We present a wideband design printed-circuit version of the Series Transmission Line Transformer (STLT) that makes use of 50-ohm coaxial 1.0 mm (110 GHz) and 1.85 mm (65 GHz) hermetically sealed vacuum feedthroughs and low-dispersion Teflon/Kapton circuit materials without the use of any vias. The STLT matches impedance at all interfaces with a 16:1 impedance (4:1 voltage) reduction, and delivers a dispersion-limited sharp impulse to the MCP strip. A comparison of microstrip design calculations is given, showing variances between method of moments, empirical codes, and finite element methods for broad, low-impedance traces. Prototype performance measurements are forthcoming.

  5. Optical Nano-Imaging of Graphene and Beyond | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optical Nano-Imaging of Graphene and Beyond April 6, 2015 4:00PM to 5:00PM Presenter Zhe Fei, CNM Location Building 241 Type Seminar Series Integrated Imaging Initiative Seminar...

  6. Optical properties of bismuth-doped SiO2- or GeO2-based glass core optical fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firstova, Elena G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed study of optical properties of bismuth-doped fibers based on SiO2 and GeO2 glasses containing no other dopants has been carried out. To provide important information about spectroscopic properties of IR bismuth-related active centers (BAC) the excitation-emission fluorescence spectra for a spectral region of 220-2000 nm have been measured. The obtained three-dimensional spectra have been presented for different host glass compositions: silicate, germanate, aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate. Energy-level configuration and main radiative transitions associated with BACs in GeO2 and SiO2 glasses have been revealed. Fluorescence lifetime analysis of the basic radiative transitions of BAC have been carried out. It has been shown that the energy-level schemes of BAC-Si and BAC-Ge (BAC associated with silicon and germanium, respectively) are similar, corresponding BAC-Ge energy levels lying 10-16% lower than those of BAC-Si. It has been determined that BAC-Si, BAC-Ge and BAC-Si, BAC-P can exist simultan...

  7. Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Individual Carbon Nanotubes with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potma, Eric Olaf

    Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Four-Wave-Mixing Microscopy Hyunmin ABSTRACT Dual color four-wave-mixing (FWM) microscopy is used to spatially resolve the third-order optical and experiment rather challenging. Optical exami- nation of individual SWNTs avoids the heterogeneity of ensemble

  8. Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head Maria Angela Franceschini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head Maria Angela Franceschini Danny K. Joseph Theodore J@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu Abstract. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy NIRS and diffuse optical im- aging DOI are increasingly used to detect of optodes in NIRS instruments has hampered measurement of optical signals from diverse brain regions. Our

  9. Intensity Histogram CMOS Image Sensor for Adaptive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cauwenberghs, Gert

    Intensity Histogram CMOS Image Sensor for Adaptive Optics Yu M. Chi, Gary Carhart , Mikhail AAODisturbanceSource Update/Optimize Fig. 1. Intended real-time optical control application. The sensor computes histogram of Bioengineering University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 Intelligent Optics Lab U.S. Army Research

  10. Transient radiation effects in D.O.I. optical materials: Schott filter glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons-Potter, K.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Energy and Defense Programs systems are becoming increasingly reliant on the use of optical technologies that must perform under a range of ionizing radiation environments. In particular, the radiation response of materials under consideration for applications in direct optical initiation (D.O.I.) schemes must be well characterized. In this report, transient radiation effects observed in Schott filter glass S-7010 are characterized. Under gamma exposure with 2 MeV photons in a 20--30 nsec pulse, the authors observe strong initial induced fluorescence in the red region of the spectrum followed by significant induced absorption over the same spectral region. Peak induced absorption coefficients of 0.113 cm{sup {minus}1} and 0.088 cm{sup {minus}1} were calculated at 800 nm and 660 nm respectively.

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography for Neurosurgical Imaging of Human Intracortical Melanoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boppart, Stephen

    Optical Coherence Tomography for Neurosurgical Imaging of Human Intracortical Melanoma Stephen A an intracortical melanoma. INSTRUMENTATION: OCT is a new, noncontact, high-speed imaging technology capable for imaging within the surgical field. Cadaveric human cortex with metastatic melanoma was harvested

  12. April 15, 1993 / Vol. 18, No. 8 / OPTICS LETTERS 565 Confocal microscopy through a fiber-optic imaging bundle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gmitro, Arthur F.

    April 15, 1993 / Vol. 18, No. 8 / OPTICS LETTERS 565 Confocal microscopy through a fiber-optic microscope with a fiber-optic imaging bundle is presented, and experimental results are shown todemonstrate. Through use of a fiber-optic imaging bundle, the confocal microscope can be ex- tended to image samples

  13. Structural, thermal, optical properties and simulation of white light of titanium-tungstate-tellurite glasses doped with dysprosium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jyothi, L. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Upender, G. [Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, CSIR-CGCRI, Kolkata 700032 (India); Kuladeep, R. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Rao, D. Narayana, E-mail: dnrsp@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: CIE coordinate diagram of different concentrations of the Dy{sup 3+}-doped TTWD glasses with coordinates in the white light region. - Highlights: • Radiative lifetime of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ions is longer in the tellurite glass. • Quantum efficiency is found to be high. • These glasses are suitable materials for generating white light. - Abstract: Structural, thermal, optical properties and simulation of white light of Dy{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses of composition TTWD: (75 ? x)TeO{sub 2} ? 10TiO{sub 2} ? 15WO{sub 3} ? xDy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%) were investigated. Raman spectra revealed that the glass contains TeO{sub 4}, TeO{sub 3}, WO{sub 4} and WO{sub 6} units. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were carried out to measure the glass transition temperature of all the glasses. From the optical absorption spectra, luminescence spectra and using the Judd–Ofelt (JO) analysis, we estimated the radiative transition probabilities, emission cross-sections, branching ratios and radiative lifetimes. The decay curves at lower concentrations are exponential while they show a non-exponential behavior at higher concentrations (?0.5 mol%) due to energy transfer processes. The effective lifetime for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level decreases with increase in Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration for the glasses under investigation. The non-exponential decay curves could fit well to the Inokuti–Hirayama (IH) model with S = 6, indicating that the nature of interaction responsible for energy transfer is of dipole–dipole type. Simulation of white light is examined with varying concentration and the results indicate that these glasses are suitable for white light emitting diode applications.

  14. Wolter mirror microscope : novel neutron focussing and imaging optic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagdasarova, Yelena S. (Yelena Sergeyevna)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I investigated the effectiveness of a Wolter Type I neutron microscope as a focusing and imaging device for thermal and cold neutrons sources by simulating the performance of the optics in a standard neutron ...

  15. Optical properties of chromium and neodymium in zirconium-barium-lanthanum-aluminum fluoride glass. Final report, October 1987-September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, F.E.; Caspers, H.H.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical properties are reported of chromium and neodymium doped in zirconium-barium-lanthanum-aluminum fluoride glass (ZBLA). The fluorescence of Cr(3+) and of co-doped Cr(3+), Nd(3+) glasses is investigated. Fluorescence decay rates of Cr(3+) and Nd(3+) are measured at various temperatures, and the excitation transfer efficiency between Cr(3+) and Nd(3+) is determined. The absorption spectrum of Nd(3+):ZBLA is characterized in terms of the Judd-Ofelt model of crystal field-induced electric-dipole transitions. The three phenomenological intensity parameters for Nd(3+) in ZBLA glass Omega sub 2,4,6, are compared to those obtained for Nd(3+) in Y3Al5Ol2, Gd3S2Al3Ol2, and LHG-8 glass.

  16. The Complex Spherical 2+4 Spin Glass Model: application to optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antenucci, Fabrizio; Leuzzi, Luca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A disordered mean field model for multimode laser in open and irregular cavities is proposed and discussed within the replica analysis. The model includes the dynamics of the mode intensity and accounts also for the possible presence of a linear coupling between the modes, due, e.g., to the leakages from an open cavity. The complete phase diagram, in terms of disorder strength, source pumping and non-linearity, consists of four different optical regimes: incoherent fluorescence, standard mode locking, random lasing and the novel spontaneous phase locking. A replica symmetry breaking phase transition is predicted at the random lasing threshold. For a high enough strength of non-linearity, a whole region with nonvanishing complexity anticipates the transition, and the light modes in the disordered medium display typical discontinuous glassy behavior, i.e., the photonic glass has a multitude of metastable states that corresponds to different mode-locking processes in random lasers. The lasing regime is still pre...

  17. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images in a family with the mitochondrial DNA T8993C mutation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inheritedAdaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Images in aof cone structure using adaptive optics scanning laser

  18. Wave optics and image formation in gravitational lensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasusada Nambu

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss image formation in gravitational lensing systems using wave optics. Applying the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction formula to waves scattered by a gravitational potential of a lens object, we demonstrate how images of source objects are obtained directly from wave functions without using a lens equation for gravitational lensing.

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE Nonlinear Optical Imaging to Evaluate the Impact of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    nonlinear optical imaging technologies with an early-onset diet-induced obesity breast cancer animal model, they lack three-dimensional information crucial to describe stromal organization in their natural state, a number of research groups have imaged collagen type I, tumor cells expressing green fluorescent protein

  20. FAST PHOTOMETRIC IMAGING OF HIGH ALTITUDE OPTICAL FLASHES ABOVE THUNDERSTORMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the lower ionospheric (80 to 95 km altitude) flash due to heating by an impinging electromagnetic pulseFAST PHOTOMETRIC IMAGING OF HIGH ALTITUDE OPTICAL FLASHES ABOVE THUNDERSTORMS a dissertation." A novel photometric array with a high-speed triggered data acquisition system, bore-sighted image

  1. Advances in lasers, optics, and imaging for the life sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    Molecular Imaging Congress BioOpto Japan BioOpticsWorld.com "Invisible" molecules glow with new label- free possibilities for biomedical imaging, such as label- free mapping drug distributions and blood vessels on and off at 5 MHz. The spectrally filtered stimulation beam is detected by a large area photodiode

  2. Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wen, E-mail: elechenw@nus.edu.sg; Chen, Xudong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Ghost imaging has become increasingly popular in quantum and optical application fields. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) optical security using ghost imaging. The series of random phase-only masks are sparsified, which are further converted into particle-like distributions placed in 3D space. We show that either an optical or digital approach can be employed for the encoding. The results illustrate that a larger key space can be generated due to the application of 3D space compared with previous works.

  3. Optics -Laser Doppler Imaging. As the name suggests,LDI,Laser Doppler Imaging exploits the Doppler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Optics - Laser Doppler Imaging. As the name suggests,LDI,Laser Doppler Imaging exploits the Doppler effect to generate images,in this case of red blood cells moving within the microcirculatory system the Doppler shifted light we obtain information on all the red cells moving in the illuminated tissue,hence we

  4. Graphene-Based Optical Biosensors and Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhiwen; He, Shijiang; Pei, Hao; Du, Dan; Fan, Chunhai; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter focuses on the design, fabrication and application of graphene based optical nanobiosensors. The emerging graphene based optical nanobiosensors demonstrated the promising bioassay and biomedical applications thanking to the unique optical features of graphene. According to the different applications, the graphene can be tailored to form either fluorescent emitter or efficient fluorescence quencher. The exceptional electronic feature of graphene makes it a powerful platform for fabricating the SPR and SERS biosensors. Today the graphene based optical biosensors have been constructed to detect various targets including ions, small biomolecules, DNA/RNA and proteins. This chapter reviews the recent progress in graphene-based optical biosensors and discusses the opportunities and challenges in this field.

  5. Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, B.E.; Miller, A.C.; Maxey, L.C.; Cunningham, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moreshead, W.V.; Nogues, J.L.R. [Geltech Inc., Alachua, FL (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent combinations of diffractive and refractive functions in the same optical component allow designers additional opportunities to make systems more compact and enhance performance. This paper describes a research program for fabricating hybrid refractive/diffractive components from diamond-turned molds using the bulk casting of sol-gel silica glass. The authors use the complementary dispersive nature of refractive and diffractive optics to render two-color correction in a single hybrid optical element. Since diamond turning has matured as a deterministic manufacturing technology, techniques previously suitable only in the infrared are now being applied to components used at visible wavelengths. Thus, the marriage of diamond turning and sol-gel processes offers a cost-effective method for producing highly customized and specialized optical components in high quality silica glass. With the sol-gel casting method of replication, diamond-turned mold costs can be shared over many pieces. Diamond turning takes advantage of all of the available degrees of freedom in a single hybrid optical element: aspheric surface to eliminate spherical aberration, kinoform surface for control of primary chromatic aberration, and the flexibility to place the kinoform on non-planar surfaces for maximum design flexibility. The authors discuss the critical issues involved in designing the hybrid element, single point diamond-turning the mold, and fabrication in glass using the sol-gel process.

  6. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Pore network microfluidic models were fabricated by a silicon-on-glass technique that provides the precision advantage of dry etched silicon while creating a structure that is transparent across all microfluidic channels and pores, and can be imaged from either side. A silicon layer is bonded to an underlying borosilicate glass substrate and thinned to the desired height of the microfluidic channels and pores. The silicon is then patterned and through-etched by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), with the underlying glass serving as an etch stop. After bonding on a transparent glass cover plate, one obtains a micromodel in oxygen impermeable materials with water wet surfaces where the microfluidic channels are transparent and structural elements such as the pillars creating the pore network are opaque. The micromodel can be imaged from either side. The advantageous features of this approach in a chemical imaging application are demonstrated by incorporating a Pt porphyrin fluorophore in a PDMS film serving as the oxygen sensing layer and a bonding surface, or in a polystyrene film coated with a PDMS layer for bonding. The sensing of a dissolved oxygen gradient was demonstrated using fluorescence lifetime imaging, and it is shown that different matrix polymers lead to optimal use in different ranges dissolved oxygen concentration. Imaging with the opaque pillars in between the observation direction and the continuous fluorophore film yields images that retain spatial information in the sensor image.

  7. Femtosecond single-beam direct laser poling of stable and efficient second-order nonlinear optical properties in glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, G.; Marquestaut, N.; Royon, A.; Canioni, L. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence, France and CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Petit, Y., E-mail: yannick.petit@u-bordeaux1.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence, France and CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33608 Pessac, France and Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33400 Pessac (France); Dussauze, M.; Rodriguez, V. [Univ. Bordeaux, ISM, UMR 5255, F-33400 Talence, France and CNRS, ISM, UMR 5255, F-33400 Talence (France); Cardinal, T. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33608 Pessac, France and Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33400 Pessac (France)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We depict a new approach for the localized creation in three dimensions (3D) of a highly demanded nonlinear optical function for integrated optics, namely second harmonic generation. We report on the nonlinear optical characteristics induced by single-beam femtosecond direct laser writing in a tailored silver-containing phosphate glass. The original spatial distribution of the nonlinear pattern, composed of four lines after one single laser writing translation, is observed and modeled with success, demonstrating the electric field induced origin of the second harmonic generation. These efficient second-order nonlinear structures (with ?{sub eff}{sup (2)}???0.6?pm V{sup ?1}) with sub-micron scale are impressively stable under thermal constraint up to glass transition temperature, which makes them very promising for new photonic applications, especially when 3D nonlinear architectures are desired.

  8. Nano-structured self-cleaning superhydrophobic glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin Yeol

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5. Optically transparent glass with vertically alignedcomposition of biosoluble glass fiber” Korean ApplicationS. Jin, “Optically Transparent Glass with Vertically Aligned

  9. Imaging the foveal cone mosaic with a MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yiang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In: Porter J (ed), Adaptive optics for vision science:In: Black A (ed), Optics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; 113.Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision

  10. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier for medical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.

  11. Fiber optic in vivo imaging in the mammalian nervous system Amit D Mehta1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnitzer, Mark

    Fiber optic in vivo imaging in the mammalian nervous system Amit D Mehta1,2 , Juergen C Jung1 functionality of optical fiber and fiber optic devices are enabling several new modalities for imaging that uses assemblies of fiber optic emitters and detectors on the cranium for volumetric imaging of brain

  12. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Werner, John S. (Davis, CA); Zawadzki, Robert J. (Sacramento, CA); Laut, Sophie P. (Pasedena, CA); Jones, Steven M. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  13. Quantum optical technologies for metrology, sensing and imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan P. Dowling; Kaushik P. Seshadreesan

    2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 20 years, bright sources of entangled photons have led to a renaissance in quantum optical interferometry. Optical interferometry has been used to test the foundations of quantum mechanics and implement some of the novel ideas associated with quantum entanglement such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, quantum lithography, quantum computing logic gates, and quantum metrology. In this paper, we focus on the new ways that have been developed to exploit quantum optical entanglement in quantum metrology to beat the shot-noise limit, which can be used, e.g., in fiber optical gyroscopes and in sensors for biological or chemical targets. We also discuss how this entanglement can be used to beat the Rayleigh diffraction limit in imaging systems such as in LIDAR and optical lithography.

  14. adaptive optics imaging: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optics imaging First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Some Computational Problems Arising in...

  15. Alternative optical concept for electron cyclotron emission imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J. X., E-mail: jsliu9@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Milbourne, T. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 (United States); Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Dominguez, A.; Efthimion, P. C.; Hill, K. W.; Kramer, G. J.; Kung, C.; Pablant, N. A.; Tobias, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Kubota, S. [Department of Physics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Kasparek, W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Lu, J. [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Park, H. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The implementation of advanced electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) systems on tokamak experiments has revolutionized the diagnosis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activities and improved our understanding of instabilities, which lead to disruptions. It is therefore desirable to have an ECEI system on the ITER tokamak. However, the large size of optical components in presently used ECEI systems have, up to now, precluded the implementation of an ECEI system on ITER. This paper describes a new optical ECEI concept that employs a single spherical mirror as the only optical component and exploits the astigmatism of such a mirror to produce an image with one-dimensional spatial resolution on the detector. Since this alternative approach would only require a thin slit as the viewing port to the plasma, it would make the implementation of an ECEI system on ITER feasible. The results obtained from proof-of-principle experiments with a 125 GHz microwave system are presented.

  16. High throughput 3D optical microscopy : from image cytometry to endomicroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Heejin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical microscopy is an imaging technique that allows morphological mapping of intracellular structures with submicron resolution. More importantly, optical microscopy is a technique that can readily provide images with ...

  17. Sam Wang, Princeton Genes, Brain Circuits, and the Mind: From Optical Imaging to Genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    Sam Wang, Princeton WANG 12-4 Genes, Brain Circuits, and the Mind: From Optical Imaging to Genomics information, my laboratory uses multiphoton optical methods to image activity in the cerebellum, a structure

  18. NanoSIMS Imaging Alternation Layers of a Leached SON68 Glass Via A FIB-made Wedged Crater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yi-Chung; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Neeway, James J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Zhu, Zihua; Wei, Wei

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, nuclear wastes are commonly immobilized into glasses because of their long-term durability. Exposure to water for long periods of time, however, will eventually corrode the waste form and is the leading potential avenue for radionuclide release into the environment. Because such slow processes cannot be experimentally tested, the prediction of release requires a thorough understanding the mechanisms governing glass corrosion. In addition, due to the exceptional durability of glass, much of the testing must be performed on high-surface-area powders. A technique that can provide accurate compositional profiles with very precise depth resolution for non-flat samples would be a major benefit to the field. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling is an excellent tool that has long been used to examine corrosion layers of glass. The roughness of the buried corrosion layers, however, causes the corresponding SIMS depth profiles to exhibit erroneously wide interfaces. In this study, NanoSIMS was used to image the cross-section of the corrosion layers of a leached SON68 glass sample. A wedged crater was prepared by a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to obtain a 5× improvement in depth resolution for NanoSIMS measurements. This increase in resolution allowed us to confirm that the breakdown of the silica glass network is further from the pristine glass than a second dissolution front for boron, another glass former. The existence of these two distinct interfaces, separated by only ~20 nm distance in depth, was not apparent by traditional ToF-SIMS depth profiling but has been confirmed also by atom probe tomography. This novel sample geometry will be a major benefit to efficient NanoSIMS sampling of irregular interfaces at the nanometer scale that would otherwise be obscured within ToF-SIMS depth profiles.

  19. Applications of Fourier Domain Mode Locked lasers for optical coherence tomography imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Desmond Christopher, 1978-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a micrometer-resolution imaging technique that produces cross-sectional images of sample microstructure by measuring the amplitude and echo time delay of backscattered light. OCT imaging ...

  20. Objective assessment of image quality (OAIQ) in fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahu, Amit K.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    .7 SNR Hot computed from simulated measurements of light intensity (filled circles) and phase (open circles) in hundred percent lumpy backgrounds of endogenous ( axi ? , ami ? , sx ? , and sm ? ) as well as exogenous ( axf ? , and amf ? ) optical..., fluorophores do not have an intrinsic half-life as do radiopharmaceuticals. This greatly enhances the duration of time for imaging, which is limited in the case of nuclear imaging, and results in higher target- to-background ratios (TBR). Despite...

  1. Optical study of shear and longitudinal acoustic waves and complex relaxation dynamics of glass forming liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torchinsky, Darius H

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectroscopic technique Impulsive Stimulated Scattering (ISS) was refined and used to study the complex structural relaxation dynamics of glass forming liquids, allowing both empirical modeling and testing of the ...

  2. SINGLE SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS REAL-TIME OPTICAL SENSORS WITH ZEPTOMOLE SENSITIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    SINGLE SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS REAL-TIME OPTICAL SENSORS WITH ZEPTOMOLE SENSITIVITY Adam D. Mc-time sensor technologies. (A) A dark-field optical image of Ag nanoparticles immobilized on a glass substrate

  3. An image sensor with on-die diffractive optics in 0.18m bulk Christopher Thomas, Richard Hornsey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornsey, Richard

    An image sensor with on-die diffractive optics in 0.18µm bulk CMOS Christopher Thomas, Richard of reducing package size for imaging and non-imaging optical sensors. While systems incorporating on image sensors, microlenses, diffraction gratings, micro-optics, diffractive optics 1. INTRODUCTION

  4. Optical channel waveguides written by high repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation in Li-Zn fluoroborate glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Sunil; Solis, Javier; Biju, P R; Unnikrishnan, N V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low loss, optical channel waveguides have been successfully produced by high repetition rate, femtosecond laser inscription in a Li-Zn fluoroborate glass (64.9B2O3 + 25Li2O + 10ZnF2 + 0.1Er2O3). High quality waveguides were produced at 500 kHz, 1 MHz and 2 MHz laser repetition rates, showing a refractive index contrast in the range of 3-6 x 10-3 depending on various fluences. Dependence of experimental parameters such as average laser power, pulse repetition rate and writing speed on the properties of fabricated waveguides has been discussed. The comparison of optical and compositional characterization techniques evidences an enrichment of B and Zn in the guiding region, while F migrates to the heat diffused region of the written structure.

  5. Deep and optically resolved imaging through scattering media by space-reversed propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peyré, Gabriel

    Deep and optically resolved imaging through scattering media by space-reversed propagation W to the objective working distance. By combining Laser Optical Feedback Imaging (LOFI) with Acoustic Photon Taging. © 2010 Optical Society of America OCIS Codes: (090.1995) , (170.0110), (170.1065), (180.1790), (290

  6. Optical efficiency of image sensor pixels Peter B. Catrysse and Brian A. Wandell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wandell, Brian A.

    Optical efficiency of image sensor pixels Peter B. Catrysse and Brian A. Wandell Department sensor pixel by using a geometrical-optics phase-space approach. We compare the theoretical predictions, we show how to use these optical efficiency calculations to trade off image sensor pixel sensitivity

  7. The Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager: combining adaptive optics and lucky imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crass, Jonathan

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , in particular the adaptive optics system and a new type of wavefront sensor, the non-linear curvature wavefront sensor (nlCWFS), being used within the instrument. The development of the nlCWFS has been the focus of my work, bringing the technique from a...

  8. Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth-space optical communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Infrared cloud imaging in support of Earth- space optical communication Paul W. Nugent,1 Joseph A ground-station sites. A technique is described that uses a ground-based thermal infrared imager sensing and sensors; (010.1615) clouds; (110.3080) infrared imaging; (060.4510) optical communications

  9. Expanded beam non-imaging fiber optic connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jannson, T.; Jannson, J.; Yeung, P.

    1990-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed an expanded beam fiber to fiber connector, based on non-imaging optic principles for coupling light beams from one optical fiber to another. The system consists of two identical connector parts, referred to herein as a collimating part and a concentrating part, each having a preferred partially curved reflective boundary surface for minimizing power loss and surrounding either a hollow space or a space filled with a uniform transparent medium. In one embodiment the boundary is metallic while in a second embodiment the boundary is in the form of an interface allowing total internal reflection. In both the hollow and filled case a lens may be located at the expanded end of both the collimator part and the concentrator part forming the connector. The connector is preferably located in a housing in order to protect and preserve the mechanical stability of the coupler. 13 figs.

  10. Expanded beam non-imaging fiber optic connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jannson, Tommasz (Redondo Beach, CA); Jannson, Joanna (Redondo Beach, CA); Yeung, Peter (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed an expanded beam fiber to fiber connector, based on non-imaging optic principles for coupling light beams from one optical fiber to another. The system consists of two identical connector parts, referred to herein as a collimating part and a concentrating part, each having a preferred partially curved reflective boundary surface for minimizing power loss and surrounding either a hollow space or a space filled with a uniform transparent medium. In one embodiment the boundary is metallic while in a second embodiment the boundary is in the form of an interface allowing total internal reflection. In both the hollow and filled case a lens may be located at the expanded end of both the collimater part and the concentrator part forming the connector. The connector is preferably located in a housing in order to protect and preserve the mechanical stability of the coupler.

  11. New Advances in Optical Imaging of Live Cells and Organisms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilverNephelineNeuralNew Advances in Optical Imaging

  12. Phase-sensitive light : coherence theory and applications to optical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erkmen, Baris Ibrahim, 1980-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) can produce pairs of entangled photons, i.e., a stream of biphotons. SPDC has been utilized in a number of optical imaging applications, such as optical coherence tomography, ...

  13. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V. [ENKI, o.p.s., Dukelska 145, 379 01 Trebon (Czech Republic); Sourek, B. [ENKI, o.p.s., Dukelska 145, 379 01 Trebon (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University of Prague, Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague (Czech Republic); Cerveny, J. [ENKI, o.p.s., Dukelska 145, 379 01 Trebon (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Biology, Zamek 136, 373 33 Nove Hrady (Czech Republic)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  14. Fiber optic spectroscopic digital imaging sensor and method for flame properties monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zelepouga, Serguei A. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Rue, David M. (Chicago, IL); Saveliev, Alexei V. (Chicago, IL)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for real-time monitoring of flame properties in combustors and gasifiers which includes an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end and a spectroscopic imaging system operably connected with the light output end of the imaging fiber optic bundle. Focusing of the light received by the light receiving end of the imaging fiber optic bundle by a wall disposed between the light receiving end of the fiber optic bundle and a light source, which wall forms a pinhole opening aligned with the light receiving end.

  15. Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Youngwoon

    A single multimode fiber is considered an ideal optical element for endoscopic imaging due to the possibility of direct image transmission via multiple spatial modes. However, the wave distortion induced by the mode ...

  16. High-resolution three-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of kidney microanatomy ex vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that enables high-resolution, noninvasive, cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. When combined ...

