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Sample records for iii non-thermal plasma

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and Steady State Conditions Performance Evaluation of the Delphi Non-Thermal Plasma System Under Transient and...

  2. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust particulates and NOx Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the aftertreatment of diesel exhaust...

  3. Non-thermal plasmas in flames and other inhomogeneous environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas in non-uniform gases appear in several technological applications (plasma assisted combustion and aerodynamics, and plasma jets), as well as in natural phenomena (sprites). Whereas in the case of plasma ...

  4. Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-12-01

    A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

  5. Removal of Pollutants by Atmospheric Non Thermal Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khacef, Ahmed; Pouvesle, Jean Michel; Van, Tiep Le

    2008-01-01

    Results on the application of non thermal plasmas in two environmentally important fields: oxidative removal of VOC and NOx in excess of oxygen were presented. The synergetic application of a plasma-catalytic treatment of NOx in excess of oxygen is also described.

  6. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 2 2002deerhughes2.pdf More Documents & Publications MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal...

  7. Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

    2009-01-01

    Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

  8. Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balmer, M. Lou (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)); Tonkyn, Russell (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL)); Maupin, Gary; Yoon, Steven; Kolwaite, Ana (PNNL); Barlow, Stephen (BPNL); Domingo, Norberto; Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Hoard, John Wm. (Ford Research Laboratory); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

    2000-04-01

    There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership is evaluating the effectiveness of a non-thermal plasma in conjunction with catalytic materials to mediate NOx and particulate emissions from diesel fueled light duty (CIDI) engines. Preliminary studies showed that plasma-catalyst systems could reduce up to 70% of NOx emissions at an equivalent cost of 3.5% of the input fuel in simulated diesel exhaust. These studies also showed that the type and concentration of hydrocarbon play a key role in both the plasma gas phase chemistry and the catalyst surface chemistry. More recently, plasma/catalyst systems have been evaluated for NOx reduction and particulate removal on a CIDI engine. Performance results for select plasma-catalyst systems for both simulated and actual CIDI exhaust will be presented. The effect of NOx and hydrocarbon concentration on plasma-catalyst performance will also be shown. SAE Paper SAE-2000-01-1601 {copyright} 2000 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

  9. Non-Thermal Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffre, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) processes can be improved for NOx reduction by a Non- Thermal Plasma. European norm (standard specification) EURO 6 im- poses a reduction of 50% on automotive NOx emissionsNon-Thermal Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffr´e, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual Ecole Centrale de

  10. Application of Non-Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalyst Technology for Diesel Engine Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herling, Darrell R.; Smith, Monty R.; Baskaran, Suresh; Kupe, J.

    2000-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of a non-thermal plasma assisted catalyst system as applied to a small displacement diesel powered vehicle. In addition to effectively reducing NOx emissions, it has been found that a non-thermal plasma can also destroy a portion of the particulate matter (PM) that is emitted from diesel engines. Delphi Automotive Systems in conjunction with Pacific Northwest National Laboratories has been developing such an exhaust aftertreatment system to reduce emissions form diesel vehicles. The results of testing and system evaluation will be discussed in general, and the effectiveness on reducing oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter emissions from diesel vehicles. Published in Future Engines-SP1559, SAW, Warrendale, PA

  11. Non-thermal Plasma - Nanometer TiO2 Photocatalysis for Formaldehyde Decomposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Q.; Feng, G.; Guang, X.

    2006-01-01

    for the carcinogenicity, the allergy source which is commonly recognized, and one of the latent sudden-change leading matters by the World Health Organization. Therefore, indoor pollutant purification is imperative. At present, the indoor pollutant purification... is more promising. Key words: Air cleaning Techonlogy; Non-thermal Plasma; TiO2 Photocatalysis 1. INTRODUCTION The volatile organic matter (VOCs) [ 1 ]is the main pollution source of indoor air, also the toxicity is extremely big, can lead...

  12. Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mones

    2006-12-01

    Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the application of this technology for removing elemental mercury from flue gas streams generated by utility boilers. On an absolute basis, the quantity of reagent required to accomplish the oxidation was small. For example, complete oxidation of mercury was accomplished using a 1% volume fraction of oxygen in a nitrogen stream. Overall, the tests with mercury validated the most useful aspect of the CR&E technology: Providing a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by employing a specific plasma reagent to either increase reaction kinetics or promote reactions that would not have occurred under normal circumstances.

  13. Field-enhanced electrodes for additive-injection non-thermal plasma (NTP) processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosocha, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ferreri, Vincent (Westminster, CO); Kim, Yongho (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-04-21

    The present invention comprises a field enhanced electrode package for use in a non-thermal plasma processor. The field enhanced electrode package includes a high voltage electrode and a field-enhancing electrode with a dielectric material layer disposed in-between the high voltage electrode and the field-enhancing electrode. The field-enhancing electrode features at least one raised section that includes at least one injection hole that allows plasma discharge streamers to occur primarily within an injected additive gas.

  14. Pressure Balance between Thermal and Non-Thermal Plasmas in the 3C129 Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. E. Harris; H. Krawczynski

    2003-02-10

    With new Chandra observations of the cluster containing the two radio galaxies 3C129 and 3C129.1, we have made a fit to the X-ray surface brightness to obtain thermal pressures. VLA data at 1.4 GHz have been obtained to complement previous maps at 0.33 GHz and at 5 and 8 GHz. From these radio data, we are able to derive the minimum non-thermal pressure of various emitting volumes along the tail of 3C129 and in the lobes of 3C129.1. Under the assumption that the non-thermal plasma excludes significant thermal plasma, we may expect pressure balance for most features since ram pressure should be important only close to the cores of the galaxies. Since we find that the minimum non-thermal pressures are generally only a factor of a few below estimates of the ambient thermal pressure, we conclude that it is unlikely that relativistic protons contribute significantly to the total pressure. Reasonable contributions from low energy electrons and filling factors in the range 0.1 to 1 suffice to achieve pressure balance. Although we do not find strong signatures for the exclusion of hot gas from the radio structures, we find soft features near the cores of both galaxies suggestive of cool gas stripping and hard features associated with radio jets and possibly a leading bow shock.

  15. UBIQUITOUS NON-THERMALS IN ASTROPHYSICAL PLASMAS: RESTATING THE DIFFICULTY OF MAINTAINING MAXWELLIANS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scudder, J. D.; Karimabadi, H.

    2013-06-10

    This paper outlines the rather narrow conditions on a radiatively decoupled plasma where a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) distribution can be assumed with confidence. The complementary non-thermal distribution with non-perturbative kurtosis is argued to have a much broader purview than has previously been accepted. These conditions are expressed in terms of the electron Knudsen number, K{sub e} , the ratio of the electron mean free path to the scale length of electron pressure. Rather generally, f(v < v{sub 2}(K{sub e} )) will be Gaussian, so that MB atomic or wave particle effects controlled by speeds v < v{sub 2} {identical_to} w(15/8K{sub e} ){sup 1/4} will remain defensible, where w is the most probable speed. The sufficient condition for Spitzer-Braginskii plasma fluid closure at the energy equation requires globally K{sub e} (s) {<=} 0.01; this global condition pertains to the maximum value of K{sub e} along the arc length s of the magnetic field (to its extremities) provided that contiguous plasma remains uncoupled from the radiation field. The non-thermal regime K{sub e} > 0.01 is common in all main-sequence stellar atmospheres above approximately 0.05 stellar radii from the surface. The entire solar corona and wind are included in this regime where non-thermal distributions with kurtosis are shown to be ubiquitous, heat flux is not well modeled by Spitzer-Braginskii closure, and fluid modeling is qualitative at best.

  16. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  17. Production of stable, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive plasmas using gases other than helium or neon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jaeyoung; Henins, Ivars

    2005-06-21

    The present invention enables the production of stable, steady state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive .alpha.-mode plasmas using gases other than helium and neon. In particular, the current invention generates and maintains stable, steady-state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas using pure argon or argon with reactive gas mixtures, pure oxygen or air. By replacing rare and expensive helium with more readily available gases, this invention makes it more economical to use atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas for various materials processing applications.

  18. Rarefactive and compressive soliton waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma with non-thermal electron and ion distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslami, Esmaeil Baraz, Rasoul

    2014-02-15

    Sagdeev's pseudo potential method is employed to study dust acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma containing negatively charged dusts with non-thermal electron and ion. The range of parameters for the existence of solitary waves using the analytical expression of the Sagdeev potential has been found. It is observed that, depending on the values of the plasma parameters like ion to electron temperature ratio ?, non-thermal parameters ? and ?, electron to ion density ratio ?, and the value of the Mach number M, both rarefactive and compressive solitary waves may exist.

  19. First report on non-thermal plasma reactor scaling criteria and optimization models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Korzekwa, R.A.

    1998-01-13

    The purpose of SERDP project CP-1038 is to evaluate and develop non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor technology for Department of Defense (DoD) air emissions control applications. The primary focus is on oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and a secondary focus on hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Example NO{sub x} sources are jet engine test cells (JETCs) and diesel engine powered electrical generators. Example VOCs are organic solvents used in painting, paint stripping, and parts cleaning. To design and build NTP reactors that are optimized for particular DoD applications, one must understand the basic decomposition chemistry of the target compound(s) and how the decomposition of a particular chemical species depends on the air emissions stream parameters and the reactor operating parameters. This report is intended to serve as an overview of the subject of reactor scaling and optimization and will discuss the basic decomposition chemistry of nitric oxide (NO) and two representative VOCs, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride, and the connection between the basic plasma chemistry, the target species properties, and the reactor operating parameters (in particular, the operating plasma energy density). System architecture, that is how NTP reactors can be combined or ganged to achieve higher capacity, will also be briefly discussed.

  20. Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Combined to Non-Thermal Plasma: Effect on Activation Catalyst Temperature and by-products formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Combined to Non-Thermal Plasma: Effect on Activation Catalyst Temperature efficiency together with the catalyst activation temperature when a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) is placed downstream to a multi-plans Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor. In order to simulate Diesel engine

  1. Laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature analysis of filamentary non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, J.; Foest, R.; Reuter, S.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Kewitz, T.; Sperka, J.

    2012-10-15

    The heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar is characterized by employing laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD). It is demonstrated as a proof of principle, that the spatial and temporal changes of the refractive index n in the optical beam path related to the neutral gas temperature of the plasma jet can be monitored and evaluated simultaneously. The refraction of a laser beam in a high gradient field of n(r) with cylindrical symmetry is given for a general real refraction index profile. However, the usually applied Abel approach represents an ill-posed problem and in particular for this plasma configuration. A simple analytical model is proposed in order to minimize the statistical error. Based on that, the temperature profile, specifically the absolute temperature in the filament core, the FWHM, and the frequencies of the collective filament dynamics are obtained for non-stationary conditions. For a gas temperature of 700 K inside the filament, the presented model predicts maximum deflection angles of the laser beam of 0.3 mrad which is in accordance to the experimental results obtained with LSD. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained FWHM of the temperature profile produced by the filament at the end of capillary is (1.5 {+-} 0.2) mm, which is about 10 times wider than the visual radius of the filament. The obtained maximum temperature in the effluent is (450 {+-} 30) K and is in consistence with results of other techniques. The study demonstrates that LSD represents a useful low-cost method for monitoring the spatiotemporal behaviour of microdischarges and allows to uncover their dynamic characteristics, e.g., the temperature profile even for challenging diagnostic conditions such as moving thin discharge filaments. The method is not restricted to the miniaturized and self-organized plasma studied here. Instead, it can be readily applied to other configurations that produce measurable gradients of refractive index by local gas heating and opens new diagnostics prospects particularly for microplasmas.

  2. Non-thermal plasma exhaust aftertreatment: Are all plasmas the same?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whealton, J.H.; Hanson, G.R.; Storey, J.M.; Raridon, R.J.; Armfield, J.S.; Bigelow, T.S.; Graves, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The authors describe initial experiments employing 5.5 GHz pulsed microwave power, which should result in enhanced chemistry compared to present state-of-the-art plasma aftertreatments by; reducing plasma electric field shielding, increasing availability of atomic nitrogen, exploiting surface charging of dielectrics, avoiding (low field) threshold initiated discharges, and achieving a higher high energy tail on the electron distribution function. As an example, the authors decided to test for NO reduction in N{sub 2}. While this reaction is not a complete description of the exhaust issues by any means, they thought it would demonstrate the technology proposed.

  3. Plasma motions and non-thermal line broadening in flaring twisted coronal loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordovskyy, Mykola; Browning, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Observation of coronal EUV spectral lines offers an opportunity to evaluate the thermal structure and flows in flaring atmospheres. This, in turn, can be used to estimate the partitioning between the thermal and kinetic energies released in flares. Our aim is to forward-model large-scale (50-10000 km) velocity distributions in order to interpret non-thermal broadening of different spectral EUV lines observed in flares. The developed models allow us to understand the origin of the observed spectral line shifts and broadening, and link these features to particular physical phenomena in flaring atmospheres. We use ideal MHD to derive unstable twisted magnetic fluxtube configurations in a gravitationally-stratified atmosphere. The evolution of these twisted fluxtubes is followed using resistive MHD, with anomalous resistivity depending on the local density and temperature. The model also takes into account the thermal conduction and radiative losses. The model allows us to evaluate average velocities and velocity...

  4. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 3 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Marine Propulsion Systems - Integrated Project Team 2002deerhughes3.pdf More Documents &...

  5. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Marine Propulsion Systems - Integrated Project Team 2002deerhughes1.pdf More Documents &...

  6. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma Application for the Royal Navy - Part 4 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Marine Propulsion Systems - Integrated Project Team 2002deerhughes4.pdf More Documents &...

  7. Non-thermal plasma-assisted NOx reduction over Na-Y zeolites: The promotional effect of acid sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2006-06-01

    The effect of acid sites on the catalytic activities of a series of H+-modified Na-Y zeolites was investigated in the non-thermal plasma assisted NOx reduction reaction using a simulated diesel engine exhaust gas mixture. The acid sites were formed by NH4+ ion exchange and subsequent heat treatment of a NaY zeolite. The catalytic activities of these H+-modified NaY zeolites significantly increased with the number of acid sites. This NOx conversion increase was correlated with the decrease in the amount of unreacted NO2. The increase in the number of acid sites did not change the NO level, it stayed constant. Temperature programmed desorption following NO2 adsorption showed the appearance of a high temperature desorption peak at 453 K in addition to the main desorption feature of 343 K observed for the base Na-Y. The results of both the IR and TPD experiments revealed the formation of crotonaldehyde, resulting from condensation reaction of adsorbed acetaldehyde. Strong adsorptions of both NOx and hydrocarbon species are proposed to be responsible for the higher catalytic activity of H+-modified Na-Y zeolites in comparison to the base NaY material

  8. Non-thermal Plasma-Assisted Catalytic NOx Reduction over Ba-Y,FAU: The Effect of Catalyst Preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2003-12-10

    The effects of catalyst preparation on the NOx reduction activity of a series of Ba-Y,FAU zeolites were investigated using a simulated exhaust gas mixture. The introduction of Ba²?ions into Na-Y,FAU results in a large increase in their non-thermal plasma-assisted NOx reduction activity. The NOx reduction activities of Ba-Y,FAU catalysts were found to increase with increasing Ba²? concentration in the aqueous ion exchange solutions, which translated into increased Ba²?/Na² ratios in the resulting materials. Consecutive ion exchange procedures at a given Ba²?concentration in the aqueous solution, however, did not improve the NOx reduction activities of Ba-Y,FAU catalysts, i.e. the activity of the four times ion exchanged material was the same as that of the one that was ion exchanged only once. The reaction profiles for all of these Ba-Y,FAU catalysts were the same. In contrast, a significant increase in NOx reduction activity was observed when a 773K calcination step was implemented after each solution ion exchange. The reaction profile was also altered as a result of the ion exchange/calcination cycles. Calcination that followed each ion exchange step seems to further increase the Ba²?/Na? ratio in the zeolite, and in turn increases the NOx reduction activities of the catalysts prepared this way. Key differences in Na-, and Ba-Y catalysts were found in NO? adsorption and TPD experiments. The amount of chemisorbed NO? is about twice as high in Ba-Y than in Na-Y, and Ba-Y holds NOx much stronger than Na-Y.

  9. Electron density measurements of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal N{sub 2} plasma jet by Stark broadening and irradiance intensity methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Dezhi; Shen, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xie, Hongbing; Shu, Xingsheng; Meng, Yuedong; Li, Jiangang; Cheng, Cheng E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-05-15

    An atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma jet excited by high frequency alternating current using nitrogen is developed and the electron density in the active region of this plasma jet is investigated by two different methods using optical emission spectroscopy, Stark broadening, and irradiance intensity method. The irradiance intensity method shows that the average electron density is about 10{sup 20}/m{sup 3} which is slightly smaller than that by the Stark broadening method. However, the trend of the change in the electron density with input power obtained by these two methods is consistent.

  10. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aardahl, Christopher L. (Richland, WA); Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou (West Richland, WA); Chanda, Ashok (Peoria, IL); Habeger, Craig F. (West Richland, WA); Koshkarian, Kent A. (Peoria, IL); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-07-25

    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  11. Effect of Landau damping on alternative ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions and non-thermal electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Jayasree; Das, K P

    2015-01-01

    Bandyopadhyay and Das [Phys. Plasmas, 9, 465-473, 2002] have derived a nonlinear macroscopic evolution equation for ion acoustic wave in a magnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions and non-thermal electrons including the effect of Landau damping. In that paper they have also derived the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation when coefficient of the nonlinear term of the above mentioned macroscopic evolution equation vanishes, the nonlinear behaviour of the ion acoustic wave is described by a modified macroscopic evolution equation. But they have not considered the case when the coefficient is very near to zero. This is the case we consider in this paper and we derive the corresponding evolution equation including the effect of Landau damping. Finally, a solitary wave solution of this macroscopic evolution is obtained, whose amplitude is found to decay slowly with time.

  12. The role of higher-order modes on the electromagnetic whistler-cyclotron wave fluctuations of thermal and non-thermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viñas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, District of Columbia 20064 ; Navarro, Roberto; Araneda, Jaime A.

    2014-01-15

    Two fundamental challenging problems of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are the understanding of the relaxation of a collisionless plasmas with nearly isotropic velocity distribution functions and the resultant state of nearly equipartition energy density with electromagnetic plasma turbulence. Here, we present the results of a study which shows the role that higher-order-modes play in limiting the electromagnetic whistler-like fluctuations in a thermal and non-thermal plasma. Our main results show that for a thermal plasma the magnetic fluctuations are confined by regions that are bounded by the least-damped higher order modes. We further show that the zone where the whistler-cyclotron normal modes merges the electromagnetic fluctuations shifts to longer wavelengths as the ?{sub e} increases. This merging zone has been interpreted as the beginning of the region where the whistler-cyclotron waves losses their identity and become heavily damped while merging with the fluctuations. Our results further indicate that in the case of nonthermal plasmas, the higher-order modes do not confine the fluctuations due to the effective higher-temperature effects and the excess of suprathermal plasma particles. The analysis presented here considers the second-order theory of fluctuations and the dispersion relation of weakly transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature isotropic bi-Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron–proton plasma. Our results indicate that the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic fluctuations are in fact enhanced over these quasi modes suggesting that such modes play an important role in the emission and absorption of electromagnetic fluctuations in thermal or quasi-thermal plasmas.

  13. Characteristics of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Dezhi; Shen, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xie, Hongbing; Shu, Xingsheng; Meng, Yuedong; Li, Jiangang; Cheng, Cheng E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-01-21

    An atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma jet driven by high frequency alternating current and operating on N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture is investigated. The plasma jet can reach 55?mm in length at a gas flow rate of 2500?l/h. The gas temperature at a distance of 4?mm from the nozzle is close to room temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed to investigate the important plasma parameters such as the excited species, rotational temperature, vibrational temperature, and excitation temperature under different discharge conditions. The results show that the plasma source operates under non-equilibrium conditions. The absolute irradiance intensity of the vibrational band N{sub 2}(C-B) in the active region is measured. Taking into account the irradiance intensity of N{sub 2}(C-B,0-0) and N{sub 2}(B-X,0-0) as well as measured current, the electron density, which is determined by considering direct and step-wise electron impact excitation of nitrogen emission, reaches a maximum value of 5.6?×?10{sup 20}/m{sup 3}.

  14. Glow Discharge Characteristics of Non-thermal Microplasmas at above Atmospheric Pressures and their Applications in Microscale Plasma Transistors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wakim, Dani Ghassan

    2013-07-25

    ......................................................... 28 Figure 6: Microfabricated device on CSZ substrate with Copper-Copper Oxide electrodes housed in machinable ceramic clamp .............................................. 31 Figure 7: Micrometer mounted cathode (top) with 50 k? resistor (top coil... [33]. Operation at atmospheric pressures and above atmospheric pressures has been achieved, yet is susceptible to transitioning to an arc due to cathode heating [20,33]. The effects of pressure on plasma discharge are governed by Paschen's scaling...

  15. Staff Accountant III | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C.3 SpecialSponsor GuidelinesPlasma PhysicsCenter

  16. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  17. Theoretical study of Diesel fuel reforming by a non-thermal arc discharge A. Lebouvier1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Theoretical study of Diesel fuel reforming by a non-thermal arc discharge A. Lebouvier1,2 , G anti-pollution norm namely for Diesel powered vehicles. NOx (NO, NO2,...) are very irritant pollutants- nologies purge is the use of non-thermal plasma. Plasma reforming of diesel fuel and exhaust gas mix- ture

  18. Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, S.E.

    2000-08-20

    Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration in plasma - catalyst hybrid schemes for the removal of NOx employing an NO2 selective catalyst, as the oxidation of PM may deplete the key radicals necessary for NO to NO2 conversion. It was also suggested that where simultaneous NOx and PM removal are required, alternative catalyst formulations may be needed which may be selective to NO rather than NO2.

  19. Non-thermal phenomena in galaxies clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gianfranco Brunetti

    2004-04-26

    The discovery of diffuse synchrotron radio emission and, more recently, of the hard X-ray (HXR) tails have triggered a growing interest about non-thermal phenomena in galaxy clusters. After a brief review of the most important evidences for non-thermal emission, I will focus on the origin of the emitting particles and of the hadronic component. In particular I will describe the particle-injection and -acceleration mechanisms at work in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) and, at the same time, discuss the possibility to test current modellings of these phenomena with future radio, HXR, and gamma rays observatories.

  20. Alfven wave collisions, the fundamental building block of plasma turbulence. III. Theory for experimental design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Troy

    Alfven wave collisions, the fundamental building block of plasma turbulence. III. Theory is a ubiquitous phenomenon in space and astrophysical plasmas, driving a cascade of energy from large to small, influencing the heating of the solar corona and acceleration of the solar wind,1 the dynamics

  1. Non-thermal emission processes in massive binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. De Becker

    2007-09-26

    In this paper, I present a general discussion of several astrophysical processes likely to play a role in the production of non-thermal emission in massive stars, with emphasis on massive binaries. Even though the discussion will start in the radio domain where the non-thermal emission was first detected, the census of physical processes involved in the non-thermal emission from massive stars shows that many spectral domains are concerned, from the radio to the very high energies. First, the theoretical aspects of the non-thermal emission from early-type stars will be addressed. The main topics that will be discussed are respectively the physics of individual stellar winds and their interaction in binary systems, the acceleration of relativistic electrons, the magnetic field of massive stars, and finally the non-thermal emission processes relevant to the case of massive stars. Second, this general qualitative discussion will be followed by a more quantitative one, devoted to the most probable scenario where non-thermal radio emitters are massive binaries. I will show how several stellar, wind and orbital parameters can be combined in order to make some semi-quantitative predictions on the high-energy counterpart to the non-thermal emission detected in the radio domain. These theoretical considerations will be followed by a census of results obtained so far, and related to this topic... (see paper for full abstract)

  2. DETERMINATION OF NON-THERMAL VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM SERTS LINEWIDTH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyner, Aaron J. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M., E-mail: aaron.j.coyner@nasa.gov [Code 671, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Non-thermal velocities obtained from the measurement of coronal Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) linewidths have been consistently observed in solar EUV spectral observations and have been theorized to result from many plausible scenarios including wave motions, turbulence, or magnetic reconnection. Constraining these velocities can provide a physical limit for the available energy resulting from unresolved motions in the corona. We statistically determine a series of non-thermal velocity distributions from linewidth measurements of 390 emission lines from a wide array of elements and ionization states observed during the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Research Telescope and Spectrograph 1991-1997 flights covering the spectral range 174-418 A and a temperature range from 80,000 K to 12.6 MK. This sample includes 248 lines from active regions, 101 lines from quiet-Sun regions, and 41 lines were observed from plasma off the solar limb. We find a strongly peaked distribution corresponding to a non-thermal velocity of 19-22 km s{sup -1} in all three of the quiet-Sun, active region, and off-limb distributions. For the possibility of Alfven wave resonance heating, we find that velocities in the core of these distributions do not provide sufficient energy, given typical densities and magnetic field strengths for the coronal plasma, to overcome the estimated coronal energy losses required to maintain the corona at the typical temperatures working as the sole mechanism. We find that at perfect efficiency 50%-60% of the needed energy flux can be produced from the non-thermal velocities measured.