  17. Short-wavelength upconversion emissions in codoped glass ceramic and the optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    of electrical engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004, China 3 Laboratory of Sono- and photo. In addition, an optical temperature sensor based on the blue upconversion emissions from 5 F2,3/3 K85 I8 and 5 ceramic be a promising candidate for sensitive optical temperature sensor with high resolution and good

  18. Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} codoped lead bismuth alumina borate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goud, K. Krishna Murthy, E-mail: krishnamurthy.phy@gmail.com; Reddy, M. Chandra Shekhar, E-mail: krishnamurthy.phy@gmail.com; Rao, B. Appa, E-mail: krishnamurthy.phy@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500007, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead bismuth alumina borate glasses codoped with Er{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} were prepared by melt quenching technique. Optical absorption, FTIR and photoluminescence spectra of these glasses have been studied. Judd-Ofelt theory has been applied to to the f ? f transitions for evaluating ?{sub 2}, ?{sub 4} and ?{sub 6} parameters. Radiative properties like branching ratio ?{sub r} and the radiative life time ?{sub R} have been determined on the basis of Judd-Ofelt theory. Upconversion emissions have been observed under 980nm laser excitation at room temperature. Green and red up-conversion emissions are centered at 530, 550 and 656 nm corresponding to {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transitions of Er{sup 3+} respectively. The results obtained are discussed quantitatively based on the energy transfer between Yb{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}.

  19. Disclination-mediated thermo-optical response in nematic glass sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carl D. Modes; Kaushik Bhattacharya; Mark Warner

    2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Nematic solids respond strongly to changes in ambient heat or light, significantly differently parallel and perpendicular to the director. This phenomenon is well characterized for uniform director fields, but not for defect textures. We analyze the elastic ground states of a nematic glass in the membrane approximation as a function of temperature for some disclination defects with an eye towards reversibly inducing three-dimensional shapes from flat sheets of material, at the nano-scale all the way to macroscopic objects, including non-developable surfaces. The latter offers a new paradigm to actuation via switchable stretch in thin systems.

  20. Developing new optical imaging techniques for single particle and molecule tracking in live cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Wei

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a far-field as well as wide-field optical imaging technique. Since it is non-invasive and requires no sample staining, DIC microscopy is suitable for tracking the motion of target molecules in live cells without interfering their functions. In addition, high numerical aperture objectives and condensers can be used in DIC microscopy. The depth of focus of DIC is shallow, which gives DIC much better optical sectioning ability than those of phase contrast and dark field microscopies. In this work, DIC was utilized to study dynamic biological processes including endocytosis and intracellular transport in live cells. The suitability of DIC microscopy for single particle tracking in live cells was first demonstrated by using DIC to monitor the entire endocytosis process of one mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) into a live mammalian cell. By taking advantage of the optical sectioning ability of DIC, we recorded the depth profile of the MSN during the endocytosis process. The shape change around the nanoparticle due to the formation of a vesicle was also captured. DIC microscopy was further modified that the sample can be illuminated and imaged at two wavelengths simultaneously. By using the new technique, noble metal nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were selectively imaged. Among all the examined metal nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles in rod shapes were found to be especially useful. Due to their anisotropic optical properties, gold nanorods showed as diffraction-limited spots with disproportionate bright and dark parts that are strongly dependent on their orientation in the 3D space. Gold nanorods were developed as orientation nanoprobes and were successfully used to report the self-rotation of gliding microtubules on kinesin coated substrates. Gold nanorods were further used to study the rotational motions of cargoes during the endocytosis and intracellular transport processes in live mammalian cells. New rotational information was obtained: (1) during endocytosis, cargoes lost their rotation freedom at the late stage of internalization; (2) cargoes performed train-like motion when they were transported along the microtubule network by motor proteins inside live cells; (3) During the pause stage of fast axonal transport, cargoes were still bound to the microtubule tracks by motor proteins. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) is another non-invasive and far-field optical imaging technique. Because of its near-field illumination mechanism, TIRFM has better axial resolution than epi-fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy. In this work, an auto-calibrated, prism type, angle-scanning TIRFM instrument was built. The incident angle can range from subcritical angles to nearly 90{sup o}, with an angle interval less than 0.2{sup o}. The angle precision of the new instrument was demonstrated through the finding of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angle of metal film coated glass slide. The new instrument improved significantly the precision in determining the axial position. As a result, the best obtained axial resolution was {approx} 8 nm, which is better than current existing instruments similar in function. The instrument was further modified to function as a pseudo TIRF microscope. The illumination depth can be controlled by changing the incident angle of the excitation laser beam or adjusting the horizontal position of the illumination laser spot on the prism top surface. With the new technique, i.e., variable-illumination-depth pseudo TIRF microscopy, the whole cell body from bottom to top was scanned.

  1. Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worstell, William A. (Framingham, MA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions.

  2. Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worstell, W.A.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions. 11 figs.

  3. Focal-Plane Image and Beam Quality Sensors for Adaptive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cauwenberghs, Gert

    Focal-Plane Image and Beam Quality Sensors for Adaptive Optics Marc CohenÝ, Gert Cauwenberghs]. Therefore a critical component in the stochastic control system for adaptive optics is the metric sensor Engineering 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21211 ÞArmy Research Laboratory, Intelligent Optics

  4. A modified commercial scanner as an image plate for table-top optical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casado-Rojo, S; Lorenzana, H E; Baonza, V G

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive optical detector for table-top applications is described here. Based on a commercial high resolution office scanner coupled to a projection on plate, it enables a large image plate surface, allowing recording of large images without systematic errors associated to coupling optics' aberrations. Several tests on distance-dependent and steady interference patterns will be presented and discussed. The extension to other types of optical measurement by substituting the projection on plate is proposed.

  5. Optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, R.P.

    1987-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

  6. Ultralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self-Assembled Molecular Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    packed molecular assemblies has recently led to a new class of supramolecular materials for electronicUltralarge and Thermally Stable Electro-Optic Activities from Supramolecular Self.-Y. Jen*,, Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Chemistry, Uni

  7. Better Alternative to "Astronomical Silicate": Laboratory-Based Optical Functions of Chondritic/Solar Abundance Glass With Application to HD161796

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Speck, A K; Hofmeister, A M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "Astronomical" or "circumstellar" silicate optical functions (real and imaginary indices of refraction n and k have been previously derived from compositionally and structurally disparate samples; past values were compiled from different sources in the literature, and are essentially kluges of observational, laboratory, and extrapolated or interpolated values. These synthetic optical functions were created because astronomers lack the quantitative data on amorphous silicates at all wavelengths needed for radiative transfer modeling. This paper provides optical functions that (1) are created with a consistent methodology, (2) use the same sample across all wavelengths, and (3) minimize interpolation and extrapolation wherever possible. We present electronic data tables of optical functions derived from mid-ultraviolet to far-infrared laboratory transmission spectra for two materials: iron-free glass with chondritic/solar atmospheric abundances, and metallic iron. We compare these optical functions to other pop...

  8. Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging Benjamin A Flusberg, Eric D Cocker,Wibool Piyawattanametha, Juergen C Jung,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging Benjamin A Flusberg, Eric D Cocker,Wibool Piyawattanametha, Juergen C Jung, Eunice L M Cheung & Mark J Schnitzer Optical fibers guide light between separate locations and enable new types of fluorescence imaging. Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging systems include portable

  9. Adaptive optics microperimetry and OCT images show preserved function and recovery of cone visibility in macular telangiectasia type 2 retinal lesions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    imaging through adaptive optics. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Imageusing a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope.T, Campbell M. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmosco-

  10. The influence of glass fibers on elongational viscosity studied by means of optical coherence tomography and X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aigner, M., E-mail: michael.aigner@jku.at; Köpplmayr, T., E-mail: thomas.koepplmayr@jku.at, E-mail: Christian.lang@jku.at; Lang, C., E-mail: thomas.koepplmayr@jku.at, E-mail: Christian.lang@jku.at; Burzic, I., E-mail: ivana.burzic@jku.at, E-mail: juergen.miethlinger@jku.at; Miethlinger, J., E-mail: ivana.burzic@jku.at, E-mail: juergen.miethlinger@jku.at [Institute of Polymer Extrusion and Compounding, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Salaberger, D., E-mail: dietmar.salaberger@fh-wels.at [University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria (Austria); Buchsbaum, A., E-mail: andreas.buchsbaum@recendt.at; Leitner, M. [Research Center for Non Destructive Testing GmbH (Austria); Heise, B., E-mail: bettina.heise@jku.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterization, ZONA, Austria and Institute for Knowledge-based Mathematical Systems, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Schausberger, S. E., E-mail: stefan.schausberger@jku.at; Stifter, D. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterization, ZONA (Austria)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the flow characteristics of glass-fiber-reinforced polymers in elongational rheometry. Unlike polymers with geometrically isotropic fillers, glass-fiber-reinforced polymers exhibit flow behavior and rheology that depend heavily on the orientation, the length distribution and the content of the fibers. One of the primary objectives of this study was to determine the effect of fiber orientation, concentration and distribution on the entrance pressure drop by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT), full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM), and X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Both pressure drop and melt flow were analyzed using a special elongation die (Thermo Scientific X-Die [3]) for inline measurements. Samples with a variety of fiber volume fractions, fiber lengths and processing temperatures were measured.

  11. Imaging Gas Leaks using Schlieren Optics by Gary S. Settles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settles, Gary S.

    Journal, July 1997, pp. 19-26) have extended it to full-scale observations. It is optical, non-intrusive. The schlieren technique is highly sensitive, non- intrusive, optical, and remote. However, since it needs only

  12. Implementation of an acoustic emission proximity detector for use in generating glass optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaedel, K.L.; Piscotty, M.A.; Taylor, J.S.

    1996-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We are using the approach acoustic emission (AE) signal during a grinding operation to detect the proximity of the grinding wheel relative to a brittle material workpiece and are using this detection as a feed- back control signal in our CNC. The repeatability of the AE signal during the wheel approach is the key that allows AE to be used as a proximity detector and is demonstrated at LLNL to be about mm. We noted significant changes of the AE signal as process parameters are modified, but conclude that with a quick CNC calibration routine and holding the parameters constant during a given operation, the AE system can be successfully used to sense pre- contact wheel- to- workpiece separation. Additionally, the AE sensing system allows real- time monitoring during grinding to provide in- process information. The first prototype of an AE system on a commercially available generator is currently be tested at the Center for Optics Manufacturing.

  13. JW2A.3.pdf Imaging and Applied Optics Technical Digest 2012 OSA Optical Microfiber Sensors for the Detection of Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JW2A.3.pdf Imaging and Applied Optics Technical Digest © 2012 OSA Optical Microfiber Sensors microfibers for current sensing are discussed. OCIS codes: (060.2370) Fiber optics sensors; (230.2240) Faraday effect. 1. Introduction Current sensors exploiting the Faraday Effect in optical fibers [1] have

  14. Development of the Ultrashort Pulse Nonlinear Optical Microscopy Spectral Imaging System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Anthony Chien-der

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENT OF THE ULTRASHORT PULSE NONLINEAR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY SPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEM A Dissertation by ANTHONY CHIEN-DER LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Anthony Chien-der Lee DEVELOPMENT OF THE ULTRASHORT PULSE NONLINEAR OPTICAL MICROSCOPY SPECTRAL IMAGING SYSTEM A Dissertation by ANTHONY CHIEN-DER LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  15. High transmission nanoscale bowtie-shaped aperture probe for near-field optical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    High transmission nanoscale bowtie-shaped aperture probe for near-field optical imaging Liang Wang probe integrated with nanoscale bowtie aperture for enhanced optical transmission is demonstrated. The bowtie-shape aperture allows a propagating mode in the bowtie gap region, which enables simultaneous

  16. Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safitri, Anisa

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancement in infrared imaging technology has allowed the thermal imaging to detect and visualize several gases, mostly hydrocarbon gases. In addition, infrared cameras could potentially be used as a non-contact temperature measurement for gas...

  17. IMPROVED MULTIPLEXED IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION PERFORMANCE THROUGH OPTICAL SYSTEM DIVERSITY DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajan, Dinesh

    , Dallas, Texas, 75275 rajand@engr.smu.edu, mpc@engr.smu.edu ABSTRACT Multiplexed image reconstruction

  18. Applications of non-imaging micro-optic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Katherine Anne

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Rabl. Active Solar Collectors and Their Applications. (planar micro-optic solar collectors," Opt. Express 19, A673-Luminescent greenhouse collector for solar radiation," Appl.

  19. Plasmon Spectroscopy and Imaging of Individual Gold Nanodecahedra: A Combined Optical Microscopy,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasmon Spectroscopy and Imaging of Individual Gold Nanodecahedra: A Combined Optical Microscopy, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, France ABSTRACT: Imaging localized plasmon modes in noble- metal nanoparticles-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study localized surface plasmons on individual gold nanodecahedra. By exciting surface

  20. Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber Youngwoon Choi,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    Scanner-Free and Wide-Field Endoscopic Imaging by Using a Single Multimode Optical Fiber Youngwoon November 2012) A single multimode fiber is considered an ideal optical element for endoscopic imaging due fiber has been an important turning point. Especially, a multimode optical fiber has drawn interest

  1. Applying optical imaging to study neurovascular coupling in cerebral cortex: from populational scale to single-cell single-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    Applying optical imaging to study neurovascular coupling in cerebral cortex: from populational, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX Abstract: We use a suite of optical imaging technologies the hemodynamic response and the underlying brain neuronal activity. © 2006 Optical Society of America OCIS codes

  2. IMAGING-BASED OPTICAL CALIPER FOR OBJECTS IN HOT MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Howard

    2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    OG Technologies, Inc. (OGT), in conjunction with its industrial and academic partners, proposes to develop an �Imaging-Based Optical Caliper (hereafter referred to as �OC�) for Objects in Hot Manufacturing Processes�. The goal is to develop and demonstrate the OC with the synergy of OGT�s current technological pool and other innovations to provide a light weight, robust, safe and accurate portable dimensional measurement device for hot objects with integrated wireless communication capacity to enable real time process control. The technical areas of interest in this project are the combination of advanced imaging, Sensor Fusion, and process control. OGT believes that the synergistic interactions between its current set of technologies and other innovations could deliver products that are viable and have high impact in the hot manufacture processes, such as steel making, steel rolling, open die forging, and glass industries, resulting in a new energy efficient control paradigm in the operations through improved yield, prolonged tool life and improved quality. In-line dimension measurement and control is of interest to the steel makers, yet current industry focus is on the final product dimension only instead of whole process due to the limit of man power, system cost and operator safety concerns. As sensor technologies advances, the industry started to see the need to enforce better dimensional control throughout the process, but lack the proper tools to do so. OGT along with its industrial partners represent the indigenous effort of technological development to serve the US steel industry. The immediate market that can use and get benefited from the proposed OC is the Steel Industry. The deployment of the OC has the potential to provide benefits in reduction of energy waste, CO2 emission, waste water amount, toxic waste, and so forth. The potential market after further expended function includes Hot Forging and Freight Industries. The OC prototypes were fabricated, and were progressively tested on-site in several steel mill and hot forging facilities for evaluation. Software refinements and new calibration procedures were also carried out to overcome the discovered glitches. Progress was presented to the hot manufacture facilities worldwide. Evidence showed a great interest and practical need for this product. OGT is in the pilot commercialization mode for this new development. The R&D team also successfully developed a 3D measurement function with no additional investment of hardware or equipment to measure low or room temperature object dimensions. Several tests were conducted in the reality environment to evaluate the measurement results. This new application will require additional development in product design.

  3. Process for rapid detection of fratricidal defects on optics using Linescan Phase Differential Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravizza, F L; Nostrand, M C; Kegelmeyer, L M; Hawley, R A; Johnson, M A

    2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase-defects on optics used in high-power lasers can cause light intensification leading to laser-induced damage of downstream optics. We introduce Linescan Phase Differential Imaging (LPDI), a large-area dark-field imaging technique able to identify phase-defects in the bulk or surface of large-aperture optics with a 67 second scan-time. Potential phase-defects in the LPDI images are indentified by an image analysis code and measured with a Phase Shifting Diffraction Interferometer (PSDI). The PSDI data is used to calculate the defects potential for downstream damage using an empirical laser-damage model that incorporates a laser propagation code. A ray tracing model of LPDI was developed to enhance our understanding of its phase-defect detection mechanism and reveal limitations.

  4. Optical encryption for large-sized images using random phase-free method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to recognize the decrypted images. In order to reduce the speckle noise, we apply our random phase-free method to the framework. In addition, we employ scaled diffraction that calculates light propagation between planes with different sizes by changing the sampling rates.

  5. Development of Molecular Contrast in Coherence Domain Optical Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Qiujie

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . This technique could be used potentially as a clinical tool for diagnosing different progression stages of melanoma. This technique could also be applied to differentiate other mixed chromophores. Second harmonic optical coherence tomography (SHOCT) is non...

  6. Nanoscale Light Focusing and Imaging with Nano-Optical Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meenashi Sundaram, Vijay

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    and to eliminate metallic structures which can cause joule heating during high energy operation, two all-dielectric optical probes are then designed/constructed, namely, (a) solid immersion probe, and (b) scattering dielectric probe. Both dielectric probes focus...

  7. Study of microfluidic measurement techniques using novel optical imaging diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jaesung

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    is applied for a 3-D vector field mapping in a microscopic flow and a Brownian motion tracking of nanoparticles. This technique modifies OSSM system for a micro-fluidic experiment, and the imaging system captures a diffracted particle image having numerous...

  8. Collinear, two-color optical Kerr effect shutter for ultrafast time-resolved imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Sedarsky, David; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging with ultrashort exposure times is generally achieved with a crossed-beam geometry. In the usual arrangement, an off-axis gating pulse induces birefringence in a medium exhibiting a strong Kerr response (commonly carbon disulfide) which is followed by a polarizer aligned to fully attenuate the on-axis imaging beam. By properly timing the gate pulse, imaging light experiences a polarization change allowing time-dependent transmission through the polarizer to form an ultrashort image. The crossed-beam system is effective in generating short gate times, however, signal transmission through the system is complicated by the crossing angle of the gate and imaging beams. This work presents a robust ultrafast time-gated imaging scheme based on a combination of type-I frequency doubling and a collinear optical arrangement in carbon disulfide. We discuss spatial effects arising from crossed-beam Kerr gating, and examine the imaging spatial resolution and transmission timing affected by collinear activation of th...

  9. Fluorescence enhanced optical tomography on breast phantoms with measurements using a gain modulated intensified CCD imaging system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godavarty, Anuradha

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging using near-infrared (NIR) light developed for in-vivo molecular targeting and reporting of cancer provides promising opportunities for diagnostic imaging. However, prior to the administration of unproven...

  10. Development of a coherent optical imaging system for clinical dermatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Ahhyun

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The abnormal structure of cutaneous capillaries is associated with many skin diseases including skin cancer and port wine stain. Consequently, the demand for an imaging modality that can provide non-invasive visualization ...

  11. Computational strategies for understanding underwater optical image datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaeli, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental problem in autonomous underwater robotics is the high latency between the capture of image data and the time at which operators are able to gain a visual understanding of the survey environment. Typical ...

  12. Optics, illumination, and image sensing for machine vision II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svetkoff, D.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings collect papers on the general subject of machine vision. Topics include illumination and viewing systems, x-ray imaging, automatic SMT inspection with x-ray vision, and 3-D sensing for machine vision.

  13. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  14. Optical imaging through turbid media with a degenerate four-wave mixing correlation time gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappey, Andrew D. (Golden, CO)

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical imaging through turbid media is demonstrated using a degenerate four-wave mixing correlation time gate. An apparatus and method for detecting ballistic and/or snake light while rejecting unwanted diffusive light for imaging structures within highly scattering media are described. Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) of a doubled YAG laser in rhodamine 590 is used to provide an ultrafast correlation time gate to discriminate against light that has undergone multiple scattering and therefore has lost memory of the structures within the scattering medium. Images have been obtained of a test cross-hair pattern through highly turbid suspensions of whole milk in water that are opaque to the naked eye, which demonstrates the utility of DFWM for imaging through turbid media. Use of DFWM as an ultrafast time gate for the detection of ballistic and/or snake light in optical mammography is discussed.

  15. Imaging photorefractive optical vibration measurement method and device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hale, Thomas C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for characterizing a vibrating image of an object of interest. The method includes providing a sensing media having a detection resolution within a limited bandwidth and providing an object of interest having a vibrating medium. Two or more wavefronts are provided, with at least one of the wavefronts being modulated by interacting the one wavefront with the vibrating medium of the object of interest. The another wavefront is modulated such that the difference frequency between the one wavefront and the another wavefront is within a response range of the sensing media. The modulated one wavefront and another wavefront are combined in association with the sensing media to interfere and produce simultaneous vibration measurements that are distributed over the object so as to provide an image of the vibrating medium. The image has an output intensity that is substantially linear with small physical variations within the vibrating medium. Furthermore, the method includes detecting the image. In one implementation, the apparatus comprises a vibration spectrum analyzer having an emitter, a modulator, sensing media and a detector configured so as to realize such method. According to another implementation, the apparatus comprises a vibration imaging device.

  16. A method for space-variant deblurring with application to adaptive optics imaging in astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Camera, Andrea; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Boccacci, Patrizia; Bertero, Mario; Bellazzini, Michele; Ciliegi, Paolo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Images from adaptive optics systems are generally affected by significant distortions of the point spread function (PSF) across the field of view, depending on the position of natural and artificial guide stars. Image reduction techniques circumventing or mitigating these effects are important tools to take full advantage of the scientific information encoded in AO images. The aim of this paper is to propose a method for the deblurring of the astronomical image, given a set of samples of the space-variant PSF. The method is based on a partitioning of the image domain into regions of isoplanatism and on applying suitable deconvolution methods with boundary effects correction to each region. The effectiveness of the boundary effects correction is proved. Moreover, the criterion for extending the disjoint sections to partially overlapping sections is validated. The method is applied to simulated images of a stellar system characterized by a spatially variable PSF. We obtain good photometric quality, and therefor...

  17. Glass Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shortland, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Late Bronze Age glasses. Journal of Archaeological Science781 - 789. Turner, W.E.S. 1954 Studies in ancient glassesand glass making processes. Part I: Crucibles and melting

  18. Volume extreme ultraviolet holographic imaging with numerical optical sectioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    .2960) Image analysis References and Links 1. J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, "Demonstration of X-Ray holography with an X-Ray laser," Science, 1788-1800 (1996). 3. I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. R. Howells, and D. P. Kern

  19. Imaging doppler velocimeter with downward heterodyning in the optical domain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reu, Phillip L; Hansche, Bruce D

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Doppler velocimeter, the incoming Doppler-shifted beams are heterodyned to reduce their frequencies into the bandwidth of a digital camera. This permits the digital camera to produce at every sampling interval a complete two-dimensional array of pixel values. This sequence of pixel value arrays provides a velocity image of the target.

  20. MODELING AND MEASUREMENT OF OPTICAL POLARIMETRIC IMAGE PHENOMENOLOGY IN A COMPLEX URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerekes, John

    MODELING AND MEASUREMENT OF OPTICAL POLARIMETRIC IMAGE PHENOMENOLOGY IN A COMPLEX URBAN ENVIRONMENT be modeled and placed above a complex synthetic urban scene to create spectrally varying Stokes vector output generation (SIG) model [2]. A SIG can be configured for the same sun, scene, and sensor geometry as the real

  1. adaptive optics spectro-imaging: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    optics spectro-imaging First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The close circumstellar...

  2. Interest of correlation-based automatic target recognition in underwater optical images: theoretical justification and first

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    In underwater mine warfare, unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVS) are used as a complement to divers, to detect Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). In a typical mine hunting scenario, the mothership uses its sonars to studyInterest of correlation-based automatic target recognition in underwater optical images

  3. NREL scientists develop near-field optical microscopy techniques for imaging solar cell junctions and identify

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar cell producers are facing urgent pressures to lower module production cost.This achievementNREL scientists develop near-field optical microscopy techniques for imaging solar cell junctions is an increasingly important issue for silicon solar cells. The issue has taken center stage now that the solar

  4. Structural analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus by optical super-resolution imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laine, Romain F.; Albecka, Anna; van de Linde, Sebastian; Rees, Eric J.; Crump, Colin M.; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    ARTICLE Received 30 Sep 2014 | Accepted 27 Nov 2014 | Published 22 Jan 2015 Structural analysis of herpes simplex virus by optical super-resolution imaging Romain F. Laine1,*, Anna Albecka2,*, Sebastian van de Linde3, Eric J. Rees1, Colin M. Crump2...

  5. Postdoctoral Positions In-vivo Optical Imaging and Microscopy of the Living Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Mark

    Postdoctoral Positions In-vivo Optical Imaging and Microscopy of the Living Brain Columbia insight into the function and physiology of the living brain. We are particularly interested in exploring brain. Neurovascular coupling is important both because it is the basis of the fMRI BOLD signal

  6. Super-resolution in incoherent optical imaging using synthetic aperture with Fresnel elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Joseph

    Super-resolution in incoherent optical imaging using synthetic aperture with Fresnel elements Barak the Rayleigh limit of the system is obtained by tiling digitally several Fresnel holographic elements into a complete Fresnel hologram of the observed object. Each element is acquired by the limited-aperture system

  7. Angular domain optical imaging of turbid media using enhanced micro-tunnel filter arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    performed in tissue mimicking phantoms using a 2-cm thick optical cell with 0.25% IntralipidTM and a near infrared laser. This paper also presents experimental results of the angular domain imaging system employing novel micro-tunnel arrays with minimal internal reflection which can accept the non- scattered

  8. HJCD #445725, VOL 11, ISS 1 What is Optical Imaging?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hespos, Susan J.

    n1/HJCD445725/hjcd445725.3d Date and Time : 19/12/09 and 19:56 1 #12;60Infants tend to have fine Imaging methods have caused a revolution in cognitive science for research on adult brain function (Cabeza(1):1­13 Copyright # 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1524-8372 print=1532-7647 online DOI: 10

  9. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  10. High-frame-rate intensified fast optically shuttered TV cameras with selected imaging applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, G.J.; King, N.S.P.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invited paper focuses on high speed electronic/electro-optic camera development by the Applied Physics Experiments and Imaging Measurements Group (P-15) of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Physics Division over the last two decades. The evolution of TV and image intensifier sensors and fast readout fast shuttered cameras are discussed. Their use in nuclear, military, and medical imaging applications are presented. Several salient characteristics and anomalies associated with single-pulse and high repetition rate performance of the cameras/sensors are included from earlier studies to emphasize their effects on radiometric accuracy of electronic framing cameras. The Group`s test and evaluation capabilities for characterization of imaging type electro-optic sensors and sensor components including Focal Plane Arrays, gated Image Intensifiers, microchannel plates, and phosphors are discussed. Two new unique facilities, the High Speed Solid State Imager Test Station (HSTS) and the Electron Gun Vacuum Test Chamber (EGTC) arc described. A summary of the Group`s current and developmental camera designs and R&D initiatives are included.

  11. Development of Hard X-ray Imaging Optics with Two Pairs of Elliptical and Hyperbolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuyama, S.; Fujii, M.; Wakioka, T.; Mimura, H.; Handa, S.; Kimura, T. [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Makina, Y.; Ishikawa, T. [SPring-8/RIKEN, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayoucho, Sayogun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yamauchi, K. [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To form a magnified hard X-ray image with a 50 nm resolution, we have studied total reflection mirror optics with two pairs of elliptical and hyperbolic mirrors, which is called 'Advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez system'. A designed optical system has 200x and 300x magnifications in vertical and horizontal directions. Also diffraction limit size in the optical system is 40 nmx45 nm. We fabricated a pair of elliptical and hyperbolic mirrors for horizontal imaging with a figure accuracy of 2 nm using elastic emission machining (EEM), microstitching interferometry (MSI) and relative-angle-determinable stitching interferometry (RADSI). One-dimensional tests for forming a demagnified image of a slit were carried out at an X-ray energy of 11.5 keV at BL29XUL (EH2) of SPring-8. As a result, a shape beam with a FWHM of 78 nm was observed. This demonstrates that we realized one-dimensional Wolter optics that has a spatial resolution of 78 nm.

  12. 3D optical sectioning with a new hyperspectral confocal fluorescence imaging system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieman, Linda T.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bachand, George David; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel hyperspectral fluorescence microscope for high-resolution 3D optical sectioning of cells and other structures has been designed, constructed, and used to investigate a number of different problems. We have significantly extended new multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis methods to deconvolve the hyperspectral image data and to rapidly extract quantitative 3D concentration distribution maps of all emitting species. The imaging system has many advantages over current confocal imaging systems including simultaneous monitoring of numerous highly overlapped fluorophores, immunity to autofluorescence or impurity fluorescence, enhanced sensitivity, and dramatically improved accuracy, reliability, and dynamic range. Efficient data compression in the spectral dimension has allowed personal computers to perform quantitative analysis of hyperspectral images of large size without loss of image quality. We have also developed and tested software to perform analysis of time resolved hyperspectral images using trilinear multivariate analysis methods. The new imaging system is an enabling technology for numerous applications including (1) 3D composition mapping analysis of multicomponent processes occurring during host-pathogen interactions, (2) monitoring microfluidic processes, (3) imaging of molecular motors and (4) understanding photosynthetic processes in wild type and mutant Synechocystis cyanobacteria.

  13. High-Contrast Imaging using Adaptive Optics for Extrasolar Planet Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J W

    2006-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct imaging of extrasolar planets is an important, but challenging, next step in planetary science. Most planets identified to date have been detected indirectly--not by emitted or reflected light but through the effect of the planet on the parent star. For example, radial velocity techniques measure the doppler shift in the spectrum of the star produced by the presence of a planet. Indirect techniques only probe about 15% of the orbital parameter space of our solar system. Direct methods would probe new parameter space, and the detected light can be analyzed spectroscopically, providing new information about detected planets. High contrast adaptive optics systems, also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO), will require contrasts of between 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -7} at angles of 4-24 {lambda}/D on an 8-m class telescope to image young Jupiter-like planets still warm with the heat of formation. Contrast is defined as the intensity ratio of the dark wings of the image, where a planet might be, to the bright core of the star. Such instruments will be technically challenging, requiring high order adaptive optics with > 2000 actuators and improved diffraction suppression. Contrast is ultimately limited by residual static wavefront errors, so an extrasolar planet imager will require wavefront control with an accuracy of better than 1 nm rms within the low- to mid-spatial frequency range. Laboratory demonstrations are critical to instrument development. The ExAO testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics was designed with low wavefront error and precision optical metrology, which is used to explore contrast limits and develop the technology needed for an extrasolar planet imager. A state-of-the-art, 1024-actuator micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror was installed and characterized to provide active wavefront control and test this novel technology. I present 6.5 x 10{sup -8} contrast measurements with a prolate shaped pupil and flat mirror demonstrating that the testbed can operate in the necessary contrast regime. Wavefront measurements and simulations indicate that contrast is limited by wavefront error, not diffraction. I demonstrate feasibility of the MEMS deformable mirror for meeting the stringent residual wavefront error requirements of an extrasolar planet imager with closed-loop results of 0.54 nm rms within controllable spatial frequencies. Individual contributors to final wavefront quality have been identified and characterized. I also present contrast measurements of 2 x 10{sup -7} made with the MEMS device and identify amplitude errors as the limiting error source. Closed-loop performance and simulated far-field measurements using a Kolmogorov phase plate to introduce atmosphere-like optical errors are also presented.

  14. Pre-determining the location of electromigrated gaps by nonlinear optical imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mennemanteuil, M.-M.; Dellinger, J.; Buret, M.; Colas des Francs, G.; Bouhelier, A., E-mail: alexandre.bouhelier@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne CNRS-UMR 6303, Université de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we describe a nonlinear imaging method employed to spatially map the occurrence of constrictions occurring on an electrically stressed gold nanowire. The approach consists at measuring the influence of a tightly focused ultrafast pulsed laser on the electronic transport in the nanowire. We found that structural defects distributed along the nanowire are efficient nonlinear optical sources of radiation and that the differential conductance is significantly decreased when the laser is incident on such electrically induced morphological changes. This imaging technique is applied to pre-determine the location of the electrical failure before it occurs.

  15. Site-resolved Imaging of Fermionic Lithium-6 in an Optical Lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Maxwell F; Mazurenko, Anton; Chiu, Christie S; Setiawan, Widagdo; Wooley-Brown, Katherine; Blatt, Sebastian; Greiner, Markus

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate site-resolved imaging of individual fermionic lithium-6 atoms in a 2D optical lattice. To preserve the density distribution during fluorescence imaging, we simultaneously cool the atoms with 3D Raman sideband cooling. This laser cooling technique, demonstrated here for the first time for lithium-6 atoms, also provides a pathway to rapid low-entropy filling of an optical lattice. We are able to determine the occupation of individual lattice sites with a fidelity >95%, enabling direct, local measurement of particle correlations in Fermi lattice systems. This ability will be instrumental for creating and investigating low-temperature phases of the Fermi-Hubbard model, including antiferromagnets and d-wave superfluidity.

  16. Glass balls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    There is a building with 100 floors in it, and glass balls, and an integer k with the following property. If one drops a glass ball from the floor number k or higher, ...

  17. Observation of the structural phase transition in manganite films by magneto-optical imaging.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lin, Y.; Miller, D. J.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Welp, U.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-resolution magneto-optical imaging technique is used to reveal the formation of twins occurring during a martensitic phase transition at {approximately}105K in LCMO films grown on STO substrates. The magnetic contrast arises due to the magneto-elastic tilts of the Mn - magnetic moments in the twins. Different magnetic structures are found in LCMO films grown on MgO, NGO, and LAO substrates showing the importance of the substrate material for the manganite film properties.

  18. Near-infrared fluorescence enhanced optical imaging: an analysis of penetration depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Jessica Perea

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , . . . . . . . 59 . . . . . . . 59 . . . . . . . 60 . . . . . . . 6 I vn Page 3. 2 ICCD system (instrumentation) . . 3. 2. 1 Laser diode and optical filters. . 3. 2. 2 Gain-modulated image intensifier and lenses. . . . . . . . . 3. 2. 3 CCD camera. . 3. 2.... 4 Modulation instrumentation. 3. 3 ICCD system (raw data acquisition and processing). . . . . 3. 3. 1 Data acquisition . . 3. 4 Data acquisition for filter combinations 63 65 . . . 66 67 67 . . . 70 71 74 4. DEVELOPMENT OF THEORETICAL...

  19. Studies of Optical Damage in Photorefractive Single LiNbO3 Crystals using Imaging Polarimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Krupych; I. Smaga; R. Vlokh

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical damage of photorefractive material, single LiNbO3 crystal, is experimentally studied. The specimen has been illuminated with the radiation of continuous Ar-laser (the wavelength of 488 nm) focused to 35?m spot. The induced birefringence map is obtained by means of imaging polarimeter. Promising resources of the experimental setup for detecting laser-induced damage in photorefractive materials is demonstrated.

  20. Radiolabeled Peptide Scaffolds for PET/SPECT - Optical in Vivo Imaging of Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutscher, Susan

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop phage display-selected peptides into radio- and fluoresecently- labeled scaffolds for the multimodal imaging of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. While numerous protein and receptor systems are being explored for the development of targeted imaging agents, the targeting and analysis of carbohydrate-lectin complexes in vivo remains relatively unexplored. Antibodies, nanoparticles, and peptides are being developed that target carbohydrate-lectin complexes in living systems. However, antibodies and nanoparticles often suffer from slow clearance and toxicity problems. Peptides are attractive alternative vehicles for the specific delivery of radionuclides or fluorophores to sites of interest in vivo, although, because of their size, uptake and retention may be less than antibodies. We have selected high affinity peptides that bind a specific carbohydrate-lectin complex involved in cell-cell adhesion and cross-linking using bacteriophage (phage) display technologies (1,2). These peptides have allowed us to probe the role of these antigens in cell adhesion. Fluorescent versions of the peptides have been developed for optical imaging and radiolabeled versions have been used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (3-6). A benefit in employing the radiolabeled peptides in SPECT and PET is that these imaging modalities are widely used in living systems and offer deep tissue sensitivity. Radiolabeled peptides, however, often exhibit poor stability and high kidney uptake in vivo. Conversely, optical imaging is sensitive and offers good spatial resolution, but is not useful for deep tissue penetration and is semi-quantitative. Thus, multimodality imaging that relies on the strengths of both radio- and optical- imaging is a current focus for development of new in vivo imaging agents. We propose a novel means to improve the efficacy of radiolabeled and fluorescently labeled peptides, including our lectin/carbohydrate- targeting peptides, by displaying the targeting epitopes on small ~29 amino acid cyclic plant protein scaffolds known as cyclotides. Cyclotides are extremely stable molecules with long serum half-lives and low kidney uptake (7). More than one copy of the peptide can be engineered into the cyclotide loops, thus increasing the avidity of the peptide construct for its target.

  1. Method and apparatus for optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, John Stuart (Laguna Niguel, CA); Milner, Thomas Edward (Irvine, CA); Chen, Zhongping (Irvine, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical Doppler tomography permits imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media. The tomography system combines Doppler velocimetry with high spatial resolution of partially coherent optical interferometry to measure fluid flow velocity at discrete spatial locations. Noninvasive in vivo imaging of blood flow dynamics and tissue structures with high spatial resolutions of the order of 2 to 10 microns is achieved in biological systems. The backscattered interference signals derived from the interferometer may be analyzed either through power spectrum determination to obtain the position and velocity of each particle in the fluid flow sample at each pixel, or the interference spectral density may be analyzed at each frequency in the spectrum to obtain the positions and velocities of the particles in a cross-section to which the interference spectral density corresponds. The realized resolutions of optical Doppler tomography allows noninvasive in vivo imaging of both blood microcirculation and tissue structure surrounding the vessel which has significance for biomedical research and clinical applications.

  2. 350-?m side-view optical probe for imaging the murine brain in vivo from the cortex to the hypothalamus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jun Ki

    Miniature endoscopic probes offer a solution for deep brain imaging by overcoming the limited depth of intravital microscopy. We describe a small-diameter (350 ?m) graded-index optical probe with a side-view design for in ...

  3. Heart wall velocimetry and exogenous contrast-based cardiac flow imaging in Drosophila melanogaster using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choma, Michael A.

    Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is a central organism in biology and is becoming increasingly important in the cardiovascular sciences. Prior work in optical imaging of the D. melanogaster heart has focused on static ...

  4. Thermomechanical Actuator-Based Three-Axis Optical Scanner for High-Speed Two-Photon Endomicroscope Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shih-Chi

    This paper presents the design and characterization of a three-axis thermomechanical actuator-based endoscopic scanner for obtaining ex vivo two-photon images. The scanner consisted of two sub-systems: 1) an optical system ...

  5. The Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager: FOXSI Sam Kruckera,b, Steven Christec, Lindsay Glesenera,d, Shin-nosuke Ishikawaa, Stephen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan ABSTRACT The Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager. Today's leading solar HXR instrument, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI, solar physics, solar flares, silicon strip detectors, grazing-incidence optics, high-energy x-ray optics

  6. Physical structure of the protoplanetary nebula CRL618. I. Optical long-slit spectroscopy and imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras, C S; De Paz, A G

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper (paper I) we present optical long-slit spectroscopy and imaging of the protoplanetary nebula CRL618. The optical lobes of CRL618 consist of shock-excited gas, which emits many recombination and forbidden lines, and dust, which scatters light from the innermost regions. From the analysis of the scattered Halpha emission, we derive a nebular inclination of i=24+-6 deg. The spectrum of the innermost part of the east lobe (visible as a bright, compact nebulosity close to the star in the Halpha HST image) is remarkably different from that of the shocked lobes but similar to that of the inner HII region, suggesting that this region represents the outermost parts of the latter. We find a non-linear radial variation of the gas velocity along the lobes. The largest projected LSR velocities (~80 km/s) are measured at the tips of the lobes, where the direct images show the presence of compact bow-shaped structures. The velocity of the shocks in CRL618 is in the range ~75-200 km/s, as derived from diagnosti...

  7. Physical structure of the protoplanetary nebula CRL618. I. Optical long-slit spectroscopy and imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sanchez Contreras; R. Sahai; A. Gil de Paz

    2002-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper (paper I) we present optical long-slit spectroscopy and imaging of the protoplanetary nebula CRL618. The optical lobes of CRL618 consist of shock-excited gas, which emits many recombination and forbidden lines, and dust, which scatters light from the innermost regions. From the analysis of the scattered Halpha emission, we derive a nebular inclination of i=24+-6 deg. The spectrum of the innermost part of the east lobe (visible as a bright, compact nebulosity close to the star in the Halpha HST image) is remarkably different from that of the shocked lobes but similar to that of the inner HII region, suggesting that this region represents the outermost parts of the latter. We find a non-linear radial variation of the gas velocity along the lobes. The largest projected LSR velocities (~80 km/s) are measured at the tips of the lobes, where the direct images show the presence of compact bow-shaped structures. The velocity of the shocks in CRL618 is in the range ~75-200 km/s, as derived from diagnostic line ratios and line profiles. We report a brightening (weakening) of [OIII]5007AA ([OI]6300AA) over the last ~10 years that may indicate a recent increase in the speed of the exciting shocks. From the analysis of the spatial variation of the nebular extinction, we find a large density contrast between the material inside the lobes and beyond them: the optical lobes seem to be `cavities' excavated in the AGB envelope by interaction with a more tenuous post-AGB wind. The electron density, with a mean value n_e~5E3-1E4 cm-3, shows significant fluctuations but no systematic decrease along the lobes, in agreement with most line emission arising in a thin shell of shocked material (the lobe walls) rather than in the post-AGB wind filling the interior of the lobes. (...)

  8. 14 Optics & Photonics News December 2004 (Background image) Each fiber in the spectrometric fabric is a photodetector sensitive to external illumination at a particular wavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanyi

    14 Optics & Photonics News December 2004 (Background image) Each fiber in the spectrometric fabric Koshel Optics in 2004 Tell us what you think: http://www.osa-opn.org/survey.cfm #12;Fiber Optics Low and Anders Bjarklev In recent years, a new class of optical fiber that operates by the photonic bandgap (PBG

  9. Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer Imaging of Line Emission Regions of beta Lyrae Using Differential Phase Referencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitt, H R; Tycner, C; Armstrong, J T; Zavala, R T; Benson, J A; Gilbreath, G C; Hindsley, R B; Hutter, D J; Johnston, K J; Jorgensen, A M; Mozurkewich, D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of an experiment to image the interacting binary star beta Lyrae with data from the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI), using a differential phase technique to correct for the effects of the instrument and atmosphere on the interferometer phases. We take advantage of the fact that the visual primary of beta Lyrae and the visibility calibrator we used are both nearly unresolved and nearly centrally symmetric, and consequently have interferometric phases near zero. We used this property to detect and correct for the effects of the instrument and atmosphere on the phases of beta Lyrae and to obtain differential phases in the channel containing the Halpha emission line. Combining the Halpha-channel phases with information about the line strength, we recovered complex visibilities and imaged the Halpha emission using standard radio interferometry methods. We find that the results from our differential phase technique are consistent with those obtained from a more-standard analysis ...

  10. First optical images of circumstellar dust surrounding the debris disk candidate HD 32297

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Kalas

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope recently revealed a circumstellar dust disk around the A star HD 32297. Dust scattered light is detected as far as 400 AU radius and the linear morphology is consistent with a disk ~10 degrees away from an edge-on orientation. Here we present the first optical images that show the dust scattered light morphology from 560 to 1680 AU radius. The position angle of the putative disk midplane diverges by 31 degrees and the color of dust scattering is most likely blue. We associate HD 32297 with a wall of interstellar gas and the enigmatic region south of the Taurus molecular cloud. We propose that the extreme asymmetries and blue disk color originate from a collision with a clump of interstellar material as HD 32297 moves southward, and discuss evidence consistent with an age of 30 Myr or younger.

  11. Near-IR adaptive optics imaging of nuclear spiral structure in the Seyfert galaxy, NGC3227

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott C. Chapman; Simon L. Morris; Gordon A. H. Walker

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high spatial resolution, near-IR images in J, H, K of the nucleus of NGC3227, obtained with the Adaptive Optics bonnette on CFHT. The ~0.15 arcsec (17pc) resolution allows structures to be probed in the core region. Dust obscuration becomes significantly less pronounced at longer wavelengths, revealing the true geometry of the core region. We are able to identify two main features in our maps: (i) a spiraling association of knots with a counterpart in an HST F606W image; (ii) a smaller scale annulus, orthogonal to the spiral of knots. These features may provide a means to transport material inwards to fuel the active nucleus.

  12. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with...

  13. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  14. Finding Glass Kenton McHenry, Jean Ponce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, David

    Finding Glass Kenton McHenry, Jean Ponce Beckman Institute University of Illinois Urbana, IL 61801. This paper addresses the problem of finding glass ob- jects in images. Visual cues obtained by combining with the strong highlights typical of glass surfaces are used to train a hierarchy of classifiers, identify glass

  15. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF VY CANIS MAJORIS AT 2-5 ?m WITH LBT/LMIRCam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenoy, Dinesh P.; Jones, Terry J.; Humphreys, Roberta M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Leisenring, Jarron M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Nelson, Matthew J.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Bailey, Vanessa; Skemer, Andrew; Rodigas, Timothy; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya, E-mail: shenoy@astro.umn.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present adaptive optics images of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in the K{sub s} , L', and M bands (2.15-4.8 ?m) made with LMIRCam on the Large Binocular Telescope. The peculiar ''Southwest Clump'' previously imaged from 1 to 2.2 ?m appears prominently in all three filters. We find its brightness is due almost entirely to scattering, with the contribution of thermal emission limited to at most 25%. We model its brightness as optically thick scattering from silicate dust grains using typical size distributions. We find a lower limit mass for this single feature of 5 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ?} to 2.5 × 10{sup –2} M {sub ?} depending on the assumed gas-to-dust ratio. The presence of the Clump as a distinct feature with no apparent counterpart on the other side of the star is suggestive of an ejection event from a localized region of the star and is consistent with VY CMa's history of asymmetric high-mass-loss events.

  16. First results from the MIT optical rapid imaging system (MORIS) on the IRTF: A stellar occultation by Pluto and a transit by exoplanet XO-2b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulbis, Amanda A. S.

    We present a high-speed, visible-wavelength imaging instrument: MORIS (the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System). MORIS is mounted on the 3 m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Its primary component is ...

  17. Synthesis and growth of HgI{sub 2} nanocrystals in a glass matrix: Heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condeles, J. F., E-mail: condeles@fisica.uftm.edu.br, E-mail: ricssilva@yahoo.com.br; Silva, R. S., E-mail: condeles@fisica.uftm.edu.br, E-mail: ricssilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Naturais e Educação, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, 38025-180, Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Silva, A. C. A.; Dantas, N. O. [Laboratório de Novos Materiais Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, 38400-902, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury iodide (HgI{sub 2}) nanocrystals (NCs) were successfully grown in a barium phosphate glass matrix synthesized by fusion. Growth control of HgI{sub 2} NCs was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Optical Absorption (OA), Fluorescence (FL), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). AFM images reveal the formation of HgI{sub 2} nanocrystals in host glass matrix. HgI{sub 2} NCs growth was evidenced by an OA and FL band red-shift with increasing annealing time. XRD measurements revealed the ? crystalline phase of the HgI{sub 2} nanocrystals.

  18. PENETRATING THE HOMUNCULUS-NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGES OF ETA CARINAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artigau, Etienne [Gemini Observatory-South and Departement de Physique and Observatoire du Mont Megantic, Universite de Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Martin, John C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Illinois-Springfield, IL 62703 (United States); Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Chesneau, Olivier [UMR 6525 H. Fizeau, Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP4229 F-06304 Nice, Cedex 4 (France); Smith, Nathan [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-infrared adaptive optics imaging with the Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) and NaCO reveal what appears to be a three-winged or lobed pattern, the 'butterfly nebula', outlined by bright Br{gamma} and H{sub 2} emission and light scattered by dust. In contrast, the [Fe II] emission does not follow the outline of the wings, but shows an extended bipolar distribution which is tracing the Little Homunculus ejected in {eta} Car's second or lesser eruption in the 1890s. Proper motions measured from the combined NICI and NaCO images together with radial velocities show that the knots and filaments that define the bright rims of the butterfly were ejected at two different epochs corresponding approximately to the great eruption and the second eruption. Most of the material is spatially distributed 10{sup 0}-20{sup 0} above and below the equatorial plane apparently behind the Little Homunculus and the larger SE lobe. The equatorial debris either has a wide opening angle or the clumps were ejected at different latitudes relative to the plane. The butterfly is not a coherent physical structure or equatorial torus but spatially separate clumps and filaments ejected at different times, and now 2000-4000 AU from the star.

  19. The kinetics of spinel crystallization from a high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Div. of Soils; Hrma, P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of spinel crystallization from a molten high-iron simulated high-level nuclear waste glass was studied using isothermal heat treatments. Optical microscopy with image analysis was used to measure volume fraction of spinel as a function of heat treatment time and temperature. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation was fitted to data to determine kinetic coefficients for spinel crystallization. The liquidus temperature and Avrami number are T{sub L} = 1,337K and n = 1.5.

  20. MONSTIR II: A 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Robert J., E-mail: robert.cooper@ucl.ac.uk; Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C. [Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom.

  1. Through a glass darkly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, James E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closeup Through a glass darklyThrough a glass darkly James E. Hall Keywords: AKAP2; AQP0;Medicine Closeup Through a glass darkly GLUT1 Glucose

  2. A comparative study between the imaging system and the optical tracking system in proton therapy at CNAO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desplanques, Maxime; Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Riboldi, Marco; Fattori, Giovanni; Donno, Andrea; Baroni, Guido; Orecchia, Roberto

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synergy between in-room imaging and optical tracking, in co-operation with highly accurate robotic patient handling represents a concept for patient-set-up which has been implemented at CNAO (Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica). In-room imaging is based on a double oblique X-ray projection system; optical tracking consists of the detection of the position of spherical markers placed directly on the patient’s skin or on the immobilization devices. These markers are used as external fiducials during patient positioning and dose delivery. This study reports the results of a comparative analysis between in-room imaging and optical tracking data for patient positioning within the framework of high-precision particle therapy. Differences between the optical tracking system (OTS) and the imaging system (IS) were on average within the expected localization accuracy. On the first 633 fractions for head and neck (H&N) set-up procedures, the corrections applied by the IS, after patient positioning usin...

  3. SWIFT ULTRAVIOLET/OPTICAL TELESCOPE IMAGING OF STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN M81 AND HOLMBERG IX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoversten, E. A.; Gronwall, C.; Siegel, M. H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Vanden Berk, D. E. [Physics Department, St. Vincent College, Latrobe, PA 15650 (United States); Basu-Zych, A. R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Breeveld, A. A.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Page, M. J. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory/UCL, Holbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Brown, P. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Roming, P. W. A. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) imaging of the galaxies M81 and Holmberg IX. We combine UVOT imaging in three near-ultraviolet (NUV) filters (uvw2: 1928 A; uvm2: 2246 A; uvw1: 2600 A) with ground-based optical imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to constrain the stellar populations of both galaxies. Our analysis consists of three different methods. First, we use the NUV imaging to identify UV star-forming knots and then perform spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling on the UV/optical photometry of these sources. Second, we measure surface brightness profiles of the disk of M81 in the NUV and optical. Lastly, we use SED fitting of individual pixels to map the properties of the two galaxies. In agreement with earlier studies, we find evidence for a burst in star formation in both galaxies starting {approx}200 Myr ago coincident with the suggested time of an M81-M82 interaction. In line with theories of its origin as a tidal dwarf, we find that the luminosity-weighted age of Holmberg IX is a few hundred million years. Both galaxies are best fit by a Milky Way dust extinction law with a prominent 2175 A bump. In addition, we describe a stacked median filter technique for modeling the diffuse background light within a galaxy and a Markov chain method for cleaning segment maps generated by SExtractor.

  4. Image Processing and control of a programmable spatial light modulator for optic damage protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awwal, A; Leach, R; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Matone, J; Heebner, J

    2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The heart of the National Ignition Facility is a megajoule-class laser system consisting of 192 beams used to drive inertial confinement fusion reactions. A recently installed system of programmable, liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulators adds the capability of arbitrarily shaping the spatial beam profiles in order to enhance operational flexibility. Its primary intended use is for introducing 'blocker' obscurations shadowing isolated flaws on downstream optical elements that would otherwise be damaged by high fluence laser illumination. Because an improperly shaped blocker pattern can lead to equipment damage, both the position and shape of the obscurations must be carefully verified prior to high-fluence operations. An automatic alignment algorithm is used to perform detection and estimation of the imposed blocker centroid positions compared to their intended locations. Furthermore, in order to minimize the spatially-varying nonlinear response of the device, a calibration of the local magnification is performed at multiple sub-image locations. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing of this device that helps to enhance the safety and longevity of the overall system.

  5. Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer Imaging of Line Emission Regions of beta Lyrae Using Differential Phase Referencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. R. Schmitt; T. A. Pauls; C. Tycner; J. T. Armstrong; R. T. Zavala; J. A. Benson; G. C. Gilbreath; R. B. Hindsley; D. J. Hutter; K. J. Johnston; A. M. Jorgensen; D. Mozurkewich

    2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of an experiment to image the interacting binary star beta Lyrae with data from the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI), using a differential phase technique to correct for the effects of the instrument and atmosphere on the interferometer phases. We take advantage of the fact that the visual primary of beta Lyrae and the visibility calibrator we used are both nearly unresolved and nearly centrally symmetric, and consequently have interferometric phases near zero. We used this property to detect and correct for the effects of the instrument and atmosphere on the phases of beta Lyrae and to obtain differential phases in the channel containing the Halpha emission line. Combining the Halpha-channel phases with information about the line strength, we recovered complex visibilities and imaged the Halpha emission using standard radio interferometry methods. We find that the results from our differential phase technique are consistent with those obtained from a more-standard analysis using squared visibilities (V^2's). Our images show the position of the Halpha emitting regions relative to the continuum photocenter as a function of orbital phase and indicate that the major axis of the orbit is oriented along p.a.=248.8+/-1.7 deg. The orbit is smaller than previously predicted, a discrepancy that can be alleviated if we assume that the system is at a larger distance from us, or that the contribution of the stellar continuum to the Halpha channel is larger than estimated. Finally, we also detected a differential phase signal in the channels containing HeI emission lines at 587.6 and 706.5nm, with orbital behavior different from that of the Halpha, indicating that it originates from a different part of this interacting system.

  6. Automated, all-optical cranial surgery for transcranial imaging of mouse brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Diana

    E. , Ultrashort Laser Pulses. Ultrafast optics, Trenbio,T. , Chirped Pulse Amplification. Ultrafast optics, Trenbio,ultrafast laser systems [2] which produce laser pulses with

  7. 5D Data Storage by Ultrafast Laser Nanostructuring in Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Jim

    5D Data Storage by Ultrafast Laser Nanostructuring in Glass Jingyu Zhang* , Mindaugas Gecevicius-assembled form birefringence and retrieved in glass opening the era of unlimited lifetime data storage. © 2013 laser writing in glass were proposed for the polarization multiplexed optical memory, where

  8. Elimination of Glass Artifacts and Object Segmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katyal, Vini; Srivastava, Deepesh

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many images nowadays are captured from behind the glasses and may have certain stains discrepancy because of glass and must be processed to make differentiation between the glass and objects behind it. This research paper proposes an algorithm to remove the damaged or corrupted part of the image and make it consistent with other part of the image and to segment objects behind the glass. The damaged part is removed using total variation inpainting method and segmentation is done using kmeans clustering, anisotropic diffusion and watershed transformation. The final output is obtained by interpolation. This algorithm can be useful to applications in which some part of the images are corrupted due to data transmission or needs to segment objects from an image for further processing.