  3. Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectroscopy diagnostic system for the study of non-thermal electrons at Aditya tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purohit, S., E-mail: pshishir@ipr.res.in; Joisa, Y. S.; Raval, J. V.; Ghosh, J.; Tanna, R.; Shukla, B. K.; Bhatt, S. B. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectrometer diagnostic was developed to study the non-thermal electron for Aditya tokamak plasma. The diagnostic was mounted on a radial mid plane port at the Aditya. The objective of diagnostic includes the estimation of the non-thermal electron temperature for the ohmically heated plasma. Bi-Maxwellian plasma model was adopted for the temperature estimation. Along with that the study of high Z impurity line radiation from the ECR pre-ionization experiments was also aimed. The performance and first experimental results from the new X-ray spectrometer system are presented.

  4. III

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHighHussein KhalilResearch8 IEEE TRANSACTIONSIII .. III A HIGH

  5. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  6. Emission of non-thermal microwave radiation by a Martian dust storm Christopher Ruf,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    #12;Emission of non-thermal microwave radiation by a Martian dust storm Christopher Ruf,1 Nilton O report evidence for the emission of non-thermal microwave radiation by a deep Martian dust storm, S. Gross, L. Skjerve, and B. Cantor (2009), Emission of non-thermal microwave radiation by a Martian

  7. AURORA: A FORTRAN program for modeling well stirred plasma and thermal reactors with gas and surface reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Kee, R.J.; Moffat, H.K.

    1996-02-01

    The AURORA Software is a FORTRAN computer program that predicts the steady-state or time-averaged properties of a well mixed or perfectly stirred reactor for plasma or thermal chemistry systems. The software was based on the previously released software, SURFACE PSR which was written for application to thermal CVD reactor systems. AURORA allows modeling of non-thermal, plasma reactors with the determination of ion and electron concentrations and the electron temperature, in addition to the neutral radical species concentrations. Well stirred reactors are characterized by a reactor volume, residence time or mass flow rate, heat loss or gas temperature, surface area, surface temperature, the incoming temperature and mixture composition, as well as the power deposited into the plasma for non-thermal systems. The model described here accounts for finite-rate elementary chemical reactions both in the gas phase and on the surface. The governing equations are a system of nonlinear algebraic relations. The program solves these equations using a hybrid Newton/time-integration method embodied by the software package TWOPNT. The program runs in conjunction with the new CHEMKIN-III and SURFACE CHEMKIN-III packages, which handle the chemical reaction mechanisms for thermal and non-thermal systems. CHEMKIN-III allows for specification of electron-impact reactions, excitation losses, and elastic-collision losses for electrons.

  8. Non-thermal quantum channels as a thermodynamical resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel Navascués; Luis Pedro García-Pintos

    2015-06-15

    Quantum thermodynamics can be understood as a resource theory, whereby thermal states are free and the only allowed operations are unitary transformations commuting with the total Hamiltonian of the system. Previous literature on the subject has just focused on transformations between different state resources, overlooking the fact that quantum operations which do not commute with the total energy also constitute a potentially valuable resource. In this Letter, given a number of non-thermal quantum channels, we study the problem of how to integrate them in a thermal engine so as to distill a maximum amount of work. We find that, in the limit of asymptotically many uses of each channel, the distillable work is an additive function of the considered channels, computable for both finite dimensional quantum operations and bosonic channels. We apply our results to bound the amount of distillable work due to the natural non-thermal processes postulated in the Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber (GRW) collapse model. We find that, although GRW theory predicts the possibility to extract work from the vacuum at no cost, the power which a \\emph{collapse engine} could in principle generate is extremely low.

  9. Simbol-X capability of detecting the non-thermal emission of stellar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Argiroffi; G. Micela; A. Maggio

    2008-01-16

    We investigate the capability of detecting, with Simbol-X, non-thermal emission during stellar flares, and distinguishing it from hot thermal emission. We find that flare non-thermal emission is detectable when at least ~20 cts are detected with the CZT detector in the 20-80 keV band. Therefore Simbol-X will detect the non-thermal emission from some of the X-ray brightest nearby stars, whether the thermal vs. non-thermal relation, derived for solar flares, holds.

  10. Non-Thermal Continuum toward SGRB2(N-LMH)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Hollis; P. R. Jewell; Anthony J. Remijan; F. J. Lovas

    2007-03-15

    An analysis of continuum antenna temperatures observed in the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) spectrometer bandpasses is presented for observations toward SgrB2(N-LMH). Since 2004, we have identified four new prebiotic molecules toward this source by means of rotational transitions between low energy levels; concurrently, we have observed significant continuum in the GBT spectrometer bandpasses centered at 85 different frequencies in the range of 1 to 48 GHz. The continuum heavily influences the molecular spectral features since we have observed far more absorption lines than emission lines for each of these new molecular species. Hence, it is important to understand the nature, distribution, and intensity of the underlying continuum in the GBT bandpasses for the purposes of radiative transfer, i.e. the means by which reliable molecular abundances are estimated. We find that the GBT spectrometer bandpass continuum is consistent with optically-thin, non thermal (synchrotron) emission with a flux density spectral index of -0.7 and a Gaussian source size of ~143" at 1 GHz that decreases with increasing frequency as nu^(-0.52). Some support for this model is provided by high frequency Very Large Array (VLA) observations of SgrB2.

  11. CHEMKIN-III: A FORTRAN chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical and plasma kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kee, R.J.; Rupley, F.M.; Meeks, E.; Miller, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    This document is the user`s manual for the third-generation CHEMKIN package. CHEMKIN is a software package whose purpose is to facilitate the formation, solution, and interpretation of problems involving elementary gas-phase chemical kinetics. It provides a flexible and powerful tool for incorporating complex chemical kinetics into simulations of fluid dynamics. The package consists of two major software components: an Interpreter and a Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. The Interpreter is a program that reads a symbolic description of an elementary, user-specified chemical reaction mechanism. One output from the Interpreter is a data file that forms a link to the Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. This library is a collection of about 100 highly modular FORTRAN subroutines that may be called to return information on equations of state, thermodynamic properties, and chemical production rates. CHEMKIN-III includes capabilities for treating multi-fluid plasma systems, that are not in thermal equilibrium. These new capabilities allow researchers to describe chemistry systems that are characterized by more than one temperature, in which reactions may depend on temperatures associated with different species; i.e. reactions may be driven by collisions with electrons, ions, or charge-neutral species. These new features have been implemented in such a way as to require little or no changes to CHEMKIN implementation for systems in thermal equilibrium, where all species share the same gas temperature. CHEMKIN-III now has the capability to handle weakly ionized plasma chemistry, especially for application related to advanced semiconductor processing.

  12. Efficiency bounds for quantum engines powered by non-thermal baths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Niedenzu; David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Abraham G. Kofman; Gershon Kurizki

    2015-08-26

    We analyse the operation principles and performance bounds of quantum engines whose working fluid (WF) is energised by a non-thermal bath. We show that such a bath (e.g., a squeezed or coherently displaced thermal bath) can render the WF state non-passive, i.e., capable of storing and delivering work. This non-passivity converts the heat engine into a thermo-mechanical machine that is powered by mechanical work, as well as heat, from the non-thermal bath. Its efficiency is unrestricted by the Carnot bound, which only applies to heat engines. By contrast, for certain WF--bath interactions and non-thermal bath states the WF thermalises. The machine then operates as a heat engine, but its Carnot bound may correspond to a higher temperature than its thermal-bath counterpart.

  13. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. I. Particle energy spectra and acceleration mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-20

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies in low Mach number (M{sub s} ? 5) shocks is revealed by radio and X-ray observations of galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Diffusive shock acceleration, also known as first-order Fermi acceleration, cannot be directly invoked to explain the acceleration of electrons. Rather, an additional mechanism is required to pre-accelerate the electrons from thermal to supra-thermal energies, so they can then participate in the Fermi process. In this work, we use two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulations to study electron acceleration in low Mach number shocks. We focus on the particle energy spectra and the acceleration mechanism in a reference run with M{sub s} = 3 and a quasi-perpendicular pre-shock magnetic field. We find that about 15% of the electrons can be efficiently accelerated, forming a non-thermal power-law tail in the energy spectrum with a slope of p ? 2.4. Initially, thermal electrons are energized at the shock front via shock drift acceleration (SDA). The accelerated electrons are then reflected back upstream where their interaction with the incoming flow generates magnetic waves. In turn, the waves scatter the electrons propagating upstream back toward the shock for further energization via SDA. In summary, the self-generated waves allow for repeated cycles of SDA, similarly to a sustained Fermi-like process. This mechanism offers a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  14. Destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    stringent emission standards for 188 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that are associated with approximately concept of application of gas-phase oxidation processes that can destroy air pollutants air streams were passed and effects of various operational parameters on the destruction removal

  15. Synthesis and Surface Modification of Group IV Nanoparticles Using Non-Thermal Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasar-Inceoglu, Ozgul

    2015-01-01

    in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries," Journal of theas anode material for lithium ion batteries," Journal of Theanodes for lithium-ion batteries using electrochemical

  16. Synthesis and Surface Modification of Group IV Nanoparticles Using Non-Thermal Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasar-Inceoglu, Ozgul

    2015-01-01

    of semiconductors : physics and materials properties, 4thproperty of silicon among other semiconductors is that it is an indirect bandgap material

  17. Removal of Pollutants by Atmospheric Non Thermal Plasmas Ahmed Khacef 1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    difficult to handle with conventional removal technologies like thermal and catalytic oxidation examples are hydrocarbons, chlorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Contamination of exhaust air streams with gaseous hydrocarbons or organic solvent vapours occurs in many industrial processes, e. g

  18. Syngas Production from Propane using Atmospheric Non-Thermal Plasma F. Ouni, A. Khacef*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . The conventional reformers allowing syngas production are based on steam reforming of hydrocarbons (3) following was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon (1) The steam reforming of hydrocarbons is strongly endothermic (H0 =498 kJ.mol-1 for C3H8

  19. Synthesis and Surface Modification of Group IV Nanoparticles Using Non-Thermal Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasar-Inceoglu, Ozgul

    2015-01-01

    anodes through solid-electrolyte interphase control," Naturean unstable and insulating solid electrolyte interface (SEI)

  20. Energetic electron propagation in the decay phase of non-thermal flare emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua; Tsap, Yuri T.

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of the trap-plus-precipitation model, the peculiarities of non-thermal emission in the decay phase of solar flares have been considered. The calculation formulas for the escape rate of trapped electrons into the loss cone in terms of time profiles of hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission have been obtained. It has been found that the evolution of the spectral indices of non-thermal emission depend on the regimes of the pitch angle diffusion of trapped particles into the loss cone. The properties of non-thermal electrons related to the HXR and MW emission of the solar flare on 2004 November 3 are studied with Nobeyama Radioheliograph, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, RHESSI, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations. The spectral indices of non-thermal electrons related to MW and HXR emission remained constant or decreased, while the MW escape rate as distinguished from that of the HXRs increased. This may be associated with different diffusion regimes of trapped electrons into the loss cone. New arguments in favor of an important role of the superstrong diffusion for high-energy electrons in flare coronal loops have been obtained.

  1. Unraveling the mysteries of the non-thermal universe using -ray observations of Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Unraveling the mysteries of the non-thermal universe using -ray observations of Active Galactic hole at the center (~106 to 109 x solar mass) At least 5% of all galaxies are active galaxies Active galaxies: small ''bright'' core of emission in otherwise typical galaxy AGN = Active Galactic Nucleus (i

  2. THERMALLY ACTIVATED MARTENSITE: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO NON-THERMALLY ACTIVATED (ATHERMAL) MARTENSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    THERMALLY ACTIVATED MARTENSITE: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO NON-THERMALLY ACTIVATED (ATHERMAL) MARTENSITE Keywords: Thermal Activation, Isothermal, Athermal, Activation Energy Abstract The classification of no thermal activation. Processes with no thermal activation do not depend on time, as there is no need

  3. Non-thermal calcination by ultraviolet irradiation in the synthesis of microporous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Non-thermal calcination by ultraviolet irradiation in the synthesis of microporous materials Atul N-directing agents in the synthesis of microporous materials. The method relies on the exposure of the sample. This method is applicable in making new materials from organic­inorganic pre- cursors and holds promise

  4. Equilibration and thermalization of the dissipative quantum harmonic oscillator in a non-thermal environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Pagel; A. Alvermann; H. Fehske

    2013-01-24

    We study the dissipative quantum harmonic oscillator with general non-thermal preparations of the harmonic oscillator bath. The focus is on equilibration of the oscillator in the long-time limit and the additional requirements for thermalization. Our study is based on the exact solution of the microscopic model obtained by means of operator equations of motion, which provides us with the time evolution of the central oscillator density matrix in terms of the propagating function. We find a hierarchy of conditions for thermalization, together with the relation of the asymptotic temperature to the energy distribution in the initial bath state. We discuss the presence and absence of equilibration for the example of an inhomogeneous chain of harmonic oscillators, and illustrate the general findings about thermalization for the non-thermal environment that results from a quench.

  5. AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Burgess, J.; Preece, Robert D. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ryde, Felix; Axelsson, Magnus [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Veres, Peter; Mészáros, Peter [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Bhat, P. N.; Pelassa, Veronique [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Pe'er, Asaf [Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Iyyani, Shabnam [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Goldstein, Adam [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Baring, Matthew G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Byrne, David; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne [University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kocevski, Daniel; Omodei, Nicola [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Paciesas, William S., E-mail: jmichaelburgess@gmail.com, E-mail: rob.preece@nasa.gov, E-mail: felix@particle.kth.se, E-mail: veres@gwu.edu, E-mail: npp@astro.psu.edu [Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    Recent observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of thermal and non-thermal components in the prompt photon spectra of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Through an analysis of six bright Fermi GRBs, we have discovered a correlation between the observed photospheric and non-thermal ?-ray emission components of several GRBs using a physical model that has previously been shown to be a good fit to the Fermi data. From the spectral parameters of these fits we find that the characteristic energies, E {sub p} and kT, of these two components are correlated via the relation E {sub p}?T {sup ?} which varies from GRB to GRB. We present an interpretation in which the value of the index ? indicates whether the jet is dominated by kinetic or magnetic energy. To date, this jet composition parameter has been assumed in the modeling of GRB outflows rather than derived from the data.

  6. Numerical Study of a Propagating Non-Thermal Microwave Feature in a Solar Flare Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Minoshima; T. Yokoyama

    2008-06-24

    We analytically and numerically study the motion of electrons along a magnetic loop, to compare with the observation of the propagating feature of the non-thermal microwave source in the 1999 August 28 solar flare reported by Yokoyama et al. (2002). We model the electron motion with the Fokker-Planck equation and calculate the spatial distribution of the gyrosynchrotron radiation. We find that the microwave propagating feature does not correspond to the motion of electrons with a specific initial pitch angle. This apparent propagating feature is a consequence of the motion of an ensemble of electrons with different initial pitch angles, which have different time and position to produce strong radiation in the loop. We conclude that the non-thermal electrons in the 1999 August 28 flare were isotropically accelerated and then are injected into the loop.

  7. Measurements of Non-Thermal Line Widths in Solar Active Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, David H

    2015-01-01

    Spectral line widths are often observed to be larger than can be accounted for by thermal and instrumental broadening alone. This excess broadening is a key observational constraint for both nanoflare and wave dissipation models of coronal heating. Here we present a survey of non-thermal velocities measured in the high temperature loops (1--5MK) often found in the cores of solar active regions. This survey of $\\textit{Hinode}$ Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations covers 15 non-flaring active regions that span a wide range of solar conditions. We find relatively small non-thermal velocities, with a mean value of 17km s$^{-1}$, and no significant trend with temperature or active region magnetic flux. These measurements appear to be inconsistent with those expected from reconnection jets in the corona, chromospheric evaporation induced by coronal nanoflares, and Alfv\\'en wave turbulence models. Furthermore, because the observed non-thermal widths are generally small their measurements are ...

  8. Non-thermal Electrons at the Earth's Bow Shock: A `Gradual' Event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Oka; T. Terasawa; M. Fujimoto; H. Matsui; Y. Kasaba; Y. Saito; H. Kojima; H. Matsumoto; T. Mukai

    2008-10-24

    Earth's bow shock is known to produce non-thermal electrons which are generally observed as a `spike' in their flux profile. Here, in this paper, we present an analysis of electron and whistler wave properties for a quasi-perpendicular shock crossing that is supercritical, but subcritical to the so-called whistler critical Mach number, M$^w_{\\rm crit}$, above which whistler waves cannot propagate upstream. We have found that the amplitudes of whistler waves increased exponentially as a function of time prior to the shock encounter, while the suprathermal ($>$ 2 keV) electron flux similarly increased with time, although with differing $e$-folding time scales. Comparison of the electron energy spectrum measured within the ramp with predictions from diffusive shock acceleration theory was poor, but the variation of pitch angle distribution showed scattering of non-thermal electrons in the upstream region. While not finding a specific mechanism to account for the electron diffusion, we suggest that the whistlers seen probably account for the differences observed between this `gradual' event and the `spike' events seen at shocks with no upstream whistlers.

  9. Preradiation studies for non-thermal Z-pinch wire load experiments on Saturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Humphreys, D.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Marder, B.M.; Halbleib, J.A.; Crow, J.T.; Spielman, R.B.; Mock, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    The implosion dynamics of compact wire arrays on Saturn are explored as a function of wire mass m, wire length {ell}, wire radii R, and radial power-flow feed geometry using the ZORK code. Electron losses and the likelihood of arcing in the radial feed adjacent the wire load are analyzed using the TWOQUICK and CYLTRAN codes. The physical characteristics of the implosion and subsequent thermal radiation production are estimated using the LASNEX code in one dimension. These analyses show that compact tungsten wire arrays with parameters suggested by D. Mosher and with a 21-nH vacuum feed geometry satisfy the empirical scaling criterion I/(M/{ell}) {approximately} 2 MA/(mg/cm) of Mosher for optimizing non-thermal radiation from z pinches, generate low electron losses in the radial feeds, and generate electric fields at the insulator stack below the Charlie Martin flashover limit thereby permitting full power to be delivered to the load. Under such conditions, peak currents of {approximately}5 MA can be delivered to wire loads {approximately}20 ns before the driving voltage reverses at the insulator stack, potentially allowing the m = 0 instability to develop with the subsequent emission of non-thermal radiation as predicted by the Mosher model.

  10. Gravity as the main driver of non-thermal motions in massive star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traficante, A; Smith, R; Billot, N; Duarte-Cabral, A; Peretto, N; Molinari, S; Pineda, J E

    2015-01-01

    The origin of non-thermal motions in massive star forming regions can be ascribed to turbulence acting against the gravitational collapse, or to the self-gravity itself driving the rapid global collapse. The dependence between velocity dispersion, radius and clouds surface density found by Heyer et al. (2009), $\\sigma/R^{1/2}\\propto \\Sigma^{1/2}$, has been interpreted in terms of global collapse of clouds. In this work we demonstrate that this relation is an expression of a more general relation between accelerations. We introduce the gravo-turbulent acceleration, a$_k$, which describe the non-thermal motions in each region, and the acceleration generated by the gravitational field a$_G$, which is proportional to $\\Sigma$. We also introduce a new coefficient, the force partition coefficient $\\alpha_{for}$ which is equivalent to the virial parameter but does not distinguish between collapsing and non-collapsing regions. In this work we use the a$_k$ - a$_G$ formalism in the analysis of a new sample of 16 massi...

  11. Non-Thermal Production of Dangerous Relics in the Early Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. F. Giudice; A. Riotto; I. Tkachev

    1999-07-27

    Many models of supersymmetry breaking, in the context of either supergravity or superstring theories, predict the presence of particles with weak scale masses and Planck-suppressed couplings. Typical examples are the scalar moduli and the gravitino. Excessive production of such particles in the early Universe destroys the successful predictions of nucleosynthesis. In particular, the thermal production of these relics after inflation leads to a bound on the reheating temperature, T_{RH} dangerous relics may be much more efficient than the thermal production after inflation. Scalar moduli fields may be copiously created by the classical gravitational effects on the vacuum state. Consequently, the new upper bound on the reheating temperature is shown to be, in some cases, as low as 100 GeV. We also study the non-thermal production of gravitinos in the early Universe, which can be extremely efficient and overcome the thermal production by several orders of magnitude, in realistic supersymmetric inflationary models.

  12. Estimations of local thermal impact on living organisms irradiated by non-thermal microwaves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shatalov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Pennes' differential equation for bioheat transfer and the heat transfer equation are solved for the temperature distribution in a living tissue with spherical inclusions, irradiated by microwave power. It is shown that relative temperature excess in a small inclusion in the tissue in some cases is inversely proportional to its radius and does not depend on the applied power. In pulsing RF fields the effect is amplified proportionally to the ratio of the pulse period to the pulse duration. The local temperature rise significantly outpaces the averaged one and therefore the Watt to Weight SAR limits may be insufficient to estimate the safety of RF radiation and the conventional division of the biological effects of electromagnetic fields on the thermal and non-thermal needs to be revised.

  13. Non-thermal Cosmic Backgrounds and prospects for future high-energy observations of blazars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Giommi; S. Colafrancesco

    2006-02-10

    We discuss the contribution of the blazar population to the extragalactic background radiation across the electromagnetic (e.m.) spectrum with particular reference to the microwave, hard-X-ray and gamma-ray bands. Our estimates are based on a recently derived blazar radio LogN-LogS that was built by combining several radio and multi-frequency surveys. We show that blazar emission integrated over cosmic time gives rise to a considerable broad-band non-thermal cosmic background that dominates the extragalactic brightness in the high-energy part of the e.m. spectrum. We also estimate the number of blazars that are expected to be detected by future planned or hypothetical missions operating in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy bands.

  14. Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , coming into force in September 2014, set a 56 % reduction of NOx emissions compared to Euro stage V (80 trap technology, also called NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR), was first developed by Toyota in 199411 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

  15. EVIDENCE OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM HH 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    López-Santiago, J.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-10-20

    Protostellar jets appear at all stages of star formation when the accretion process is still at work. Jets travel at velocities of hundreds of km s{sup –1}, creating strong shocks when interacting with the interstellar medium. Several cases of jets have been detected in X-rays, typically showing soft emission. For the first time, we report evidence of hard X-ray emission possibly related to non-thermal processes not explained by previous models of the post-shock emission predicted in the jet/ambient interaction scenario. HH 80 is located at the south head of the jet associated with the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048. It shows soft and hard X-ray emission in regions that are spatially separated, with the soft X-ray emission region situated behind the region of hard X-ray emission. We propose a scenario for HH 80 where soft X-ray emission is associated with thermal processes from the interaction of the jet with denser ambient matter and hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation at the front shock.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Non-thermal Emissions and Study of Electron Transport in a Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Minoshima; T. Yokoyama; N. Mitani

    2007-10-02

    We study the non-thermal emissions in a solar flare occurring on 2003 May 29 by using RHESSI hard X-ray (HXR) and Nobeyama microwave observations. This flare shows several typical behaviors of the HXR and microwave emissions: time delay of microwave peaks relative to HXR peaks, loop-top microwave and footpoint HXR sources, and a harder electron energy distribution inferred from the microwave spectrum than from the HXR spectrum. In addition, we found that the time profile of the spectral index of the higher-energy ($\\gsim 100$ keV) HXRs is similar to that of the microwaves, and is delayed from that of the lower-energy ($\\lsim 100$ keV) HXRs. We interpret these observations in terms of an electron transport model called {\\TPP}. We numerically solved the spatially-homogeneous {\\FP} equation to determine electron evolution in energy and pitch-angle space. By comparing the behaviors of the HXR and microwave emissions predicted by the model with the observations, we discuss the pitch-angle distribution of the electrons injected into the flare site. We found that the observed spectral variations can qualitatively be explained if the injected electrons have a pitch-angle distribution concentrated perpendicular to the magnetic field lines rather than isotropic distribution.