  9. Optically controlled waveplate at a telecom wavelength using a ladder transition in Rb atoms for all-optical switching and high speed Stokesmetric Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian Krishnamurthy; Y. Tu; Y. Wang; S. Tseng; M. S. Shahriar

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate an optically controlled waveplate at ~1323 nm using the 5S1/2-5P1/2-6S1/2 ladder transition in a Rb vapor cell. The lower leg of the transitions represents the control beam, while the upper leg represents the signal beam. We show that we can place the signal beam in any arbitrary polarization state with a suitable choice of polarization of the control beam. Specifically, we demonstrate a differential phase retardance of ~180 degrees between the two circularly polarized components of a linearly polarized signal beam. We also demonstrate that the system can act as a Quarter Wave plate. The optical activity responsible for the phase retardation process is explained in terms of selection rules involving the Zeeman sublevels. As such, the system can be used to realize a fast Stokesmetric Imaging system with a speed of nearly 5 MHz. When implemented using a tapered nano fiber embedded in a vapor cell, this system can be used to realize an ultra-low power all-optical switch as well as a Quantum Zeno Effect based all-optical logic gate by combining it with an optically controlled polarizer, previously demonstrated by us. We present numerical simulations of the system using a comprehensive model which incorporates all the relevant Zeeman sub-levels in the system, using a novel algorithm recently developed by us for efficient computation of the evolution of an arbitrary large scale quantum system.

  10. Inductively coupled plasma chemistry examinations with visible acousto-optic tunable filter hyperspectral imaging{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffin, Kirk

    to be a powerful tool for plasma chemistry research. Introduction Inductively coupled plasma optical emission

  11. Adaptive Optics Imaging of IRAS 18276-1431: a bipolar pre-planetary nebula with circumstellar "searchlight beams" and "arcs"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras, C S; Sahai, R; De Paz, A G; Morris, M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high-angular resolution images of the post-AGB nebula IRAS18276-1431 (also known as OH17.7-2.0) obtained with the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system in its Natural Guide Star (NGS) mode in the Kp, Lp, and Ms near-infrared bands. We also present supporting optical F606W and F814W HST images as well as interferometric observations of the 12CO(J=1-0), 13CO(J=1-0), and 2.6mm continuum emission with OVRO. The envelope of IRAS18276-1431 displays a clear bipolar morphology in our optical and NIR images with two lobes separated by a dark waist and surrounded by a faint 4.5"x3.4" halo. Our Kp-band image reveals two pairs of radial ``searchlight beams'' emerging from the nebula center and several intersecting, arc-like features. From our CO data we derive a mass of M>0.38[D/3kpc]^2 Msun and an expansion velocity v_exp=17km/s for the molecular envelope. The density in the halo follows a radial power-law proportional to r^-3, which is consistent with a mass-loss rate increasing with time. Analysis of the NIR ...

  12. Enhancement of the resolution of full-field optical coherence tomography by using a colour image sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyanov, A L; Lychagov, V V; Smirnov, I V; Ryabukho, V P [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of white balance in a colour image detector on the resolution of a full-field optical coherence tomograph (FFOCT) is studied. The change in the interference pulse width depending on the white balance tuning is estimated in the cases of a thermal radiation source (incandescent lamp) and a white light emitting diode. It is shown that by tuning white balance of the detector in a certain range, the FFOCT resolution can be increased by 20 % as compared to the resolution, attained with the use of a monochrome detector. (optical coherence tomography)

  13. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel, E-mail: dr@tum.de [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  14. Magneto-optical imaging and current distributions in high-{Tc} superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polyanskii, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Applied Superconductivity Center]|[Inst. of Solid State Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Pashitski, A.; Gurevich, A.; Parrell, J.A.; Larbalestier, D.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Applied Superconductivity Center; Polak, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Applied Superconductivity Center]|[Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Bratislava (Slovakia); Foltyn, S.R.; Arendt, P.N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Applied Superconductivity Center]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies on the magneto-optical (MO) imaging of the magnetic flux and current distributions in polycrystalline high-{Tc} superconductors are summarized. The authors studied a wide spectrum of high-{Tc} materials, from single grain boundaries in YBCO bicrystals, to polycrystalline YBCO thick films deposited on an IBAD-buffer layer grown on a polycrystalline Hastelloy substrate, to Bi-2223 tapes. In all cases they found that structural defects (e.g., high-angle grain boundaries, second phase precipitates, microcrack networks, etc.) significantly limit the current-carrying capability. These defects make the magnetic flux distribution highly inhomogeneous, in turn producing granular and percolative current flow. By inverting the Biot-Savart law for thin film and slab geometries, they were able to reconstruct the local current flow patterns around defects and thus identify the current-carrying percolative paths and map the distribution of local critical currents J{sub c}(r). Such studies show that, even in high-J{sub c} materials, the local J{sub c}(r) can vary by a factor 2--10 due to defects. Since the maximum local J{sub c}(r) values can significantly exceed the numbers obtained by transport measurements, it is clear that there are still significant opportunities for raising the J{sub c} of polycrystalline HTS conductors.

  15. High Contrast L' Band Adaptive Optics Imaging to Detect Extrasolar Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Heinze; Phil Hinz; Suresh Sivanandam; Daniel Apai; Michael Meyer

    2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We are carrying out a survey to search for giant extrasolar planets around nearby, moderate-age stars in the mid-infrared L' and M bands (3.8 and 4.8 microns, respectively), using the Clio camera with the adaptive optics system on the MMT telescope. To date we have observed 7 stars, of a total 50 planned, including GJ 450 (distance about 8.55pc, age about 1 billion years, no real companions detected), which we use as our example here. We report the methods we use to obtain extremely high contrast imaging in L', and the performance we have obtained. We find that the rotation of a celestial object over time with respect to a telescope tracking it with an altazimuth mount can be a powerful tool for subtracting telescope-related stellar halo artifacts and detecting planets near bright stars. We have carried out a thorough Monte Carlo simulation demonstrating our ability to detect planets as small as 6 Jupiter masses around GJ 450. The division of a science data set into two independent parts, with companions required to be detected on both in order to be recognized as real, played a crucial role in detecting companions in this simulation. We mention also our discovery of a previously unknown faint stellar companion to another of our survey targets, HD 133002. Followup is needed to confirm this as a physical companion, and to determine its physical properties.

  16. ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    industrialbandwidth.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Glass Industry; April, 2002 ITP Glass:...

  17. Highly Nonlinear Luminescence Induced by Gold Nanoparticles on Glass Surfaces with Continuous-Wave Laser Illumination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yong; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on highly nonlinear luminescence being observed from individual spherical gold nanoparticles immobilized on a borosilicate glass surface and illuminated by continuous-wave (CW) lasers with relatively low power. The nonlinear luminescence shows optical super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit in three dimensions compared to the scatting of the excitation laser light. The luminescence intensity from most nanoparticles is proportional to the 5th--7th power of the excitation laser power and has wide excitation and emission spectra across the visible wavelength range. Strong nonlinear luminescence is only observed near the glass surface. High optical nonlinearity excited by low CW laser power is related to a long-lived dark state of the gold nanoparticles, where the excitation light is strongly absorbed. This phenomenon has potential biological applications in super-resolution and deep tissue imaging.

  18. Optical imaging beyond the diffraction limit via dark states RID A-8711-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hebin; Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Kash, Michael M.; Sokolov, Alexei V.; Welch, George R.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Zubairy, M. Suhail; Scully, Marlan O.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the possibility of creating spatial patterns having subwavelength size by using the so-called dark states formed by the interaction between atoms and optical fields. These optical fields have a specified spatial distribution. Our...

  19. Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko

    Optical transmission through complex media such as biological tissue is fundamentally limited by multiple light scattering. Precise control of the optical wavefield potentially holds the key to advancing a broad range of ...

  20. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kyoohyun

    We present high-resolution optical tomographic images of human red blood cells (RBC) parasitized by malaria-inducing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-RBCs. Three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) tomograms are reconstructed ...

  1. An Optical/Near-Infrared Study of Radio-Loud Quasar Environments II. Imaging Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick B. Hall; Richard F. Green

    1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We use optical and near-IR imaging to examine the properties of the significant excess population of K>=19 galaxies found in the fields of 31 z=1-2 radio-loud quasars by Hall, Green & Cohen (1998). The excess occurs on two spatial scales: a component at 40'' in the same fields, and a component roughly uniform to ~100'' significant compared to the galaxy surface density seen in random-field surveys in the literature. The r-K color distributions of the excess galaxy populations are indistinguishable and are significantly redder than the color distribution of the field population. The excess galaxies are consistent with being predominantly early-type galaxies at the quasar redshifts, and there is no evidence that they are associated with intervening MgII absorption systems. The average excess within 0.5 Mpc (~65'') of the quasars corresponds to Abell richness class ~0 compared to the galaxy surface density at >0.5 Mpc from the quasars, and to Abell richness class ~1.5 compared to that from the literature. We discuss the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies in fields with data in several passbands. Most candidate quasar-associated galaxies are consistent with being 2-3 Gyr old early-types at the quasar redshifts of z~1.5. However, some objects have SEDs consistent with being 4-5 Gyr old at z~1.5, and a number of others are consistent with ~2 Gyr old but dust-reddened galaxies at the quasar redshifts. These potentially different galaxy types suggest there may be considerable dispersion in the properties of early-type cluster galaxies at z~1.5. There is also a population of galaxies whose SEDs are best modelled by background galaxies at z>2.5.

  2. Link between optical spectra, crystal-field parameters, and local environments of Eu{sup 3+} ions in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped sodium disilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, T.; Mountjoy, G.; Afify, N. D. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NH (United Kingdom); Reid, M. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Yeung, Y. Y. [Department of Science and Environmental Studies, Hong Kong Institute of Education, 10 Lo Ping Road, Tai Po, New Territories, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M. [Laboratorio di Chimica dello Stato Solido, DB, Universita di Verona, INSTM, UdR Verona, I-37134 Verona (Italy)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rare-earth-doped glasses are key materials for optical technology due to the luminescent properties of 4f{sup n} ions. The crystal-field model describes the effect of local environment on transitions between 4f electrons. We present a detailed modeling study of the optical spectra of sodium disilicate glass, 33Na{sub 2}O{center_dot}67SiO{sub 2}, doped with 0.2% and 1.0 mol%Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This study uses very large molecular dynamics models with up to 100 Eu{sup 3+} ions, the superposition model for covalent and overlap effects on crystal-field parameters, and realistic values for homogeneous linewidth broadening. The simulated spectra are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The trends in {sup 7} F{sub J} energy levels across different Eu{sup 3+} ion sites have been examined and a very detailed analysis is presented that looks at how features of the spectra are related to features of the local environment of Eu{sup 3+} ions. Increasing the crystal-field strength S{sub total} causes the {sup 7} F{sub 0} energy level to decrease and causes the splitting of {sup 7} F{sub J} manifolds to increase, and this is due to increasing mixing of 4f wave functions. To a reasonable approximation the crystal-field strength components S{sub k} depend on angular positions of ligands independently of distances to ligands. The former are seen to be more significant in determining S{sub k}, which are closely related to the rotationally invariant bond-orientational order parameters Q{sub k}. The values of S{sub 2} are approximately linear in Q{sub 2}, and the values of Q{sub 2} are higher for fivefold than sixfold coordinated rare-earth ions. These results can be of importance for efforts to enhance the local environment of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses for optical applications.

  3. Optical keyboard

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY); Feichtner, John D. (Fiddletown, CA); Phillips, Thomas E. (San Diego, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  4. ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    glass2002profile.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report, August 2007 ITP Glass: A Clear Vision for a Bright Future ITP Glass:...

  5. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  6. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system: enabling high-contrast imaging on solar-system scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, N; Guyon, O; Clergeon, C; Singh, G; Kudo, T; Garrel, V; Newman, K; Doughty, D; Lozi, J; Males, J; Minowa, Y; Hayano, Y; Takato, N; Morino, J; Kuhn, J; Serabyn, E; Norris, B; Tuthill, P; Schworer, G; Stewart, P; Close, L; Huby, E; Perrin, G; Lacour, S; Gauchet, L; Vievard, S; Murakami, N; Oshiyama, F; Baba, N; Matsuo, T; Nishikawa, J; Tamura, M; Lai, O; Marchis, F; Duchene, G; Kotani, T; Woillez, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a multipurpose high-contrast imaging platform designed for the discovery and detailed characterization of exoplanetary systems and serves as a testbed for high-contrast imaging technologies for ELTs. It is a multi-band instrument which makes use of light from 600 to 2500nm allowing for coronagraphic direct exoplanet imaging of the inner 3 lambda/D from the stellar host. Wavefront sensing and control are key to the operation of SCExAO. A partial correction of low-order modes is provided by Subaru's facility adaptive optics system with the final correction, including high-order modes, implemented downstream by a combination of a visible pyramid wavefront sensor and a 2000-element deformable mirror. The well corrected NIR (y-K bands) wavefronts can then be injected into any of the available coronagraphs, including but not limited to the phase induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs, both of which offer an inner worki...

  7. Method for optical and mechanically coupling optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, John S. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for splicing optical fibers. A fluorescing solder glass frit having a melting point lower than the melting point of first and second optical fibers is prepared. The solder glass frit is then attached to the end of the first optical fiber and/or the end of the second optical fiber. The ends of the optical fibers are aligned and placed in close proximity to each other. The solder glass frit is then heated to a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the first and second optical fibers, but which is high enough to melt the solder glass frit. A force is applied to the first and second optical fibers pushing the ends of the fibers towards each other. As the solder glass flit becomes molten, the layer of molten solder glass is compressed into a thin layer between the first and second optical fibers. The thin compressed layer of molten solder glass is allowed to cool such that the first and second optical fibers are bonded to each other by the hardened layer of solder glass.

  8. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, 7935 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa)] [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, 7935 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); Escala, A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)] [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland)] [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Ryder, S., E-mail: zara@saao.ac.za [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ?40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M{sub K} ? –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency.

  9. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  10. Application of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique for mouse dosimetry in micro-CT imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Courteau, Alan; Oudot, Alexandra; Collin, Bertrand [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21079 Cedex (France)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21079 Cedex (France); Ranouil, Julien [Landauer Europe, 33 avenue du Général Leclerc, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92266 Cedex (France)] [Landauer Europe, 33 avenue du Général Leclerc, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92266 Cedex (France); Morgand, Loïc; Raguin, Olivier [Oncodesign, 20 rue Jean Mazen, Dijon 21076 Cedex (France)] [Oncodesign, 20 rue Jean Mazen, Dijon 21076 Cedex (France); Walker, Paul [LE2i CNRS UMR 5158, Faculty of Medicine, BP 87900, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France)] [LE2i CNRS UMR 5158, Faculty of Medicine, BP 87900, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France); Brunotte, François [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21079 Cedex, France and LE2i CNRS UMR 5158, Faculty of Medicine, BP 87900, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 1 rue Professeur Marion, Dijon 21079 Cedex, France and LE2i CNRS UMR 5158, Faculty of Medicine, BP 87900, 21079 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Micro-CT is considered to be a powerful tool to investigate various models of disease on anesthetized animals. In longitudinal studies, the radiation dose delivered by the micro-CT to the same animal is a major concern as it could potentially induce spurious effects in experimental results. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) are a relatively new kind of detector used in radiation dosimetry for medical applications. The aim of this work was to assess the dose delivered by the CT component of a micro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography)/CT camera during a typical whole-body mouse study, using commercially available OSLDs based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C crystals.Methods: CTDI (computed tomography dose index) was measured in micro-CT with a properly calibrated pencil ionization chamber using a rat-like phantom (60 mm in diameter) and a mouse-like phantom (30 mm in diameter). OSLDs were checked for reproducibility and linearity in the range of doses delivered by the micro-CT. Dose measurements obtained with OSLDs were compared to those of the ionization chamber to correct for the radiation quality dependence of OSLDs in the low-kV range. Doses to tissue were then investigated in phantoms and cadavers. A 30 mm diameter phantom, specifically designed to insert OSLDs, was used to assess radiation dose over a typical whole-body mouse imaging study. Eighteen healthy female BALB/c mice weighing 27.1 ± 0.8 g (1 SD) were euthanized for small animal measurements. OLSDs were placed externally or implanted internally in nine different locations by an experienced animal technician. Five commonly used micro-CT protocols were investigated.Results: CTDI measurements were between 78.0 ± 2.1 and 110.7 ± 3.0 mGy for the rat-like phantom and between 169.3 ± 4.6 and 203.6 ± 5.5 mGy for the mouse-like phantom. On average, the displayed CTDI at the operator console was underestimated by 1.19 for the rat-like phantom and 2.36 for the mouse-like phantom. OSLDs exhibited a reproducibility of 2.4% and good linearity was found between 60 and 450 mGy. The energy scaling factor was calculated to be between 1.80 ± 0.16 and 1.86 ± 0.16, depending on protocol used. In phantoms, mean doses to tissue over a whole-body CT examination were ranging from 186.4 ± 7.6 to 234.9 ± 7.1 mGy. In mice, mean doses to tissue in the mouse trunk (thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and flanks) were between 213.0 ± 17.0 and 251.2 ± 13.4 mGy. Skin doses (3 OSLDs) were much higher with average doses between 350.6 ± 25.3 and 432.5 ± 34.1 mGy. The dose delivered during a topogram was found to be below 10 mGy. Use of the multimouse bed of the system gave a significantly 20%–40% lower dose per animal (p < 0.05).Conclusions: Absorbed doses in micro-CT were found to be relatively high. In micro-SPECT/CT imaging, the micro-CT unit is mainly used to produce a localization frame. As a result, users should pay attention to adjustable CT parameters so as to minimize the radiation dose and avoid any adverse radiation effects which may interfere with biological parameters studied.

  11. Estimation the Performance of Solar Fiber Optic Lighting System after Repairing the Glass Fiber Cables in a South Korean Residential Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cha, K. S.; Kim, T. K.; Park, M. S.

    The solar fiber optic lighting system consists of the solar ray concentrating apparatus, the tracking control, lighting transmission and emission parts. This system was installed on a 20-storey apartment building in South Korea. Many residents had...

  12. Gamma Radiation Effects on Physical, Optical, and Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation Effects on Physical, Optical, and Structural Properties of Binary As-S glasses. Gamma Radiation Effects on Physical, Optical, and Structural Properties of Binary...

  13. Optical properties and energy transfer processes of Ho{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+}- codoped fluorotellurite glass under 1550?nm excitation for 2.0??m applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Feifei; Liu, Xueqiang [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping, E-mail: dpchen2008@aliyun.com [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates 2.0??m emission properties and energy transfer processes in the Er{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} codoped fluorotellurite glass. The measured absorption spectra demonstrate that the codoped sample can be pumped by 1550?nm excitation efficiently. Judd-Ofelt and radiative parameters are calculated and discussed. Intensive 2.0??m emission originating from Ho{sup 3+}: {sup 5}I{sub 7}?{sup 5}I{sub 8} transition is observed and a long lifetime (11?ms) of the {sup 5}I{sub 7} level is measured when Ho{sup 3+} ions are sensitized by Er{sup 3+} ions. Meanwhile, the upconversion spectra of the Er{sup 3+} singly and codoped samples are obtained and the energy transfer processes of the two ions is discussed based on the change of the upconversion emissions. The microscopic interaction parameters of the phonon-assisted (Er{sup 3+}: {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}?Ho{sup 3+}:{sup 5}I{sub 7}) process are calculated and the microparameter reaches as high as 10.1?×?10{sup ?41} cm{sup 6}/s. Hence, these results indicate that this Ho{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} codoped fluorotellurite glass will be a suitable material for developing solid state laser around 2.0??m.

  14. NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics Diverging views on glass transition Gregory B. mc.mckenna@ttu.edu T he glass transition is one of the most intriguing phenomena in the world of soft condensed matter. Despite decades of study, many aspects of the behaviour of glass-forming liquids remain elusive

  15. Retinal imaging tool for assessment of the parapapillary atrophy and the optic disc 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Cheng-Kai

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Ophthalmic diseases such as glaucoma are associated with progressive changes in the structure of the optic disc (OD) and parapapillary atrophy (PPA). These structural changes may therefore have relevance to other systemic ...

  16. Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tearney, Guillermo J.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is rapidly becoming the method of choice for assessing arterial wall pathology in vivo. Atherosclerotic plaques can be diagnosed with high accuracy, including measurement of the thickness ...

  17. Glass-silicon column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  18. Synthesis and application of novel near infrared cyanine dyes and optical imaging agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norouzi, Neil

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of fluorescent imaging probes for the real time detection of cellular malfunctions, such as enzyme over expression has shown promise. Fluorescent dyes with absorption and emission values below 600 nm are limited ...

  19. Optical imaging using binary sensors Aurelien Bourquard,1, Francois Aguet,2 and Michael Unser1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Cambridge University Press, 1959), 7th ed. 14. M. Unser, "Splines: A perfect fit for signal and image Mathematical Series) (Princeton University Press, 1970). 16. S. P. Lloyd, "Least squares quantization in PCM

  20. Fourth optical inspection of integrated circuits using image processing and mathematical morphology: a report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemaly, Ephrem A.

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    , cracks, and voids. The latter inspection will be of interest to us in this dissertation. The purpose of this work is to perform the visual inspection automatically. The method used is image processing. In particular mathematical...

  1. Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Post-AGB Star AC Herculis with the MMT Adaptive Optics System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laird M. Close; Beth Biller; William F. Hoffmann; Phil M. Hinz; John H. Bieging; Francois Wildi; Michael Lloyd-Hart; Guido Brusa; Don Fisher; Doug Miller; Roger Angel

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We utilized the MMT's unique deformable secondary adaptive optics system to produce high-resolution (FWHM=0.3"), very high Strehl mid-infrared (9.8, 11.7 & 18 micron) images of the post-AGB star AC Her. The very high (98+/-2%) Strehls achieved with Mid-IR AO led naturally to an ultra-stable PSF independent of airmass, seeing, or location on the sky. We find no significant difference between AC Her's morphology and our unresolved PSF calibration stars (mu UMa & alpha Her) at 9.8, 11.7, & 18 microns. Our current observations do not confirm any extended Mid-IR structure around AC Her. These observations are in conflict with previously reported Keck (seeing-limited) 11.7 and 18 micron images which suggested the presence of a resolved ~0.6" edge-on circumbinary disk. We conclude that AC Her has no extended Mid-IR structure on scales greater than 0.2" (R<75 AU). These first results of Mid-IR AO science are very encouraging for future high accuracy Mid-IR imaging with this technique.

  2. Bismuth-doped Mg - Al silicate glasses and fibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel'miskin, V V; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Sverchkov, S E; Semjonov, S L; Firstov, Sergei V; Shulman, I L; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper compares the optical properties of bulk bismuth-doped Mg - Al silicate glasses prepared in an iridium crucible to those of optical fibres prepared by the powder-in-tube method and having a core identical in composition to the glasses. The bulk glasses and fibres are shown to be similar in luminescence properties. The optical loss in the fibres in their IR luminescence band is about one order of magnitude lower than that in the crucible-melted glasses. The level of losses in the fibres and their luminescence properties suggest that such fibres can be made to lase near 1.15 {mu}m. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  3. System and method for glass processing and temperature sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepard, Chester L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for measuring the temperature at various locations through the thickness of glass products and to control the glass processing operation with the sensed temperature information are disclosed. Fluorescence emission of iron or cerium in glass is excited and imaged onto segmented detectors. Spatially resolved temperature data are obtained through correlation of the detected photoluminescence signal with location within the glass. In one form the detected photoluminescence is compared to detected scattered excitation light to determine temperature. Stress information is obtained from the time history of the temperature profile data and used to evaluate the quality of processed glass. A heating or cooling rate of the glass is also controlled to maintain a predetermined desired temperature profile in the glass.

  4. Glass Working, Use and Discard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Paul

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beck, Horace C. 1934 Glass before 1500 BC. Ancient Egypt7 - 21. Cooney, John 1960 Glass sculpture in ancient Egypt.Journal of Glass Studies 2, pp. 10 - 43. 1976 Glass.

  5. THROUGH-THE-GLASS SPECTROSCOPIC ELLIPSOMETRY OF CdTe SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    THROUGH-THE-GLASS SPECTROSCOPIC ELLIPSOMETRY OF CdTe SOLAR CELLS Jie Chen 1 , Jian Li 1 , Courtney of the optical structure of CdTe solar cells on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coated glass superstrates. SE components from the coated glass before solar cell fabrication. A step-by-step fitting procedure identifies

  6. Higher-Order Optical Modes and Nanostructures for Detection and Imaging Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, Zachary D. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 251 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556 (United States); Levin, Ira W. [National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20892 (United States)

    2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Raman spectroscopy offers a label-free, chemically specific, method of detecting molecules; however, the low cross-section attendant to this scattering process has hampered trace detection. The realization that scattering is enhanced at a metallic surface has enabled new techniques for spectroscopic and imaging analysis.

  7. Improved fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging and tomography by enhanced excitation light rejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Kil Dong

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    match for tomographic reconstruction of one (1 cm3) and two (0.1 cm3) targets in a 1087 cm3 of breast phantom. Ultimately, this work improves the sensitivity of NIR fluorescence imaging by enhancing the rejection of excitation light and shows...

  8. Influence of Stellar Multiplicity On Planet Formation. III. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Kepler Stars With Gas Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ji; Horch, Elliott P; Xie, Ji-Wei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As hundreds of gas giant planets have been discovered, we study how these planets form and evolve in different stellar environments, specifically in multiple stellar systems. In such systems, stellar companions may have a profound influence on gas giant planet formation and evolution via several dynamical effects such as truncation and perturbation. We select 84 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) with gas giant planet candidates. We obtain high-angular resolution images using telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) systems. Together with the AO data, we use archival radial velocity data and dynamical analysis to constrain the presence of stellar companions. We detect 59 stellar companions around 40 KOIs for which we develop methods of testing their physical association. These methods are based on color information and galactic stellar population statistics. We find evidence of suppressive planet formation within 20 AU by comparing stellar multiplicity. The stellar multiplicity rate for planet host stars is 0$^{+5...