  17. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. II. Firehose-mediated Fermi acceleration and its dependence on pre-shock conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-12-10

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (M{sub s} ? 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (M{sub s} = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generated by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (? 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  18. Non-Thermal X-ray Properties of Rotation Powered Pulsars and Their Wind Nebulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Hua Li; Fang-Jun Lu; Zhuo Li

    2008-03-27

    We present a statistical study of the non-thermal X-ray emission of 27 young rotation powered pulsars (RPPs) and 24 pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) by using the Chandra and the XMM-Newton observations, which with the high spatial resolutions enable us to spatially resolve pulsars from their surrounding PWNe. We obtain the X-ray luminosities and spectra separately for RPPs and PWNe, and then investigate their distribution and relation to each other as well as the relation with the pulsar rotational parameters. In the pair-correlation analysis we find that: (1) the X-ray (2-10 keV) luminosities of both pulsar and PWN (L_{psr} and L_{pwn}) display a strong correlation with pulsar spin down power Edot and characteristic age, and the scalings resulting from a simple linear fit to the data are L_{psr} \\propto Edot^{0.92 \\pm 0.04} and L_{pwn} \\propto Edot^{1.45 \\pm 0.08} (68% confidence level), respectively, however, both the fits are not statistically acceptable; (2) L_{psr} also shows a possible weak correlation with pulsar period P and period derivative Pdot, whereas L_{pwn} manifests a similar weak correlation with Pdot only; (3) The PWN photon index Gamma_{pwn} is positively correlated with L_{pwn} and L_{pwn}/Edot. We also found that the PWN X-ray luminosity is typically 1 to 10 times larger than that from the underlying pulsar, and the PWN photon indices span a range of ~1.5 to ~2. The statistic study of PWN spectral properties supports the particle wind model in which the X-ray emitting electrons are accelerated by the termination shock of the wind.

  19. Non-thermal high-energy emission from colliding winds of massive stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Reimer; M. Pohl; O. Reimer

    2005-10-25

    Colliding winds of massive star binary systems are considered as potential sites of non-thermal high-energy photon production. This is motivated merely by the detection of synchrotron radio emission from the expected colliding wind location. Here we investigate the properties of high-energy photon production in colliding winds of long-period WR+OB-systems. We found that in the dominating leptonic radiation process anisotropy and Klein-Nishina effects may yield spectral and variability signatures in the gamma-ray domain at or above the sensitivity of current or upcoming gamma-ray telescopes. Analytical formulae for the steady-state particle spectra are derived assuming diffusive particle acceleration out of a pool of thermal wind particles, and taking into account adiabatic and all relevant radiative losses. For the first time we include their advection/convection in the wind collision zone, and distinguish two regions within this extended region: the acceleration region where spatial diffusion is superior to convective/advective motion, and the convection region defined by the convection time shorter than the diffusion time scale. The calculation of the Inverse Compton radiation uses the full Klein-Nishina cross section, and takes into account the anisotropic nature of the scattering process. This leads to orbital flux variations by up to several orders of magnitude which may, however, be blurred by the geometry of the system. The calculations are applied to the typical WR+OB-systems WR 140 and WR 147 to yield predictions of their expected spectral and temporal characteristica and to evaluate chances to detect high-energy emission with the current and upcoming gamma-ray experiments. (abridged)

  20. MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew B. Loomis

    2004-05-01

    This technical report describes the results from Task 1 of the Cooperative Agreement. Powerspan has installed, tested, and validated Hg SCEMS systems for measuring oxidized and elemental mercury at the pilot facility at R.E. Burger Generating Station in Shadyside, Ohio. When operating properly, these systems are capable of providing near real-time monitoring of inlet and outlet gas flow streams and are capable of extracting samples from different locations to characterize mercury removal at these different ECO process stages. This report discusses the final configuration of the Hg CEM systems and the operating protocols that increase the reliability of the HG SCEM measurements. Documentation on the testing done to verify the operating protocols is also provided. In addition the report provides details on the protocols developed and used for measurement of mercury in process liquid streams and in captured ash.

  1. Hawking Non-thermal and Thermal Radiations of Schwarzschild Anti-de Sitter Black Hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Atiqur Rahman; M. Ilias Hossain

    2012-05-07

    The massive particles tunneling method has been used to investigate the Hawking non-thermal and purely thermal radiations of Schwarzschild Anti-de Sitter (SAdS) black hole. Considering the spacetime background to be dynamical, incorporate the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles the imaginary part of the action has been derived from Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Using the conservation laws of energy and angular momentum we have showed that the non-thermal and purely thermal tunneling rates are related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The result obtained for SAdS black hole is also in accordance with Parikh and Wilczek\\rq s opinion and gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of SAdS black hole.

  2. Thermal and non-thermal emission from reconnecting twisted coronal loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinto, R; Browning, P K; Vilmer, N

    2015-01-01

    Twisted magnetic fields should be ubiquitous in the solar corona. The magnetic energy contained in such twisted fields can be released during solar flares and other explosive phenomena. Reconnection in helical magnetic coronal loops results in plasma heating and particle acceleration distributed within a large volume, including the lower coronal and chromospheric sections of the loops, and can be a viable alternative to the standard flare model, where particles are accelerated only in a small volume located in the upper corona. The goal of this study is to investigate the observational signatures of plasma heating and particle acceleration in kink-unstable twisted coronal loops using combination of MHD simulations and test-particle methods. The simulations describe the development of kink instability and magnetic reconnection in twisted coronal loops using resistive compressible MHD, and incorporate atmospheric stratification and large-scale loop curvature. The resulting distributions of hot plasma let us est...

  3. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  4. Discovery of Non-Thermal X-Rays from the Shell of RCW86

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aya Bamba; Katsuji Koyama; Hiroshi Tomida

    2000-08-16

    We report the ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) results of RCW 86, a shell-like supernova remnant (SNR). The bright region in the X-ray band traces the radio clumpy shell, although details of the structure are different. The X-ray spectrum from each part of the shell can not be fitted to a thin thermal plasma model, but requires, at least three components: a low temperature plasma of 0.3 keV, high temperature plasma of > several keV, and a power-law component with a photon index = 3. The abundances of O, Ne, Mg and Si are significantly higher than that of Fe, indicating that RCW 86 is a type II SNR. The absorption column of 3e21 H cm^-2 indicates the distance to the SNR to be several kpc. The power-law component can be interpreted to be synchrotron radiation of high energy electrons. Assuming energy density equipartition between the magnetic field and the electrons, and using the radio and X-ray spectra, we argue that high energy electrons are accelerated up to 20 TeV. The acceleration efficiency is, however, different from shell to shell.

  5. NON-THERMAL RESPONSE OF THE CORONA TO THE MAGNETIC FLUX DISPERSAL IN THE PHOTOSPHERE OF A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harra, L. K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Abramenko, V. I. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, 40386 N. Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We analyzed Solar Dynamics Observatory line-of-sight magnetograms for a decaying NOAA active region (AR) 11451 along with co-temporal Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data from the Hinode spacecraft. The photosphere was studied via time variations of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity coefficient, {eta}(t), and the magnetic power spectrum index, {alpha}, through analysis of magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). These measure the intensity of the random motions of magnetic elements and the state of turbulence of the magnetic field, respectively. The time changes of the non-thermal energy release in the corona was explored via histogram analysis of the non-thermal velocity, v {sub nt}, in order to highlight the largest values at each time, which may indicate an increase in energy release in the corona. We used the 10% upper range of the histogram of v {sub nt} (which we called V {sup upp} {sub nt}) of the coronal spectral line of Fe XII 195 A. A 2 day time interval was analyzed from HMI data, along with the EIS data for the same field of view. Our main findings are the following. (1) The magnetic turbulent diffusion coefficient, {eta}(t), precedes the upper range of the v {sub nt} with the time lag of approximately 2 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.76. (2) The power-law index, {alpha}, of the magnetic power spectrum precedes V {sup upp} {sub nt} with a time lag of approximately 3 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.5. The data show that the magnetic flux dispersal in the photosphere is relevant to non-thermal energy release dynamics in the above corona. The results are consistent with the nanoflare mechanism of the coronal heating, due to the time lags being consistent with the process of heating and cooling the loops heated by nanoflares.

  6. Hawking non-thermal and Purely thermal radiations of Kerr-de Sitter black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ilias Hossain; M. Atiqur Rahman

    2013-08-31

    Incorporating Parikh and Wilczek's opinion to the Kerr de-Sitter (KdS) black hole Hawking non-thermal and purely thermal radiations have been investigated using Hamilton-Jacobi method. We have taken the background spacetime of KdS black hole as dynamical, involving the self-gravitation effect of the emitted particles, energy and angular momentum has been taken as conserved and show that the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum. The explored results gives a correction to the Hawking radiation of KdS black hole.

  7. The detection of non-thermal radio continuum spokes and the study of star formation in the Cartwheel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. D. Mayya; D. Bizyaev; R. Romano; J. A. Garcia-Barreto; E. I. Vorobyov

    2005-01-14

    New sensitive Very Large Array 20 cm continuum observations of the Cartwheel, the prototypical collisional ring galaxy, were carried out with the principal aim of tracing supernova remnants that are expected to lie in the wake of the expanding ring and in the ring itself. We detect predominantly non-thermal radio continuum emission from regions associated with 13 ring HII complexes. The emission interior to the ring is confined to structures that resemble spokes of the wheel. The spokes start near bright HII complexes, and extend to around 6 arcsec (4 kpc) inward in the direction of the geometrical center of the ring. There is no apparent positional coincidence between the radio continuum and optical spokes. Radial distribution of intensity along the spokes suggests that the past star formation rate (SFR) in the Cartwheel was much lower than the current SFR. New Halpha observations were used to revise the current SFR in the Cartwheel. The revised value is 18 Msun/yr, which is a factor of 4 lower than the value reported previously, but is in good agreement with the SFR estimated from far infrared luminosity. About 30% of the observed 20 cm continuum non-thermal emission seems to originate in processes that are not related to star formation. Revised SFR in the Cartwheel is comparable to that in the rest of the ring galaxies.

  8. Three-dimensional simulations of the non-thermal broadband emission from young supernova remnants including efficient particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Decourchelle, Anne, E-mail: gferrand@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: anne.decourchelle@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/Irfu, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris VII), CEA Saclay, bât. 709, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. In this paper, we explore how the non-thermal emission from young remnants can be used to probe the production of energetic particles at the shock (both protons and electrons). Our model couples hydrodynamic simulations of a supernova remnant with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. We include two important back-reaction loops upstream of the shock: energetic particles can (1) modify the flow structure and (2) amplify the magnetic field. As the latter process is not fully understood, we use different limit cases that encompass a wide range of possibilities. We follow the history of the shock dynamics and of the particle transport downstream of the shock, which allows us to compute the non-thermal emission from the remnant at any given age. We do this in three dimensions, in order to generate projected maps that can be compared with observations. We observe that completely different recipes for the magnetic field can lead to similar modifications of the shock structure, although to very different configurations of the field and particles. We show how this affects the emission patterns in different energy bands, from radio to X-rays and ?-rays. High magnetic fields (>100 ?G) directly impact the synchrotron emission from electrons, by restricting their emission to thin rims, and indirectly impact the inverse Compton emission from electrons and also the pion decay emission from protons, mostly by shifting their cut-off energies to respectively lower and higher energies.

  9. Exhaust system with emissions storage device and plasma reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoard, John W. (Livonia, MI)

    1998-01-01

    An exhaust system for a combustion system, comprising a storage device for collecting NO.sub.x, hydrocarbon, or particulate emissions, or mixture of these emissions, and a plasma reactor for destroying the collected emissions is described. After the emission is collected in by the storage device for a period of time, the emission is then destroyed in a non-thermal plasma generated by the plasma reactor. With respect to the direction of flow of the exhaust stream, the storage device must be located before the terminus of the plasma reactor, and it may be located wholly before, overlap with, or be contained within the plasma reactor.

  10. Acceleration of relativistic electrons by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: Implications for non-thermal emission from black hole accretion disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Jacob W.; Quataert, Eliot; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Parrish, Ian J.

    2014-08-10

    We use analytic estimates and numerical simulations of test particles interacting with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence to show that subsonic MHD turbulence produces efficient second-order Fermi acceleration of relativistic particles. This acceleration is not well described by standard quasi-linear theory but is a consequence of resonance broadening of wave-particle interactions in MHD turbulence. We provide momentum diffusion coefficients that can be used for astrophysical and heliospheric applications and discuss the implications of our results for accretion flows onto black holes. In particular, we show that particle acceleration by subsonic turbulence in radiatively inefficient accretion flows can produce a non-thermal tail in the electron distribution function that is likely important for modeling and interpreting the emission from low-luminosity systems such as Sgr A* and M87.

  11. Flows and Non-thermal Velocities in Solar Active Regions Observed with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode: A Tracer of Active Region Sources of Heliospheric Magnetic Fields?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. A. Doschek; H. P. Warren; J. T. Mariska; K. Muglach; J. L. Culhane; H. Hara; T Watanabe

    2008-07-17

    From Doppler velocity maps of active regions constructed from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft we observe large areas of outflow (20-50 km/s) that can persist for at least a day. These outflows occur in areas of active regions that are faint in coronal spectral lines formed at typical quiet Sun and active region temperatures. The outflows are positively correlated with non-thermal velocities in coronal plasmas. The bulk mass motions and non-thermal velocities are derived from spectral line centroids and line widths, mostly from a strong line of Fe XII at 195.12 Angstroms. The electron temperature of the outflow regions estimated from an Fe XIII to Fe XII line intensity ratio is about 1.2-1.4 MK. The electron density of the outflow regions derived from a density sensitive intensity ratio of Fe XII lines is rather low for an active region. Most regions average around 7E10+8 cm(-3), but there are variations on pixel spatial scales of about a factor of 4. We discuss results in detail for two active regions observed by EIS. Images of active regions in line intensity, line width, and line centroid are obtained by rastering the regions. We also discuss data from the active regions obtained from other orbiting spacecraft that support the conclusions obtained from analysis of the EIS spectra. The locations of the flows in the active regions with respect to the longitudinal photospheric magnetic fields suggest that these regions might be tracers of long loops and/or open magnetic fields that extend into the heliosphere, and thus the flows could possibly contribute significantly to the solar wind.

  12. Investigation of Vortex Structures in Gas-Discharge Nonneutral Electron Plasma: III. Pulse Ejection of Electrons at the Formation and Radial Oscillations of Vortex Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kervalishvili, N A

    2015-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of electron ejection from gas-discharge nonneutral electron plasma at the formation and radial oscillations of vortex structure have been presented. The electrons are injected from the vortex structure and the adjacent region of electron sheath in the form of pulses the duration and periodicity of which are determined by the processes of evolution and dynamics of this structure. The possible mechanisms of pulse ejection of electrons are considered. The influence of electron ejection on other processes in discharge electron sheath is analyzed.

  13. Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation I: non-thermal transport of helium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Smith; C. Jordan

    2002-08-16

    Models of the solar transition region made from lines other than those of helium cannot account for the strength of the helium lines. However, the collisional excitation rates of the helium resonance lines are unusually sensitive to the energy of the exciting electrons. Non-thermal motions in the transition region could drive slowly-ionizing helium ions rapidly through the steep temperature gradient, exposing them to excitation by electrons characteristic of higher temperatures than those describing their ionization state. We present the results of calculations which use a more physical representation of the lifetimes of the ground states of He I and He II than was adopted in earlier work on this process. New emission measure distributions are used to calculate the temperature variation with height. The results show that non-thermal motions can lead to enhancements of the He I and He II resonance line intensities by factors that are comparable with those required. Excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions would reduce the effects of non-thermal transport. The effects of non-thermal motions are more consistent with the observed spatial distribution of helium emission than are those of excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions alone. In particular, they account better for the observed line intensity ratio I(537.0 A)/I(584.3 A), and its variation with location.

  14. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  15. Doublet III neutral beam power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nerem, A.; Beal, J.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; LeVine, F.H.; Pipkins, J.F.; Remsen, D.B. Jr.; Tooker, J.F.; Varga, H.J.; Franck, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    The Doublet III neutral beam power system supplies pulsed power to the neutral beam injectors for plasma heating experiments on the Doublet III tokamak. The power supply system is connected to an ion source where the power is converted to an 80 kV, 80A, 0.5 sec beam of hydrogen ions at maximum power output. These energetic ions undergo partial neutralization via charge exchange in the beamline. The energetic neutral hydrogen atoms pass through the Doublet III toroidal and poloidal magnet fields and deposit their energy in the confined plasma. The unneutralized ions are deflected into a water-cooled dump. The entire system is interfaced through the neutral beam computer instrumentation and control system.

  16. Chap. III : structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poinsot, Laurent

    Chap. III : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot Plan Chap. III : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot 25 septembre 2009 #12;Chap. III : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot Plan Plan 1 Les objets structur´es Introduction S´equences Listes Ensembles Cha^ines de caract`eres #12;Chap. III : Les objets

  17. Warm Dark Matter via Ultra-Violet Freeze-In: Reheating Temperature and Non-Thermal Distribution for Fermionic Higgs Portal Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John McDonald

    2015-12-20

    Warm dark matter (WDM) of order keV mass may be able to resolve the disagreement between structure formation in cold dark matter simulations and observations. The detailed properties of WDM will depend upon its energy distribution, in particular how it deviates from the thermal distribution usually assumed in WDM simulations. Here we focus on WDM production via the Ultra-Violet (UV) freeze-in mechanism, for the case of fermionic Higgs portal dark matter $\\psi$ produced the portal interaction $\\overline{\\psi}\\psi H^{\\dagger}H/\\Lambda$. We show that the reheating temperature must satisfy $T_{R} \\gtrsim 0.3 $ TeV in order to account for the observed dark matter density when $m_{\\psi} \\approx 2 $ keV, where the lower bound on $T_{R}$ corresponds to the limit where the fermion mass is entirely due to electroweak symmetry breaking via the portal interaction. The corresponding bound on the interaction scale is $\\Lambda \\gtrsim 1.5 \\times 10^{10}$ GeV. We introduce a new method to simplify the computation of the non-thermal energy distribution of dark matter from freeze-in. We show that the non-thermal energy distribution from UV freeze-in is much broader and flatter than the corresponding thermal distribution.

  18. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  19. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  20. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  1. GRB 131014A: a Laboratory to Study the Thermal-Like and Non-Thermal Emissions in Gamma-Ray Bursts, and the new L$_\\mathrm{i}^\\mathrm{nTh}$-E$_\\mathrm{peak,i}^\\mathrm{nTh,rest}$ relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiriec, S; Piran, T; Daigne, F; Kouveliotou, C; Racusin, J; Gehrels, N; McEnery, J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulated on the existence of a thermal-like component during the prompt phase of GRBs. This component, often associated with the GRB jet's photosphere, is usually subdominant compared to a much stronger non-thermal one. The prompt emission of Fermi GRB 131014A provides a unique opportunity to study this thermal-like component. Indeed, the thermal emission in GRB 131014A is much more intense than in other GRBs and a pure thermal episode is observed during the initial 0.16 s. The thermal-like component cools monotonically during the first second while the non-thermal emission kicks off. The intensity of the non-thermal component progressively increases until being energetically dominant at late time. This is a perfect scenario to disentangle the thermal component from the non-thermal one. A low-energy spectral index of +0.6 better fit the thermal component than the typical index value +1 corresponding to a pure Planck function. The non-thermal component is adequately fitted with a Band func...

  2. Chap. III : structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poinsot, Laurent

    Chap. III : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot Plan Chap. III : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot 25 septembre 2009 #12;Chap. III : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot Plan Plan 1 Les objets structur´es Introduction S´equences Listes Ensembles Cha^ines de caract`eres 2 Quelques exercices #12;Chap

  3. A Chandra view of non-thermal emission in the northwestern region of supernova remnant RCW 86: Particle acceleration and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro, Daniel; Lopez, Laura A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Slane, Patrick O.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    The shocks of supernova remnants are believed to accelerate particles to cosmic ray (CR) energies. The amplification of the magnetic field due to CRs propagating in the shock region is expected to have an impact on both the emission from the accelerated particle population as well as the acceleration process itself. Using a 95 ks observation with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, we map and characterize the synchrotron emitting material in the northwest region of RCW 86. We model spectra from several different regions, both filamentary and diffuse, where emission appears to be dominated by synchrotron radiation. The fine spatial resolution of Chandra allows us to obtain accurate emission profiles across three different non-thermal rims in this region. The narrow width (l ? 10''-30'') of these filaments constrains the minimum magnetic field strength at the post-shock region to approximately 80 ?G.

  4. Non-thermal gamma-ray emission from delayed pair breakdown in a magnetized and photon-rich outflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, Ramandeep; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: rgill@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    We consider delayed, volumetric heating in a magnetized outflow that has broken out of a confining medium and expanded to a high Lorentz factor (? ? 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3}) and low optical depth to scattering (? {sub T} ? 10{sup –3}-10{sup –2}). The energy flux at breakout is dominated by the magnetic field, with a modest contribution from quasi-thermal gamma rays whose spectrum was calculated in Paper I. We focus on the case of extreme baryon depletion in the magnetized material, but allow for a separate baryonic component that is entrained from a confining medium. Dissipation is driven by relativistic motion between these two components, which develops once the photon compactness drops below 4 × 10{sup 3}(Y{sub e} /0.5){sup –1}. We first calculate the acceleration of the magnetized component following breakout, showing that embedded MHD turbulence provides significant inertia, the neglect of which leads to unrealistically high estimates of flow Lorentz factor. After reheating begins, the pair and photon distributions are evolved self-consistently using a one-zone kinetic code that incorporates an exact treatment of Compton scattering, pair production and annihilation, and Coulomb scattering. Heating leads to a surge in pair creation, and the scattering depth saturates at ? {sub T} ? 1-4. The plasma maintains a very low ratio of particle to magnetic pressure, and can support strong anisotropy in the charged particle distribution, with cooling dominated by Compton scattering. High-energy power-law spectra with photon indices in the range observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; –3 < ? < –3/2) are obtained by varying the ratio of heat input to the seed energy in quasi-thermal photons. We contrast our results with those for continuous heating across an expanding photosphere, and show that the latter model produces soft-to-hard evolution that is inconsistent with observations of GRBs.

  5. Sulfur tolerance of selective partial oxidation of NO to NO2 in a plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penetrante, B; Brusasco, R M; Merritt, B T; Vogtlin, G E

    1999-08-24

    Several catalytic aftertreatment technologies rely on the conversion of NO to NO2 to achieve efficient reduction of NOx and particulates in diesel exhaust. These technologies include the use of selective catalytic reduction of NOx with hydrocarbons, NOx adsorption, and continuously regenerated particulate trapping. These technologies require low sulfur fuel because the catalyst component that is active in converting NO to NO2 is also active in converting SO2 to SO3 . The SO3 leads t o increase in particulates and/or poison active sites on the catalyst. A non-thermal plasma can be used for the selective partial oxidation of NO to NO2 in the gas-phase under diesel engine exhaust conditions. This paper discusses how a non-thermal plasma can efficiently oxidize NO to NO2 without oxidizing SO2 to SO3 .

  6. LABORATORY III POTENTIAL ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY III POTENTIAL ENERGY Lab III - 1 In previous problems, you have been introduced to the concepts of kinetic energy, which is associated with the motion of an object, and internal energy, which is associated with the internal structure of a system. In this section, you work with another form of energy

  7. Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Plasma Physics By leveraging plasma under extreme conditions, we concentrate on solving critical scientific challenges such as detecting smuggled nuclear materials, advancing...

  8. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  9. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  10. Part III The President

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    III The President Executive Order 13653-Preparing the United States for the Impacts of Climate Change VerDate Mar<15>2010 17:41 Nov 05, 2013 Jkt 226001 PO 00000 Frm 00001 Fmt 4717...