  9. LABORATORY I: GEOMETRIC OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Lab I - 1 LABORATORY I: GEOMETRIC OPTICS In this lab, you will solve several problems related to the formation of optical images. Most of us have a great deal of experience with the formation of optical images this laboratory, you should be able to: · Describe features of real optical systems in terms of ray diagrams

  10. Synthesis and properties of ZnTe and Eu{sup 3+} ion co-doped glass nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahaman Molla, Atiar; Tarafder, Anal; Dey, Chirantan; Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in [Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, ZnTe (II-VI) semiconductor and Eu{sup +3}-ion co-doped borosilicate glass has been prepared in the SiO{sub 2}-K{sub 2}O-CaO-BaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass system followed by controlled heat-treatment to produce glass nanocomposites. Glass transition temperature and crystallization peak temperature have been evaluated using DSC analysis. Dilatometric studies were carried out to evaluate thermal expansion co-efficient, glass transition temperature, and dilatometric softening temperature and found to be 10.7 × 10{sup ?6}/K, 580°?C and 628°?C, respectively. TEM micrographs demonstrate formation of nano sized crystallites of less than 50?nm. The ZnTe crystal formation also established through selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis and high resolution images obtained through TEM studies. With increasing heat treatment time, optical transmission cut-off wavelength (?{sub cut-off}) shifted towards higher wavelength. Excitation spectra were recorded by monitoring emission at 613?nm corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} ? {sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. An intense 394?nm excitation band corresponding to the {sup 7}F{sub 0} ? {sup 5}L{sub 6} transition was observed. Emission spectra were then recorded by exciting the glass samples at 394?nm. When the glass is heat-treated for 30 min at 610°?C, a 6-fold increase in the intensity of the red emission at 612?nm has been observed, which is attributed to the segregation of Eu{sup 3+} ions into the low phonon energy ZnTe crystallites and as the size of the nanocrystals is smaller than the size of the exciton, quantum confinement effect is visible. Further increase in heat-treatment duration led to decrease in luminescence intensity due to the growth of larger size crystals. {sup 5}D{sub 1} ? {sup 7}F{sub 0} transition is visible only in the samples heat-treated for 30 min and 1 h, which is a characteristic of presence of Eu{sup 3+} ions in the low phonon energy ZnTe crystal sites. The micro hardness of the precursor glass and glass nanocomposites was evaluated; base glass shows hardness of 6.7 GPa and hardness of heat-treated glass nanocomposites has been found to decrease with increase in heat-treatment duration (5.5-5.3 GPa). However, mechanical properties are found to be suitable for device applications.

  11. Quantifying pharmaceutical film coating with optical coherence tomography and terahertz pulsed imaging: an evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hungyen; Dong, Yue; Shen, Yaochun; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    thickness within the thickness tolerance. However, when the leap between neighbouring peaks becomes too large leading to diverging coating thickness, the algorithm backtracks to a previously identified peak with a thickness value that is closest... -release tablet film coating. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 71(1):117-123. 18. Shen YC, Taday PF 2008. Development and Application of Terahertz Pulsed Imaging for Nondestructive Inspection of Pharmaceutical Tablet. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE...

  12. Near-Infrared Adaptive Optics Imaging of the Central Regions of Nearby Sc Galaxies: I. M33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Davidge

    1999-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-infrared images obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Adaptive Optics Bonnette (AOB) are used to investigate the stellar content within 18 arcsec of the center of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. AGB stars with near-infrared spectral-energy distributions similar to those of giants in the solar neighborhood and Baade's Window are detected over most of the field. The bolometric luminosity function (LF) of these stars has a discontinuity near M_{bol} = -5.25, and comparisons with evolutionary tracks suggest that most of the AGB stars formed in a burst of star formation 1 - 3 Gyr in the past. The images are also used to investigate the integrated near-infrared photometric properties of the nucleus and the central light concentration. The nucleus is bluer than the central light concentration, in agreement with previous studies at visible wavelengths. The CO index of the central light concentration 0.5 arcsec from the galaxy center is 0.05, which corresponds to [Fe/H] = -1.2 for simple stellar systems. Hence, the central light concentration could not have formed from the chemically-enriched material that dominates the present-day inner disk of M33.

  13. Development and evaluation of a device for simultaneous uniaxial compression and optical imaging of cartilage samples in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinert, Marian; Kratz, Marita; Jones, David B. [Department of Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstr., 35043 Marburg (Germany); Jaedicke, Volker; Hofmann, Martin R. [Photonics and Terahertz Technology, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a system that allows imaging of cartilage tissue via optical coherence tomography (OCT) during controlled uniaxial unconfined compression of cylindrical osteochondral cores in vitro. We describe the system design and conduct a static and dynamic performance analysis. While reference measurements yield a full scale maximum deviation of 0.14% in displacement, force can be measured with a full scale standard deviation of 1.4%. The dynamic performance evaluation indicates a high accuracy in force controlled mode up to 25 Hz, but it also reveals a strong effect of variance of sample mechanical properties on the tracking performance under displacement control. In order to counterbalance these disturbances, an adaptive feed forward approach was applied which finally resulted in an improved displacement tracking accuracy up to 3 Hz. A built-in imaging probe allows on-line monitoring of the sample via OCT while being loaded in the cultivation chamber. We show that cartilage topology and defects in the tissue can be observed and demonstrate the visualization of the compression process during static mechanical loading.

  14. Analysis and Research on the Thermal Properties of Energy-efficient Building Glass: A Case Study in PVB Laminated Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Z.; Meng, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , are analyzed. The methods on usage of energy-saving glass are promoted based on the differences of their thermal properties. Meanwhile, a new kind of glass?PVB laminated glass (Fig.1), is introduced. Fl at cl ear gl ass 0. 05mmLOWE coati ng Fl at cl ear g... lass 3 mm( 5 mm) 0. 38mmPVB 3 mm( 5 mm) 0. 38mmPVB Fig. 1 Structure of PVB laminated glass ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Envelope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency, Vol.II-4-5 2. EVALUATION STANDARDS OF SOLAR-OPTICAL PROPERTY The main...

  15. " Rotating, In Plane Magnetization and Magneto-Optic Imaging of Cracks in Thick-Section Steel Under Stainless-Steel Cladding".

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Fitzpatrick & Richard Skaugset

    2000-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The nondestructive inspection (NDI) of thick-section steel nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPV'S) is rendered difficult by rough stainless steel cladding. Because the cladding condition is poorly known in most RPV's, an NDI technique that is unaffected by cladding roughness would be a major advance. Magneto-optic imaging is one such technique. The purpose of this project was to develop a novel method to induce rotating, in-plane magnetization, and to combine this capability with magneto-optic imaging to produce a self-contained inspection system. Imaging of cracks under thick cladding (0.250 inches) was demonstrated using a system capable, in principle, of performing robotic inspections, both inside & outside a typical boiling water reactor (BWR) RPV. This report, together publications listed, constitutes a comprehensive account of this work.

  16. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  17. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  18. QSO hosts and environments at z=0.9 to 4.2: JHK images with adaptive optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. B. Hutchings; D. Crampton; S. L. Morris; D. Durand; E. Steinbring

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We have observed nine QSOs with redshifts 0.85 to 4.16 at near-IR wavelengths with the adaptive optics bonnette of the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Exposure times ranged from 1500 to 24000s (mostly near 7000s) in J, H, or K bands, with pixels 0.035 arcsec on the sky. The FWHM of the co-added images at the location of the quasars are typically 0.16 arcsec. Including another QSO published previously, we find associated QSO structure in at least eight of ten objects, including the QSO at z = 4.16. The structures seen in all cases include long faint features which appear to be tidal tails. In four cases we have also resolved the QSO host galaxy, but find them to be smooth and symmetrical: future PSF removal may expand this result. Including one object previously reported, of the nine objects with more extended structure, five are radio-loud, and all but one of these appear to be in a dense small group of compact galaxy companions. The radio-quiet objects do not occupy the same dense environments, as seen in the NIR. In this small sample we do not find any apparent trends of these properties with redshift, over the range 0.8 < z < 2.4. The colors of the host galaxies and companions are consistent with young stellar populations at the QSO redshift. Our observations suggest that adaptive optic observations in the visible region will exhibit luminous signatures of the substantial star-formation activity that must be occurring.

  19. Spectral investigations of Sm{sup 3+}-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramachari, D. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Rama Moorthy, L., E-mail: lrmphysics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Department of Physics, Chadalawada Ramanamma Engineering College, Renigunta Road, Tirupati 517506 (India); Jayasankar, C.K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The figure shows the emission spectra of Sm{sup 3+} doped KNSZL glass for different concentrations. Among the four emission transitions {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 9/2} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 11/2}, the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition of KNSZLSm10 glass is more intense compared with all the transitions. The insert figure shows, the color coordinates (0.59, 0.41) of KNSZLSm10 glass is located on the perimeter of the chromaticity diagram at 592 nm which appears to be closest to the orange color. From these results the KNSZLSm10 glass could be useful for optical amplifiers, waveguides, telecommunications and orange LEDs. - Highlights: • From the DTA, the undoped KNSZL glass more precisely in fiberdrawing. • The XRD pattern confirmed the KNbO{sub 3} nanocrystallites of undoped KNSZL glass. • FTIR and Raman data of KNSZLSm10 glass revealed structural properties. • Judd–Ofelt analysis and decay measurements were carried out. • The optical gain parameter of the investigated glass is 18.13 × 10{sup ?25} cm{sup 2} s. - Abstract: Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses were prepared by melt-quenching method. The differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction were carried out to investigate the glass transition temperature and structure of precursor glass. Infrared spectroscopy, Raman, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements were carried out for Sm{sup 3+}-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses. From the absorption spectrum, the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters have been evaluated to predict the radiative properties for the emission levels of Sm{sup 3+} ions. The lifetimes of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} level are found to decrease from 1.17 to 0.93 ms due to the energy transfer, when the concentration of Sm{sup 3+} ions increases from 0.1 to 2.0 mol%. The optical gain parameter (18.13 × 10{sup ?25} cm{sup 2} s) of the investigated glass is found to be higher than the other Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped glass systems.

  20. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  1. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    300-500°C. Doping rare earth phosphate glasses with Ce, andRare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Protonconductivity of alkaline-earth doped rare earth phosphate

  2. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ray, Hannah L.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and conductivity of cerium and lanthanum phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. The effects of varying the metal to phosphate ratio in the glasses, doping LaP3O9 glasses with Ce, and recrystallization of CeP3O9 glasses, on the glasses' microstructure and total conductivity were investigated using XRD, SEM, and AC impedance techniques. Strong increases in conductivity occurred when the glasses were recrystallized: the conductivity of a cerium metaphosphate glass increased conductivity after recrystallization from 10-7.5 S/cm to 10-6 S/cm at 400oC.

  3. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Strachan

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  4. Infrared Fiber Optics James A. Harrington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Infrared Fiber Optics James A. Harrington Ceramic & Materials Engineering Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 1. Introduction Infrared (IR) optical fibers may be defined as fiber optics IR fiber optics may logically be divided into three broad categories: glass, crystalline, and hollow

  5. Hermetic fiber optic-to-metal connection technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, Daniel P. (Centerville, OH)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass-to-glass hermetic sealing technique is disclosed which can be used to splice lengths of glass fibers together. A solid glass preform is inserted into the cavity of a metal component which is then heated to melt the glass. An end of an optical fiber is then advanced into the molten glass and the entire structure cooled to solidify the glass in sealing engagement with the optical fiber end and the metal cavity. The surface of the re-solidified glass may be machined for mating engagement with another component to make a spliced fiber optic connection. The resultant structure has a helium leak rate of less than 1.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.3 /sec.

  6. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 (512) 232-2883 e-mail: glass@mail.utexas.edu EDUCATION 2006 ­ Cognitive include: Designing and constructing experiments, statistical #12;Glass, Brian 2 analysis, manuscript

  7. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University Making, The University of Texas at Austin #12;Glass, Brian 2 Duties include: Designing and constructing, constructing, and running experiments, statistical analysis. JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS Glass, B. D., Chotibut, T

  8. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University of Categorization and Decision Making, The University of Texas at Austin #12;Glass, Brian 2 Duties include: Programming, constructing, and running experiments, statistical analysis. JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS Glass, B. D

  9. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNotSeventyTechnologiesfacilityImaging

  10. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)Hydrogen StorageITERITERBuilding EnergyImaging Print The

  11. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)Hydrogen StorageITERITERBuilding EnergyImaging Print

  12. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  13. Wide-angle imaging LIDAR (WAIL): a ground-based instrument for monitoring the thickness and density of optically thick clouds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Ho, Cheng,

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional lidar provides little information on dense clouds beyond the range to their base (ceilometry), due to their extreme opacity. At most optical wavelengths, however, laser photons are not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, and thus eventually escape the cloud via multiple scattering, producing distinctive extended space- and time-dependent patterns which are, in essence, the cloud's radiative Green functions. These Green functions, essentially 'movies' of the time evolution of the spatial distribution of escaping light, are the primary data products of a new type of lidar: Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). WAIL data can be used to infer both optical depth and physical thickness of clouds, and hence the cloud liquid water content. The instrumental challenge is to accommodate a radiance field varying over many orders of magnitude and changing over widely varying time-scales. Our implementation uses a high-speed microchannel plate/crossed delay line imaging detector system with a 60-degree full-angle field of view, and a 532 nm doubled Nd:YAG laser. Nighttime field experiments testing various solutions to this problem show excellent agreement with diffusion theory, and retrievals yield plausible values for the optical and geometrical parameters of the observed cloud decks.

  14. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  15. Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Diels, Jean-Claude M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

  16. Prismatic optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Brewster, Calvin

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A spatially modulated light beam is projected, reflected, and redirected through a prismatic optical panel to form a video image for direct viewing thereon.

  17. Probing Hypergiant Mass Loss with Adaptive Optics Imaging & Polarimetry in the Infrared: MMT-Pol and LMIRCam observations of IRC +10420 & VY Canis Majoris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Dinesh P; Packham, Chris; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present 2 - 5 micron adaptive optics (AO) imaging and polarimetry of the famous hypergiant stars IRC +10420 and VY Canis Majoris. The imaging polarimetry of IRC +10420 with MMT-Pol at 2.2 micron resolves nebular emission with intrinsic polarization of 30%, with a high surface brightness indicating optically thick scattering. The relatively uniform distribution of this polarized emission both radially and azimuthally around the star confirms previous studies that place the scattering dust largely in the plane of the sky. Using constraints on scattered light consistent with the polarimetry at 2.2 micron, extrapolation to wavelengths in the 3 - 5 micron band predicts a scattered light component significantly below the nebular flux that is observed in our LBT/LMIRCam 3 - 5 micron AO imaging. Under the assumption this excess emission is thermal, we find a color temperature of ~ 500 K is required, well in excess of the emissivity-modified equilibrium temperature for typical astrophysical dust. The nebular featur...

  18. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

  19. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  20. Deposition and characterization of metal sulfide dielectric coatings for hollow glass waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HGW at 1.55 µm. ©2003 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2390) Fiber optics, infrared; (310 by chemical bath deposition for solar energy related applications," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 52 coatings for Ag/dielectric hollow glass waveguides," in Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Applications

  1. The Seduction of the Glass Box

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual, and Spatial Effects of Glass, New York: PrincetonBauten, Perspektiven (Glass Architects: Concepts, Buildings,Taking a Second Look: Glass Pavilion at Broadfield House in

  2. Glass blowing on a wafer level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eklund, E. Jesper; Shkel, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Shelby, Introduction to Glass Science and Technology. :Properties of Corning Glasses [Online]. Available: http://1981. [15] R. H. Doremus, Glass Science. New York: Wiley,

  3. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Ding (Henderson, NV)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  4. Al NMR study of the structure of lanthanum and yttrium based aluminosilicate glasses and melts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A 27 Al NMR study of the structure of lanthanum and yttrium based aluminosilicate glasses and melts allowed to follow selected samples from 2200°C down to 1700°C and hence to characterize the aluminum of glasses has a large range of applications in modern technology like (a) host materials for laser, optical

  5. Glass matrix armor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, Noel C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  6. Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hongtao

    We demonstrated high-index-contrast, waveguide-coupled As[subscript 2]Se[subscript 3] chalcogenide glass resonators monolithically integrated on silicon fabricated using optical lithography and a lift-off process. The ...

  7. Cavity-Enhanced IR Absorption in Planar Chalcogenide Glass Microdisk Resonators: Experiment and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    Planar microdisk optical resonators fabricated from Ge[subscript 23]Sb[subscript 7]S[subscript 70] chalcogenide glass on a silicon substrate are applied for cavity-enhanced spectroscopic measurement of chemical molecular ...

  8. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high resolution and low noise level, but they cannot reflect information about the temperature the properties of low resolution and high noise level, but IR images can reflect information about temperature variation of objects in the daytime via high-resolution EO images. The proposed novel framework

  9. Hyperspectral Imaging or Imaging Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    (nm) Cosmic Rays Gamma Rays X Rays Microwaves (Radar) Radio & Television WavesUV 105 106 107 108 109 the image cube by scanning through it. The conventional methods are whiskbroom (a), filter/Fourier transform Optics Scene FOVx X-Dimension Scanning Mechanism Focusing Optics #12;Whiskbroom Sensor Accumulation

  10. Glass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartmentCounselGlass Coating Makes Solar Panels MoreGlass

  11. ULTRAFAST OPTICS AND OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORYLEOS 2003 Multiple Output Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    DSTAWG DST Pulse Shaper Fiber ports Imaging optics U.S. Quarter #12;ULTRAFAST OPTICS AND OPTICAL FIBER;ULTRAFAST OPTICS AND OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORYLEOS 2003 One Guide ­ One Pulse Pulses slab Loss-engineering to control relative pulse amplitude. #12;ULTRAFAST OPTICS AND OPTICAL FIBER

  12. Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS Items that could cut or puncture skin or trash- can without any treatment. Hazardous Glass and Plastic: Items that can puncture, cut or scratch if disposed of in normal trash containers. Pasteur pipettes Other pipettes and tips (glass or plastic) Slides and cover

  13. The Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.

  14. To do list for laser maintenance 8.28-8.30 1. Clean the turning box and compressor chamber, remove all broken glass piece on bread board

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shvets, Gennady

    and compressor chamber, remove all broken glass piece on bread board and mirror mount all optics in turning box and compressor chamber, replace all optics with damage spots on it, measure the reflectivity of compressor. 4. Check focal spot

  15. Robust inference of baseline optical properties of the human head with 3D segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnett, Alex

    and voltage-sensitive dyes [4]. By relying on photon transport through tis- sue, DOT also accesses spatial, measuring both total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation. Optical con- trast can also arise from cellMRI). In addition to sensitivity to ab- sorbing chromophores, DOT can be sensitive to cellular scattering changes

  16. Optical computing Damien Woods a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woods, Damien

    Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical

  17. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  18. THE MULTIWAVELENGTH SURVEY BY YALE-CHILE (MUSYC): DEEP MEDIUM-BAND OPTICAL IMAGING AND HIGH-QUALITY 32-BAND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS IN THE ECDF-S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Urry, C. Megan; Brammer, Gabriel [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Taniguchi, Yoshi [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Taylor, Edward; Damen, Maaike [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Treister, Ezequiel [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Cobb, Bethany E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Murayama, Takashi [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Saito, Tomoki [Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sumikawa, Kentaro, E-mail: carolin.cardamone@astro.yale.ed [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present deep optical 18-medium-band photometry from the Subaru telescope over the {approx}30' x 30' Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, as part of the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). This field has a wealth of ground- and space-based ancillary data, and contains the GOODS-South field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. We combine the Subaru imaging with existing UBVRIzJHK and Spitzer IRAC images to create a uniform catalog. Detecting sources in the MUSYC 'BVR' image we find {approx}40,000 galaxies with R {sub AB} < 25.3, the median 5{sigma} limit of the 18 medium bands. Photometric redshifts are determined using the EAzY code and compared to {approx}2000 spectroscopic redshifts in this field. The medium-band filters provide very accurate redshifts for the (bright) subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, particularly at 0.1 < z < 1.2 and at z {approx}> 3.5. For 0.1 < z < 1.2, we find a 1{sigma} scatter in {Delta}z/(1 + z) of 0.007, similar to results obtained with a similar filter set in the COSMOS field. As a demonstration of the data quality, we show that the red sequence and blue cloud can be cleanly identified in rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams at 0.1 < z < 1.2. We find that {approx}20% of the red sequence galaxies show evidence of dust emission at longer rest-frame wavelengths. The reduced images, photometric catalog, and photometric redshifts are provided through the public MUSYC Web site.

  19. Measuring earthquakes from optical satellite images Nade` ge Van Puymbroeck, Re mi Michel, Renaud Binet, Jean-Philippe Avouac, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    . Biases on offsets are compensated from calibration. High-frequency noise 0.125 m 1 is 0.01 pixels. Low- quired before and after the event. Synthetic aper- ture radar SAR images were actually shown to be useful for this application with either interferometry or offsets.1,2 SAR interferometry exploits the phase difference

  20. Current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsuno, Takashi, E-mail: e1417@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800??s) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200?V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2??m from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.

  1. Optical fiber based ultrashort pulse multispectral nonlinear optical microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Adam Michael

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) utilizing femtosecond laser pulses is well suited for imaging living tissues. This work reports on the design and development of an optical fiber based multispectral NLOM developed around a laser generating...

  2. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  3. 3D Mt Resistivity Imaging For Geothermal Resource Assessment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Imaging For Geothermal Resource Assessment And Environmental Mitigation At The Glass Mountain Kgra, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  4. Energy transfer kinetics in oxy-fluoride glass and glass-ceramics doped with rare-earth ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sontakke, Atul D.; Annapurna, K. [Glass Science and Technology Section, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of donor-acceptor energy transfer kinetics in dual rare earths doped precursor oxy-fluoride glass and its glass-ceramics containing NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals is reported here, using three different donor-acceptor ion combinations such as Nd-Yb, Yb-Dy, and Nd-Dy. The precipitation of NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals in host glass matrix under controlled post heat treatment of precursor oxy-fluoride glasses has been confirmed from XRD, FESEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Further, the incorporation of dopant ions inside fluoride nano-crystals has been established through optical absorption and TEM-EDX analysis. The noticed decreasing trend in donor to acceptor energy transfer efficiency from precursor glass to glass-ceramics in all three combinations have been explained based on the structural rearrangements that occurred during the heat treatment process. The reduced coupling phonon energy for the dopant ions due to fluoride environment and its influence on the overall phonon assisted contribution in energy transfer process has been illustrated. Additionally, realization of a correlated distribution of dopant ions causing clustering inside nano-crystals has also been reported.

  5. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Carroll, Kyler J [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

  6. Infrared Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Using An External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser For Nanoscale Chemical Imaging And Spectroscopy of Explosive Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Josberger, Erik E.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) is an apertureless superfocusing technique that uses the antenna properties of a conducting atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to achieve infrared spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. The instrument can be used either in imaging mode, where a fixed wavelength light source is tuned to a molecular resonance and the AFM raster scans an image, or in spectroscopy mode where the AFM is held stationary over a feature of interest and the light frequency is varied to obtain a spectrum. In either case, a strong, stable, coherent infrared source is required. Here we demonstrate the integration of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) into an s-SNOM and use it to obtain infrared spectra of microcrystals of chemicals adsorbed onto gold substrates. Residues of the explosive compound tetryl was deposited onto gold substrates. s-SNOM experiments were performed in the 1260-1400 cm?1 tuning range of the ECQCL, corresponding to the NO2 symmetric stretch vibrational fingerprint region. Vibrational infrared spectra were collected on individual chemical domains with a collection area of *500nm2 and compared to ensemble averaged far-field reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) results.

  7. Image Acquisition and Automated Inspection of Wine Bottlenecks by Tracking in Multiple Views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sequence of a wine glass bottle in successive rotations along its principal axis. In every image reporting on light sources placed inside a glass bottle. We proposed the design of an electro-mechanical device for image ac- quisition and inspection of glass wine bottles using an internal illuminating system

  8. Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd aka Shandong Lanxing Glass...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd aka Shandong Lanxing Glass Group Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd (aka Shandong Lanxing Glass...

  9. Glass Ceiling or Glass Elevator: Are Voters Biased in Favor of Women Candidates in California Elections?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abney, Ronni Marie; Peterson, Rolfe Daus

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10.2202/1944-4370.1103 Abney and Peterson: Glass Ceilingor Glass Elevator Table 7A. Positive Gender Bias ModelAbney and Peterson: Glass Ceiling or Glass Elevator Huddy,

  10. The GLASS CHAIR Edited by Manuel Heitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    The GLASS CHAIR Edited by Manuel Heitor IST Press, 2000 #12;Collaborative Design of... The GLASS the glass chair, but also for the numerous discussions on glass production processes. And last · Carmo Valente Chapter 4. GLASS: BEAUTY WITH STRENGTH Sushil Kumar Mendiratta Chapter 5. The IDEA

  11. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  12. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  13. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  14. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francois Gelis

    2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk, I review the Color Glass Condensate theory of gluon saturation, and its application to the early stages of heavy ion collisions.

  15. Use of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerve sheath to detect raised intracranial pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geeraerts, Thomas; Newcombe, Virginia F J; Coles, Jonathan P; Abate, Maria Giulia; Perkes, Iain E; Hutchinson, Peter J A; Outtrim, Jo G; Chatfield, Dot A; Menon, David K

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    is accurate at measuring ONSD [27,28] and has been proposed to detect raised ICP in idiopathic hydrocephalus and to diagnose shunt malfunction [12,14,29,30]. On T2-weighted sequences, water (and CSF) exhibits a high signal (white). Fat and grey matter appear... as light grey, and white matter as dark grey. The perioptic CSF is surrounded by orbital fat. Contrast between CSF and orbital fat can be improved with fat suppression, increasing the image resolution for the ONSD measurement [12,13]. We have con- firmed...

  16. Micro- and nanodomain imaging in uniaxial ferroelectrics: Joint application of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru; Zelenovskiy, P. S. [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the most effective methods of the domain visualization in model uniaxial ferroelectrics of lithium niobate (LN) and lithium tantalate (LT) family, and relaxor strontium-barium niobate (SBN) have been reviewed in this paper. We have demonstrated the synergetic effect of joint usage of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopies which provide extracting of the unique information about formation of the micro- and nanodomain structures. The methods have been applied for investigation of various types of domain structures with increasing complexity: (1) periodical domain structure in LN and LT, (2) nanodomain structures in LN, LT, and SBN, (3) nanodomain structures in LN with modified surface layer, (4) dendrite domain structure in LN. The self-assembled appearance of quasi-regular nanodomain structures in highly non-equilibrium switching conditions has been considered.

  17. X-ray Surveys and Wide-Field Optical/Near-Infrared Imaging with the Joint Dark Energy Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. N. Brandt

    2004-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    I briefly describe a few important scientific issues that could be addressed effectively via the combination of data from JDEM and X-ray missions. The topics covered are largely focused on active galactic nuclei (AGN) and include (1) the selection of AGN via X-ray emission and optical variability, (2) nuclear outbursts in galaxies due to transient fueling of their supermassive black holes, (3) moderate-luminosity AGN at high redshift (z > 4) found via application of "dropout" techniques to X-ray sources, and (4) the host-galaxy morphologies of X-ray selected AGN. I also describe the substantial challenges to obtaining wide-field X-ray data with sufficient sensitivity to complement JDEM properly.

  18. Electrowetting on liquid-infused film (EWOLF): Complete reversibility and controlled droplet oscillation suppression for fast optical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Chonglei; Chen, Xuemei; He, Yuncheng; Li, Qiusheng; Li, K Y; Wang, Zuankai

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) has emerged as a powerful tool to electrically manipulate tiny individual droplets in a controlled manner. Despite tremendous progress over the past two decades, current EWOD operating in ambient conditions has limited functionalities posing challenges for its applications, including electronic display, energy generation, and microfluidic systems. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm of electrowetting on liquid-infused film (EWOLF) that allows for complete reversibility and tunable transient response simultaneously. We determine that these functionalities in EWOLF are attributed to its novel configuration, which allows for the formation of viscous liquid-liquid interfaces as well as additional wetting ridges, thereby suppressing the contact line pinning and severe droplet oscillation encountered in the conventional EWOD. Finally, by harnessing these functionalities demonstrated in EWOLF, we also explore its application as liquid lens for fast optical focusing.

  19. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  20. Characterization of Glass-Like Fragments from the 3714 Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, Edgar C.

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes characterization of a sample obtained from the 3714 building in the 300 Area. Characterization of this unknown material was required for the demonolition activities in the 300 Area. The object of the study was to dertermine the nature of the material, composition, possible structure, evidence for hazards components. The green material is a sodium alumino-silicate glass. This conclusion is based on the composition provided by SEM-EDS, and the images that suggest a glass-like morphology. Further analysis with Ramin and/or infrared could be used to determine the presence of any organics.