  11. APPENDIX III III.1 Precipitation Daily Totals Preceding Precipitation Events-----------------------------------------III-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    APPENDIX III III.1 Precipitation Daily Totals Preceding Precipitation Events-----------------------------------------III-2 Figure III.1.1 Precipitation daily totals preceding the a) calibration and b) and c) validationPRECIPITATION DAILY TOTALS PRECEDING PRECIPITATION EVENTS 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 9/19/819/21/819/23/819/25/819/27

  12. Plasma Kinetics in the Ethanol/Water/Air Mixture in "Tornado" Type Electrical Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levko, D; Chernyak, V; Olszewski, S; Nedybaliuk, O

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a new modification of the "tornado" type electrical discharge. Numerical modeling clarifies the nature of the non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of nonequilibrium plasma-chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

  13. Chapter III Jacobi's Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleijpen, Gerard

    Chapter III Jacobi's Method 6 The algorithm Jacobi's method (JACOBI [1846]) is one of the oldest of the Jacobi method, we have used the following sources: Jacobi [1846], Wilkinson [1965, Chapter 5], Parlett j : (6.1) The idea in Jacobi [1846] was to use this for larger dimensional matrices in order

  14. Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement No. 151, 2003 1 Physics of Plasma Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a theory of the fundamental plasma emission of type-III solar radio bursts. Starting from the generalized The study of type-III solar radio bursts is fundamental for our understanding of the physics of nonthermal-III solar radio bursts are produced by a two-step process: first, an energetic electron beam excites

  15. Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    state. Formed at high temperatures, plasmas consist of freely moving ions and free electrons. They are often called the "fourth state of matter" because their unique physical...

  16. IFTS Intensive Course on Advanced Plasma Physics-Spring 2011,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio

    IFTS Intensive Course on Advanced Plasma Physics-Spring 2011, Non-linear charged particle dynamics, the arc length along the magnetic field line and J the second invariant. (iii) In a large aspect ration), Ann. Phys. 41, 302), where the authors show that, when studying the physics of magnetized plasmas

  17. Plutonium (III) and uranium (III) nitrile complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enriquez, A. E.; Matonic, J. H.; Scott, B. L.; Neu, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    Iodine oxidation of uranium and plutonium metals in tetrahydrofuran and pyridine form AnI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} and AnI{sub 3}(py){sub 4} (An = Pu, U). These compounds represent convenient entries Into solution An(III) chemistry in organic solvents. Extensions of the actinide metal oxidation methodology in nitrile solvents by I{sub 2}, AgPF{sub 6}, and TIPF{sub 6} are presented here. Treatment of Pu{sup 0} in acetonitrile with iodine yields a putative PuI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub x} intermediate which can be trapped with the tripodal nitrogen donor ligand tpza (tpza = (tris[(2-pyrazinyl)methyl]amine)) and forms the eight-coordinate complex (tpza)PuI{sub 3}(NCMe). Treatment of excess U{sup 0} metal by iodine in acetonitrile afforded a brown crystalline mixed valence complex, [U(NCMe){sub 9}][UI{sub 6}][I], instead of UI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub 4}. The analogous reaction in bezonitrile forms red crystalline UI{sub 4}(NCPh){sub 4}. In contrast, treatment of UI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} with excess acetonitrile cleanly generates [U(NCMe){sub 9}][I]{sub 3}. Oxidation of Pu{sup 0} by either TI(I) or Ag(I) hexafluorophosphate salts generates a nine-coordinate homoleptic acetonitrile adduct [Pu(NCMe){sub 9}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 3}. Attempts to oxidize U{sub 0} with these salts were unsuccessful.

  18. Plasma valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY); Sharma, Sushil (Hinsdale, IL); Noonan, John (Naperville, IL); Rotela, Elbio (Clarendon Hills, IL); Khounsary, Ali (Hinsdale, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A plasma valve includes a confinement channel and primary anode and cathode disposed therein. An ignition cathode is disposed adjacent the primary cathode. Power supplies are joined to the cathodes and anode for rapidly igniting and maintaining a plasma in the channel for preventing leakage of atmospheric pressure through the channel.

  19. Electrical studies and plasma characterization of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet operated at low frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giuliani, L.; Xaubet, M.; Grondona, D.; Minotti, F.; Kelly, H.

    2013-06-15

    Low-temperature, high-pressure plasma jets have an extensive use in medical and biological applications. Much work has been devoted to study these applications while comparatively fewer studies appear to be directed to the discharge itself. In this work, in order to better understand the kind of electrical discharge and the plasma states existing in those devices, a study of the electrical characteristics of a typical plasma jet, operated at atmospheric pressure, using either air or argon, is reported. It is found that the experimentally determined electrical characteristics are consistent with the model of a thermal arc discharge, with a highly collisional cathode sheet. The only exception is the case of argon at the smallest electrode separation studied, around 1 mm in which case the discharge is better modeled as either a non-thermal arc or a high-pressure glow. Also, variations of the electrical behavior at different gas flow rates are interpreted, consistently with the arc model, in terms of the development of fluid turbulence in the external jet.

  20. SECTION III: NUCLEAR THEORY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845* Storage SystemsLight particleNUCLEAR7.0 -III:

  1. WCI-III

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nerg *4 o** 0, WF* W A ,WATCHWCHWCI-III

  2. Iii;.} An Ann

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHighHussein KhalilResearch88 SignPriceresponseIdeumIf youIii;.}

  3. III IIU Em Smiii

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Hydrocarbon Gas2 II NowIII IIU Em

  4. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  5. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiggins, Brandon K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L., E-mail: dwhalen1999@gmail.com [XTD-PRI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ?} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ? 20 in the first generation of stars.

  6. Procurement Specialist III/IV - REVISED | Princeton Plasma Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and administer with a high level of proficiency, complex time and material, fixed price, cost reimbursement, construction and all other subcontract types in accordance with...

  7. III. Vacuum PumpsIII. Vacuum Pumps Gas transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kai

    III. Vacuum PumpsIII. Vacuum Pumps Mechanism Gas transfer Gas capture FunctionFunction Roughing, Screw High vacuum Oil diffusion, Turbomolecular, Cryo, Ion Auxiliary Titanium Sublimation, LN2 Liu, UCD aggressive gases Liu, UCD Phy250-1, 2011, NanoFab22 May handle aggressive gases #12;IIIIII--B. High Vacuum

  8. Evidence of radicals created by plasma in bacteria in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chae Bok; Na, Young Ho; Hong, Tae-Eun; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han S.; Baik, Ku Youn E-mail: gckwon@kw.ac.kr; Kwon, Gichung E-mail: gckwon@kw.ac.kr

    2014-08-18

    Heavy water (D{sub 2}O) was introduced into a non-thermal plasma-jet (NTPJ) device to generate deuterium monoxide (OD) radicals at room temperature. Owing to the similar reactivity and low prevalence of deuterium in nature, OD radicals can be utilized to visualize the OH radical interactions with water and living cells. Escherichia coli in water were treated with OD radicals, and D atom incorporation into cells was visualized using time-of-flight SIMS and Nano-SIMS. The results show that D atoms from NTPJ reach the cytoplasm of E. coli in H{sub 2}O, indicating the usefulness of this OD-tracking method for the study of radical interactions with living cells.

  9. LABORATORY III ENERGY AND CAPACITORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY III ENERGY AND CAPACITORS Lab III -1 All biological systems rely on the ability to store and transfer energy. In this laboratory you will investigate the storage and transfer of energy in capacitors successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to: · Apply the concept of conservation of energy

  10. Sandia Energy - III-Nitride Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    III-Nitride Nanowires Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC III-Nitride Nanowires III-Nitride NanowiresTara Camacho-Lopez2015-03-25T21:58:18+00:00...

  11. PLASMA EMISSION BY WEAK TURBULENCE PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Pavan, J. E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br

    2014-11-10

    The plasma emission is the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and type III radio bursts. The first theory of plasma emission was put forth in the 1950s, but the rigorous demonstration of the process based upon first principles had been lacking. The present Letter reports the first complete numerical solution of electromagnetic weak turbulence equations. It is shown that the fundamental emission is dominant and unless the beam speed is substantially higher than the electron thermal speed, the harmonic emission is not likely to be generated. The present findings may be useful for validating reduced models and for interpreting particle-in-cell simulations.

  12. Exhaust aftertreatment using plasma-assisted catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penetrante, B

    2000-01-20

    In the field of catalysis, one application that has been classified as a breakthrough technology is the catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in oxygen-rich environments using hydrocarbons. This breakthrough will require dramatic improvements in both catalyst and engine technology, but the benefits will be substantial for energy efficiency and a cleaner environment. Engine and automobile companies are placing greater emphasis on the diesel engine because of its potential for saving fuel resources and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The modern direct-injection diesel engine offers demonstrated fuel economy advantages unmatched by any other commercially-viable engine. The main drawback of diesel engines is exhaust emissions. A modification of existing oxidation catalyst/engine technology is being used to address the CO, hydrocarbon and particulates. However, no satisfactory solution currently exists for NO{sub x}. Diesel engines operate under net oxidizing conditions, thus rendering conventional three-way catalytic converters ineffective for the controlling the NO{sub x} emission. NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, using ammonia as a reductant, do exist for oxygen-rich exhausts; however, for transportation applications, the use of on-board hydrocarbon fuels is a more feasible, cost-effective, and environmentally-sound approach. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by hydrocarbons is one of the leading catalytic aftertreatment technologies for the reduction of NO{sub x} in lean-burn engine exhaust (often referred to as lean-NO{sub x}). The objective is to chemically reduce the pollutant molecules of NO{sub x} to benign molecules such as N{sub 2}. Aftertreatment schemes have focused a great deal on the reduction of NO because the NO{sub x} in engine exhaust is composed primarily of NO. Recent studies, however, have shown that the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} serves an important role in enhancing the efficiency for reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. It has become apparent that preconverting NO to NO{sub 2} could improve both the efficiency and durability of lean-NO{sub x} catalysts. A non-thermal plasma is an efficient means for selective partial oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The use of a non-thermal plasma in combination with a lean-NO{sub x} catalyst opens the opportunity for catalysts that are more efficient and more durable compared to conventional catalysts. In the absence of hydrocarbons, the O radicals will oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}, and the OH radicals will further oxidize NO{sub 2} to nitric acid. In plasma-assisted catalysis it is important that the plasma oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} without further producing acids.

  13. Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeerFederal FleetUpSmall WindPrinceton PlasmaFlow

  14. Plasma wave measurements with STEREO S/WAVES: Calibration, potential model, and preliminary results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Plasma wave measurements with STEREO S/WAVES: Calibration, potential model, and preliminary results] The S/WAVES experiments on the two STEREO spacecraft measure waves, both in situ plasma waves and remotely generated waves such as Type II and Type III solar bursts. A part of the experiment is aimed

  15. First Stars III Conference Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian W. O'Shea; Christopher F. McKee; Alexander Heger; Tom Abel

    2008-01-14

    The understanding of the formation, life, and death of Population III stars, as well as the impact that these objects had on later generations of structure formation, is one of the foremost issues in modern cosmological research and has been an active area of research during the past several years. We summarize the results presented at "First Stars III," a conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics. This conference, the third in a series, took place in July 2007 at the La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A.

  16. ALGEBRA 1 PB-Z III. 23 III 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piazza, Paolo

    di X. I. Si mostri che entrambi (A, ) e (A, ) sono dei monoidi commutativi. Sia CX : A A l'applicazione che a B A associa il suo complementare in X: A B CX(B) = X \\ B A II. Tenendo presenti le leggi di de Morgan, si mostri che CX : (A, ) (A, ) e CX : (A, ) (A, ) sono isomorfismi di monoidi (1 ). III

  17. Performance of large electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); Singh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute Gwahangno 113, Yu-seong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This paper describes an in-house designed large Electron Energy Filter (EEF) utilized in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) [S. K. Mattoo, V. P. Anita, L. M. Awasthi, and G. Ravi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3864 (2001)] to secure objectives of (a) removing the presence of remnant primary ionizing energetic electrons and the non-thermal electrons, (b) introducing a radial gradient in plasma electron temperature without greatly affecting the radial profile of plasma density, and (c) providing a control on the scale length of gradient in electron temperature. A set of 19 independent coils of EEF make a variable aspect ratio, rectangular solenoid producing a magnetic field (B{sub x}) of 100?G along its axis and transverse to the ambient axial field (B{sub z} ? 6.2?G) of LVPD, when all its coils are used. Outside the EEF, magnetic field reduces rapidly to 1?G at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the solenoid on either side of target and source plasma. The EEF divides LVPD plasma into three distinct regions of source, EEF and target plasma. We report that the target plasma (n{sub e} ? 2 × 10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?3} and T{sub e} ? 2?eV) has no detectable energetic electrons and the radial gradients in its electron temperature can be established with scale length between 50?and?600 cm by controlling EEF magnetic field. Our observations reveal that the role of the EEF magnetic field is manifested by the energy dependence of transverse electron transport and enhanced transport caused by the plasma turbulence in the EEF plasma.

  18. TRUPACT-III Content Codes (TRUCON-III), Revision 2, July 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    WIPP 11-3458 Rev. 2 TRUPACT-III CONTENT CODES (TRUCON-III) Revision 2 July 2012 This document supersedes DOEWIPP 10-3458, Revision 1 DOEWIPP 11-3458 Rev. 2 TRUPACT-III CONTENT...

  19. Modeling of imploded annular plasmas. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, R.E.; Guillory, J.U.

    1981-05-01

    This report treats three areas of advance during the 1980 effort: (I) improvements to the 1-D strongly-coupled plasma implosion and radiation code SPLAT and results of radiative yield studies using the code; (II) development of formalism for solving the field penetration/skin-depth problem in an inhomogeneous, time-varying imploding conductor in a plasma-loaded diode; (III) circuit equation and scaling of hard radiation in the presence of fully developed sausage instability (beading) of the assembled plasma. In addition, a short section (Chapter V) is devoted to work in progress: high-accuracy matrix inversion techniques and interpolators for solving the generalized Hertz vector equations used in II above, and for following CRE equations and diffusive behavior in general; and, beginning plans for modifying 1-D MHD codes, making them compatible with the field-diffusion and corona programs and with CRE radiation packages.

  20. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  1. Multimedia Authoring III: Web Authoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahlquist, Kam D.

    Multimedia Authoring III: Web Authoring · Many multimedia applications today have a Web manifestation, whether it is the application itself or something about the application, like a DVD info Web site · The Web can "wrap" other types of content as well: Flash, audio, video · The Web provides technologies

  2. Transition Region Emission and Energy Input to Thermal Plasma During the Impulsive Phase of Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Raymond; G. Holman; A. Ciaravella; A. Panasyuk; Y. -K. Ko; J. Kohl

    2007-01-12

    The energy released in a solar flare is partitioned between thermal and non-thermal particle energy and lost to thermal conduction and radiation over a broad range of wavelengths. It is difficult to determine the conductive losses and the energy radiated at transition region temperatures during the impulsive phases of flares. We use UVCS measurements of O VI photons produced by 5 flares and subsequently scattered by O VI ions in the corona to determine the 5.0 thermal energy and the conductive losses deduced from RHESSI and GOES X-ray data using areas from RHESSI images to estimate the loop volumes, cross-sectional areas and scale lengths. The transition region luminosities during the impulsive phase exceed the X-ray luminosities for the first few minutes, but they are smaller than the rates of increase of thermal energy unless the filling factor of the X-ray emitting gas is ~ 0.01. The estimated conductive losses from the hot gas are too large to be balanced by radiative losses or heating of evaporated plasma, and we conclude that the area of the flare magnetic flux tubes is much smaller than the effective area measured by RHESSI during this phase of the flares. For the 2002 July 23 flare, the energy deposited by non-thermal particles exceeds the X-ray and UV energy losses and the rate of increase of the thermal energy.

  3. A solar tornado observed by EIS: Plasma diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levens, Peter; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Schmieder, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The term `solar tornadoes' has been used to describe apparently rotating magnetic structures above the solar limb, as seen in high resolution images and movies from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). These often form part of the larger magnetic structure of a prominence, however the links between them remain unclear. Here we present plasma diagnostics on a tornado-like structure and its surroundings, seen above the limb by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard the Hinode satellite. We aim to extend our view of the velocity patterns seen in tornado-like structures with EIS to a wider range of temperatures and to provide insight into the physical characteristics of the plasma. Using Gaussian fitting to fit and de-blend the spectral lines seen by EIS, we calculated line-of-sight velocities and non-thermal line widths. Along with information from the CHIANTI database, we used line intensity ratios to calculate electron densities at each pixel. U...

  4. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  5. Automated Purge Valve Joseph Edward Farrell, III.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    Automated Purge Valve by Joseph Edward Farrell, III. Bachelor of Science Marine Engineering the undersigned committee hereby approve the attached thesis Automated Purge Valve by Joseph Edward Farrell, III.D. Department Head Department of Marine and Environmental Systems #12;iii Abstract Title: Automated Purge Valve

  6. Alberta Alzheimer Research Program III Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelson, David G.

    Alberta Alzheimer Research Program III Description The Alzheimer Society of Alberta and Northwest Territories (ASANT) and the Alberta Prion Research Institute (Prion Institute) present the Alberta Alzheimer Research Program (AARP) III. The AARP III allows qualified Alberta-based investigators to seek funding

  7. NIF Title III engineering plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deis, G

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the work that must be accomplished by the NIF Project during Title III Engineering. This definition is intended to be sufficiently detailed to provide a framework for yearly planning, to clearly identify the specific deliverables so that the Project teams can focus on them, and to provide a common set of objectives and processes across the Project. This plan has been preceded by similar documents for Title I and Title II design and complements the Site Management Plan, the Project Control Manual, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, the RM Parsons NIF Title III Configuration Control Plan, the Integrated Project Schedule, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, the Configuration Management Plan, and the Transition Plan.

  8. Anomalous radial transport in tokamak edge plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodi, Vasudeva Raghavendra Kowsik

    2010-01-01

    Transport in tokamak plasma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Numerical simulations of tokamak plasma . . . . . . . . .of blobs in tokamak edge plasmas . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  9. Plasma sweeper. [Patents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Motley, R.W.; Glanz, J.

    1982-10-25

    A device is described for coupling RF power (a plasma sweeper) from RF power introducing means to a plasma having a magnetic field associated therewith comprises at least one electrode positioned near the plasma and near the RF power introducing means. Means are described for generating a static electric field at the electrode directed into the plasma and having a component substantially perpendicular to the plasma magnetic field such that a non-zero vector cross-product of the electric and magnetic fields exerts a force on the plasma causing the plasma to drift.

  10. A DECADE OF SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURSTS OBSERVED BY THE NANCAY RADIOHELIOGRAPH 1998-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saint-Hilaire, P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vilmer, N.; Kerdraon, A., E-mail: shilaire@ssl.berkeley.edu [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Universite Paris-Diderot 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical survey of almost 10,000 radio type III bursts observed by the Nancay Radioheliograph from 1998 to 2008, covering nearly a full solar cycle. In particular, sources sizes, positions, and fluxes were examined. We find an east-west asymmetry in source positions that could be attributed to a 6 Degree-Sign {+-} 1 Degree-Sign eastward tilt of the magnetic field, that source FWHM sizes s roughly follow a solar-cycle-averaged distribution (dN/ds) Almost-Equal-To 14 {nu}{sup -3.3} s {sup -4} arcmin{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and that source fluxes closely follow a solar-cycle-averaged (dN/ds {sub {nu}}) Almost-Equal-To 0.34 {nu}{sup -2.9} S {sup -1.7} {sub {nu}} sfu{sup -1} day{sup -1} distribution (when {nu} is in GHz, s in arcminutes, and S {sub {nu}} in sfu). Fitting a barometric density profile yields a temperature of 0.6 MK, while a solar wind-like ({proportional_to}h {sup -2}) density profile yields a density of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} at an altitude of 1 R{sub S} , assuming harmonic emission. Finally, we found that the solar-cycle-averaged radiated type III energy could be similar in magnitude to that radiated by nanoflares via non-thermal bremsstrahlung processes, and we hint at the possibility that escaping electron beams might carry as much energy away from the corona as is introduced into it by accelerated nanoflare electrons.

  11. Klondike III III Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:onItronKanoshKetchikanKlondike III I Wind Farm Jump to:IIIII

  12. III. CONFINEMENT R. J. GOLDSTON (PPPL), R. E. WALTZ (GA) G. BATEMAN (PPPL), D. P. STOTLER (PPPL),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are not in a position to perform "first- principles" calculations of the projected perfor- mance of BPX. On the other Force and the Doublet III-D (DIII-D) and Toka- mak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experimental teams, has, in order to develop techniques to optimize such plasmas for an Engineering Test Reactor, and in order

  13. Revista de Cincias da Computao, Volume III, Ano III, 2008, n3 Descoberta de Padres Sequenciais utilizando rvores Orientadas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavique, Luís

    Revista de Ciências da Computação, Volume III, Ano III, 2008, nº3 Descoberta de Padrões Sequenciais, estatística e funcionalidade de bases de dados. #12;Revista de Ciências da Computação, Volume III, Ano III

  14. Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991; Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 ; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G.; Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 ; Kodama, Ryosuke; Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871

    2013-08-15

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.

  15. Characterization of core and edge turbulence in L-and enhanced D H-mode Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    treating a parameter range found in present day magnetic confinement fusion devices, iii a combination confinement mode1 in fusion plasmas remains enigmatic. In order to make progress to- wards an understanding. Stillerman, J. L. Terry, S. M. Wolfe, S. J. Wukitch, and K. Zhurovich Plasma Science and Fusion Center

  16. LOW IONIZATION STATE PLASMA IN CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jin-Yi [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Raymond, John C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-10-20

    The Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory often observes low ionization state coronal mass ejection (CME) plasma at ultraviolet wavelengths. The CME plasmas are often detected in O VI (3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K), C III (8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K), Ly{alpha}, and Ly{beta}, with the low ionization plasma confined to bright filaments or blobs that appear in small segments of the UVCS slit. On the other hand, in situ observations by the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) have shown mostly high ionization state plasmas in the magnetic clouds in interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events, while low ionization states are rarely seen. In this analysis, we investigate whether the low ionization state CME plasmas observed by UVCS occupy small enough fractions of the CME to be consistent with the small fraction of ACE ICMEs that show low ionization plasma, or whether the CME plasma must be further ionized after passing the UVCS slit. To do this, we determine the covering factors of low ionization state plasma for 10 CME events. We find that the low ionization state plasmas in CMEs observed by UVCS show average covering factors below 10%. This indicates that the lack of low ionization state ICME plasmas observed by the ACE results from a small probability that the spacecraft passes through a region of low ionization plasma. We also find that the low ionization state plasma covering factors in faster CMEs are smaller than in slower CMEs.

  17. Alta III | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYork Jump to: navigation, searchAlpena,II (Vestas) JumpIII

  18. Plasma Cavity Ringdown Spectrometer for Elemental and Isotopic Measurements: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chuji; Winstead, Christopher B.; Duan, Yixiang; Scherrer, Susan T.; Koirala, Sudip P.; Jang, Ping-Rey; Miller, George P.; Mazzotti, Fabio J.

    2004-03-31

    Recent studies using Plasma Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (plasma-CRDS) show much promise of this newly developed technique for ultra-sensitive elemental/isotopic measurements. Plasma-CRDS, since its introduction in 1997, has experienced three major stages: (i) the early stage demonstration of the technical feasibility, (ii) the recent advancement on its technical improvements and extensive applications for elemental/isotopic measurements as well as plasma diagnostics and (iii) the most recent progress on the improvement of the instrument configurations based on a diode laser-compact microwave plasma-CRDS. Research and development in many aspects of this technique is vigorously under processing in our laboratories. This paper reports a brief review on the plasma-CRDS technique, its applications and the most recent advancement. Discussions on future developments toward a new generation of plasma- CRDS-based spectrometers for ultra-sensitive elemental/isotopic measurements are also presented.

  19. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Paul Y

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  20. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Laboratory P.O. Box 451 Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 GPS: 100 Stellarator Road Princeton, NJ 08540 www.pppl.gov 2015 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A...

  1. Plasma window characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Gleizer, S.; Gurovich, V.; Kronhaus, I.; Hershcovitch, A.; Nozar, P.; Taliani, C.

    2007-03-01

    Parameters of an arc Ar plasma discharge used as a plasma window with a discharge current of {approx}50 A and a voltage of {approx}58 V are presented. It is shown that this arc discharge allows one to decrease the pressure at the low pressure end of the plasma window almost 380 times using relatively low pumping at the low pressure end of the plasma window. Calculations of the plasma parameters and their spatial distribution using a simple wall-stabilized arc model showed a satisfactory agreement with the experimentally obtained data. It is shown that a significant decrease in gas flow through the plasma window occurs due to the increase in plasma viscosity. An improvement of the plasma window ignition and some of its design aspects are described as well.

  2. Basics of Dusty Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatov, A.M. [Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2005-01-15

    The paper presents an introductory review of the basic physical processes in dusty plasmas. The topics to be addressed are dust charging, forces acting on dust grains, interaction between dust grains, and dust-plasma structures.