  1. Invariance of Structure in an Aging Colloidal Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gianguido C. Cianci; Rachel E. Courtland; Eric R. Weeks

    2005-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study concentrated colloidal suspensions, a model system which has a glass transition. The non-equilibrium nature of the glassy state is most clearly highlighted by aging -- the dependence of the system's properties on the time elapsed since vitrification. Fast laser scanning confocal microscopy allows us to image a colloidal glass and track the particles in three dimensions. We analyze the static structure in terms of tetrahedral packing. We find that while the aging of the suspension clearly affects its dynamics, none of the geometrical quantities associated with tetrahedra change with age.

  2. Efficient Breach Theory Through the Looking Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Barry E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass (Signet 1960).Theory Through the Looking Glass such an award a put by theTheory Through the Looking Glass Consider also the hoary

  3. Aspects of the mechanics of metallic glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henann, David Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic glasses are amorphous materials that possess unique mechanical properties, such as high tensile strengths and good fracture toughnesses. Also, since they are amorphous, metallic glasses exhibit a glass transition, ...

  4. Accurate glass forming for high-temperature solar applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development work was undertaken to thermally form glass for solar concentrators. Sagging and pressing glass to parabolic shapes was investigated with goal of achieving slope errors less than 2.0 mr RMS and costs of $1.25/ft/sup 2/. In addition, a laminating process was investigated to overcome the problem of silvering of a curved surface and to reduce corrosion of the silver. Thermal sagging is a process in which glass is shaped by heating the glass until it is sufficiently soft to deform under its own weight and conform to a mold. For cylindrical parabolic shapes, a method for producing low cost high accuracy molds was developed using castable ceramics and a grinder. Thermal conditions were established for a commercial glass bending furnace to obtain good replication of the mold. The accuracy and cost goals were met for glass size up to 30 x 30 x 0.125 inches and for low iron and regular iron float and sheet glasses. Lamination of two curved pieces of glass using automotive technology was investigated. A silver film was placed between two layers of polyvinyl and butyral (PVB) and this was used to bond two sheets of glass. Economically, and technically, the process appears feasible. However, the non-uniform thickness of PBV cause distortion in the reflected image. More work is needed to assess accuracy of curved laminated composites. Thermal pressing of glass is accomplished by heating the glass until it is soft and mechanically stamping the shape. Equipment was built and operated to determine important parameters in pressing. Control of thermal stresses in the glass is critical to preventing cracks. No glass pieces were produced without cracks.

  5. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  6. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  7. Refractory Glass Seals for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the critical challenges facing planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is the need for reliable sealing technology. Seals must exhibit long-term stability and mechanical integrity in the high temperature SOFC environment during normal and transient operation. Several different approaches for sealing SOFC stacks are under development, including glass or glass-ceramic seals, metallic brazes, and compressive seals. Among glass seals, rigid glass-ceramics, self-healing glass, and composite glass approaches have been investigated under the SECA Core Technology Program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the refractory glass approach in light of the fact that higher sealing temperatures (e.g., 930-1000 degrees C) may enhance the ultimate in-service bulk strength and electrical conductivity of contact materials, as well as the bonding strength between contact materials and adjacent SOFC components, such as interconnect coatings and electrodes. This report summarizes the thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the refractory sealing glass.

  8. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  9. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

  10. Intracoronary Optical Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowe, Harry C.

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), is a novel intravascular imaging modality analogous to intravascular ultrasound but uses light instead of sound. This review details the background, development, and status of current ...

  11. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

  12. The University of Hawaii Wide Field Imager (UHWFI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus W. Hodapp; Andreas Seifahrt; Gerard A. Luppino; Richard Wainscoat; Ed Sousa; Hubert Yamada; Alan Ryan; Richard Shelton; Mel Inouye; Andrew J. Pickles; Yanko K. Ivanov

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Hawaii Wide-Field Imager (UHWFI) is a focal compressor system designed to project the full half-degree field of the UH 2.2 m telescope onto the refurbished UH 8Kx8K CCD camera. The optics use Ohara glasses and are mounted in an oil-filled cell to minimize light losses and ghost images from the large number of internal lens surfaces. The UHWFI is equipped with a six-position filter wheel and a rotating sector blade shutter,both driven by stepper motors. The instrument saw first light in 2004 in an engineering mode. After filling the lens cell with index matching oil, integration of all software components into the user interface, tuning of the CCD performance, and the purchase of the final filter set, UHWFI is now fully commissioned at the UH 2.2 m telescope.

  13. Using quantum dots to tag subsurface damage in lapped and polished glass samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Wesley B.; Mullany, Brigid A.; Parker, Wesley C.; Moyer, Patrick J.; Randles, Mark H.

    2009-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Grinding, lapping, and polishing are finishing processes used to achieve critical surface parameters in a variety of precision optical and electronic components. As these processes remove material from the surface through mechanical and chemical interactions, they may induce a damaged layer of cracks, voids, and stressed material below the surface. This subsurface damage (SSD) can degrade the performance of a final product by creating optical aberrations due to diffraction, premature failure in oscillating components, and a reduction in the laser induced damage threshold of high energy optics. As these defects lie beneath the surface, they are difficult to detect, and while many methods are available to detect SSD, they can have notable limitations regarding sample size and type, preparation time, or can be destructive in nature. The authors tested a nondestructive method for assessing SSD that consisted of tagging the abrasive slurries used in lapping and polishing with quantum dots (nano-sized fluorescent particles). Subsequent detection of fluorescence on the processed surface is hypothesized to indicate SSD. Quantum dots that were introduced to glass surfaces during the lapping process were retained through subsequent polishing and cleaning processes. The quantum dots were successfully imaged by both wide field and confocal fluorescence microscopy techniques. The detected fluorescence highlighted features that were not observable with optical or interferometric microscopy. Atomic force microscopy and additional confocal microscope analysis indicate that the dots are firmly embedded in the surface but do not appear to travel deep into fractures beneath the surface. Etching of the samples exhibiting fluorescence confirmed that SSD existed. SSD-free samples exposed to quantum dots did not retain the dots in their surfaces, even when polished in the presence of quantum dots.

  14. TESTING THE APODIZED PUPIL LYOT CORONAGRAPH ON THE LABORATORY FOR ADAPTIVE OPTICS EXTREME ADAPTIVE OPTICS TESTBED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Sandrine J.; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald [Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, University of California/Lick Observatories, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Soummer, Remi [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Macintosh, Bruce [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, E-mail: sthomas@ucolick.org, E-mail: dillon@ucolick.org, E-mail: gavel@ucolick.org, E-mail: soummer@stsci.edu, E-mail: macintosh1@mail.llnl.gov, E-mail: anand@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present testbed results of the Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics (LAO). These results are part of the validation and tests of the coronagraph and of the Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). The apodizer component is manufactured with a halftone technique using black chrome microdots on glass. Testing this APLC (like any other coronagraph) requires extremely good wavefront correction, which is obtained to the 1 nm rms level using the microelectricalmechanical systems (MEMS) technology, on the ExAO visible testbed of the LAO at the University of Santa Cruz. We used an APLC coronagraph without central obstruction, both with a reference super-polished flat mirror and with the MEMS to obtain one of the first images of a dark zone in a coronagraphic image with classical adaptive optics using a MEMS deformable mirror (without involving dark hole algorithms). This was done as a complementary test to the GPI coronagraph testbed at American Museum of Natural History, which studied the coronagraph itself without wavefront correction. Because we needed a full aperture, the coronagraph design is very different from the GPI design. We also tested a coronagraph with central obstruction similar to that of GPI. We investigated the performance of the APLC coronagraph and more particularly the effect of the apodizer profile accuracy on the contrast. Finally, we compared the resulting contrast to predictions made with a wavefront propagation model of the testbed to understand the effects of phase and amplitude errors on the final contrast.

  15. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form.

  16. Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based glass composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Baylor, Lewis C. (North Augusta, SC); Whitaker, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tetraethyl orthosilicate-based, sol-gel glass composition with additives selected for various applications. The composition is made by mixing ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, adjusting the pH into the acid range, and aging the mixture at room temperature. The additives, such as an optical indicator, filler, or catalyst, are then added to the mixture to form the composition which can be applied to a substrate before curing. If the additive is an indicator, the light-absorbing characteristics of which vary upon contact with a particular analyte, the indicator can be applied to a lens, optical fiber, reagant strip, or flow cell for use in chemical analysis. Alternatively, an additive such as alumina particles is blended into the mixture to form a filler composition for patching cracks in metal, glass, or ceramic piping.

  17. Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based glass composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Livingston, R.R.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A tetraethyl orthosilicate-based, sol-gel glass composition with additives selected for various applications is described. The composition is made by mixing ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, adjusting the pH into the acid range, and aging the mixture at room temperature. The additives, such as an optical indicator, filler, or catalyst, are then added to the mixture to form the composition which can be applied to a substrate before curing. If the additive is an indicator, the light-absorbing characteristics of which vary upon contact with a particular analyte, the indicator can be applied to a lens, optical fiber, reagent strip, or flow cell for use in chemical analysis. Alternatively, an additive such as alumina particles is blended into the mixture to form a filler composition for patching cracks in metal, glass, or ceramic piping. 12 figs.

  18. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Vienna, John D.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L.

    2001-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

  19. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in vitrified Mn-doped glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Nayak, Rajesh; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh, C., E-mail: santhosh.cls@manipal.edu, E-mail: unnikrishnan.vk@manipal.edu [Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Sonavane, M. S. [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Yeotikar, R. G. [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Shah, M. L.; Gupta, G. P.; Suri, B. M. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an atomic emission spectroscopy method, has rapidly grown as one of the best elemental analysis techniques over the past two decades. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in manganese-doped glasses have been carried out using an optimized LIBS system employing a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser as the source of excitation. The glass samples have been prepared using conventional vitrification methods. The laser pulse irradiance on the surface of the glass samples placed in air at atmospheric pressure was about 1.7×10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}. The spatially integrated plasma emission was collected and imaged on to the spectrograph slit using an optical-fiber-based collection system. Homogeneity was checked by recording LIBS spectra from different sites on the sample surface and analyzing the elemental emission intensities for concentration determination. Validation of the observed LIBS results was done by comparison with scanning electron microscope- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) surface elemental mapping. The analytical performance of the LIBS system has been evaluated through the correlation of the LIBS determined concentrations of Mn with its certified values. The results are found to be in very good agreement with the certified concentrations.

  20. Recent advances in phosphate laser glasses for high power applications. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.H.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses for high-peak-power and high-average-power applications are reviewed. Compositional studies have progressed to the point that glasses can be tailored to have specific properties for specific applications. Non-radiative relaxation effects can be accurately modeled and empirical expressions have been developed to evaluate both intrinsic (structural) and extrinsic (contamination induced) relaxation effects. Losses due to surface scattering and bulk glass absorption have been carefully measured and can be accurately predicted. Improvements in processing have lead to high damage threshold (e.g. Pt inclusion free) and high thermal shock resistant glasses with improved edge claddings. High optical quality pieces up to 79 x 45 x 4 cm{sup 3} have been made and methods for continuous melting laser glass are under development.

  1. Radiation Damage of F8 Lead Glass with 20 MeV Electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, B D; McChesney, P; Shepherd, M R; Frye, J M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a 20 MeV linear accelerator, we investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the optical transparency of F8 lead glass. Specifically, we measure the change in attenuation length as a function of radiation dose. Comparing our results to similar work that utilized a proton beam, we conclude that F8 lead glass is more susceptible to proton damage than electron damage.

  2. Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Faraon; Dirk Englund; Douglas Bulla; Barry Luther-Davies; Benjamin J. Eggleton; Nick Stoltz; Pierre Petroff; Jelena Vuckovic

    2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a method to locally change the refractive index in planar optical devices by photodarkening of a thin chalcogenide glass layer deposited on top of the device. The method is used to tune the resonance of GaAs-based photonic crystal cavities by up to 3 nm at 940 nm, with only 5% deterioration in cavity quality factor. The method has broad applications for postproduction tuning of photonic devices.

  3. Photoinduced phenomena in chalcogenide glasses doped with metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boolchand, Punit

    on relaxation of photodarkening in a-As2Se3 doped with Sn and rare-earth (RE) ions (Dy, Pr, Hon, Sm3 Nd, Er3 for chalcogenide glasses doped with rare-earth ions as perspective materials for fibre optics amplifiers operating and the kinetics ofphotodarkening in amonhous As2Se3:Sn thin films at %) and and AsSe3 doped with rare-earth ions

  4. A Topological Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Pierre Eckmann

    2007-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and study a model with glassy behavior. The state space of the model is given by all triangulations of a sphere with $n$ nodes, half of which are red and half are blue. Red nodes want to have 5 neighbors while blue ones want 7. Energies of nodes with different numbers of neighbors are supposed to be positive. The dynamics is that of flipping the diagonal of two adjacent triangles, with a temperature dependent probability. We show that this system has an approach to a steady state which is exponentially slow, and show that the stationary state is unordered. We also study the local energy landscape and show that it has the hierarchical structure known from spin glasses. Finally, we show that the evolution can be described as that of a rarefied gas with spontaneous generation of particles and annihilating collisions.

  5. Signal and imaging sciences workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candy, J.V.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Papers are presented in the areas of: Medical Technologies; Non-Destructive Evaluation; Applications of Signal/Image Processing; Laser Guide Star and Adaptive Optics; Computational Electromagnetic, Acoustics and Optics; Micro-Impulse Radar Processing; Optical Applications; TANGO Space Shuttle.

  6. Active optical zoom system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  7. Quantum computing in a piece of glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warner A. Miller; Grigoriy Kreymerman; Christopher Tison; Paul M. Alsing; Jonathan R. McDonald

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum gates and simple quantum algorithms can be designed utilizing the diffraction phenomena of a photon within a multiplexed holographic element. The quantum eigenstates we use are the photon's linear momentum (LM) as measured by the number of waves of tilt across the aperture. Two properties of quantum computing within the circuit model make this approach attractive. First, any conditional measurement can be commuted in time with any unitary quantum gate - the timeless nature of quantum computing. Second, photon entanglement can be encoded as a superposition state of a single photon in a higher-dimensional state space afforded by LM. Our theoretical and numerical results indicate that OptiGrate's photo-thermal refractive (PTR) glass is an enabling technology. We will review our previous design of a quantum projection operator and give credence to this approach on a representative quantum gate grounded on coupled-mode theory and numerical simulations, all with parameters consistent with PTR glass. We discuss the strengths (high efficiencies, robustness to environment) and limitations (scalability, crosstalk) of this technology. While not scalable, the utility and robustness of such optical elements for broader quantum information processing applications can be substantial.

  8. Reinforced glass beamsReinforced glass beamsg Auteur Dr. Christian LOUTER 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinforced glass beamsReinforced glass beamsg EDCE Auteur Dr. Christian LOUTER 1 ENAC/EDCE 2011In contemporary architecture glass is increasinglyIn contemporary architecture glass is increasingly applied for structural components such as beamsapplied for structural components such as beams. However glass

  9. Crystallization during processing of nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glassmaking are reviewed.

  10. Sulfate Fining Chemistry in Oxidized and Reduced Soda-Lime-Silica Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Various reducing agents were used and their additions were varied to (1) increase glass quality through eliminating defects from silica scum, (2) decrease SOx emissions through changing the kind and quantity of reducing agents, and (3) improve production efficiency through increased flexibility of glass redox control during continuous processing. The work included measuring silica sand dissolution and sulfate decomposition in melts from glass batches. Glass batches were heated at a temperature-increase rate deemed similar to that experienced in the melting furnace. The sulfate decomposition kinetics was investigated with thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis and evolved gas analysis. Sulfur concentrations in glasses quenched at different temperatures were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The distribution of residual sand (that which was not dissolved during the initial batch reactions) in the glass was obtained as a function of temperature with optical microscopy in thin-sections of melts. The fraction of undissolved sand was measured with X-ray diffraction. The results of the present study helped Visteon Inc. reduce the energy consumption and establish the batch containing 0.118 mass% of graphite as the best candidate for Visteon glass production. The improved glass batch has a lower potential for silica scum formation and for brown fault occurrence in the final glass product. It was established that bubbles trapped in the melt even at 1450 C have a high probability to be refined when reaching the hot zone in the glass furnace. Furthermore, silica sand does not accumulate at the glass surface and dissolves faster in the batch with graphite than in the batch with carbocite.

  11. Corrosion of Partially Crystallized Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Using existing data on corrosion of partially crystallized, simulated, high-level waste glasses, coefficients were introduced to evaluate the cumulative influence of secondary effects, such as residual stresses or concentration gradients on product consistency test response. As compared to predictions based solely on residual glass composition effects, the results showed that cristobalite, eucryptite, and nepheline had a higher-than-predicted impact on glass corrosion, while the effects of baddeleyite, hematite, calcium-zirconium silicate, and zircon were close to those predicted. The effects of acmite and lithium silicate were opposite to those expected based on their compositions. The analysis revealed important limitations of the databases currently available. Better understanding of corrosion phenomena will require quantitative composition data, microscopic characterization of pristine and corroded surfaces, and long-term tests with glass coupons or monoliths.

  12. Chalcogenide glass nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Bradley R. (Richland, WA); Schweiger, Michael J. (Richland, WA); MacIsaac, Brett D. (Kennewick, WA); Sundaram, S. Kamakshi (Richland, WA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chalcogenide nanowires and other micro-and nano scale structures are grown on a preselected portion of on a substrate. They are amorphous and of uniform composition and can be grown by a sublimation-condensation process onto the surface of an amorphous substrate. Among other uses, these structures can be used as coatings on optical fibers, as coatings on implants, as wispering galleries, in electrochemical devices, and in nanolasers.

  13. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  14. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  15. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  16. Single-step in-situ synthesis and optical properties of ZnSe nanostructured dielectric nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Chirantan; Rahaman Molla, Atiar; Tarafder, Anal; Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, 700032 Kolkata (India); Kr Mishra, Manish; De, Goutam [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Nano-Structured Materials Division, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, 700032 Kolkata (India); Goswami, Madhumita; Kothiyal, G. P. [Glass and Advanced Ceramics Division, Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 Mumbai (India)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This work provides the evidence of visible red photoluminescent light emission from ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) grown within a dielectric (borosilicate glass) matrix synthesized by a single step in-situ technique for the first time and the NC sizes were controlled by varying only the concentration of ZnSe in glass matrix. The ZnSe NCs were investigated by UV-Vis optical absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The sizes of the ZnSe NCs estimated from the TEM images are found to alter in the range of 2–53?nm. Their smaller sizes of the NCs were also calculated by using the optical absorption spectra and the effective mass approximation model. The band gap enlargements both for carrier and exciton confinements were evaluated and found to be changed in the range of 0–1.0?eV. The Raman spectroscopic studies showed blue shifted Raman peaks of ZnSe at 295 and 315?cm{sup ?1} indicating phonon confinement effect as well as compressive stress effect on the surface atoms of the NCs. Red photoluminescence in ZnSe-glass nanocomposite reveals a broad multiple-peak structure due to overlapping of emission from NC size related electron-hole recombination (?707?nm) and emissions from defects to traps, which were formed due to Se and Zn vacancies signifying potential application in photonics.

  17. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  18. Optical coherence techniques for plasma spectroscopy ,,invited... J. Howard,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    Optical coherence techniques for plasma spectroscopy ,,invited... J. Howard,a) C. Michael, F. Glass, Australia Presented on 21 June 2000 A new electro-optically modulated optical solid-state MOSS spectrometer plasmas. The instrument is an electro-optically modulated fixed delay polarization interferometer

  19. Imaging Sciences Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candy, J.V.

    1996-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the proceedings of the Imaging Sciences Workshop sponsored by C.A.S.LS., the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences. The Center, established primarily to provide a forum where researchers can freely exchange ideas on the signal and image sciences in a comfortable intellectual environment, has grown over the last two years with the opening of a Reference Library (located in Building 272). The Technical Program for the 1996 Workshop include a variety of efforts in the Imaging Sciences including applications in the Microwave Imaging, highlighted by the Micro-Impulse Radar (MIR) system invented at LLNL, as well as other applications in this area. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Speech, Acoustic Ocean Imaging, Radar Ocean Imaging, Ultrasonic Imaging, and Optical Imaging discuss various applica- tions of real world problems. For the more theoretical, sessions on Imaging Algorithms and Computed Tomography were organized as well as for the more pragmatic featuring a session on Imaging Systems.

  20. Modifying the SiliconModifying the Silicon Imaging ChipImaging Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Film -- image sensor Chip has either the charge-coupled device (CCD) or the complementary metal oxide with release layer Weight #12;Idea two: Photo resistIdea two: Photo resist Glass slide Epoxy TiO2 Glass with release layer Photo resist Hot plate #12;Fix the pressure differencesFix the pressure differences

  1. Main challenges for ITER optical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukolov, K. Yu.; Orlovskiy, I. I.; Alekseev, A. G.; Borisov, A. A.; Andreenko, E. N.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Neverov, V. S. [Tokamak Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The review is made of the problems of ITER optical diagnostics. Most of these problems will be related to the intensive neutron radiation from hot plasma. At a high level of radiation loads the most types of materials gradually change their properties. This effect is most critical for optical diagnostics because of degradation of optical glasses and mirrors. The degradation of mirrors, that collect the light from plasma, basically will be induced by impurity deposition and (or) sputtering by charge exchange atoms. Main attention is paid to the search of glasses for vacuum windows and achromatic lens which are stable under ITER irradiation conditions. The last results of irradiation tests in nuclear reactor of candidate silica glasses KU-1, KS-4V and TF 200 are presented. An additional problem is discussed that deals with the stray light produced by multiple reflections from the first wall of the intense light emitted in the divertor plasma.

  2. Micro-Continuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21. Grambow, B. (2006). Nuclear waste glasses – How durable?Continuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion AugustContinuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion Prepared

  3. Black optic display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical display includes a plurality of stacked optical waveguides having first and second opposite ends collectively defining an image input face and an image screen, respectively, with the screen being oblique to the input face. Each of the waveguides includes a transparent core bound by a cladding layer having a lower index of refraction for effecting internal reflection of image light transmitted into the input face to project an image on the screen, with each of the cladding layers including a cladding cap integrally joined thereto at the waveguide second ends. Each of the cores is beveled at the waveguide second end so that the cladding cap is viewable through the transparent core. Each of the cladding caps is black for absorbing external ambient light incident upon the screen for improving contrast of the image projected internally on the screen.

  4. Video Toroid Cavity Imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, Rex E. II; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.

  5. HLW Glass Studies: Development of Crystal-Tolerant HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In our study, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed on designed glasses of different compositions to further investigate and simulate the effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, Al, Li, and RuO2 on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the HLW melter. The experimental data were used to expand the compositional region covered by an empirical model developed previously (Matyᚠet al. 2010b), improving its predictive performance. We also investigated the mechanism for agglomeration of particles and impact of agglomerates on accumulation rate. In addition, the TL was measured as a function of temperature and composition.

  6. Glass and Glass Products (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartmentCounselGlass Coating Makes Solar Panels MoreGlass and

  7. Sol-gel synthesis of high-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejneka, M.; Riman, R.E.; Snitzer, E. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Ceramics)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride glasses are excellent laser hosts and are very well suited for a broad spectrum of optical applications. However, current fluoride glass synthesis is expensive. The sol-gel method is an affordable alternative for producing high-performance, optical-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses. The method involves forming a hydrous oxide gel of the constituent metal alkoxides and salts, polymerizing the solution to form a gel, fluorinating the gel with anhydrous HF, melting the amorphous material in an oxidizing atmosphere of SF[sub 6], and casting the melt into desired shapes. ZBLA (57ZrF[sub 4] [times] 36BaF[sub 2] [times] 4LaF[sub 3] [times] 3AlF[sub 3], in mol%) and Nd-doped (0.3 mol%) ZBLA glass rods were prepared by this process and their properties were measured. The sol-gel-based glasses had thermal and optical properties similar to those found in the literature for conventionally prepared fluorides.

  8. Collaborative Initiative in Biomedical Imaging to Study Complex Diseases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Weili [The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Fiddy, Michael A. [The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work reported addressed these topics: Fluorescence imaging; Optical coherence tomography; X-ray interferometer/phase imaging system; Quantitative imaging from scattered fields, Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy; and Multiphoton and Raman microscopy.

  9. Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Byungnam; Lee, Byung Cheol [Radiation Integrated System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the close-spaced sublimation growth of polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on a flexible graphene electrode/thin glass substrate structure. Prior to the growth of CdTe films, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was transferred onto a flexible glass substrate and subjected to electron-beam irradiation at an energy of 0.2?MeV in order to intentionally introduce the defects into it in a controlled manner. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements were employed to monitor the damage and disorder in the electron-beam irradiated graphene layers. The morphology and optical properties of the CdTe thin films deposited on a graphene/flexible glass substrate were systematically characterized. The integration of the defective graphene layers with a flexible glass substrate can be a useful platform to grow various thin-film structures for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  10. An Overview of the Structure-Property Relationships in Silicon-Based Oxynitride Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becher, Paul F [ORNL; Hampshire, Stuart [University of Limerick; Pomeroy, Michael [University of Limerick; Hoffmann, M. J. [Universituet Karlsruhe, Germany; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Satet, Raphaella L. [Universituet Karlsruhe, Germany

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The silicon oxynitride glasses take advantage of nitrogen-bonding to attain high elastic modulus, increased softening temperatures and viscosities, greater slow crack growth resistance and modest gains in fracture resistance. Of the oxynitride glasses, the Si-Y-Al based oxynitride glasses have been most extensively studied and a degree of success has been achieved in understanding how changes in glass composition affect structural parameters and their relationship to properties. More recent studies have focused on the Si-RE-Me oxynitride glasses where Me is primarily Al or Mg and RE includes most of the lanthanide series elements. These glasses possess a range of elastic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties, which can be correlated with the strength of the RE bond in terms of the cationic field strength. However, such correlation require knowledge of not only the RE valence state but also its coordination with the anions. Herein, the current state of the art understanding of the properties and structural parameters of oxynitride glasses and their interrelationships are reviewed.

  11. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  12. Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy on Glass-Forming Propylene Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. Schneider; P. Lunkenheimer; R. Brand; A. Loidl

    1998-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric spectroscopy covering more than 18 decades of frequency has been performed on propylene carbonate in its liquid and supercooled-liquid state. Using quasi-optic submillimeter and far-infrared spectroscopy the dielectric response was investigated up to frequencies well into the microscopic regime. We discuss the alpha-process whose characteristic timescale is observed over 14 decades of frequency and the excess wing showing up at frequencies some three decades above the peak frequency. Special attention is given to the high-frequency response of the dielectric loss in the crossover regime between alpha-peak and boson-peak. Similar to our previous results in other glass forming materials we find evidence for additional processes in the crossover regime. However, significant differences concerning the spectral form at high frequencies are found. We compare our results to the susceptibilities obtained from light scattering and to the predictions of various models of the glass transition.

  13. Glass Transition in Confined Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Lang; Vitalie Botan; Martin Oettel; David Hajnal; Thomas Franosch; Rolf Schilling

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Extending mode-coupling theory, we elaborate a microscopic theory for the glass transition of liquids confined between two parallel flat hard walls. The theory contains the standard MCT equations in bulk and in two dimensions as limiting cases and requires as input solely the equilibrium density profile and the structure factors of the fluid in confinement. We evaluate the phase diagram as a function of the distance of the plates for the case of a hard sphere fluid and obtain an oscillatory behavior of the glass transtion line as a result of the structural changes related to layering.

  14. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-81.05.K 1. Introduction Glass foams generated in glass-that the stability of E-glass foam decreased with increasing

  15. INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ALUMINUM IMPACTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION IN U.S. HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P; James Marra, J

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to develop glass formulations for (Department of Energy) DOE waste streams with high aluminum concentrations to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. Liquidus temperatures and crystallization behavior were carefully characterized to support model development for higher waste loading glasses. The experimental work, characterization, and data interpretation necessary to meet these objectives were performed among three partnering laboratories: the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Projected glass compositional regions that bound anticipated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Hanford high level waste (HLW) glass regions of interest were developed and used to generate glass compositions of interest for meeting the objectives of this study. A thorough statistical analysis was employed to allow for a wide range of waste glass compositions to be examined while minimizing the number of glasses that had to be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. The glass compositions were divided into two sets, with 45 in the test matrix investigated by the U.S. laboratories and 30 in the test matrix investigated by KRI. Fabrication and characterization of the US and KRI-series glasses were generally handled separately. This report focuses mainly on the US-series glasses. Glasses were fabricated and characterized by SRNL and PNNL. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses and were generally iron oxides and spinels, which are not expected to impact durability of the glass. Nepheline was detected in five of the glasses after the CCC heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements for each of the glasses were conducted following an analytical plan. A review of the individual oxides for each glass revealed that there were no errors in batching significant enough to impact the outcome of the study. A comparison of the measured compositions of the replicates indicated an acceptable degree of repeatability as the percent differences for most of the oxides were less than 5% and percent differences for all of the oxides were less than 10 wt%. Chemical durability was measured using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All but two of the study glasses had normalized leachate for boron (NL [B]) values that were well below that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass. The two highest NL [B] values were for the CCC versions of glasses US-18 and US-27 (10.498 g/L and 15.962 g/L, respectively). Nepheline crystallization was identified by qualitative XRD in five of the US-series glasses. Each of these five glasses (US-18, US-26, US-27, US-37 and US-43) showed a significant increase in NL [B] values after the CCC heat treatment. This reduction in durability can be attributed to the formation of nepheline during the slow cooling cycle and the removal of glass formers from the residual glass network. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of each glass in the study was determined by both optical microscopy and XRD methods. The correlation coefficient of the measured XRD TL data versus the measured optical TL data was very good (R{sup 2} = 0.9469). Aside from a few outliers, the two datasets aligned very well across the entire temperature range (829 C to 1312 C for optical data and 813 C to 1310 C for XRD crystal fraction data). The data also correlated well with the predictions of a PNNL T{sub L} model. The correlation between the measured and calculated data had a higher degree of merit for the XRD crystal fraction data than for the optical data (higher R{sup 2} value of 0.9089 versus 0.8970 for the optical data). The SEM-EDS analysis of select samples revealed the presence of undissolved RuO{sub 2} in all glasses due to the low solubility of RuO{sub 2} in borosilicate glass. These

  16. The Conservation of Seventeenth Century Archaeological Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arcak, Cory

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    is the only chance for the objects survival. Though glass is considered one of the most stable archaeological materials, noninvasive, reversible treatments are not always possible given the level of deterioration glass objects undergo within the archaeological...

  17. The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbins, Joanna

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Later, I found a huge, blue, glass statue of Jesus stuffedOF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue Aeyes as RED And wrote down BLUE for your hair. I had to fix

  18. Structure glass technology : systems and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitch, Katherine K. (Katherine Kristen)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass cannot compete with steel in terms of strength or durability, but it is the only structural material that offers the highly sought after qualities of translucency and transparency. The use of glass has evolved from ...

  19. Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dane R Spearing, Gary L Smith, SK Sundaram

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review outlines important aspects of crystallization in HLW glasses, such as equilibrium, nucleation, growth, and dissolution. The impact of crystallization on continuous melters and the chemical durability of high-level waste glass are briefly discussed.

  20. Real-time Molecular Study of Bystander Effects of Low dose Low LET radiation Using Living Cell Imaging and Nanoparticale Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, Mohan [UT Health Science Center at San Antonio; Xu, Nancy R [Old Dominion University; Mohan, Sumathy [UT Health Science Center at San Antonio

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study two novel approaches are proposed to investigate precisely the low dose low LET radiation damage and its effect on bystander cells in real time. First, a flow shear model system, which would provide us a near in vivo situation where endothelial cells in the presence of extra cellular matrix experiencing continuous flow shear stress, will be used. Endothelial cells on matri-gel (simulated extra cellular matrix) will be subjected to physiological flow shear (that occurs in normal blood vessels). Second, a unique tool (Single nano particle/single live cell/single molecule microscopy and spectroscopy; Figure A) will be used to track the molecular trafficking by single live cell imaging. Single molecule chemical microscopy allows one to single out and study rare events that otherwise might be lost in assembled average measurement, and monitor many target single molecules simultaneously in real-time. Multi color single novel metal nanoparticle probes allow one to prepare multicolor probes (Figure B) to monitor many single components (events) simultaneously and perform multi-complex analysis in real-time. These nano-particles resist to photo bleaching and hence serve as probes for unlimited timeframe of analysis. Single live cell microscopy allows one to image many single cells simultaneously in real-time. With the combination of these unique tools, we will be able to study under near-physiological conditions the cellular and sub-cellular responses (even subtle changes at one molecule level) to low and very low doses of low LET radiation in real time (milli-second or nano-second) at sub-10 nanometer spatial resolution. This would allow us to precisely identify, at least in part, the molecular mediators that are responsible of radiation damage in the irradiated cells and the mediators that are responsible for initiating the signaling in the neighboring cells. Endothelial cells subjected to flow shear (2 dynes/cm2 or 16 dynes/cm2) and exposed to 0.1, 1 and 10 cGy on coverslips will be examined for (a) low LET radiation-induced alterations of cellular function and its physiological relevance in real time; and (b) radiation damage triggered bystander effect on the neighboring unirradiated cells. First, to determine the low LET radiation induced alteration of cellular function we will examine: (i) the real time transformation of single membrane transporters in single living cells; (ii) the pump efficiency of membrane efflux pump of live cells in real time at the molecular level; (iii) the kinetics of single-ligand receptor interaction on single live cell surface (Figure C); and (iv) alteration in chromosome replication in living cell. Second, to study the radiation triggered bystander responses, we will examine one of the key signaling pathway i.e. TNF- alpha/NF-kappa B mediated signaling. TNF-alpha specific nano particle sensors (green) will be developed to detect the releasing dynamics, transport mechanisms and ligand-receptor binding on live cell surface in real time. A second sensor (blue) will be developed to simultaneously monitor the track of NF-kB inside the cell. The proposed nano-particle optics approach would complement our DOE funded study on biochemical mechanisms of TNF-alpha- NF-kappa B-mediated bystander effect.

  1. Glass Transition and the Coulomb Gap in Electron Glasses M. Muller and L. B. Ioffe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Markus

    Glass Transition and the Coulomb Gap in Electron Glasses M. Mu¨ller and L. B. Ioffe Department December 2004) We establish the connection between the presence of a glass phase and the appearance correlations in a systematic way, we show that in the case of strong disorder a continuous glass transition

  2. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related, both being associated with the limit of kinetic stability of LDA (HDA)

  3. The corrosion behavior of DWPF glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors analyzed the corroded surfaces of reference glasses developed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to characterize their corrosion behavior. The corrosion mechanism of nuclear waste glasses must be known in order to provide source terms describing radionuclide release for performance assessment calculations. Different DWPF reference glasses were corroded under conditions that highlighted various aspects of the corrosion process and led to different extents of corrosion. The glasses corroded by similar mechanisms, and a phenomenological description of their corrosion behavior is presented here. The initial leaching of soluble glass components results in the formation of an amorphous gel layer on the glass surface. The gel layer is a transient phase that transforms into a layer of clay crystallites, which equilibrates with the solution as corrosion continues. The clay layer does not act as a barrier to either water penetration or glass dissolution, which continues beneath it, and may eventually separate from the glass. Solubility limits for glass components may be established by the eventual precipitation of secondary phases; thus, corrosion of the glass becomes controlled by the chemical equilibrium between the solution and the assemblage of secondary phases. In effect, the solution is an intermediate phase through which the glass transforms to an energetically more favorable assemblage of phases. Implications regarding the prediction of long-term glass corrosion behavior are discussed.

  4. High-Temperature Viscosity of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Arrhenius models were developed for glass viscosity within the processing temperature of six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Both local models (for each of the six glass types) and a global model (for the composition region of commercial glasses, i.e., the six glass types taken together) are presented. The models are based on viscosity data previously obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900 C and 1550 C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. First-order models were applied to relate Arrhenius coefficients to the mass fractions of 15 components: SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, PbO, ZnO, Li2O, Na2O, K2O. The R2 is 0.98 for the global model and ranges from .097 to 0.99 for the six local models. The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100 C to 1550 C and viscosity range from 5 to 400 Pa?s.

  5. DURABLE GLASS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.

    2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of natural glasses on geological time scales and ancient glasses for thousands of years is well documented. The necessity to predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to various thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. Advances in the measurement of medium range order (MRO) in glasses has led to the understanding that the molecular structure of a glass, and thus the glass composition, controls the glass durability by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. During the early stages of glass dissolution, a 'gel' layer resembling a membrane forms through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer ages into clay or zeolite minerals by Ostwald ripening. Zeolite mineral assemblages (higher pH and Al{sup 3+} rich glasses) may cause the dissolution rate to increase which is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in the environment. Thermodynamic and structural approaches to the prediction of glass durability are compared versus Ostwald ripening.

  6. The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fadzil, Syazwani Mohd [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, South Korea and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States); Crum, Jarrod [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States); Siong, Khoo Kok; Ngatiman, Mohammad Fadzlee; Said, Riduan Mt [National University of Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Korean spent nuclear fuel will reach the capacity of the available temporary storage by 2016. Pyroprocessing and direct disposal seems to be an alternative way to manage and reuse spent nuclear fuel while avoiding the wet reprocessing technology. Pyroprocessing produces several wastes streams, including metals, salts, and rare earths, which must be converted into stabilized form. A suitable form for rare earth immobilization is borosilicate glass. The borosilicate glass form exhibits excellent durability, allows a high waste loading, and is easy to process. In this work, we combined the rare earths waste of composition (in wt%) 39.2Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–22.7CeO{sub 2}–11.7La{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10.9PrO{sub 2}–1.3Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}–1.3Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–8.1Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–4.8Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a baseline glass of composition 60.2SiO{sub 2}–16.0B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–12.6Na{sub 2}O–3.8Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–5.7CaO–1.7ZrO{sub 2}. Crystallization in waste glasses occurs as the waste loading increases. It may produce complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. To study crystal formation, we initially made glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and then glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% of the complete rare earth mix. Samples were heat-treated for 24 hours at temperatures 800°C to 1150°C in 50°C increments. Quenched samples were analyzed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Stillwellite (LaBSiO{sub 5}) and oxyapatite (Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}) were found in glasses containing La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while oxyapatite (Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26} and NaNd{sub 9}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}) precipitated in glasses with additions of mixed rare earths. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of the glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} were 800°C, 959°C and 986°C, respectively; while T{sub L} was 825°C, 1059°C and 1267°C for glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% addition of mixed rare earth oxides. The component coefficients T{sub B2O3}, T{sub SiO2}, T{sub CaO}, and T{sub RE2O3} were also evaluated using a recently published study.

  7. Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Optical Fibers Optics and Photonics Dr. Palffy-Muhoray Ines Busuladzic Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics The University of Akron April 21, 2008 #12;Outline · History of optical fibers · What are optical fibers? · How are optical fibers made? · Light propagation through optical fibers · Application

  8. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burrows, Keith; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantialmore »investments.« less

  9. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burrows, Keith [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Fthenakis, Vasilis [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantial investments.

  10. Spectroscopy of vanadium (III) doped gallium lanthanum sulphide chalcogenide glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, M; Rutt, H; Hewak, D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vanadium doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass (V:GLS) displays three absorption bands at 580, 730 and 1155 nm identified by photoluminescence excitation measurements. Broad photoluminescence, with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 500 nm, is observed peaking at 1500 nm when exciting at 514, 808 and 1064 nm. The fluorescence lifetime and quantum efficiency at 300 K were measured to be 33.4 us and 4 % respectively. From the available spectroscopic data we propose the vanadium ions valence to be 3+ and be in tetrahedral coordination The results indicate potential for development of a laser or optical amplifier based on V:GLS.

  11. Optical scanning apparatus for indicia imprinted about a cylindrical axis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villarreal, Richard A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical scanner employed in a radioactive environment for reading indicia imprinted about a cylindrical surface of an article by means of an optical system including metallic reflective and mirror surfaces resistant to degradation and discoloration otherwise imparted to glass surfaces exposed to radiation.

  12. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit.

  13. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit. 7 figs.

  14. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Hector (Evans, GA); Bickford, Dennis (Folly Beach, SC)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  15. Previous Dayside Aurora Conjugacy Investigations Optical-Non-optical comparisons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fillingim, Matthew

    Dayside Aurora Conjugacy Investigations Optical-Non-optical comparisons: · Dickinson et al., 1986, compared low-altitude satellite particle data to ground-based images · Northern hemisphere aurora poleward of southern aurora · Technique only sensitive to shifts in latitude · Mende et al., 1990, compared ground

  16. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  17. Controlled-Resonant Surface Tapping-Mode Scanning Probe Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, Matthias [ORNL] [ORNL; Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL] [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL] [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the advancement of a controlled-resonance surface tapping-mode single capillary liquid junction extraction/ESI emitter for mass spectrometry imaging. The basic instrumental setup and the general operation of the system were discussed and optimized performance metrics were presented. The ability to spot sample, lane scan and chemically image in an automated and controlled fashion were demonstrated. Rapid, automated spot sampling was demonstrated for a variety of compound types including the cationic dye basic blue 7, the oligosaccharide cellopentaose, and the protein equine heart cytochrome c. The system was used for lane scanning and chemical imaging of the cationic dye crystal violet in inked lines on glass and for lipid distributions in mouse brain thin tissue sections. Imaging of the lipids in mouse brain tissue under optimized conditions provided a spatial resolution of approximately 35 m based on the ability to distinguish between features observed both in the optical and mass spectral chemical images. The sampling spatial resolution of this system was comparable to the best resolution that has been reported for other types of atmospheric pressure liquid extraction-based surface sampling/ionization techniques used for mass spectrometry imaging.

  18. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  19. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  20. Glass Transition, Cooperativity and Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salez, Thomas; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the physical ideas of molecular crowding and resultant cooperative motion, and address the effects of free interfaces on dynamics. First, we obtain a simple scaling expression for the diverging number of particles taking part in bulk cooperative relaxation as the system approaches kinetic arrest, and in doing so provide a robust derivation of the Adam and Gibbs description of cooperative dynamics. Then, by including thermal expansivity of the material, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, we predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length $\\xi$ of bulk relaxation, and explore the influence of sample boundaries on the glassy dynamics when the system size becomes comparable to $\\xi$. The theory is in full agreement with measurements of the glass transition temperature of thin polystyrene films. This agreement comes with two adjustable parameters, the critical interparticle distance and the Vogel temperature. Alth...

  1. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis

    2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, that describes the gluon content of a high energy hadron or nucleus, in the saturation regime. The emphasis is put on applications to high energy heavy ion collisions. After describing initial state factorization, we discuss the Glasma phase, that precedes the formation of an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. We end this review with a presentation of recent developments in the study of the isotropization and thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma.

  2. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  3. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI); Sitzman, Gary W. (Walled Lake, MI)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet.

  4. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

  5. Self-fabricated single mode waveguide in fluoride glass excited by self-channeled plasma filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jae-Goo; Whang, Kyoung-Hyun [Nano Machining Laboratory, Korea Institute of Machinery and Material (KIMM), 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-fabricated permanent structure of single mode waveguide in optical fluoride glasses was demonstrated using the self-channeled plasma filament excited by a femtosecond (130 fs) Ti:sapphire laser ({lambda}{sub p}=790 nm). The photoinduced refractive index modification in ZrF{sub 4}-BaF{sub 2}-LaF{sub 3}-AlF{sub 3}-NaF glasses reached a length of approximately 10-15 mm from the input surface of the optical glass with the diameters ranging from 5 to 8 {mu}m at the input intensities of more than 1.0x10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}. The graded refractive index profiles were fabricated to be a symmetric form from the center of optical fluoride glass, and a maximum value of refractive index change ({delta}n) was measured to be 1.3x10{sup -2}. The beam profile of the output beam transmitted through the modified region showed that the photoinduced refractive index modification produced a permanent structure of single mode waveguide.

  6. Extreme nonlinear optical enhancement in chalcogenide glass fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    in a bowtie configuration. Our simula- tions show that the proposed nanostructured fiber supports a guided a periodic array of triangle-shaped metallic nanowires, with an orientation akin to so-called "bowtie" nanoantennas [13]. Coincidentally, the bowtie configuration is known to be very effective for yielding strong

  7. Integrated Optoelectronics in an Optical Fiber J. V. Badding*a,d

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalan, Venkatraman

    Integrated Optoelectronics in an Optical Fiber J. V. Badding*a,d , P. J. Saziob , V. Gopalanc.d , A Integration of semiconductor and metal structures into optical fibers to enable fusion of semiconductor optoelectronic function with glass optical fibers is discussed. A chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-like process

  8. Chemically strengthened protection glasses for the applications of space solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H. F., E-mail: whf2008@dhu.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang District, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xing, G. Z., E-mail: guozhong.xing@unsw.edu.au; Zhang, L.; Li, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Wang, X. Y. [Department of Civil Engineering, Northeast Dianli University, Jilin 132012 (China)] [Department of Civil Engineering, Northeast Dianli University, Jilin 132012 (China); Zhang, L. L. [Zhuhai College of Jilin University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, 519041 (China)] [Zhuhai College of Jilin University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, 519041 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of chemically strengthened processing and the ion beam irradiation on the mechanical characteristics of space solar cell protection glasses are investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis and micro hardness instrument; also the corresponding optical properties were analyzed by utilizing the UV/visible spectrophotometer. The results suggest that the flexural strength, fracture toughness and surface characteristics are enhanced via the chemical strengthening process. Importantly, such process has a trivial influence with ?0.2% degradation on the transparency of chemically strengthened glasses in the band range of 350 ? 1000 nm, while exhibits an excellent resistance on radiation damage by ion beams bombardment, demonstrating an outstanding durability in the space radiation environment.

  9. Glass formation and the third harmonic generation of Cu{sub 2}Se–GeSe{sub 2}–As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reshak, A. H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies-Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Klymovych, O. S.; Zmiy, O. F. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Voli Av. 13, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Myronchuk, G. L.; Zamuruyeva, O. V. [Department of Physics, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Voli Av. 13, 43025 Lutsk (Ukraine); Alahmed, Z. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chyský, J.; Bila, Jiri [Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kamarudin, H. [Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties namely the third harmonic generation (THG) of the glass-formation region in the Cu{sub 2}Se–GeSe{sub 2}–As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system. The samples were synthesized by direct single-temperature method from high-purity elementary substances. We have found that the value of disorder parameter ? depends on the composition of the glassy alloys. The measurements show that increasing the Cu{sub 2}Se concentration leads to increased slope of the absorption edge, which may be explained by the decrease of the height of random potential relief for the electrons in the tails of the state density which border the band edges. A very sharp increase in the THG at low temperature was observed. Significant enhancement in THG was obtained with decreasing the energy gap, which agreed well with the nonlinear optical susceptibilities obtained from other glasses.

  10. Interactive optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

  11. Interactive optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

  12. Tomographic location of potential melt-bearing phenocrysts in lunar glass spherules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebel, D.S.; Fogel, R.A.; Rivers, M.L. (AMNH); (UC)

    2005-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Apollo 17 orange glass spherules contain olivine phenocrysts with melt inclusions from depth. Tomography (<2micron/pxl) of >200 spherules located 1 phenocryst. We will try to find melt inclusions and obtain original magma volatiles and compositions. In 1971, Apollo 17 astronauts collected a 10 cm soil sample (74220) comprised almost entirely of orange glass spherules. Below this, a double drive-tube core sampled a 68 cm thick horizon comprised of orange glass and black beads (crystallized equivalents of orange glass). Primitive lunar glass spherules (e.g.-A17 orange glasses) are thought to represent ejecta from lunar mare fire fountains. The fire-fountains were apparently driven by a combination of C-O gas exsolution from orange glass melt and the oxidation of graphite. Upon eruption, magmas lost their volatiles (e.g., S, CO, CO{sub 2}) to space. Evidence for volatile escape remains as volatile-rich coatings on the exteriors of many spherules. Moreover, it showed that Type I and II Fe-Ni-rich metal particles found within orange glass olivine phenocrysts, or free-floating in the glass itself, are powerful evidence for the volatile driving force for lunar fire fountains. More direct evidence for the volatile mechanism has yet to be uncovered. Issues remaining include: the exact composition of magmatic volatiles; the hypothesized existence of graphite in the magma; the oxygen fugacity of the magma and of the lunar interior. In 1996 reported a single {approx}450 micron, equant olivine phenocryst, containing four glassy melt inclusions (or inclusion cores), the largest {approx}30micron in size, in a thin section of the 74001/2 drill core. The melt is assumed to sample the parent magma of the lunar basalts at depth, evidenced by the S content of the inclusion (600 ppm) which is 400 ppm greater than that of the orange glass host. Such melts potentially contain a full complement of the volatile components of the parent magma, which can be analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Although the A17 orange glass magma is thought to derive from {approx} 400 km depth, the calculations imply a 4 km depth of graphite oxidation (and melt saturation in C-O volatiles) during ascent. We have imaged several hundred similar orange glass spherules, from sample 74220,764, using synchrotron x-ray computer-aided microtomography (XRCMT). Our goals: (1) locate similar phenocrysts containing melt inclusions; (2) analyze phenocrysts to understand the evolution of the magma; (3) analyze melt and fluid inclusions using EPMA and FTIR to obtain direct evidence of magmatic volatiles and pristine bulk compositions.

  13. ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report, August 2007 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRS Issuesof the U.S. Glass

  14. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  15. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  16. 68 Glass Technology Vol. 45 No. 2 April 2004 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 69 July 2003 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 69 July 2003 Glass Technol., 2004, 45, 6870

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    68 Glass Technology Vol. 45 No. 2 April 2004 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 6­9 July 2003 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 6­9 July 2003 Glass Technol., 2004, 45, 68­70 The behaviour of a simulant Magnox waste glass

  17. Deep Illumination Angular Domain Imaging within Highly Scattering Media Enhanced by Image Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    tissue damage and increasing cancer risks proportionate to the cumulative dose of radiation applied [2 techniques to enhance the spatial image resolution and image contrast and to reduce noise. Keywords: Optical tomography, Angular Domain Imaging, Deep Illumination, Lasers, Tissue Optics, angular filter, Silicon

  18. Radiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Viskanta, Raymond

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. L. Drolen, “Thermal radiation in particulate media withRadiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubblesthermophysical properties and radiation characteristics of

  19. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Xu, Wei; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  20. High-Temperature Viscosity Of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; See, Clem A.; Lam, Oanh P.; Minister, Kevin B.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity was measured for six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Viscosity data were obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900°C and 1550°C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. Arrhenius coefficients were calculated for individual glasses and linear models were applied to relate them to the mass fractions of 11 major components (SiO2, CaO, Na2O, Al2O3, B2O3, BaO, SrO, K2O, MgO, PbO, and ZrO2) and 12 minor components (Fe2O3, ZnO, Li2O, TiO2, CeO2, F, Sb2O3, Cr2O3, As2O3, MnO2, SO3, and Co3O4). The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100°C to 1550°C and viscosity range from 10 to 400 Pa?s.

  1. Waste Glass Corrosion: Some Open Questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Yeager, John D.

    2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An equation for time evolution of glass corrosion in a closed system is proposed. Examples of fitting this equation to vapor-hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test data are shown. It is argued that the stage of accelerated corrosion of waste glass is a temporary spike caused by a transition to a different mechanism (not associated solely with high-alumina content in glass) and followed by slower steady corrosion. The effect of temperature and glass composition on the VHT rate of corrosion is evaluated. Results of different corrosion tests are compared. Progress towards a frame-indifferent rate equation is outlined.

  2. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working at ALS Beamline 8.3.2, researchers from Berkeley Lab and the Imperial College London have created bioactive glass scaffolds that mirror nature's efficient materials. The...

  3. Thin optic surface analysis for high resolution X-ray telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akilian, Mireille

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The art of glass developed throughout the years has covered artifacts ranging from crude ornaments to high precision optics used in flat panel displays, hard disk drives, and x-ray telescopes. Methods for manufacturing ...

  4. Near-field scanning optical microscopy as a simultaneous probe of fields and band structure of photonic crystals: A computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    optical microscopy NSOM imaging to simultaneously obtain both the eigenfield distribution and the band

  5. A method for the frequency control in time-resolved two-dimensional gigahertz surface acoustic wave imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaneko, Shogo; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu, E-mail: omatsuda@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)] [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an extension of the time-resolved two-dimensional gigahertz surface acoustic wave imaging based on the optical pump-probe technique with periodic light source at a fixed repetition frequency. Usually such imaging measurement may generate and detect acoustic waves with their frequencies only at or near the integer multiples of the repetition frequency. Here we propose a method which utilizes the amplitude modulation of the excitation pulse train to modify the generation frequency free from the mentioned limitation, and allows for the first time the discrimination of the resulted upper- and lower-side-band frequency components in the detection. The validity of the method is demonstrated in a simple measurement on an isotropic glass plate covered by a metal thin film to extract the dispersion curves of the surface acoustic waves.

  6. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallman, Clifford S. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  7. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  8. Draining our Glass: An Energy and Heat Characterization of Google Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    Draining our Glass: An Energy and Heat Characterization of Google Glass Robert LiKamWa, Zhen Wang, such as hands-free video chat and web search. However, its shape also hampers its potential: (1) battery size characterizing the Glass system. Others have documented technical specifica- tions [22], privacy, security

  9. Introduction and Motivation Structural Model for Laminated Glass Beams Conclusions and Outlook of Laminated Glass Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Components of Crystalline Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor crystalline solar cells encapsulant front glass Reference: Schulze, S.-H.; Pander, M.; Naumenko, K.; Altenbach, H and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin

  10. Solar optical materials for innovative window design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New and innovative optical materials and coatings can greatly improve the efficiency of window energy systems. These potential materials and coatings increase energy efficiency by reducing radiative losses in the infrared, or reducing visible reflection losses or controlling overheating due to solar gain. Current progress in heat mirror coatings for glass and polymeric substrates is presented. Highly doped semiconducting oxides and metal/dielectric interference coatings are reviewed. Physical and optical properties are outlined for antireflection films and transparent aerogel insulation media. The potential for optical switching films as window elements includes discussions of electrochromic, photochromic and other physical switching processes.

  11. An optical fan for light beams for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi-Yuan Zhou; Yan Li; Dong-Sheng Ding; Yun-Kun Jiang; Wei Zhang; Shuai Shi; Bao-Sen Shi; Guang-Can Guo

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The polarization and orbital angular momentum properties of light are of great importance in optical science and technology in the fields of high precision optical measurements and high capacity and high speed optical communications. Here we show, a totally new method, based on a combination of these two properties and using the thermal dispersion and electro-optical effect of birefringent crystals, the construction of a simple and robust scheme to rotate a light beam like a fan. Using a computer-based digital image processing technique, we determine the temperature and the thermal dispersion difference of the crystal with high resolution. We also use the rotation phenomenon to realize thermo-optic and electro-optic switches. The basic operating principles for measurement and switching processes are presented in detail. The methods developed here will have wide practical applicability in various fields, including remote sensing, materials science and optical communication networks.