  3. Mirror plasma apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moir, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

  4. 12-MONTH SAMPLE MULTI-YEAR OFFER LETTER TEACHING FACULTY III, RESEARCH FACULTY III,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    12-MONTH SAMPLE MULTI-YEAR OFFER LETTER TEACHING FACULTY III, RESEARCH FACULTY III, INSTRUCTIONAL SPECIALIST III OR SENIOR RESEARCH ASSOCIATE APPOINTMENT Dear Dr. xxx: I am pleased to offer you an ["in://facultyhandbook.fsu.edu). This offer is also contingent upon your providing the necessary documents to prove your identity

  5. 9-MONTH SAMPLE MULTI-YEAR OFFER LETTER TEACHING FACULTY III, RESEARCH FACULTY III,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    9-MONTH SAMPLE MULTI-YEAR OFFER LETTER TEACHING FACULTY III, RESEARCH FACULTY III, INSTRUCTIONAL SPECIALIST III OR SENIOR RESEARCH ASSOCIATE APPOINTMENT Dear Dr. xxx: I am pleased to offer you an ["in://facultyhandbook.fsu.edu/). This offer is also contingent upon your providing the necessary documents to prove your identity

  6. Wave-wave interactions in solar type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-02-11

    The high time resolution observations from the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in type III radio bursts, the Langmuir waves often occur as localized magnetic field aligned coherent wave packets with durations of a few ms and with peak intensities well exceeding the strong turbulence thresholds. Some of these wave packets show spectral signatures of beam-resonant Langmuir waves, down- and up-shifted sidebands, and ion sound waves, with frequencies, wave numbers, and tricoherences satisfying the resonance conditions of the oscillating two stream instability (four wave interaction). The spectra of a few of these wave packets also contain peaks at f{sub pe}, 2f{sub pe} and 3 f{sub pe} (f{sub pe} is the electron plasma frequency), with frequencies, wave numbers and bicoherences (computed using the wavelet based bispectral analysis techniques) satisfying the resonance conditions of three wave interactions: (1) excitation of second harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, and (2) excitation of third harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of Langmuir waves with second harmonic electromagnetic waves. The implication of these findings is that the strong turbulence processes play major roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation in type III radio bursts.

  7. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R

    2013-01-01

    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  8. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Olshavsky, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed. They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline. 4 figs.

  9. LABORATORY III ELECTRIC ENERGY AND CAPACITORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY III ELECTRIC ENERGY AND CAPACITORS Lab III - 1 Our modern society functions in part because we have learned how to manipulate electrical energy. Almost all of our technology involves electrical energy in one form or another. In this laboratory you will investigate the conservation of energy

  10. Unit III-2 Orthogonal diagonalization 1 Orthogonal diagonalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkett, Stephen

    Unit III-2 Orthogonal diagonalization 1 Unit III-2 Orthogonal diagonalization Unit III-2 Orthogonal? Unit III-2 Orthogonal diagonalization 3 Real symmetric matrices · if A is a real symmetric matrix then to orthogonally diagonalize any real symmetric matrix Unit III-2 Orthogonal diagonalization 4 Diagonalization

  11. Collective plasma effects in scattering of radiation in astrophysical plasmas (Collective plasma processes and the solar neutrino problem)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsytovich, V N; De Angelis, U; Forlani, A

    1995-01-01

    Collective plasma effects in scattering of radiation in astrophysical plasmas (Collective plasma processes and the solar neutrino problem)

  12. Plasma Camp | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Camp December 12, 2013 Due to unforeseen budget cuts, this program has been cancelled for 2014. We are very sorry we cannot offer the program and apologize for the late...

  13. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  14. Tritium Plasma Experiment and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    23-25, 2014 2 Safety concern: "in-vessel inventory source term" * Challenges in neutron-irradiated plasma facing components (PFCs) - Radiation damages (vacancy,...

  15. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  16. Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2012-12-06

    To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

  17. Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU III VOC | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    III VOC Brookhaven National Laboratory - OU III VOC January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName,...

  18. Volume III, Chapter 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volume III, Chapter 4 Eulachon #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.0 EULACHON (Thaleichthys pacificus..................................................................................................................... 4-4 4.1.5 Movements in Fresh Water ........................................................... 4-8 4.4.1 Water Development

  19. Volume III, Chapter 3 Pacific Lamprey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volume III, Chapter 3 Pacific Lamprey #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.0 Pacific Lamprey (Lampetra................................................................................................... 3-9 3.4.3 Water Development ......................................................................... 3-11 3.4.6 Water Quality

  20. Volume III, Chapter 9 Channel Catfish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volume III, Chapter 9 Channel Catfish #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 9.0 Channel Catfish (Ictalurus................................................................................................... 9-6 9.4.3 Water Development.............................................................................................. 9-6 9.4.4 Water Quality

  1. WRITTEN TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL D. RAUCH III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 WRITTEN TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL D. RAUCH III DEPUTY ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR REGULATORY PROGRAMS and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act; P.L. 94-265) were not sufficient. A Congressionally- mandated

  2. UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS III ESCUELA POLITCNICA SUPERIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín-Solís, José Ramón

    UNIVERSIDAD CARLOS III ESCUELA POLITÉCNICA SUPERIOR DEPARTAMENTO DE FISICA ESTUDIO DE MEDIOS DE, el alcance por parte de los países tercermundistas de los niveles de consumo propios de las

  3. Multijunction III-V Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE invests in multijunction III-V solar cell research to drive down the costs of the materials, manufacturing, tracking techniques, and concentration methods used with this technology. Below is a...

  4. PLASMA ENERGETIC PARTICLES SIMULATION CENTER (PEPSC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berk, Herbert L.

    2014-05-23

    The main effort of the Texas group was to develop theoretical and simplified numerical models to understand chirping phenomena often seen for Alfven and geodesic acoustic waves in experimental plasmas such as D-III-D, NSTX and JET. Its main numerical effort was to modify the AEGIS code, which was originally developed as an eigenvalue solver. To apply to the chirping problem this code has to be able to treat the linear response to the continuum and the response of the plasma to external drive or to an internal drive that comes from the formation of phase space chirping structures. The theoretical underpinning of this investigation still needed to be more fully developed to understand how to best formulate the theoretical problem. Considerable progress was made on this front by B.N. Breizman and his collaborators and a new reduced model was developed by H. L. Berk and his PhD student, G. Wang which can be uses as simplified model to describe chirping in a large aspect ratio tokamak. This final report will concentrate on these two directions that were developed as well as results that were found in the work with the AEGIS code and in the progress in developing a novel quasi-linear formulation for a description of Alfvenic modes destabilized by energetic particles, such as alpha particles in a burning plasma.

  5. Plasma technology directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, P.P.; Dybwad, G.L.

    1995-03-01

    The Plasma Technology Directory has two main goals: (1) promote, coordinate, and share plasma technology experience and equipment within the Department of Energy; and (2) facilitate technology transfer to the commercial sector where appropriate. Personnel are averaged first by Laboratory and next by technology area. The technology areas are accelerators, cleaning and etching deposition, diagnostics, and modeling.

  6. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  7. Diamagnetism of rotating plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, W. C.; Hassam, A. B.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Ellis, R. F.; Teodorescu, C. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Diamagnetism and magnetic measurements of a supersonically rotating plasma in a shaped magnetic field demonstrate confinement of plasma pressure along the magnetic field resulting from centrifugal force. The Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic force balance, including supersonic rotation, is solved to confirm that the predicted angular velocity is in agreement with spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler shifts.

  8. 23 6 12 8:00 III-V/Ge CMOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    23 6 12 8:00 - 1 - 1. : III-V/Ge CMOS ~ 200%~ 2. : III-V (Ge) III-V/Ge CMOS (Si) 200% III-V/Ge CMOS 200% III-V/Ge CMOS () () () () III-V III-V/Ge CMOS (1) III-V Ge III-V/Ge CMOS (2) III-V-OI MOSFET (3) III-V/Ge CMOS "2011 Symposia on VLSI

  9. Design of Integrated III-Nitride/Non-III-Nitride Tandem Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toledo, N. G.; Friedman, D.J.; Farrell, R. M.; Perl, E. E.; Lin, C. T.; Bowers, J. E.; Speck, J. S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2012-03-01

    The integration of III-nitride and non-III-nitride materials for tandem solar cell applications can improve the efficiency of the photovoltaic device due to the added power contributed by the III-nitride top cell to that of high-efficiency multi-junction non-III-nitride solar cells if the device components are properly designed and optimized. The proposed tandem solar cell is comprised of a III-nitride top cell bonded to a non-III-nitride, series-constrained, multi-junction subcell. The top cell is electrically isolated, but optically coupled to the underlying subcell. The use of a III-nitride top cell is potentially beneficial when the top junction of a stand-alone non-III-nitride subcell generates more photocurrent than the limiting current of the non-III-nitride subcell. Light producing this excess current can either be redirected to the III-nitride top cell through high energy photon absorption, redirected to the lower junctions through layer thickness optimization, or a combination of both, resulting in improved total efficiency. When the non-III-nitride cell's top junction is the limiting junction, the minimum power conversion efficiency that the III-nitride top cell must contribute should compensate for the spectrum filtered from the multi-junction subcell for this design to be useful. As the III-nitride absorption edge wavelength, {lambda}{sub N}, increases, the performance of the multi-junction subcell decreases due to spectral filtering. In the most common spectra of interest (AM1.5G, AM1.5 D, and AM0), the technology to grow InGaN cells with {lambda}{sub N}<520 nm is found to be sufficient for III-nitride top cell applications. The external quantum efficiency performance, however, of state-of-the-art InGaN solar cells still needs to be improved. The effects of surface/interface reflections are also presented. The management of these reflection issues determines the feasibility of the integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride design to improve overall cell efficiency.

  10. Plasma opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savage, Mark E. (Albuquerque, NM); Mendel, Jr., Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  11. Research | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview Experimental Fusion Research Theoretical Fusion Research Basic Plasma Science Plasma Astrophysics Other Physics and Engineering Research PPPL Technical Reports NSTX-U...

  12. On the speed and acceleration of electron beams triggering interplanetary type III radio bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krupar, Vratislav; Soucek, Jan; Santolik, Ondrej; Maksimovic, Milan; Kruparova, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    Type III radio bursts are intense radio emissions triggered by beams of energetic electrons often associated with solar flares. These exciter beams propagate outwards from the Sun along an open magnetic field line in the corona and in the interplanetary (IP) medium. We performed a statistical survey of 29 simple and isolated IP type III bursts observed by STEREO/Waves instruments between January 2013 and September 2014. We investigated their time-frequency profiles in order to derive the speed and acceleration of exciter electron beams. We show these beams noticeably decelerate in the IP medium. Obtained speeds range from $\\sim$ 0.02c up to $\\sim$ 0.35c depending on initial assumptions. It corresponds to electron energies between tens of eV and hundreds of keV, and in order to explain the characteristic energies or speeds of type III electrons ($\\sim 0.1$c) observed simultaneously with Langmuir waves at 1 au, the emission of type III bursts near the peak should be predominately at double plasma frequency. Der...

  13. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitcher, C. S.

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities · why a burning plasma experiment? · BP contribution impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode of operation ) #12;···· we know a lot more now than helium ash - induce SOL flow towards divertor - control density · helium exhaust time, i.e. He , limited

  14. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities 5. burning plasma experiment? #12;(1) Wide Dispersal points are swept (BPX), but Tt will be high impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode- modes (tight baffling??) · allows efficient pumping to: - remove helium ash - induce SOL flow towards

  15. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitcher, C. S.

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities 5. burning plasma experiment? #12;(1) Wide Dispersal if strike points are swept (BPX), but Tt will be high impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode pressure for H- modes (tight baffling??) · allows efficient pumping to: - remove helium ash - induce SOL

  16. Evaluation of Corona Reactors of Several Geometries for a Plasma Assisted Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herling, Darrell R.; Smith, Monty R.; Hemingway, Mark D.; Goulette, David; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2000-08-09

    Proposed vehicle emissions regulations for the near future have prompted automotive manufactures and component suppliers to focus heavily on developing more efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices to lower emissions from spark and compression ignition engines. One of the primary pollutants from lean-burn engines, especially from diesels, are oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Current three-way catalytic converters will not have adequate performance to meet future emission reduction requirements. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and engineers to develop efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. These devices must have very high conversion of NOx gases, be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity such as sulfur, and have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy. An effective technology for NOx control that is currently receiving a lot of attention is a non-thermal plasma system. This system is comprised of a two-stage corona generation device (plasma reactor) and reduction catalyst that reduces nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions to nitrogen.

  17. Plasma-sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, H.

    1988-09-01

    Plasma spraying is one way to apply protective coatings. The hot, high-speed flame of a plasma gun can melt a powder of almost any ceramic or metal and spray it to form a coating for protection against corrosion, wear or high temperature. The technique carries much less risk of degrading the coating and substrate than many other high-temperature processes do, because the gas in the plasma flame is chemically inert and the target can be kept fairly cool. And yet a plasma gun can be only a little more cumbersome than a paint sprayer. Investigators are applying this technique to new materials. The General Electric Company is using vacuum plasma spraying to make freestanding components: intricate aircraft engine parts formed by plasma-spraying a superalloy on a removable substrate. Other workers spray ceramic particles or fibers and metal powder simulatious wrong, stiff composite materials: the ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix of metal. The author and colleagues at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have fabricated a thick film of high-temperature superconductor by plasma-spraying the compound in the form of a powder. 7 figs.

  18. A simple method to verify the opacity and equation of state of high-Z plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Guangwei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 10094 (China) [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 10094 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 10088 (China); Li, Jinghong [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 10094 (China) [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 10094 (China); Laboratory of Computational Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Yang, Jiamin; Zhu, Tuo [Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zou, Shiyang; Wang, Min [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 10094 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 10094 (China); Zhang, Weiyan [National Hi-Tech Inertial Confinement Fusion Committee of China, Beijing 100088 (China)] [National Hi-Tech Inertial Confinement Fusion Committee of China, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Accurate opacity and equation of state (EOS) data are important parameters for reliable modeling and understanding many phenomena of high energy density physics. However, they are difficult to obtain either theoretically or experimentally especially for high-Z plasmas. In this paper, we proposed a simple method to verify the opacity and EOS of high-Z plasmas in rarefactive states, which is build on the two key aspects of ablation processes, i.e., the propagation of heatwave into materials and the hydrodynamic expansion of the blow-off plasmas. Based on the integrated analysis of the Au foil burnthrough and foam-confined plasma expansion experiments performed on the Shenguang II and Shenguang III prototype laser facilities, we suggested two semi-empirical multipliers to adjust the opacity and EOS of Au plasma. These adjusted opacity and EOS may then provide a foundation for other radiation hydrodynamic simulations under similar drive conditions.

  19. Optical plasma microelectronic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Thyler; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices was successfully replaced with an optically triggered gas plasma channel. The combination of DC and laser-induced gas ionizations controls the conductivity of the channel, enabling us to realize different electronic devices such as transistors, switches, modulators, etc. A special micro-scale metasurface was used to enhance the laser-gas interaction, as well as combining it with DC ionization properly. Optical plasma devices benefit form the advantages of plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving most of the integrablity of semiconductor based devices.

  20. On the role of wave-particle interactions in the macroscopic dynamics of collisionless plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Lynn B; Osmane, Adnane; Malaspina, David M

    2015-01-01

    What is the relative importance of small-scale (i.e., electron to sub-electron scales), microphysical plasma processes to the acceleration of particles from thermal to suprathermal or even to cosmic-ray energies? Additionally, can these microphysical plasma processes influence or even dominate macroscopic (i.e., greater than ion scales) processes, thus affecting global dynamics? These are fundamental and unresolved questions in plasma and astrophysical research. Recent observations of large amplitude electromagnetic waves in the terrestrial radiation belts [i.e., Cattell et al., 2008; Kellogg et al., 2010; Wilson III et al., 2011] and in collisionless shock waves [i.e., Wilson III et al., 2014a,b] have raised questions regarding the macrophysical effect of these microscopic waves. The processes thought to dominate particle acceleration and the macroscopic dynamics in both regions have been brought into question with these recent observations. The relative importance of wave-particle interactions has recently ...

  1. PLASMA PHYSICS PPPL UC Davis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRINCETON PLASMA PHYSICS LABORATORY PPPL UC Davis PRINCETON PLASMA PHYSICS LABORATORY PPPL UC Davis Scattering System for ETG physics on NSTX H. Park, E. Mazzucato, and D. Smith PPPL, Princeton University C, 2006 Hyatt Regency, Dallas, TX #12;PRINCETON PLASMA PHYSICS LABORATORY PPPL UC Davis PRINCETON PLASMA

  2. Laser Plasma Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processes. A typical configuration uses a low intensity laser beam (2nd, 3rd, or 4th harmonic of 1054-nm) to probe a plasma volume. The Thomson scattered light is collected by a...

  3. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  4. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2010-01-08

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  5. Plasma isotope separation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, M.W. ); Shepp, T.A. )

    1991-12-01

    Isotope separation has many important industrial, medical, and research applications. Large-scale processes have typically utilized complex cascade systems; for example, the gas centrifuge. Alternatively, high single-stage enrichment processes (as in the case of the calutron) are very energy intensive. Plasma-based methods being developed for the past 15 to 20 years have attempted to overcome these two drawbacks. In this review, six major types of isotope separation methods which involve plasma phenomena are discussed. These methods are: plasma centrifuge, AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotope separation), ion wave, ICR (ion-cyclotron resonance), calutron, and gas discharge. The emphasis of this paper is to describe the plasma phenomena in these major categories. An attempt was made to include enough references so that more detailed study or evaluation of a particular method could readily be pursued. A brief discussion of isotope separation using mass balance concepts is also carried out.

  6. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eakle, Robert F. (New Ellenton, SC); Pak, Donald J. (Martine, GA)

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  7. Electrostatics of moving plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2013-07-15

    The stability of charge distribution over the surface of a conducting body in moving plasma is analyzed. Using a finite-width plate streamlined by a cold neutralized electron flow as an example, it is shown that an electrically neutral body can be unstable against the development of spontaneous polarization. The plasma parameters at which such instability takes place, as well as the frequency and growth rate of the fundamental mode of instability, are determined.

  8. Optical properties of black hole in the presence of plasma: shadow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farruh Atamurotov; Bobomurat Ahmedov; Ahmadjon Abdujabbarov

    2015-08-28

    We have studied photon motion around axially symmetric rotating Kerr black hole in the presence of plasma with radial power-law density. It is shown that in the presence of plasma the observed shape and size of shadow changes depending on i) plasma parameters, ii) black hole spin and iii) inclination angle between observer plane and axis of rotation of black hole. In order to extract pure effect of plasma influence on black hole image the particular case of the Schwarzschild black hole has also been investigated and it has been shown that i) the photon sphere around the spherical symmetric black hole is left unchanged under the plasma influence, ii) however the Schwarzschild black hole shadow size in plasma is reduced due to the refraction of the electromagnetic radiation in plasma environment of black hole. The study of the energy emission from the black hole in plasma shows that in the presence of plasma the maximal energy emission rate from the black hole decreases.

  9. Scalable Synchronous Queues William N. Scherer III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Michael L.

    Scalable Synchronous Queues William N. Scherer III University of Rochester scherer@cs.rochester.edu Abstract We present two new nonblocking and contention-free implementa- tions of synchronous queues. We present performance results on 16-processor SPARC and 4- processor Opteron machines. We compare

  10. Volume III, Chapter 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volume III, Chapter 7 Walleye #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 7.0 Walleye (Stizostedium vitreum................................................................................................... 7-7 7.4.3 Water Development only in fresh water, as illustrated by the map in Figure 7-1 (Scott and Crossman 1998).Walleye also

  11. SCHOOL OF MEDICINE YEAR III CURRICULUM GUIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    1 SCHOOL OF MEDICINE YEAR III CURRICULUM GUIDE WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 2015-2016 Clinical Curriculum Guide 2015 -2016 Revised 06/23/15 KS/SET #12;2 Table of Contents A MESSAGE FROM ....................................................................................... 11 Overview of the Clinical Curriculum ...................................................... 11

  12. Blue Version Math 1432 -Exam III Name:____________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glowinski, Roland

    Blue Version Math 1432 - Exam III Name:____________________ Morgan, Spring 2003 Social Sec converge absolutely, converge conditionally, or diverge? #12;Blue Version 11. 3)1('',1)1(',2)1( -==-= fff of )2( +x . Write the solutions to Problems 13-17 in your blue book. Show all of your work. 13. (5

  13. III 1111111111111111111111111111111111 Physical Properties Data Compilations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PB280·795 III 1111111111111111111111111111111111 Physical Properties Data Compilations Relevant under title: Physical properties data compilations relevant to energy storage. (Nat. stand. ref. data. SHEET NSRDS-NBS 61, Part 1 4. TITLE AND SUATITLE Physical Properties Data Compilations Relevant

  14. Core Networks: Part III Ferhat Dikbiyik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Review: Core Networks Part III by F. Dikbiyik Session Code Session Title Industry Academia NMC Flexible Session Code Session Title Industry Academia OMW Optical Network Demos OTuI Spectrally Efficient-way optical wavelength multicasting was experimentally demonstrated based on the dual-pump FWM process in HNLF

  15. More "Circle Limit III" Patterns Douglas Dunham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Doug

    of the four. In Circle Limit III, four fish meet at right fin tips, three fish meet at left fin tips, and three fish meet at their noses. In this paper, we show patterns with other numbers of fish that meet none but "through traffic" #12;series, and all the fish belonging to one series have the same colour

  16. Metal plasmas for the fabrication of nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2006-01-01

    10] Anders A, Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition: From Fractalalmost all cathodic arc plasmas contain multiply chargedconsider filtered cathodic arc plasma. The first report on

  17. Atomic scale heating in energetic plasma deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2001-01-01

    equation (2), for cathodic arc plasmas. The kinetic energiesscale heating in cathodic arc plasma deposition André Andersscale heating in cathodic arc plasma deposition André Anders

  18. Plasma jet ignition device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIlwain, Michael E. (Franklin, MA); Grant, Jonathan F. (Wayland, MA); Golenko, Zsolt (North Reading, MA); Wittstein, Alan D. (Fairfield, CT)

    1985-01-15

    An ignition device of the plasma jet type is disclosed. The device has a cylindrical cavity formed in insulating material with an electrode at one end. The other end of the cylindrical cavity is closed by a metal plate with a small orifice in the center which plate serves as a second electrode. An arc jumping between the first electrode and the orifice plate causes the formation of a highly-ionized plasma in the cavity which is ejected through the orifice into the engine cylinder area to ignite the main fuel mixture. Two improvements are disclosed to enhance the operation of the device and the length of the plasma plume. One improvement is a metal hydride ring which is inserted in the cavity next to the first electrode. During operation, the high temperature in the cavity and the highly excited nature of the plasma breaks down the metal hydride, liberating hydrogen which acts as an additional fuel to help plasma formation. A second improvement consists of a cavity insert containing a plurality of spaced, metal rings. The rings act as secondary spark gap electrodes reducing the voltage needed to maintain the initial arc in the cavity.

  19. Power and Particle Exhaust in Tokamaks: Integration of Plasma Scenarios with Plasma Facing Materials and Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power and Particle Exhaust in Tokamaks: Integration of Plasma Scenarios with Plasma Facing Materials and Components

  20. Effects of Plasma Dielectric Properties on Thomson Scattering of Millimetre Waves in Tokamak Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of Plasma Dielectric Properties on Thomson Scattering of Millimetre Waves in Tokamak Plasmas

  1. 2013 Plasma Camp | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril 30, 2013 9:30 am -NationalPlasma Camp View

  2. Basic Plasma Science | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActTools toBadging, Badge Office Badging,Basic Plasma

  3. Fundamentals of plasma simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forslund, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    With the increasing size and speed of modern computers, the incredibly complex nonlinear properties of plasmas in the laboratory and in space are being successfully explored in increasing depth. Of particular importance have been numerical simulation techniques involving finite size particles on a discrete mesh. After discussing the importance of this means of understanding a variety of nonlinear plasma phenomena, we describe the basic elements of particle-in-cell simulation and their limitations and advantages. The differencing techniques, stability and accuracy issues, data management and optimization issues are discussed by means of a simple example of a particle-in-cell code. Recent advances in simulation methods allowing large space and time scales to be treated with minimal sacrifice in physics are reviewed. Various examples of nonlinear processes successfully studied by plasma simulation will be given.