  12. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, S.D.; Marshall, K.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite optical devices are disclosed using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T[sub g]) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device. 7 figures.

  13. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY); Marshall, Kenneth L. (Henrietta, NY); Cerqua, Kathleen A. (Fairport, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite optical devices using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T.sub.g) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device.

  14. Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foucher, C.; Guilhabert, B.; Laurand, N.; Dawson, M. D. [Institute of Photonics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanically flexible and wavelength-tunable laser with an ultra-thin glass membrane as substrate is demonstrated. The optically pumped hybrid device has a distributed feedback cavity that combines a colloidal quantum dot gain film with a grating-patterned polymeric underlayer, all on a 30-?m thick glass sheet. The total thickness of the structure is only 75??m. The hybrid laser has an average threshold fluence of 450?±?80??J/cm{sup 2} (for 5-ns excitation pulses) at an emitting wavelength of 607?nm. Mechanically bending the thin-glass substrate enables continuous tuning of the laser emission wavelength over an 18-nm range, from 600?nm to 618?nm. The correlation between the wavelength tunability and the mechanical properties of the thin laser structure is verified theoretically and experimentally.

  15. Projection optics box

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA); Malsbury, Terry (Tracy, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Parker, John M. (Tracy, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  16. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transport in a machinable glass-ceramic”, Journal of Non-in soda-lime-silicate glasses by reaction with hydrogen”,1971. [16] I. Fanderlik, Glass Science and Technology, Vol.

  17. Chapter 6 Simulations of Amorphous Polyethylene Glass Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    112 Chapter 6 Simulations of Amorphous Polyethylene Glass Transition 6.1 Introduction Amorphous and characterized. Although various macroscopic properties around and below the glass transition temperature have been extensively investigated experimentally, the phenomena of glass transition and relaxation

  18. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  19. The quantum Biroli-Mézard model: glass transition and superfluidity in a quantum lattice glass model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Foini; Guilhem Semerjian; Francesco Zamponi

    2011-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the quantum version of a lattice model whose classical counterpart captures the physics of structural glasses. We discuss the role of quantum fluctuations in such systems and in particular their interplay with the amorphous order developed in the glass phase. We show that quantum fluctuations might facilitate the formation of the glass at low enough temperature. We also show that the glass transition becomes a first-order transition between a superfluid and an insulating glass at very low temperature, and is therefore accompanied by phase coexistence between superfluid and glassy regions.

  20. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration.

  1. Direct conversion of halogen-containing wastes to borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Rudolph, J.C.

    1996-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass has become a preferred waste form worldwide for radioactive wastes: however, there are limitations. Halogen-containing wastes can not be converted to glass because halogens form poor-quality waste glasses. Furthermore, halides in glass melters often form second phases that create operating problems. A new waste vitrification process, the Glass Material Oxidation and dissolution System (GMODS), removes these limitations by converting halogen-containing wastes into borosilicate glass and a secondary, clean, sodium-halide stream.

  2. Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Misture

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.

  3. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method uses the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality.

  4. Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The irradiation of metallic glasses to induce nanocrystallization was studied in two metallic glass compositions, Cu50Zr45Ti5 and Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5. Atomic mobility was described using a model based on localized excess free volume due to displace...

  5. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method are described for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method use the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality. 2 figures.

  6. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  7. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  8. Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fig. 9-1 Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque) and frame made of metal (radiopaque). #12;Fig. 9-2 Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque) and frame made of plastic (radiolucent). #12;Fig. 9-3 Metal frame of eyeglasses (radiopaque). The eyeglass lens is made of plastic (radiolucent). #12;Fig. 9-4 Cotton roll

  9. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erwin, D.N.; Kiel, J.L.; Batishko, C.R.; Stahl, K.A.

    1990-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopic imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber. 22 figs.

  10. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erwin, David N. (San Antonio, TX); Kiel, Johnathan L. (San Antonio, TX); Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Stahl, Kurt A. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopie imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber.

  11. Crystallization in simulated glasses from Hanford high-level nuclear waste composition range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, P.; Smith, D.E.; Schweiger, M.J.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass crystallization was investigated as part of a property-composition relationship study of Hanford waste glasses. Non-radioactive glass samples were heated in a gradient furnace over a wide range of temperatures. The liquidus temperature was measured, and primary crystalline phases were determined using optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM/EDS). Samples have also been heat treated according to a simulated canister centerline cooling curve. The crystalline phases in these samples have been identified by optical microscopy, SEM/EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Major components of the borosilicate glasses that were melted at approximately 1150{degrees}C were SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, and ``Others`` (sum of minor components). The major crystalline phases identified in this study were zircon, nepheline, calcium silicate, lithium silicate, and a range of solid solutions from clinopyroxenes, orthopyroxenes, olivines, and spiners.

  12. California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal Comfort California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal Comfort April 18, 2013 - 12:00am...

  13. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie, 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location Glass...

  14. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  15. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations. Abstract:...

  16. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in...

  17. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

  18. aluminum hlw glasses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 122 Glass Forming...

  19. andesitic glass comparison: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 59 Glass Forming...

  20. ajakirja stained glass: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 122 Glass Forming...

  1. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  2. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2 and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  3. A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

    1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

  4. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  5. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 2 figs.

  6. Heat capacity at the glass transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostya Trachenko; Vadim Brazhkin

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental problem of glass transition is to explain the jump of heat capacity at the glass transition temperature $T_g$ without asserting the existence of a distinct solid glass phase. This problem is also common to other disordered systems, including spin glasses. We propose that if $T_g$ is defined as the temperature at which the liquid stops relaxing at the experimental time scale, the jump of heat capacity at $T_g$ follows as a necessary consequence due to the change of system's elastic, vibrational and thermal properties. In this picture, we discuss time-dependent effects of glass transition, and identify three distinct regimes of relaxation. Our approach explains widely observed logarithmic increase of $T_g$ with the quench rate and the correlation of heat capacity jump with liquid fragility.

  7. Rhenium Solubility in Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glass: Implications for the Processing and Immobilization of Technetium-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The immobilization of 99Tc in a suitable host matrix has proved to be an arduous task for the researchers in nuclear waste community around the world. At the Hanford site in Washington State, the total amount of 99Tc in low-activity waste (LAW) is ~1300 kg and the current strategy is to immobilize the 99Tc in borosilicate glass with vitrification. In this context, the present article reports on the solubility/retention of rhenium, a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc, in a LAW borosilicate glass. Due to the radioactive nature of technetium, rhenium was chosen as a simulant because of the similarity between their ionic radii and other chemical aspects. The glasses containing Re (0 – 10,000 ppm by mass) were synthesized in vacuum-sealed quartz ampoules in order to minimize the loss of Re by volatilization during melting at 1000 °C. The rhenium was found to predominantly exist as Re (VII) in all the glasses as observed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The solubility of Re in borosilicate glasses was determined to be ~3000 ppm (by mass) with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). At higher rhenium concentrations, some additional material was retained in the glasses in the form of crystalline inclusions that were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser ablation-ICP mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The implications of these results on the immobilization of 99Tc from radioactive wastes in borosilicate glasses have been discussed.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Fluoride Glass Fibers James Colaizzi, M. John Matthewson, Tariq Iqbal, and Mahmoud R. Shahriari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    #12;Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Fluoride Glass Fibers James Colaizzi, M. John Matthewson solutions of various pH values on the mechanical properties of polymer coated optical fibers of an aluminum to failure of the fiber. In static fatigue, the time to failure of the aluminum fluoride-based fibers

  9. Intense 1.6 ?m fluorescence of Nd{sup 3+} doped cadmium bismuth silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, I., E-mail: ip-gjust@yahoo.com; Agarwal, A., E-mail: ip-gjust@yahoo.com; Sanghi, S., E-mail: ip-gjust@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001, Haryana (India); Bhardwaj, S. [Department of Physics, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Sonepat-131093, Haryana (India); Sanjay [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, Rawal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Fridabad-121006, Haryana (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, Judd-Ofelt analysis is applied to rare-earth (RE = Nd{sup 3+}) doped cadmium bismuth silicate (20CdO?xSiO{sub 2}?(79.5?x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}?0.5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CSBN)) glasses in order to evaluate their potential as well as both glass laser systems and optical materials. The phenomenological Judd-Ofelt parameters (?{sub 2}, ?{sub 4}, ?{sub 6}) are determined for RE ions with their quality factors and compared with the equivalent parameters for several other hosts. The calculated value of stimulated emission cross-section for {sup 4}F{sub 3/2}?{sup 4}I{sub 11/2} has high and varies 14.72×10{sup ?20} to 9.66×10{sup ?20} cm{sup 2} with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in the host glass. The results point out that the glass system is good candidate for the development of photonics devices which are operating near infrared spectral range. Further, the FTIR results reveal that the glasses have BiO{sub 6}, SiO{sub 4} and non-bridging oxygen as local structure.

  10. Full spectrum optical safeguard

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical safeguard device with two linear variable Fabry-Perot filters aligned relative to a light source with at least one of the filters having a nonlinear dielectric constant material such that, when a light source produces a sufficiently high intensity light, the light alters the characteristics of the nonlinear dielectric constant material to reduce the intensity of light impacting a connected optical sensor. The device can be incorporated into an imaging system on a moving platform, such as an aircraft or satellite.

  11. Multispectral Imaging At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose BendMiasoleTremor(Question) | Open EnergyEnergy Information

  12. Glass Working, Use and Discard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Paul

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooney 1960: 13). 4. Lost wax. There remains the question ofexist and seem to have been made by the lost wax process.In this method, a wax image of the object was produced and

  13. Glass-Coated Beryllium Mirrors for the LHCb RICH1 Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barber, G J; Cameron, W; D'Ambrosio, C; Frei, C; Harnew, N; Head, R; Khimitch, Y P; Khmelnikov, V A; Loveridge, P W; Metlica, F; Obraztsov, V F; Piedigrossi, D; Sizenev, V; Kompozit Joint Stock Company, Moscow, Russia; Szczypka, P M; Ullaland, O; Vygosky, E; Websdale, D M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, manufacture and testing of lightweight glass-coated beryllium spherical converging mirrors for the RICH1 detector of LHCb are described. The mirrors need to be lightweight to minimize the material budget and fluorocarbon-compatible to avoid degradation in the RICH1 C4F10 gas radiator. Results of the optical measurements for the small-sized prototypes and for the first full-sized prototype mirror are reported.

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  15. Imaging | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mössbauer Spectroscopic Study. Nepheline crystallization in boron-rich alumino-silicate glasses as investigated by multi-nuclear NMR, Raman, & Mö Abstract: A...

  16. Glass for sealing lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leedecke, C.J.

    1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  17. Ultrathin optical panel and a method of making an ultrathin optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biscardi, Cyrus (Bellport, NY); Brewster, Calvin (North Patchogue, NY); DeSanto, Leonard (Patchogue, NY); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated with a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

  18. Ultrathin Optical Panel And A Method Of Making An Ultrathin Optical Panel.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biscardi, Cyrus (Bellport, NY); Brewster, Calvin (North Patchoque, NY); DeSanto, Leonard (Patchoque, NY); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated with a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

  19. Ultrathin optical panel and a method of making an ultrathin optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biscardi, Cyrus (Bellport, NY); Brewster, Calvin (North Patchogue, NY); DeSanto, Leonard (Patchogue, NY); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated With a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

  20. Ultrathin optical panel and a method of making an ultrathin optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biscardi, Cyrus (Bellport, NY); Brewster, Calvin (North Patchogue, NY); DeSanto, Leonard (Patchogue, NY); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2001-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated with a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

  1. Ultrathin Optical Panel And A Method Of Making An Ultrathin Optical Panel.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biscardi, Cyrus (Bellport, NY); Brewster, Calvin (North Patchogue, NY); DeSanto, Leonard (Patchogue, NY); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated with a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

  2. HGMS: Glasses and Nanocomposites for Hydrogen Storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinska, Kris [PI] [PI; Hemmers, Oliver

    2013-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project is to fabricate and investigate different glass systems and glass-derived nanocrystalline composite materials. These glass-based, two-phased materials will contain nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen and be of potential interest as hydrogen storage media. The glass materials with intrinsic void spaces that are able to precipitate functional nanocrystals capable to attract hydrogen are of particular interest. Proposed previously, but never practically implemented, one of promising concepts for storing hydrogen are micro-containers built of glass and shaped into hollow microspheres. The project expanded this concept to the exploration of glass-derived nanocrystalline composites as potential hydrogen storage media. It is known that the most desirable materials for hydrogen storage do not interact chemically with hydrogen and possess a high surface area to host substantial amounts of hydrogen. Glasses are built of disordered networks with ample void spaces that make them permeable to hydrogen even at room temperature. Glass-derived nanocrystalline composites (two-phased materials), combination of glasses (networks with ample voids) and functional nanocrystals (capable to attract hydrogen), appear to be promising candidates for hydrogen storage media. Key advantages of glass materials include simplicity of preparation, flexibility of composition, chemical durability, non-toxicity and mechanical strength, as well as low production costs and environmental friendliness. This project encompasses a fundamental research into physics and chemistry of glasses and nanocrystalline composite materials, derived from glass. Studies are aimed to answer questions essential for considering glass-based materials and composites as potential hydrogen storage media. Of particular interest are two-phased materials that combine glasses with intrinsic voids spaces for physisorption of hydrogen and nanocrystals capable of chemisorption. This project does not directly address any hydrogen storage technical barriers or targets in terms of numbers. Specifically, hydrogen sorption and desorption tests or kinetics measurements were not part of the project scope. However, the insights gained from these studies could help to answer fundamental questions necessary for considering glass-based materials as hydrogen storage media and could be applied indirectly towards the DOE hydrogen storage technical targets such as system weight and volume, system cost and energy density. Such questions are: Can specific macro-crystals, proven to attract hydrogen when in a macroscopic form (bulk), be nucleated in glass matrices as nanocrystals to create two-phased materials? What are suitable compositions that enable to synthetize glass-based, two-phase materials with nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen via surface or bulk interactions? What are the limits of controlling the microstructure of these materials, especially limits for nanocrystals density and size? Finally, from a technological point of view, the fabrication of glass-derived nanocomposites that we explore is a very simple, fast and inexpensive process that does not require costly or specialized equipment which is an important factor for practical applications.

  3. Glass ceramic-to-metal seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65 to 80% SiO/sub 2/, 8 to 16% Li/sub 2/O, 2 to 8% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 1 to 8% K/sub 2/O, 1 to 5% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and 1.5 to 7% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to caus growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  4. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  5. Influence of high magnetic field on the luminescence of Eu{sup 3+}-doped glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Weibo; Chen, Ping; Xu, Beibei; Zheng, Shuhong; Guo, Qiangbing; Liu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xfliu@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: qjr@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zhang, Junpei; Han, Junbo [Wuhan National High Magnetic field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Qiu, Jianrong, E-mail: xfliu@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: qjr@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Rare earth (RE) doped materials have been widely exploited as the intriguing electronic configuration of RE ions offers diverse functionalities from optics to magnetism. However, the coupling of magnetism with photoluminescence (PL) in such materials has been rarely reported in spite of its fundamental significance. In the present paper, the effect of high pulsed magnetic field on the photoluminescence intensity of Eu{sup 3+}-doped nano-glass-ceramics has been investigated. In our experiment, Eu-doped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramic were prepared by the conventional melt-quenching process and controlled heat treatment. The results demonstrate that the integrated PL intensity of Eu{sup 3+} decreases with the enhancement of magnetic field, which can be interpreted in terms of cooperation effect of Zeeman splitting and magnetic field induced change in site symmetry. Furthermore, as a result of Zeeman splitting, both blue and red shift in the emission peaks of Eu{sup 3+} can be observed, and this effect becomes more prominent with the increase of magnetic field. Possible mechanisms associated with the observed magneto-optical behaviors are suggested. The results of the present paper may open a new gate for modulation of luminescence by magnetic field and remote optical detection of magnetic field.

  6. advanced optical diagnostics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high radiation area non-serviceable area passive components optics only, no active electronics transmit image through flexible fiber bundle 12;New...

  7. astronomical optical polarimeter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    David 4 The IRCAL Polarimeter: Design, Calibration, and Data Reduction for an Adaptive Optics Imaging Polarimeter Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: We have upgraded IRCAL, the...

  8. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described and claimed in the specification relates to the discovery that effective addition of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] to a lead phosphate glass results in a glass having enhanced chemical durability and physical stability, and consists essentially of the glass resulting from melting a mixture consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 40--66 percent PbO, 30--55 percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and an effective concentration up to 12 percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3].

  9. Rheology of spinel sludge in molten glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mika, M (.); Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schweiger, M J. (.)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinel sludge, which forms while vitrifying high-level waste, obstructs the flow of molten glass and damages the melter. The effectiveness of removing spinel sludge from a high-level waste glass melter depends on its rheological behavior. We prepared spinel sludge in a laboratory crucible by allowing spinel to settle from molten glass and measured the response of the sludge to shear using a rotating spindle viscometer. The shear stress increased nonlinearly with the velocity gradient (the shear rate) and with time at a constant velocity gradient, as is typical for a pseudoplastic rheopectic liquid. The apparent viscosity of the sludge substantially increased when RuO-2 needles were present.

  10. MicroSight Optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. MicroSight Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. Pedestal substrate for coated optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA); Malsbury, Terry N. (Tracy, CA); Patterson, Steven R. (Concord, NC)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  13. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  14. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

  15. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samuels, W. D. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  16. Film Formation Mechanism in Glass Lubrication by Polymer Latex Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    coatings by tin dioxide resulting in glass bottle lubrication was investigated on flat glass. The anchoring contacts between glass bottles on production lines and transport affect both their mechanical strength and visual aspect. To improve their scratch resistance and prevent surface damage, glass bottles

  17. Dissolution and growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY) [ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY; Plaisted, Trevor J.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY) [ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY; Hrma, Pavel R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of dissolution and growth of settling crystals of spinel was measured optically in a borosilicate melt that was pre-heated at a temperature above liquidus to erase the effects of previous history. The Hixson-Crowell equation, which is based on Fick's first law, was used to determine mass-transfer coefficients (kH) for dissolution and growth; both were found to fit the same Arrhenius function of temperature (T). An attempt was made to estimate the diffusion coefficient (D) and the concentration-boundary-layer thickness (d). The calculated values of d compared well with experimental results and observations. The D vs. T function was similar to a literature function obtained for the dissolution of magnetite in sodium disilicate glass.

  18. Optical fiber inspection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, F.W.

    1985-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected. 10 figs.

  19. Cellular resolution ex vivo imaging of gastrointestinal tissues with coherence microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, James G.

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) combines confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to improve imaging depth and contrast, enabling cellular imaging in human tissues. We aim to investigate OCM for ex ...

  20. Proceedings of ICRC 2001: 764 c Copernicus Gesellschaft 2001 Optical components for the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    aluminium alloy sheets were developed and are used in the prototypes together with glass mirror elements. These aluminium mirrors are very robust and of good optical qual-ity. To increase the signal

  1. An Optically Stimulated Luminescence Uranium Enrichment Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Steven D.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.; Benz, Jacob M.; Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has pioneered the use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technology for use in personnel dosimetry and high dose radiation processing dosimetry. PNNL has developed and patented an alumina-based OSL dosimeter that is being used by the majority of medical X-ray and imaging technicians worldwide. PNNL has conceived of using OSL technology to passively measure the level of UF6 enrichment by attaching the prototype OSL monitor to pipes containing UF6 gas within an enrichment facility. The prototype OSL UF6 monitor utilizes a two-element approach with the first element open and unfiltered to measure both the low energy and high energy gammas from the UF6, while the second element utilizes a 3-mm thick tungsten filter to eliminate the low energy gammas and pass only the high energy gammas from the UF6. By placing a control monitor in the room away from the UF6 pipes and other ionizing radiation sources, the control readings can be subtracted from the UF6 pipe monitor measurements. The ratio of the shielded to the unshielded net measurements provides a means to estimate the level of uranium enrichment. PNNL has replaced the commercially available MicroStar alumina-based dosimeter elements with a composite of polyethylene plastic, high-Z glass powder, and BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor powder at various concentrations. The high-Z glass was added in an attempt to raise the average “Z” of the composite dosimeter and increase the response. Additionally, since BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor is optimally excited and emits light at different wavelengths compared to alumina, the commercially available MicroStar reader was modified for reading BaFBr:Eu in a parallel effort to increase reader sensitivity. PNNL will present the design and performance of our novel OSL uranium enrichment monitor based on a combination of laboratory and UF6 test loop measurements. PNNL will also report on the optimization effort to achieve the highest possible performance from both the OSL enrichment monitor and the new custom OSL reader modified for this application. This project has been supported by the US Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Dismantlement and Transparency (DOE/NNSA/NA-241).

  2. Spectroscopic investigation of simulated low-level nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rong, Chaoying; Li, Hong; Hrma, P.R.; Cho, H.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Borosilicate glasses with high sodium concentrations, formulated to simulate vitrified Hanford low-level wastes (LLW), were investigated by {sup 31}P magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Phase separation, glass homogeneity changes during remelting, and the form of phosphate in glass following product consistency tests (PCT) were also examined by NMR. The results show that a distinct orthophosphate phase not part of the glass network is present in the glass. The effect of glass composition on phosphate chemical environments in the glass is discussed.

  3. Optical state-of-charge monitor for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cell or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  4. Demonstration of chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    We have demonstrated what we believe to be the first chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonator using a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible lift-off technique with thermally evaporated As[subscript 2]S[subscript ...

  5. Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy funded development of a methodology that could be used by glass producers to increase furnace efficiency, and that could serve as a model for other energy-intensive industries. Accordingly, a team comprising PPG Industries...

  6. Glass bead micromodel study of solute transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedirchuk, Paula Diane

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the quantification of glass bead micromodel experiments through a combination of computational modeling and experimental analysis. The computational model simulates two-dimensional solute flow through porous media using a finite...

  7. Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If these glass microspheres' walls could talk…They would explain how their tiny pores allow the potential for handling, storing and transporting a variety of materials, including drugs that have...

  8. Measurement of DWPF glass viscosity - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J.R.

    2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the results of a scoping study funded by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for the measurement of melt viscosities for simulated glasses representative of Macrobatch 2 (Tank 42/51 feed).

  9. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, B.R.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.; Koskelo, A.C.; Love, S.P.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites is described. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C{sub 60} in silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these ``guests`` in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C{sub 60}. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C{sub 60} dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C{sub 60} in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  10. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Love, Steven P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C.sub.60 in silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these "guests" in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C.sub.60. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C.sub.60 dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C.sub.60 in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  11. Liquidus Temperature Data for DWPF Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GF Piepel; JD Vienna; JV Crum; M Mika; P Hrma

    1999-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides new liquidus temperature (TL) versus composition data that can be used to reduce uncertainty in TL calculation for DWPF glass. According to the test plan and test matrix design PNNL has measured TL for 53 glasses within and just outside of the current DWPF processing composition window. The TL database generated under this task will directly support developing and enhancing the current TL process-control model. Preliminary calculations have shown a high probability of increasing HLW loading in glass produced at the SRS and Hanford. This increase in waste loading will decrease the lifecycle tank cleanup costs by decreasing process time and the volume of waste glass produced.

  12. Mechanism of sulfate segregation during glass melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2005-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate retention in glass during the vitrification process can be as low as 1/3 of the solubility limit, or can exceed the solubility limit if suspended in the glass in the form of droplets. This study is focused on the mechanism of incorporating and segregating sodium sulfate during the melting of an alkali-alumino-borosilicate glass batch. Batches were ramp heated at 4°C/min to temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1050°C and fractured for examination. Observation of the melts showed that as the batch temperature increases and the primary oxo-anionic, predominantly nitrate melt decomposes, the sulfate residue accumulates inside gas bubbles and is transported in them to the melt surface, where it remains segregated. The degree of sulfate incorporation into the final glass depends on the relative rates of sulfate dissolution in the borosilicate melt and sulfate lifting inside bubbles.

  13. Free energy of sheared colloidal glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. T. Dang; V. Chikkadi; R. Zargar; D. M. Miedema; D. Bonn; A. Zaccone; P. Schall

    2015-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a free energy framework to describe the response of glasses to applied stress. Unlike crystals, for which the free energy increases quadratically with strain due to affine displacements, for glasses, the nonequilibrium free energy decreases due to complex interplay of non-affine displacements and dissipation. We measure this free energy directly in strained colloidal glasses, and use mean-field theory to relate it to affine and nonaffine displacements. Nonaffine displacements grow with applied shear due to shear-induced loss of structural connectivity. Our mean-field model allows for the first time to disentangle the complex contributions of affine and nonaffine displacements and dissipation in the transient deformation of glasses.

  14. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, John S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  15. 218 Glass Technology Vol. 44 No. 6 December 2003 www.sgt.org Glass Technol., 2003, 44 (6), 21824

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    218 Glass Technology Vol. 44 No. 6 December 2003 www.sgt.org Glass Technol., 2003, 44 (6), 218 re- actions in a mixture of waste and powder metal fuel (PMF) to form a glass-like material without into durable glass-like waste forms. Since they do not require complex equip- ment or energy supplies, self

  16. Equivalence of Glass Transition and Colloidal Glass Transition in the Hard-Sphere Limit Thomas K. Haxton,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Equivalence of Glass Transition and Colloidal Glass Transition in the Hard-Sphere Limit Ning Xu,1 that the slowing of the dynamics in simulations of several model glass-forming liquids is equivalent to the hard-sphere glass transition in the low-pressure limit. In this limit, we find universal behavior of the relaxation

  17. ICG 2000 Amsterdam Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    ICG 2000 Amsterdam ­ Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate of the absorption spectrum of silicate glasses and determination of absolute concentrations of ferric, ferrous of silicate glass. 2. Experimental The same glass samples were used in this work as were described in [3, 4

  18. Transition threshold in Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 10}Se{sub 90?x} glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wen-Hou [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Fang, Liang, E-mail: lfang@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Shen, Xiang [Laboratory of Infrared Material and Devices, Advanced Technology Research Institute, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Wang, Rong-Ping [Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 10}Se{sub 90?x} glasses with Ge content from 7.5 to 32.5?at.?% have been prepared by melt-quench technique, and the physical parameters including glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), density (?), compactness (C), shear elastic moduli (C{sub s}), compression elastic moduli (C{sub c}), refractive index (n), and optical bandgap (E{sub g}) have been investigated. While all these physical parameters show threshold behavior in the glass with a chemically stoichiometric composition. Raman spectra analysis also indicates that, with increasing Ge content, Se-chains or rings gradually disappear until all Se-atoms are consumed in the glass with a chemically stoichiometric composition. With further increasing Ge content, homopolar Ge-Ge and Sb-Sb bonds are formed and the chemical order in the glasses is violated. The threshold behavior of the physical properties in the Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 10}Se{sub 90?x} glasses can be traced to demixing of networks above the chemically stoichiometric composition.

  19. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  20. The dynamic response of heated glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sewall, Roy Edward

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rates of strain. This research was prompted, in part, by NASA studies on ductile-type craters in glassy lunar rocks. The dynamic response of Apollo spacecraft windows, made of fused silica, also led to this research. The investigation consists... Response of Heated Glass. (December 1972) Roy Edward Sewall, B. S. , Texas AS? University Directed by: Dr. James L. Rand The purpose of this research is to investigate the dynamic behavior of fused silica glass subjected to high temperatures and high...