  4. Multi-dipolar microwave plasmas and their application to negative ion production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Béchu, S.; Bès, A.; Lacoste, A.; Aleiferis, S.; Ivanov, A. A. Jr.; Bacal, M.

    2013-10-15

    During the past decade multi-dipolar plasmas have been employed for various purposes such as surface treatments in biomedicine, physical and chemical vapour deposition for hydrogen storage, and applications in mechanical engineering. On the other hand, due to the design and operational mode of these plasma sources (i.e., strong permanent magnets for the electron cyclotron resonance coupling, low working pressure, and high electron density achieved) they are suitable for studying fundamental mechanisms involved in negative ion sources used in magnetically confined fusion and particle accelerators. Thus, this study presents an overview of fundamental results obtained with: (i) a single dipolar source, (ii) a network of seven dipolar plasma sources inserted into a magnetic multipolar chamber (Camembert III), and (iii) four dipolar sources housed in a smaller metallic cylinder (ROSAE III). Investigations with Langmuir probes of electron energy probability functions revealed the variation of the plasma properties versus the radial distance from the axis of a dipolar source in its mid plane and allowed the determination of the proportion between hot and cold electron populations in both chambers. These results are compared with the density of hydrogen negative ions, measured using the photodetachment technique. Electron energy probability functions obtained in these different configurations show the possibility of both hot and cold electron production. The former is a prerequisite for increasing the vibrational level of molecules and the dissociation degree and the latter for producing negative ions via dissociative attachment of the cold electrons or via surface production induced by H atoms.

  5. Plasma Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-10-04

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP.

  6. Plasma heating power dissipation in low temperature hydrogen plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komppula, J

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical framework for power dissipation in low temperature plasmas in corona equilibrium is developed. The framework is based on fundamental conservation laws and reaction cross sections and is only weakly sensitive to plasma parameters, e.g. electron temperature and density. The theory is applied to low temperature atomic and molecular hydrogen laboratory plasmas for which the plasma heating power dissipation to photon emission, ionization and chemical potential is calculated. The calculated photon emission is compared to recent experimental results.

  7. Isolation and microbial reduction of Fe(III) phyllosilicates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fe(III) phyllosilicate phases, and if possible, Fe(III) oxide phases, from a weathered shale saprolite sediment in order to permit experimentation with each phase in isolation....

  8. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S.

    1996-02-26

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements.

  9. Bransen Plasma Asher

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L OBransen Plasma Asher An O2 RF plasma can be used at CAMD to

  10. ODT’s OTIA III Bridge Program: Three Years of Environmental Stewardship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Shelley D.; Ryan, Bill

    2007-01-01

    February 2007. OTIA III Bridge Delivery Program. Monthlyfor ODOT’s OTIA III State Bridge Delivery Program: Manyimpacts. The OTIA III State Bridge Delivery Program (the

  11. A New Look at Type III Bursts and their Use as Coronal Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beltran, Samuel Tun; White, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We present meter wave solar radio spectra of the highest spectrotemporal resolution achieved to date. The observations, obtained with the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1), show unprecedented detail of solar emissions across a wide bandwidth during a Type III/IIIb storm. Our flux calibration demonstrates that the LWA1 can detect Type III bursts much weaker than 1 SFU, much lower than previous observations, and that the distribution of fluxes in these bursts varies with frequency. The high sensitivity and low noise in the data provide strong constraints to models of this type of plasma emission. The continuous generation of electron beams in the corona revealed by the high density Type III storm is evidence for ubiquitous magnetic reconnection in the lower corona. Such an abundance of reconnection events not only contributes to the total coronal energy budget, but also provides an engine by which to form the populations of seed particles responsible for proton-rich solar energetic particle even...

  12. Microlocal Analysis of Thermoacoustic (or Multiwave) Tomography, III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plamen Stefanov

    2012-07-20

    Microlocal Analysis of Thermoacoustic (or Multiwave). Tomography, III. Plamen Stefanov. Purdue University. TAT of brain imaging (discontinuous wave speed).

  13. EFFICIENT SPECTRAL-GALERKIN METHODS III: POLAR AND ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-10-21

    EFFICIENT SPECTRAL-GALERKIN METHODS III: POLAR AND CYLINDRICAL GEOMETRIES. ?. JIE SHEN†. SIAM J. SCI. COMPUT. c 1997 Society for ...

  14. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas General Plasma Science Developing founda/ons and advancing fundamental understanding #12;The High Energy Density developing innovative techniques to study the properties of instabilities in magnetized-high-energy-density

  15. Fe(III) Oxide Reactivity Toward Biological versus Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    size, surface area, and solubility of the mineral. Such variations lead to a continuum of Fe(III) oxideFe(III) Oxide Reactivity Toward Biological versus Chemical Reduction E R I C E . R O D E N of synthetic Fe(III) oxides with a broad range of crystallinity and specific surface area were examined

  16. Solar Neutrino Measurement at SK-III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Super-Kamiokande Collaboration; :; B. S. Yang

    2009-10-17

    The full Super-Kamiokande-III data-taking period, which ran from August of 2006 through August of 2008, yielded 298 live days worth of solar neutrino data with a lower total energy threshold of 4.5 MeV. During this period we made many improvements to the experiment's hardware and software, with particular emphasis on its water purification system and Monte Carlo simulations. As a result of these efforts, we have significantly reduced the low energy backgrounds as compared to earlier periods of detector operation, cut the systematic errors by nearly a factor of two, and achieved a 4.5 MeV energy threshold for the solar neutrino analysis. In this presentation, I will present the preliminary SK-III solar neutrino measurement results.

  17. Instabilities and pattern formation in lowtemperature plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the plasma region is approximately 20cm. (Produced by the Plasma Research Laboratory, Dublin City University

  18. PRINCETON PLASMA PHYSICS LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budny, Robert

    Pressure(MPa) Major Radius (m) Transition time 2.0 2.5 Tim e (s) 2.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 With transition: ERS calculation includes off-diagonal contributions · Orbit squeezing effects from Shaing et al. [Phys. Plasmas 1 values calculated by NCLASS code Particle Diffusivities for Trace T and He Approach Neoclassical Levels

  19. Turbulence & Transport in Burning Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , General Atomics, U. Maryland, PPPL, U. Colorado, UCLA, U. Texas) DOE Scientific Discovery Through Advanced Sciences, SciDAC (Scientific Discovery Through Advanced Computing) Project · devoted to studying plasma of toroidal plasma: plasma = heavy fluid B = "light fluid" geff = centrifugal force R v 2 R Growth rate: RLRLL

  20. Controlled zone microwave plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-10-20

    An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

  1. Measurements of plasma bremsstrahlung and plasma energy density produced by electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noland, Jonathan David

    2011-01-01

    of x-ray power and plasma energy density with microwaveof diamagnetic loop used for plasma energy density mea-the average electron energy and density. During the slowly

  2. The complete relativistic kinetic model of symmetry violation in isotopic expanding plasma. III. Specific entropy calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. G. Ignatyev; K. Alsmadi

    2010-12-27

    A complete model of baryon production in an expanding, primordially symmetric hot Universe is constructed in the framework of general-relativistic kinetic theory. In this model specific model for a baryon is calculated and graphs of the value dependence are constructed.

  3. Diagnose Physical Conditions Near the Flare Energy-release Sites from Observations of Solar Microwave Type III Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Baolin; Meszarosova, Hana; Huang, Guangli

    2015-01-01

    In the physics of solar flares, it is crucial to diagnose the physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites. However, so far it is unclear how do diagnose these physical conditions. Solar microwave type III burst is believed to be a sensitive signature of the primary energy release and electron accelerations in solar flares. This work takes into account the effect of magnetic field on the plasma density and developed s set of formulas which can be used to estimate the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field near the magnetic reconnection site and particle acceleration region, and the velocity and energy of electron beams. We applied these formulas to three groups of microwave type III pairs in a X-class flare, and obtained some reasonable and interesting results. This method can be applied to other microwave type III bursts to diagnose the physical conditions of source regions, and provide some basic information to understand the intrinsic nature and fundamental processes occurring near the flar...

  4. Laboratory Plasma Dynamos, Astrophysical Dynamos, and Magnetic Helicity Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric G. Blackman; Hantao Ji

    2006-04-10

    The term ``dynamo'' means different things to the laboratory fusion plasma and astrophysical plasma communities. To alleviate the resulting confusion and to facilitate interdisciplinary progress, we pinpoint conceptual differences and similarities between laboratory plasma dynamos and astrophysical dynamos. We can divide dynamos into three types: 1. magnetically dominated helical dynamos which sustain a large scale magnetic field against resistive decay and drive the magnetic geometry toward the lowest energy state, 2. flow-driven helical dynamos which amplify or sustain large scale magnetic fields in an otherwise turbulent flow, and 3. flow-driven nonhelical dynamos which amplify fields on scales at or below the driving turbulence. We discuss how all three types occur in astrophysics whereas plasma confinement device dynamos are of the first type. Type 3 dynamos requires no magnetic or kinetic helicity of any kind. Focusing on type 1 and 2 dynamos, we show how different limits of a unified set of equations for magnetic helicity evolution reveal both types. We explicitly describe a steady-state example of a type 1 dynamo, and three examples of type 2 dynamos: (i) closed volume and time dependent; (ii) steady-state with open boundaries; (iii) time dependent with open boundaries.

  5. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manning, T.J.; Palmer, B.A.; Hof, D.E.

    1990-11-06

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies is disclosed. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy. 1 fig.

  6. Proteome of Geobacter sulfurreducens grown with Fe(III) oxide or Fe(III) citrate as the electron acceptor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y-H R.; Hixson, Kim K.; Aklujkar, Ma; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Lovley, Derek R.; Mester, Tunde

    2008-12-01

    e(III) oxides are the most abundant source of reducible Fe(III) by microorganisms in most soils and sediments, yet few studies on the physiology of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms during growth on Fe(III) oxide have been conducted because of the technical difficulties in working with cell growth and harvest in the presence of Fe(III) oxides. Geobacter sulfurreducens is a representative of the Geobacter species that predominate in a variety of subsurface environments in which Fe(III) oxide is important. In order to better understand the physiology of Geobacter species during growth on Fe(III) oxide, the proteome of G. sulfurreducens grown on Fe(III) oxide was compared with the proteome of cells grown with soluble Fe(III) citrate. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) revealed 19 proteins that were more abundant during growth on Fe(III) oxide than on soluble Fe(III). These included proteins related to protein synthesis, electron transfer and energy production, oxidative stress, protein folding, outer membrane proteins, nitrogen metabolism and hypothetical proteins. Further analysis of the proteome with the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag method revealed additional proteins associated with growth on Fe(III) oxide. These included the outer-membrane c-type cytochrome, OmcS and OmcG, which genetic studies have suggested are required for Fe(III) oxide reduction. Furthermore, several other cytochromes, as yet unstudied, were detected to be significantly up regulated during growth on Fe(III) oxide and other proteins of unknown function were more abundant during growth on Fe(III) oxide than on soluble Fe(III). PilA, the structural protein for pili, which is required for Fe(III) oxide reduction, and other pilin-associated proteins were also more abundant during growth on Fe(III) oxide. Confirmation of the differential expression of proteins known to be important in Fe(III) oxide reduction was observed, and an additional number of previously unidentified proteins were found with significant abundance in the cells grown under conditions of Fe(III) oxide reduction.

  7. A study of the reaction between bismuth (III) iodide and organic amine hydriodides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Jack Clinton

    1960-01-01

    -ethylammoniumnonaiododibismuthate (ill) 5. tr is- di- ethylammoniumnonaiododibismuthate (III) 6. tris-tri-ethylammoniumnonaiododibismuthate (III) 7. tr is-n-propylammoniumhexaiodobismuthate (III) 8. tris-di-n-propylammoniumnonaiododibismuthate (III) 9. di-iso...-propylammoniumtetraiodobismuthate (III) IO. tris-di-iso-propylammoniumhexaiodobismuthate (111) 11. tri-n-pr opylammoniumt~etr iodobismuthate (III) 12. tris-n-butylammoniumnonaiododibismuthate (III) 13. tris-iso-butylammoniumnonaiododibismuthate (III) 14. tris...

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  9. Part III: Application Guidelines (Revised 2012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary Areas ofEnergy On October 13,is aof Energy Officea.III:

  10. EXL III Group Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the NationalDynetek EuropeEPG| OpenEXL III Group Corp

  11. Apollo Energy III LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex A S Jump to:Angola onAperion Energy Systems JumpBeach,III LLC

  12. Kotzebue Wind Project III | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:onItronKanoshKetchikanKlondike III IKosovo-USAIDIII Jump to:

  13. Pomeroy III Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly SmartDB-2, Blue MountainSchoolPrairie JumpPolytechnic4Q07) WindIII

  14. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, C.C.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Berry, L.A.

    1991-07-16

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm[sup 2]. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity. 3 figures.

  15. Plasma generating apparatus for large area plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chin-Chi (Oak Ridge, TN); Gorbatkin, Steven M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Berry, Lee A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A plasma generating apparatus for plasma processing applications is based on a permanent magnet line-cusp plasma confinement chamber coupled to a compact single-coil microwave waveguide launcher. The device creates an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma in the launcher and a second ECR plasma is created in the line cusps due to a 0.0875 tesla magnetic field in that region. Additional special magnetic field configuring reduces the magnetic field at the substrate to below 0.001 tesla. The resulting plasma source is capable of producing large-area (20-cm diam), highly uniform (.+-.5%) ion beams with current densities above 5 mA/cm.sup.2. The source has been used to etch photoresist on 5-inch diam silicon wafers with good uniformity.

  16. PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; 79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    KINETICS; PHYSICS; PLASMA; PLASMA WAVES; PROCESSING; PROPULSION; SATELLITES; SHIELDING; SOLAR SYSTEM; THERMONUCLEAR REACTORS; UNIVERSE This introduction will define the plasma...

  17. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), Data Release 8

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and SDSS-II, the SDSS-III Collaboration is working to map the Milky Way, search for extrasolar planets, and solve the mystery of dark energy. SDSS-III's first release, Data Release 8 (DR8), became available in the first half of 2012. DR8 contains all the images ever taken by the SDSS telescope. Together, these images make up the largest color image of the sky ever made. A version of the DR8 image is shown to the right. DR8 also includes measurements for nearly 500 million stars, galaxies, and quasars, and spectra for nearly two million. All of DR8's images, spectra, and measurements are available to anyone online. You can browse through sky images, look up data for individual objects, or search for objects anywhere using any criteria. SDSS-III will collect data from 2008 to 2014, using the 2.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory. SDSS-III consists of four surveys, each focused on a different scientific theme. These four surveys are: 1) Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS); 2) SEGUE-2 (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration); 3) The APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE); and 4) The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). [Copied with edits from http://www.sdss3.org/index.php

  18. Princeton Plasma Lab funded to explore nanoparticles with plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for research into the role of plasma in synthesizing nanoparticles, in PPPL's nanotechnology laboratory. (Photo by Elle StarkmanPPPL Office of Communications) Physicist...

  19. Non-thermal X-ray Emission from Supernova Remnants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacco Vink

    2004-09-21

    Recent studies of narrow, X-ray synchrotron radiating filaments surrounding young supernova remnants indicate that magnetic fields strengths are relatively high, B ~ 0.1 mG, or even higher, and that diffusion is close to the Bohm limit. I illustrate this using Cas A as an example. Also older remnants such as RCW 86 appear to emit X-ray synchrotron radiation, but the emission is more diffuse, and not always confined to a region close to the shock front. I argue that for RCW 86 the magnetic field is likely to be low (B ~ 17 microGauss), and at the location where the shell emits X-ray synchrotron radiation the shock velocity is much higher than the average shock velocity of ~600 km/s.

  20. AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    10 ; Paciesas, William S., E-mail: jmichaelburgess@gmail.com, E-mail: rob.preece@nasa.gov, E-mail: felix@particle.kth.se, E-mail: veres@gwu.edu, E-mail: npp@astro.psu.edu...

  1. Modelling the non-thermal emission from galaxy clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Brunetti

    2002-08-03

    We discuss the relevant processes for the relativistic electrons in the ICM and the possible mechanisms responsible for the production of these electrons. We focus on the origin of the radio halos giving some of the observational diagnostics which may help in discriminating among the different models proposed so far. Finally, we briefly discuss the discrepancy between the value of the magnetic field assuming an inverse Compton (IC) origin of the hard X-ray emission (HXR) and that obtained from Faraday Rotation Measurements (RM).

  2. 2110 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 37, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Low-Pressure Helicon-Plasma Discharge Initiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharer, John E.

    -temperature plasma research. Low- pressure (as low as 1 millitorr) inductively coupled plasmas are used for plasma

  3. Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Paul S. (Santa Fe, NM); Korzekwa, Deniece R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Purification of tantalum by plasma arc melting. The level of oxygen and carbon impurities in tantalum was reduced by plasma arc melting the tantalum using a flowing plasma gas generated from a gas mixture of helium and hydrogen. The flowing plasma gases of the present invention were found to be superior to other known flowing plasma gases used for this purpose.

  4. Method for generating surface plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Aragon, Ben P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-05-27

    A method for generating a discharge plasma which covers a surface of a body in a gas at pressures from 0.01 Torr to atmospheric pressure, by applying a radio frequency power with frequencies between approximately 1 MHz and 10 GHz across a plurality of paired insulated conductors on the surface. At these frequencies, an arc-less, non-filamentary plasma can be generated to affect the drag characteristics of vehicles moving through the gas. The plasma can also be used as a source in plasma reactors for chemical reaction operations.

  5. Cosmological Perturbations of Ultrarelativistic Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominik J. Schwarz

    1996-07-31

    Scalar cosmological perturbations of a weakly self-interacting plasma mixed with a perfect radiation fluid are investigated. Effects of this plasma are considered through order $\\lambda^{3/2}$ of perturbative thermal-field-theory in the radiation dominated universe. The breakdown of thermal perturbation theory at vastly subhorizon scales is circumvented by a Pad\\'e approximant solution. Compared to collisionless plasmas the phase speed and subhorizon damping of the plasma density perturbations are changed. An example for a self-interacting thermal field is provided by the neutrinos with effective 4-fermion interactions.

  6. TRUPACT-III Quick Facts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sheet. TRUPACT-III Quick Facts More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Data Exchange Specification DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water...

  7. Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments...

  8. ALGEBRA III (Curso 1989-90) Teoria de conjuntos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, José A.

    ALGEBRA III (Curso 1989-90) Teor´ia de conjuntos Jos´e A. Alonso Jim´enez Ejercicio 1. Probar que

  9. The CLEO III Detector Design and Physics Goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The CLEO III Detector Design and Physics Goals California 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Lessons : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : * *: : : : : : : 6 1.3 Physics overview

  10. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SDSS-III: Massive...

  11. Total synthesis of Class II and Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tjandra, Meiliana

    2010-01-01

    I. Total Synthesis of All Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids We describe the total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-galbulimima alkaloid 13, (-)-himgaline anad (-)-himbadine. The absolute stereochemistry of natural (-)-galbulimima ...

  12. Ion firehose instability in plasmas with plasma particles described by product bi-kappa distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, M. S. dos; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Gaelzer, R., E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, RS, CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the dispersion relation for low frequency electromagnetic waves propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field, considering that the velocity distributions of ions and electrons can be either bi-Maxwellian of product bi-kappa distributions. The effect of the anisotropy and non-thermal features associated to the product-bi-kappa distributions on the firehose instability are numerically investigated. The general conclusion to be drawn from the results obtained is that the increase in non-thermal features which is consequence of the decrease of the ? indexes in the ion distribution contributes to increase the instability in magnitude and wave number range, in comparison with bi-Maxwellian distributions with similar temperature anisotropy, and that the increase of non-thermal features in the electron distribution contributes to the quenching of the instability, which is nevertheless driven by the anisotropy in the ion distribution. Significant differences between results obtained either considering product-bi-kappa distributions or bi-kappa distributions are also reported.

  13. Laser plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malka, V. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2012-05-15

    This review article highlights the tremendous evolution of the research on laser plasma accelerators which has, in record time, led to the production of high quality electron beams at the GeV level, using compact laser systems. I will describe the path we followed to explore different injection schemes and I will present the most significant breakthrough which allowed us to generate stable, high peak current and high quality electron beams, with control of the charge, of the relative energy spread and of the electron energy.

  14. On rapid plasma rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helander, P.

    2007-10-15

    The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a general three-dimensional magnetic field with flux surfaces, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields whose strength B depends on the arc length l along the field in approximately the same way for all field lines on each flux surface {psi}, i.e., B{approx_equal}f({psi},l). Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector {nabla}{psi}x{nabla}B.

  15. Renormalization and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    A review is given of modern theories of statistical dynamics as applied to problems in plasma physics. The derivation of consistent renormalized kinetic equations is discussed, first heuristically, later in terms of powerful functional techniques. The equations are illustrated with models of various degrees of idealization, including the exactly soluble stochastic oscillator, a prototype for several important applications. The direct-interaction approximation is described in detail. Applications discussed include test particle diffusion and the justification of quasilinear theory, convective cells, E vector x B vector turbulence, the renormalized dielectric function, phase space granulation, and stochastic magnetic fields.

  16. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeerFederal FleetUpSmall WindPrinceton PlasmaFlow in38

  17. Plasma gun array

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeerFederal FleetUpSmall WindPrincetonPlasmaVelocitygun

  18. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in HydrothermalMagneticAiter U.S. ITER enPlasma

  19. Title of dissertation: Plasma-Neutral Equilibrium in Centrifugally Confined Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: Plasma-Neutral Equilibrium in Centrifugally Confined Plasma Sheung Plasma-neutral interactions are considered for a centrifugally confined plasma, such as the Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment (MCX), wherein a crossfield plasma rotation inhibits plasma escape along the magnetic

  20. Neptunium Binding Kinetics with Arsenazo(III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh R. Martin; Aaron T. Johnson; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2014-08-01

    This document has been prepared to meet FCR&D level 2 milestone M2FT-14IN0304021, “Report on the results of actinide binding kinetics with aqueous phase complexants” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems FCR&D work package. The report details kinetics experiments that were performed to measure rates of aqueous phase complexation for pentavalent neptunium with the chromotropic dye Arsenazo III (AAIII). The studies performed were designed to determine how pH, ionic strength and AAIII concentration may affect the rate of the reaction. A brief comparison with hexavalent neptunium is also made. It was identified that as pH was increased the rate of reaction also increased, however increasing the ionic strength and concentration of AAIII had the opposite effect. Interestingly, the rate of reaction of Np(VI) with AAIII was found to be slower than that of the Np(V) reaction.

  1. Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanova, Tatiana [IRSN; Laville, Cedric [IRSN; Dyrda, James [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Mennerdahl, Dennis [E. Mennerdahl Systems; Golovko, Yury [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Raskach, Kirill [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Tsiboulia, Anatoly [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Lee, Gil Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Woo, Sweng-Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS); Bidaud, Adrien [Labratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmolo-gie (LPSC); Patel, Amrit [NRC; Bledsoe, Keith C [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Gulliford, J. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.

  2. Ion plasma wave and its instability in interpenetrating plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.

    2014-04-15

    Some essential features of the ion plasma wave in both kinetic and fluid descriptions are presented. The wave develops at wavelengths shorter than the electron Debye radius. Thermal motion of electrons at this scale is such that they overshoot the electrostatic potential perturbation caused by ion bunching, which consequently propagates as an unshielded wave, completely unaffected by electron dynamics. So in the simplest fluid description, the electrons can be taken as a fixed background. However, in the presence of magnetic field and for the electron gyro-radius shorter than the Debye radius, electrons can participate in the wave and can increase its damping rate. This is determined by the ratio of the electron gyro-radius and the Debye radius. In interpenetrating plasmas (when one plasma drifts through another), the ion plasma wave can easily become growing and this growth rate is quantitatively presented for the case of an argon plasma.

  3. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA SOURCES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 11 (2002) 273278 PII: S0963-0252(02)35617-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Francis F.

    2002-01-01

    of semiconductors, ionospheric plasma research, ion lasers, general plasma physics experiments, and plasma thruster

  4. Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

  5. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, W.C.

    1983-05-17

    This invention relates to the confinement of field reversed plasma rings and, more particularly, to the steady state maintainance of field reversed plasma rings produced by coaxial plasma guns.

  6. A Plasma Lens for Magnetron Sputtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2011-01-01

    the separation of cathodic arc plasma and macroparticles infor filtered cathodic arc plasma deposition [8-9]; and theoptics [10]. An image of arc plasma transport in a curved

  7. Cathodic Vacuum Arc Plasma of Thallium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2006-01-01

    distributions of vacuum arc plasmas: The origin of species,"spectrum for thallium arc plasma, as measured for 400 A,and thallium vacuum arc plasmas. For comparison, the data

  8. Metal plasmas for the fabrication of nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2006-01-01

    by Energetic Condensation of Metal Plasmas André AndersD: Appl. Phys. (2006) Metal plasmas for the fabrication ofA review is provided covering metal plasma production, the

  9. Spontaneous generation of rotation in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parra Diaz, Felix

    2013-12-24

    Three different aspects of intrinsic rotation have been treated. i) A new, first principles model for intrinsic rotation [F.I. Parra, M. Barnes and P.J. Catto, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113001 (2011)] has been implemented in the gyrokinetic code GS2. The results obtained with the code are consistent with several experimental observations, namely the rotation peaking observed after an L-H transition, the rotation reversal observed in Ohmic plasmas, and the change in rotation that follows Lower Hybrid wave injection. ii) The model in [F.I. Parra, M. Barnes and P.J. Catto, Nucl. Fusion 51, 113001 (2011)] has several simplifying assumptions that seem to be satisfied in most tokamaks. To check the importance of these hypotheses, first principles equations that do not rely on these simplifying assumptions have been derived, and a version of these new equations has been implemented in GS2 as well. iii) A tokamak cross-section that drives large intrinsic rotation has been proposed for future large tokamaks. In large tokamaks, intrinsic rotation is expected to be very small unless some up-down asymmetry is introduced. The research conducted under this contract indicates that tilted ellipticity is the most efficient way to drive intrinsic rotation.

  10. Quasilocalized charge approximation in strongly coupled plasma physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, Kenneth I. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Department of Physics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401-1455 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Department of Physics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401-1455 (United States); Kalman, Gabor J. [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) was proposed in 1990 [G. Kalman and K. I. Golden, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5516 (1990)] as a formalism for the analysis of the dielectric response tensor and collective mode dispersion in strongly coupled Coulomb liquids. The approach is based on a microscopic model in which the charges are quasilocalized on a short-time scale in local potential fluctuations. The authors review the application of the QLC approach to a variety of systems which can exhibit strongly coupled plasma behavior: (i) the one-component plasma (OCP) model in three dimensions (e.g., laser-cooled trapped ions) and (ii) in two dimensions (e.g., classical 2D electron liquid trapped above the free surface of liquid helium), (iii) binary ionic mixture in a neutralizing uniform background (e.g., carbon-oxygen white dwarf interiors), (iv) charged particle bilayers (e.g., semiconductor electronic bilayers), and (v) charged particles in polarizable background (e.g., laboratory dusty plasmas). (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  12. Hollow Plasma in a Solenoid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-11-30

    A ring cathode for a pulsed, high-current, multi-spot cathodic arc discharge was placed inside a pulsed magnetic solenoid. Photography is used to evaluate the plasma distribution. The plasma appears hollow for cathode positions close the center of the solenoid, and it is guided closer to the axis when the cathode is away from the center.

  13. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, F.W. Jr.; Chiu, S.C.; Parks, P.; Rawls, J.M.

    1984-01-10

    This invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for transferring energy to a plasma immersed in a magnetic field, and relates particularly to an apparatus for heating a plasma of low atomic number ions to high temperatures by transfer of energy to plasma resonances, particularly the fundamental and harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency of the plasma ions. This invention transfers energy from an oscillating radio-frequency field to a plasma resonance of a plasma immersed in a magnetic field.

  14. Filters for cathodic arc plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA); Bilek, Marcela M. M. (Engadine, AU); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasmas are contaminated with macroparticles. A variety of magnetic plasma filters has been used with various success in removing the macroparticles from the plasma. An open-architecture, bent solenoid filter, with additional field coils at the filter entrance and exit, improves macroparticle filtering. In particular, a double-bent filter that is twisted out of plane forms a very compact and efficient filter. The coil turns further have a flat cross-section to promote macroparticle reflection out of the filter volume. An output conditioning system formed of an expander coil, a straightener coil, and a homogenizer, may be used with the magnetic filter for expanding the filtered plasma beam to cover a larger area of the target. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this filter can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  15. Lab 4--Signal Processing III: Diodes PHYS 309 Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Rhett

    Lab 4--Signal Processing III: Diodes PHYS 309 Name: A. Introduction Diodes are essentially one it into . B. Basic circuits and signal processing Build the circuit shown below. Note the ground! Use a = 100 is set on "dc." Lab 4-1 #12;Lab 4--Signal Processing III: Diodes PHYS 309 Name: Now add a diode to your

  16. Doctoral Research Registration Policies III-2.35.01

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suri, Manil

    Doctoral Research Registration Policies III-2.35.01 printable version Doctoral students who have number that corresponds to your research mentor. Policy Number: 111-2.35.01 Policy Section: Responsible Administrator: Responsible Office: Approved by President: Originally Issued: Revision Date: UMBC Policy III-2.35

  17. Multiscale Mathematics For Plasma Kinetics Spanning Multiple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Multiscale Mathematics For Plasma Kinetics Spanning Multiple Collisionality Regimes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiscale Mathematics For Plasma...

  18. Method & apparatus for monitoring plasma processing operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Michael Lane; Ward, Pamela Denise; Stevenson, Joel O'Don

    2004-10-19

    The invention generally relates to various aspects of a plasma process and, more specifically, to the monitoring of such plasma processes. One aspect relates to a plasma monitoring module that may be adjusted in at least some manner so as to re-evaluate a previously monitored plasma process. For instance, optical emissions data on a plasma process that was previously monitored by the plasma monitoring module may be replayed through the plasma monitoring module after making at least one adjustment in relation to the plasma monitoring module.

  19. SciTech Connect: "plasma science"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasma science" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "plasma science" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data:...

  20. SciTech Connect: "solar plasma wind"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar plasma wind" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "solar plasma wind" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic...

  1. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions with prospective refineries led to the conclusion that there were not likely prospects for the licensing of the CED process.

  2. Hawley ArcGIS Desktop III: GIS Workflows and Analysis Page 1 ArcGIS Desktop III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bier, Martin

    Hawley ArcGIS Desktop III: GIS Workflows and Analysis Page 1 ArcGIS Desktop III: GIS Workflows and Analysis Overview This 2-day course builds on the skills and knowledge taught in ArcGIS Desktop II: Tools a challenging analysis project. Audience This course is for experienced ArcGIS users who want to learn more

  3. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  4. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  5. Aerospace & Energetics Research Program -University of Washington Plasma Dynamics Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shumlak, Uri

    - University of Washington Plasma Dynamics Group q The Boltzmann equation is seven dimensional. qAerospace & Energetics Research Program - University of Washington Plasma Dynamics Group Plasma Research Program - University of Washington Plasma Dynamics Group Abstract Many current plasma simulation

  6. Towards Quantum Enigma Cipher III -Communication performance-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osamu Hirota

    2015-11-15

    Cloud computing system based on data centers has recently attracted considerable attention. In that system, all data are communicated via a high speed optical network between a customer and data center or between data centers. There is a serious threat so called "Eavesdropper data center business", which means the eavesdropper can get all data from the transmission line and sell specific data selected by the protocol analyzer to malicious people who want to get the secret data. So we need to consider cyber attack against Layer-1 (physical layer). Quantum cryptography has been developed to protect such an attack. In order to apply such a new security technologies, the communication performance is very important as well as its security, because the data speed is more than several Gbit/sec. This research note III will discuss communication performances of quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum enigma cipher, and explaines that QKD based on single photon signals cannot realize appropriate data speed, but quantum enigma cipher can.

  7. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  8. The Absence of Plasma in"Spark Plasma Sintering"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulbert, Dustin M.; Anders, Andre; Dudina, Dina V.; Andersson, Joakim; Jiang, Dongtao; Unuvar, Cosan; Anselmi-Tamburini, Umberto; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Mukherjee, Amiya K.

    2008-04-10

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a remarkable method for synthesizing and consolidating a large variety of both novel and traditional materials. The process typically uses moderate uni-axial pressures (<100 MPa) in conjunction with a pulsing on-off DC current during operation. There are a number of mechanisms proposed to account for the enhanced sintering abilities of the SPS process. Of these mechanisms, the one most commonly put forth and the one that draws the most controversy involves the presence of momentary plasma generated between particles. This study employees three separate experimental methods in an attempt to determine the presence or absence of plasma during SPS. The methods employed include: in-situ atomic emission spectroscopy, direct visual observation and ultra-fast in-situ voltage measurements. It was found using these experimental techniques that no plasma is present during the SPS process. This result was confirmed using several different powders across a wide spectrum of SPS conditions.

  9. Fast pulse nonthermal plasma reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosocha, Louis A.

    2005-06-14

    A fast pulsed nonthermal plasma reactor includes a discharge cell and a charging assembly electrically connected thereto. The charging assembly provides plural high voltage pulses to the discharge cell. Each pulse has a rise time between one and ten nanoseconds and a duration of three to twenty nanoseconds. The pulses create nonthermal plasma discharge within the discharge cell. Accordingly, the nonthermal plasma discharge can be used to remove pollutants from gases or break the gases into smaller molecules so that they can be more efficiently combusted.

  10. Methane Conversion by Plasma Assisted Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Helge Egsgaard2 1Optics and Plasma Research Department 2Biosystems Department Risø National Laboratory

  11. Luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes having acetylide ligands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E.; Bossi, Alberto; Djurovich, Peter Ivan

    2014-09-02

    The present invention relates to phosphorescent (triplet-emitting) organometallic materials. The phosphorescent materials of the present invention comprise Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complexes for use as triplet light-emitting materials. The Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complexes comprise at least one cyclometallating ligand and at least one alkynyl ligand bonded to the iridium. Also provided is an organic light emitting device comprising an anode, a cathode and an emissive layer between the anode and the cathode, wherein the emissive layer comprises a Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complex as a triplet emitting material.

  12. High efficiency III-nitride light-emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Mary; Koleske, Daniel; Cho, Jaehee; Zhu, Di; Noemaun, Ahmed; Schubert, Martin F; Schubert, E. Fred

    2013-05-28

    Tailored doping of barrier layers enables balancing of the radiative recombination among the multiple-quantum-wells in III-Nitride light-emitting diodes. This tailored doping enables more symmetric carrier transport and uniform carrier distribution which help to reduce electron leakage and thus reduce the efficiency droop in high-power III-Nitride LEDs. Mitigation of the efficiency droop in III-Nitride LEDs may enable the pervasive market penetration of solid-state-lighting technologies in high-power lighting and illumination.

  13. Texas Rice, Volume III, Number 9, Winter Issue 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    stream_source_info 2003_Winter_Issue Vol III No 9.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 47032 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name 2003_Winter_Issue Vol III No 9.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Texas A&M University System Agricultural Research and Extension Center Beaumont, Texas Winter 2003 Volume III Number 9 Texas Rice Rice Production In Texas Economically Strong - Environmentally Sound continued on page 6 It was a clear...

  14. Inductrack III configuration--a maglev system for high loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F

    2013-11-12

    Inductrack III configurations are suited for use in transporting heavy freight loads. Inductrack III addresses a problem associated with the cantilevered track of the Inductrack II configuration. The use of a cantilevered track could present mechanical design problems in attempting to achieve a strong enough track system such that it would be capable of supporting very heavy loads. In Inductrack III, the levitating portion of the track can be supported uniformly from below, as the levitating Halbach array used on the moving vehicle is a single-sided one, thus does not require the cantilevered track as employed in Inductrack II.

  15. III-V Growth on Silicon Toward a Multijunction Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J.; Olson, J.; McMahon, W.; Friedman, D.; Kibbler, A.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Duda, A.; Ward, S.; Ptak, A.; Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H.; Norman, A.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Reedy, B.

    2005-11-01

    A III-V on Si multijunction solar cell promises high efficiency at relatively low cost. The challenges to epitaxial growth of high-quality III-Vs on Si, though, are extensive. Lattice-matched (LM) dilute-nitride GaNPAs solar cells have been grown on Si, but their performance is limited by defects related to the nitrogen. Advances in the growth of lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials make more traditional III-Vs, such as GaInP and GaAsP, very attractive for use in multijunction solar cells on silicon.

  16. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image" or "Save Image As..." Carlos Paz-Soldan, left, and Raffi Nazikian at the DIII-D tokamak. Computer simulation of a cross-section of a DIII-D plasma responding to tiny...

  17. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    click on the image and select "Save Image" or "Save Image As..." Schematic of NSTX tokamak at PPPL with a cross-section showing perturbations of the plasma profiles caused by...

  18. News | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    right click on the image and select "Save Image" or "Save Image As..." Left: DIII-D tokamak. Right: Cross-section of plasma in which lithium has turned the emitted light green....

  19. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Jaselskis, Edward J. (Ames, IA)

    1999-03-30

    A system for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remote from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer.

  20. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  1. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D`Silva, A.P.; Jaselskis, E.J.

    1999-03-30

    A system is described for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remotely from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer. 10 figs.

  2. Chaos in a complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheridan, T.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio 45810 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Chaotic dynamics is observed experimentally in a complex (dusty) plasma of three particles. A low-frequency sinusoidal modulation of the plasma density excites both the center-of-mass and breathing modes. Low-dimensional chaos is seen for a 1:2 resonance between these modes. A strange attractor with a dimension of 2.48{+-}0.05 is observed. The largest Lyapunov exponent is positive.

  3. Magnetic reconnection in nontoroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2005-07-15

    Magnetic reconnection is a major issue in solar and astrophysical plasmas. The mathematical result that the evolution of a magnetic field with only point nulls is always locally ideal limits the nature of reconnection in nontoroidal plasmas. Here it is shown that the exponentially increasing separation of neighboring magnetic field lines, which is generic, tends to produce rapid magnetic reconnection if the length of the field lines is greater than about 20 times the exponentiation, or Lyapunov, length.

  4. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaffer, Michael J. (San Diego, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode (56) positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak (20), or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix (40) of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode (56), which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum (54) or other duct near the electrode (56) includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode (56) is insulated laterally with insulators (63,64), one of which (64) is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode (56) and a vacuum vessel wall (22), with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E.times.B/B.sup.2 drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable.

  5. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaffer, M.J.

    1994-10-04

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak, or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode, which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum or other duct near the electrode includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode is insulated laterally with insulators, one of which is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode and a vacuum vessel wall, with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E [times] B/B[sup 2] drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable. 11 figs.

  6. III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 Maio 2014 sucesso da primeira conferência Climate Adaptation Futures realizada em Queensland, Austrália, em 2010 e

  7. Kinematic Synthesis of Stephenson III Six-bar Function Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plecnik, MM; McCarthy, JM

    2015-01-01

    of Stephenson-II Function Generators”, Journal of MechanismsII Six-bar Function Generators for 11 Accuracy Points,”III Six-bar Function Generators Mark M. Plecnik, J. Michael

  8. TOTAL SES SL EJ//EK EN IV EN III

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    SL EJEK EN IV EN III NN (Engineering) NQ (ProfTechAdmin) NU (TechAdminSupport) RETIREMENT ELIGIBLE TO RETIRE IMMEDIATELY 11 13.9% ELIGIBLE TO RETIRE BY 3272014 29 36.7%...

  9. Protein signaling via type III secretion pathways in phytopathogenic bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    109 Protein signaling via type III secretion pathways in phytopathogenic bacteria Mary Beth Mudgett secretion pathway has revealed new mechanisms by which phytopathogenic bacteria infect plants are continually exposed to a number of potentially pathogenic bacteria. Phytopathogenic bacteria, in general

  10. The prospects for 10 nm III-V CMOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesus A.

    The increasing difficulties for further scaling down of Si CMOS is bringing to the fore the investigation of alternative channel materials. Among these, III-V compound semiconductors are very attractive due to their ...

  11. 2012. 1 101 Cognitive Computing III: Deep Dynamic Prediction -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,4] . , . . . , . [5,6]. Marr 3 [7]. : ? ? ? / : ? ? : ? ? II #12 Bayesian Brain Models Physical Computing Models Marr 3 (rule- based systems, connectionist networks Computing III: Deep Dynamic Prediction - 2.4 Dynamic System Models . Marr 3

  12. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems STEVENS III,JOHN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STEVENS III,JOHN W.; BONN,RUSSELL H.; GINN,JERRY W.; GONZALEZ,SIGIFREDO; KERN,GREG 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS;...

  13. Guidance for Environmental Background Analysis Volume III: Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance for Environmental Background Analysis Volume III: Groundwater Prepared for: Naval This guidance document provides instructions for characterizing groundwater background conditions and comparing datasets representing groundwater impacted by an actual or potential chemical release to appropriate

  14. III-Nitride Nanowires: Emerging Materials for Lighting and Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    III-Nitride Nanowires: Emerging Materials for Lighting and Energy Applications March 20, 2012 at 3pm36-428 George T. Wang Advanced Materials Science, Sandia National Laboratories...

  15. III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  16. EIS-0374: Klondike III/ Bigelow Canyon Wind Integration Project, OR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes BPA's decision to approve an interconnection requested by PPM Energy, Inc. (PPM) to integrate electrical power from their proposed Klondike III Wind roject (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS).

  17. Measurements of plasma bremsstrahlung and plasma energy density produced by electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noland, Jonathan David

    2011-01-01

    confinement was achieved with a magnetic mirror field. Twoplasma confinement[16]. The strength of the magnetic fieldfield A simple plasma confinement scheme, used in early fusion devices, is the “magnetic

  18. APS DPP November 11 15 2002University of Washington Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory Typical plasma parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    to RMF FRC experiments at RPPL Theory: RMF fully penetrates plasma, Cosynchronous electron rotation plasma, Magnetic profiles flattened across null. Theory: Revised to encompass FRC condition. RMFAPS DPP November 11 ­ 15 2002University of Washington Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory Typical

  19. Progress on a New RF Plasma Generator a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Target Plasma Boundary ITER Plasma Core 1m Upstream Downstream Hot Plasma Channel 10 MW/m2 max on target-recycling, strongly coupled PMI regime Upstream Downstream Hot Plasma Channel Magnetic Field Linear plasma channelW) & downstream plasma flow · Inferred from best match: ­ D2 depleted by ~104 at plasma center ­ Strong fueling

  20. Proceedings of the second Asian Pacific Plasma Theory Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melrose, Don

    covers all plasma theory areas including magnetic confinement, inertial fusion, space plasmas confinement, inertial fusion, space plasma, astrophysical plasma, industrial processing plasma, dusty plasma-Australia fusion theory workshop, and US-Japan JIFT workshop on Theoretical Study for Helical Plasmas Edited

  1. Characteristics of plasma properties in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenherr, Tony; Nees, Frank; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Herdrich, Georg

    2013-03-15

    Pulsed plasma thrusters are electric space propulsion devices which create a highly transient plasma bulk in a short-time arc discharge that is expelled to create thrust. The transitional character and the dependency on the discharge properties are yet to be elucidated. In this study, optical emission spectroscopy and Mach-Zehnder interferometry are applied to investigate the plasma properties in variation of time, space, and discharge energy. Electron temperature, electron density, and Knudsen numbers are derived for the plasma bulk and discussed. Temperatures were found to be in the order of 1.7 to 3.1 eV, whereas electron densities showed maximum values of more than 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. Both values showed strong dependency on the discharge voltage and were typically higher closer to the electrodes. Capacitance and time showed less influence. Knudsen numbers were derived to be in the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2}, thus, indicating a continuum flow behavior in the main plasma bulk.

  2. QER- Comment of William Smith III

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hello DOE, Thanks for accepting my comments on the Quadrennial Energy Review by e-mail. There will be those who wish to promote nuclear energy as a source of electricity for future use in the USA. I speak against this form of energy. Because it creates long-lived radioactive wastes, nuclear power is incompatible with the biological world in which we live and from which we evolved. The lasting nature of these wastes creates a moral quandry for us in this generation, as we leave behind such biological poisons for our descents to manage, in ways which we do not yet know. A further problem with nucler energy is that any fission reaction creates plutonium, the stuff of nuclear weapons. If nuclear power reactors were to be spread around the world, inevitably the proliferation of nuclear weapons would follow. So-called '4th generation' or 'thorium' reactors suffer from a similar problem, for although they may generate less plutonium, their fuel cycle involves creation of large amounts of U-233 which carries a similar proliferation risk to plutonium-239. I advocate crafting an energy future for our nation bsed on the natural flows of renewable energy, coupled with a diversified structure which generates electricity at many smaller sources. Implicit in any modern energy system is the increased efficiency of energy usage which will continue to lower the bulk amounts of energy, particularly electricity, which our society uses to satisfy our industrial, military, commercial, and personal needs. Clearly as a nation we must participate in the worldwide effort to control the buildup of carbon dioxide gases and other pollutants which threaten the stability of the earth's climate. I would like to bring to your attention these papers from the Rocky Mountain Institute which touch on the above issues: http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2009-09_FourNuclearMyths and http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/2012-01_FarewellToFossilFuels and http://www.rmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Library/E05-14_NuclearPowerEconomics.... If you have not yet done so, I strongly urge you to contact the Rocky Mountain Institute and contract with them for their advice in consulting on the Quadrennial Energy Review. Sincerely, William Wharton Smith III

  3. Micro-column plasma emission liquid chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

    1984-01-01

    In a direct current plasma emission spectrometer for use in combination with a micro-column liquid chromatograph, an improved plasma source unit. The plasma source unit includes a quartz capillary tube having an inlet means, outlet off gas means and a pair of spaced electrodes defining a plasma region in the tube. The inlet means is connected to and adapted to receive eluant of the liquid chromatograph along with a stream of plasma-forming gas. There is an opening through the wall of the capillary tube penetrating into the plasma region. A soft glass capillary light pipe is disposed at the opening, is connected to the spectrometer, and is adapted to transmit light passing from the plasma region to the spectrometer. There is also a source of electromotive force connected to the electrodes sufficient to initiate and sustain a plasma in the plasma region of the tube.

  4. The Madison plasma dynamo experiment: A facility for studying laboratory plasma astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, C. M.

    The Madison plasma dynamo experiment (MPDX) is a novel, versatile, basic plasma research device designed to investigate flow driven magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and other high-? phenomena with astrophysically relevant ...

  5. Extreme hydrogen plasma densities achieved in a linear plasma generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooij, G. J. van; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Goedheer, W. J.; de Groot, B.; Kleyn, A. W.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Versloot, T. W.; Whyte, D. G.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D. C.; Cardozo, N. J. Lopes

    2007-03-19

    A magnetized hydrogen plasma beam was generated with a cascaded arc, expanding in a vacuum vessel at an axial magnetic field of up to 1.6 T. Its characteristics were measured at a distance of 4 cm from the nozzle: up to a 2 cm beam diameter, 7.5x10{sup 20} m{sup -3} electron density, {approx}2 eV electron and ion temperatures, and 3.5 km/s axial plasma velocity. This gives a 2.6x10{sup 24} H{sup +} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} peak ion flux density, which is unprecedented in linear plasma generators. The high efficiency of the source is obtained by the combined action of the magnetic field and an optimized nozzle geometry. This is interpreted as a cross-field return current that leads to power dissipation in the beam just outside the source.

  6. LASER-PLASMA-ACCELERATOR-BASED GAMMA GAMMA COLLIDERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    LASER-PLASMA-ACCELERATOR-BASED ?? COLLIDERS ? C. B.linear col- lider based on laser-plasma-accelerators arediscussed, and a laser-plasma-accelerator-based gamma-

  7. Laser Plasma Particle Accelerators: Large Fields for Smaller Facility Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron G.R.

    2010-01-01

    of high- gradient, laser plasma particle accelerators.accelerators that use laser-driven plasma waves. Theseleft) showing the laser (red), plasma wake density (purple-

  8. Dense Metal Plasma in a Solenoid for Ion Beam Neutralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2011-01-01

    generation by vacuum arc plasma guns," Rev. Sci. Instrum. ,fast flowing vacuum arc plasma and injecting it along theand therefore both arc plasma and magnetic field can be

  9. Ion energy distribution functions of vacuum arc plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byon, Eungsun; Anders, Andre

    2002-01-01

    functions of vacuum arc plasmas Eungsun Byon and Andréfunctions of vacuum arc plasmas Eungsun Byon and Andréenergies of vacuum arc plasmas 1-7 because these energies

  10. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Rectangular filtered arc plasma source, Patent US5997705,multi-filament thermionic arc plasma generator and four-gridsources, and cathodic arc plasmas. In all of these sources,

  11. [Plasma properties research: Task 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The principal research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division relate to magnetic fusion plasma physics. In addition, there is a modest amount of work in closely related areas, including space plasma physics, fluid dynamics, and dynamical systems. Members of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division maintain close contacts with fusion researchers in the US and abroad. Some of the work of the Division is clearly directed towards ITER and TPX, while other problems relate to the broader development of fusion plasma physics and to the support of other issues arising in the many experimental programs. Topics of some note in the last year that are discussed in this report are: Application of sophisticated statistical techniques to tokamak data reduction, including time series analysis of TFTR fluctuation data and spline analysis of profile data. Continuing development of edge plasma and divertor modelling, including initial ergodic divertor studies. Analysis of energetic fusion products losses from TFTR plasmas. Examination of anomalous transport in dynamical systems induced by chaotic-like Hamiltonian motion. Numerical simulation of the development of singular MHD equilibria. Exploration of the validity of moment expansions of kinetic equations for weakly collisional systems. Studies of RF- and ripple-induced helium ash removal. Ballooning mode studies in fluids and rotating stars. Studies in dynamical systems, including explosive instabilities, development of chaos, and motion of collisionless particles in a domain with overlapping islands.

  12. [Plasma properties research: Task 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The principal research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division relate to magnetic fusion plasma physics. In addition, there is a modest amount of work in closely related areas, including space plasma physics, fluid dynamics, and dynamical systems. Members of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division maintain close contacts with fusion researchers in the US and abroad. Some of the work of the Division is clearly directed towards ITER and TPX, while other problems relate to the broader development of fusion plasma physics and to the support of other issues arising in the many experimental programs. Topics of some note in the last year that are discussed in this report are: Application of sophisticated statistical techniques to tokamak data reduction, including time series analysis of TFTR fluctuation data and spline analysis of profile data. Continuing development of edge plasma and divertor modelling, including initial ergodic divertor studies. Analysis of energetic fusion products losses from TFTR plasmas. Examination of anomalous transport in dynamical systems induced by chaotic-like Hamiltonian motion. Numerical simulation of the development of singular MHD equilibria. Exploration of the validity of moment expansions of kinetic equations for weakly collisional systems. Studies of RF- and ripple-induced helium ash removal. Ballooning mode studies in fluids and rotating stars. Studies in dynamical systems, including explosive instabilities, development of chaos, and motion of collisionless particles in a domain with overlapping islands.

  13. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1993-04-27

    Work on ICRF interaction with the edge plasma is reported. ICRF generated convective cells have been established as an important mechanism for influencing edge transport and interaction with the H-mode, and for controlling profiles in the tokamak scrape-off-layer. Power dissipation by rf sheaths has been shown to be significant for some misaligned ICRF and IIBW antenna systems. Near-field antenna sheath work has been extended to the far-field case, important for experiments with low single pass absorption. Impurity modeling and Faraday screen design support has been provided for the ICRF community. In the area of core-ICRF physics, the kinetic theory of heating by applied ICRF waves has been extended to retain important geometrical effects relevant to modeling minority heated tokamak plasmas, thereby improving on the physics base that is standard in presently employed codes. Both the quasilinear theory of ion heating, and the plasma response function important in wave codes have been addressed. In separate studies, it has been shown that highly anisotropic minority heated plasmas can give rise to unstable field fluctuations in some situations. A completely separate series of studies have contributed to the understanding of tokamak confinement physics. Additionally, a diffraction formalism has been produced which will be used to access the focusability of lower hybrid, ECH, and gyrotron scattering antennas in dynamic plasma configurations.

  14. SURFACE CHEMKIN-III: A Fortran package for analyzing heterogeneous chemical kinetics at a solid-surface - gas-phase interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coltrin, M.E.; Kee, R.J.; Rupley, F.M.; Meeks, E.

    1996-05-01

    This document is the user`s manual for the SURFACE CHEMKIN-III package. Together with CHEMKIN-III, this software facilitates the formation, solution, and interpretation of problems involving elementary heterogeneous and gas-phase chemical kinetics in the presence of a solid surface. The package consists of two major software components: an Interpreter and a Surface Subroutine Library. The Interpreter is a program that reads a symbolic description of a user-specified chemical reaction mechanism. One output from the Interpreter is a data file that forms a link to the Surface Subroutine Library, which is a collection of about seventy modular Fortran subroutines that may be called from a user`s application code to return information on chemical production rates and thermodynamic properties. This version of SURFACE CHEMKIN-III includes many modifications to allow treatment of multi-fluid plasma systems, for example modeling the reactions of highly energetic ionic species with a surface. Optional rate expressions allow reaction rates to depend upon ion energy rather than a single thermodynamic temperature. In addition, subroutines treat temperature as an array, allowing an application code to define a different temperature for each species. This version of SURFACE CHEMKIN-III allows use of real (non-integer) stoichiometric coefficients; the reaction order with respect to species concentrations can also be specified independent of the reaction`s stoichiometric coefficients. Several different reaction mechanisms can be specified in the Interpreter input file through the new construct of multiple materials.

  15. COLLOQUIUM: Handling Plasma Wall Interactions on ITER | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &Bradbury ScienceComplexPlasmaPhysicsPlasma

  16. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2010-01-01

    with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former isFor years, pulsed vacuum arc plasma sources have been themacroparticle issue, cathodic arc plasmas are also known to

  17. Temporal development of the plasma composition of Zr and Cr metal plasma streams in a N2 environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Johanna; Anders, Andre; Hultman, Lars; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2003-01-01

    properties [4]. The vacuum arc plasma composition and theIn a cathodic arc discharge, the plasma production at theassociated with plasma production in cathodic arc spots may

  18. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: Scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2014-01-01

    here. Furthermore, pulsed arc plasmas show distinctly higherwith filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former isFor years, pulsed vacuum arc plasma sources have been the

  19. SURVEY, ECOLOGY, AND SYSTEMATICS OF THE UPPER POTOMAC ESTUARY BIOTA: AUFWUCHS MICROFAUNA PHASE III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    PHASE III Interaction of Zooplankters and Blue-green Algal Blooms Under Organic and Thermal Pollution

  20. Tapered plasma channels to phase-lock accelerating and focusing forces in laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittershofer, W.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Gruner, F.J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-05-17

    Tapered plasma channels are considered for controlling dephasing of a beam with respect to a plasma wave driven by a weakly-relativistic, short-pulse laser. Tapering allows for enhanced energy gain in a single laser plasma accelerator stage. Expressions are derived for the taper, or longitudinal plasma density variation, required to maintain a beam at a constant phase in the longitudinal and/or transverse fields of the plasma wave. In a plasma channel, the phase velocities of the longitudinal and transverse fields differ, and, hence, the required tapering differs. The length over which the tapered plasma density becomes singular is calculated. Linear plasma tapering as well as discontinuous plasma tapering, which moves beams to adjacent plasma wave buckets, are also considered. The energy gain of an accelerated electron in a tapered laser-plasma accelerator is calculated and the laser pulse length to optimize the energy gain is determined.

  1. Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chin-Chi (Oak Ridge, TN); Haselton, Halsey H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm.sup.2 at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance.

  2. Coupled microwave ECR and radio-frequency plasma source for plasma processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, C.C.; Haselton, H.H.

    1994-03-08

    In a dual plasma device, the first plasma is a microwave discharge having its own means of plasma initiation and control. The microwave discharge operates at electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), and generates a uniform plasma over a large area of about 1000 cm[sup 2] at low pressures below 0.1 mtorr. The ECR microwave plasma initiates the second plasma, a radio frequency (RF) plasma maintained between parallel plates. The ECR microwave plasma acts as a source of charged particles, supplying copious amounts of a desired charged excited species in uniform manner to the RF plasma. The parallel plate portion of the apparatus includes a magnetic filter with static magnetic field structure that aids the formation of ECR zones in the two plasma regions, and also assists in the RF plasma also operating at electron cyclotron resonance. 4 figures.

  3. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  4. Microwave Excitation In ECRIS plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Maimone, F.; Barbarino, S.; Catalano, R. S.; Mascali, D.; Tumino, L.

    2007-09-28

    A number of phenomena related to the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) has been better understood recently by means of the improvement of comprehension of the coupling mechanism between microwave generators and ECR plasma. In particular, the two frequency heating and the frequency tuning effect, that permit a remarkable increase of the current for the highest charge states ions, can be explained in terms of modes excitation in the cylindrical cavity of the plasma chamber. Calculations based on this theoretical approach have been performed, and the major results will be presented. It will be shown that the electric field pattern completely changes for a few MHz frequency variations and the changes in ECRIS performances can be correlated to the efficiency of the power transfer between electromagnetic field and plasma.

  5. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  6. Plasma Wakefield Experiments at FACET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, M.J.; England, R.J.; Frederico, J.; Hast, C.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; An, W.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.; Tochitsky, S.; /UCLA; Muggli, P.; Pinkerton, S.; Shi, Y.; /Southern California U.

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to {approx}20{micro}m long and focused to {approx}10{micro}m wide. The intense fields of the FACET bunches will be used to field ionize neutral lithium or cesium vapor produced in a heat pipe oven. Previous experiments at the SLAC FFTB facility demonstrated 50GeV/m gradients in an 85cm field ionized lithium plasma where the interaction distance was limited by head erosion. Simulations indicate the lower ionization potential of cesium will decrease the rate of head erosion and increase single stage performance. The initial experimental program will compare the performance of lithium and cesium plasma sources with single and double bunches. Later experiments will investigate improved performance with a pre-ionized cesium plasma. The status of the experiments and expected performance are reviewed. The FACET Facility is being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The facility will begin commissioning in summer 2011 and conduct an experimental program over the coming five years to study electron and positron beam driven plasma acceleration with strong wake loading in the non-linear regime. The FACET experiments aim to demonstrate high-gradient acceleration of electron and positron beams with high efficiency and negligible emittance growth.

  7. Relativistic effects on plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad, E-mail: mdjebli@usthb.dz [USTHB, Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, B.P. 32 Bab-Ezzouar, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-07-15

    The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.

  8. Plasma Facing Component Science and Technology for Burning Plasma Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under HeatFlux(MW/m2 ) Disruptions Reentry Vehicles Fusion Divertor Fusion First Wall Fast Breeder Fission Reactor Radiant Flux at Sun Surface Rocket Nozzles Comparison Relative Heat Fluxes Fusion Plasma #12;MAU

  9. Magnetron cathodes in plasma electrode Pockels cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, M.A.

    1995-04-25

    Magnetron cathodes, which produce high current discharges, form greatly improved plasma electrodes on each side of an electro-optic crystal. The plasma electrode has a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the plasma is transparent. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. A typical configuration utilizes helium at 50 millitorr operating pressure and 2 kA discharge current. The magnetron cathode produces a more uniform plasma and allows a reduced operating pressure which leads to lower plasma resistivity and a more uniform charge on the crystal. 5 figs.

  10. How to Operate the Nu Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    the torchbox and the stainless steel Plasma Shield. The Plasma Shield should be located symmetrically to the RF extraction knob to maximum speed. Figure x (not available yet) 10- Check the Ar-dewar (tank) main gas valve

  11. Rotation generation and transport in tokamak plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podpaly, Yuri Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Plasma toroidal rotation is a factor important for plasma stability and transport, but it is still a fairly poorly understood area of physics. This thesis focuses on three aspects of rotation: momentum transport, Ohmic ...

  12. JET FORMATION IN COUNTERSTREAMING COLLISIONLESS PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuramitsu, Y.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. [Department of Physics, University of York, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gregory, C. D.; Koenig, M. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605, CNRS, CEA, Universite Paris VI, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Morita, T.; Aoki, H. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Dono, S.; Tanji, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Loupias, B., E-mail: kuramitsu-y@ile.osaka-u.ac.j [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2009-12-20

    Plasma jet formation was observed in counterstreaming plasmas in a laboratory experiment. In order to model an ambient plasma of astrophysical jets, the counterstreaming plasmas were created by irradiating a double CH-plane target with a high-power laser system. Since the mean free paths of the ions in terms of the counterstreaming motion were larger than the scale length of the experiment, the two-stream interaction of the plasmas was essentially collisionless. The time evolution of the jet collimation was obtained over several shots with different timing by shadowgraphy. When a single CH-plane target was irradiated, no jet collimation was observed. The counterstreaming plasma as an ambient plasma is essential for the jet plasma to collimate.

  13. Plasma stability in a dipole magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simakov, Andrei N., 1974-

    2001-01-01

    The MHD and kinetic stability of an axially symmetric plasma, confined by a poloidal magnetic field with closed lines, is considered. In such a system the stabilizing effects of plasma compression and magnetic field ...

  14. Merging of high speed argon plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, A.; Messer, S.; Brockington, S.; Wu, L.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Elton, R.

    2013-01-15

    Formation of an imploding plasma liner for the plasma liner experiment (PLX) requires individual plasma jets to merge into a quasi-spherical shell of plasma converging on the origin. Understanding dynamics of the merging process requires knowledge of the plasma phenomena involved. We present results from the study of the merging of three plasma jets in three dimensional geometry. The experiments were performed using HyperV Technologies Corp. 1 cm Minirailguns with a preionized argon plasma armature. The vacuum chamber partially reproduces the port geometry of the PLX chamber. Diagnostics include fast imaging, spectroscopy, interferometry, fast pressure probes, B-dot probes, and high speed spatially resolved photodiodes, permitting measurements of plasma density, temperature, velocity, stagnation pressure, magnetic field, and density gradients. These experimental results are compared with simulation results from the LSP 3D hybrid PIC code.

  15. NEUTRAL-BEAM PLASMA SOURCE METAL-ARC PROTECTION CIRCUIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deVries, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    e r . METAL ARCS IN PLASMAS Metal-arcs in plasma sources are1981 NEUTRAL-BEAM PLASMA SOURCE METAL-ARC PROTECTION CIRCUIT48 NEUTRAL-BEAM PLASMA SOURCE METAL-ARC PROTECTION CIRCUIT*

  16. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration: How it Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-05

    This animation explains how electrons can be efficiently accelerated to high energy using wakes created in a plasma.

  17. PHYSICS DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ESTIMATING PLASMA PERFORMANCE IN A BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENT (FIRE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHYSICS DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR ESTIMATING PLASMA PERFORMANCE IN A BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENT (FIRE The physics design guidelines for a next step, high- field tokamak, burning plasma experiment (FIRE, Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) have been developed as an update of the ITER Physics Basis (IPB). The plasma

  18. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet G. Haerendel1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet G. Haerendel1 , W. Baumjohann1 , E about 9i during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer

  19. Hydrodynamic models for multicomponent plasmas with collisional-radiative kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Hai

    2014-01-01

    field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma [42], and internalfield-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma formation [42] and

  20. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, Nathan E. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures.

  1. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, N.E.

    1992-04-14

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  2. The Plasma Magnet John Slough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Simon

    power from the solar wind. ·The ultimate spacecraft speed powered by the plasma magnet the Solar Wind plications: ulti-MW thruster leveraged from multi-KW RF power agneto-braking in magnetosphere (rotor) creating an expanding magnetized bubble. Expansion is halted by solar wind pressure is in balance

  3. Diagnosing Plasma Turbulence in Tokamaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fields #12;· Heat flux equation rate of change of energy losses sources+sinks Consider heat flux losses in tokamaks #12;· Heat flux equation rate of change of energy losses sources Consider heat flux losses #12;· The transport of heat and particles in tokamak plasmas happens more quickly than expected from

  4. Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Manickam, J., McGuire, K.M., Monticello, D., Nagayama, Y., Park, W., Taylor, G., Drake, J.F., Kleva, R Simulations of Beam­Fueled Supershot­like Plasmas Budny, R.V. 14 pgs. Near Ignition Preprint: March 1993, S.A., Scott, S.D., Stotler, D., Wieland, R., Zarnstorff, M., Zweben, S.J. #12; ­3­ PPPL­2880

  5. Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Manickam, J., McGuire, K.M., Monticello, D., Nagayama, Y., Park, W., Taylor, G., Drake, J.F., Kleva, R Simulations of Beam-Fueled Supershot-like Plasmas Budny, R.V. 14 pgs. Near Ignition Preprint: March 1993, S.A., Scott, S.D., Stotler, D., Wieland, R., Zarnstorff, M., Zweben, S.J. #12;-3- PPPL-2880

  6. Planar controlled zone microwave plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxvlle, TN)

    2011-10-04

    An apparatus and method for initiating a process gas plasma. A conductive plate having a plurality of conductive fingers is positioned in a microwave applicator. An arc forms between the conductive fingers to initiate the formation of a plasma. A transport mechanism may convey process materials through the plasma. A spray port may be provided to expel processed materials.

  7. LAPTAG Plasma Laboratory Manual Richard Buck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Troy

    , the electrons (due to their low mass and mobility) will surround and shield the potential, thereby preventing it from disrupting the uniformity in the rest of the plasma. The thickness of this shield, called a Plasma: We make a plasma out of an inert gas such as Argon, or Helium. Gas tank gauge (right) and line

  8. Master Thesis: Fusion Plasma Thermal Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Master Thesis: Fusion Plasma Thermal Transport Radial and Poloidal Profile Modeling Martin Olesen-axis localised ion cyclotron resonance heating source. 2. Cold pulse shock induction at the plasma edge via laser wave propagation from heat modulation and the fast propagation of a cold pulse, at the same plasma

  9. Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cold. The DOE Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) collaborates to develop fusion as a safe, clean and abundant energy source for the future. This video discusses PPPL's research and development on plasma, the fourth state of matter.

  10. ATR APS/DPP 1996 Princeton Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budny, Robert

    ATR APS/DPP 1996 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Looking for a Transport Barrier in the TFTR VB. A. T. Ramsey and S. D Scott, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton University #12;ATR APS/DPP 1996 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory page 2 =1.89 ×10 -28 Zeff gff n e 2 T (eV)e 1/2 2 e - 12

  11. Feasibility Study for a Plasma Dynamo Facility to Investigate Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forest, Cary B.

    2013-09-19

    The scientific equipment purchased on this grant was used on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment as part of Professor Forest's feasibility study for determining if it would be worthwhile to propose building a larger plasma physics experiment to investigate various fundamental processes in plasma astrophysics. The initial research on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment was successful so Professor Forest and Professor Ellen Zweibel at UW-Madison submitted an NSF Major Research Instrumentation proposal titled "ARRA MRI: Development of a Plasma Dynamo Facility for Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics." They received funding for this project and the Plasma Dynamo Facility also known as the "Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment" was constructed. This experiment achieved its first plasma in the fall of 2012 and U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0008709 "Experimental Studies of Plasma Dynamos," now supports the research.

  12. Aerospace & Energetics Research Program -University of Washington Plasma Dynamics Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shumlak, Uri

    of Washington Plasma Dynamics Group q The Boltzmann equation is seven dimensional. q As a consequence plasmaAerospace & Energetics Research Program - University of Washington Plasma Dynamics Group Plasma Plasma Dynamics Group Abstract Many current plasma simulation codes are based on the magnetohydrodynamic

  13. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA)

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  14. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Charles W. (Alamo, CA); Shearer, James W. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  15. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, D.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1992-08-04

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition. 15 figs.

  16. Neutrino oscillations in a turbulent plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Haas, F.

    2013-07-15

    A new model for the joint neutrino flavor and plasma oscillations is introduced, in terms of the dynamics of the neutrino flavor polarization vector in a plasma background. Fundamental solutions are found for both time-invariant and time-dependent media, considering slow and fast variations of the electron plasma density. The model is shown to be described by a generalized Hamiltonian formalism. In the case of a broad spectrum of electron plasma waves, a statistical approach indicates the shift of both equilibrium value and frequency oscillation of flavor coherence, due to the existence of a turbulent plasma background.

  17. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  18. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammer, James H. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Highly-conducting plasma plumes are ejected across the interplanetary magnetic field from a situs that is moving relative to the solar wind, such as a spacecraft or an astral body, such as the moon, having no magnetosphere that excludes the solar wind. Discrete plasma plumes are generated by plasma guns at the situs extending in opposite directions to one another and at an angle, preferably orthogonal, to the magnetic field direction of the solar wind plasma. The opposed plumes are separately electrically connected to their source by a low impedance connection. The relative movement between the plasma plumes and the solar wind plasma creates a voltage drop across the plumes which is tapped by placing the desired electrical load between the electrical connections of the plumes to their sources. A portion of the energy produced may be used in generating the plasma plumes for sustained operation.

  19. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, William C. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  20. Analise Matematica III semestre de 1999/2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunes, João Pimentel

    An´alise Matem´atica III 2o semestre de 1999/2000 Exerc´icio resolvido 11 O funcionamento de uma co resultados deste exerc´icio na constru¸c~ao (eventual) de co-inceneradoras reais. 1 #12;

  1. Analise Matematica III semestre de 2001/02

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunes, João Pimentel

    An´alise Matem´atica III 1o semestre de 2001/02 Exerc´icio teste 5 (Entregar na aula pr´atica da descrito por S = {(x, y, z) R3 : 1 x2 + y2 + 2z2 4, z 0}. Ap´os t^e-los resolvido com alegria, a menina

  2. Analise Matematica III semestre de 2001/02

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira dos Santos, Pedro

    An´alise Matem´atica III 1o semestre de 2001/02 Exerc´icio teste 5 (Entregar na aula pr´atica da descrito por S = {(x, y, z) R3 : 1 x2 + y2 + 2z2 4, z 0}. Ap´os t^e-los resolvido de cabe¸ca, com

  3. Bibliography: Physical Modeling of Musical Instruments Julius O. Smith III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith III, Julius Orion

    Bibliography: Physical Modeling of Musical Instruments Julius O. Smith III Center for Computer · N. H. Fletcher and T. D. Rossing, The Physics of Musical Instruments, Springer-Verlag, 1998 (2nd ed, eds., Mechanics of Musical Instruments, Springer-Verlag, 1995. (More specialized, advanced musical

  4. COMPUTER SCIENCE (Div. III) Chair, Associate Professor BRENT HEERINGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    1 COMPUTER SCIENCE (Div. III) Chair, Associate Professor BRENT HEERINGA Professors: BAILEY, DANYLUK of computers are the goals of the discipline of computer science. A sample of the areas of research investigated by the Williams Department of Computer Science alone illustrates the vast range of topics

  5. Evaluation of Non-intrusive Traffic Detection Technologies Phase III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    TPF-5(171) Evaluation of Non-intrusive Traffic Detection Technologies Ð Phase III #12 not intrude into pavement for installation. ·! Sensors above, below or to the side of the roadway qualify;Miovision #12;Miovision #12;Laser-based sensors #12;PEEK AxleLight #12;TIRTL #12;TIRTL #12;#12;#12;#12;

  6. Mathematics & Statistics Strategic Planning Phase III Part II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Mathematics & Statistics Strategic Planning Phase III Part II 1 Research and The Faculty Overview. Over the past two decades, the Department of Mathematics and Statistics has systematically worked toward its overarching goal of becoming one of the top 10 departments of mathematical sciences among

  7. Mathematics & Statistics Strategic Planning Phase III, Part I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Mathematics & Statistics Strategic Planning Phase III, Part I Departmental Scan & Enhancements and Scholarly Recognition 1. Overview. The Department of Mathematics and Statistics is a community of scholars. The M.S. programs in both Applied Mathematics and Statistics contribute to an important pipeline

  8. III International Climate Change Adaptation Adaptation Futures 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 III International Climate Change Adaptation Conference Adaptation Futures 2014 12-16 May 2014 of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA), the Co and reports from the conference in newspapers 93 #12;4 1. INTRODUCTION Climate

  9. CHAPTER III MARINE METEOROLOGY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHAPTER III MARINE METEOROLOGY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;MARINE METEOROLOGY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO, A BRIEF REVIEW 1 By DALE F. LEIPPER, Department oj Oceonography, Agricultural and Mechanical College oj Tuas The best general summary of the weather over the Gulf of Mexico

  10. Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energies III Photovoltaics, Solar & Geo-Thermal 21st August - 2nd September 2011 on the principles of solar energy conversion. Theoretical knowledge will be complemented with practical workshops of solar energy conversion. Theoretical knowledge will be comple- mented with practical workshops

  11. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  12. Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza, Iqbal

    Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III* Department of Animal, and American Fisheries Society (AFS) Fish Culture Section, was held February 26 through March 2, 2007, in San Antonio, Texas. At this meeting, the AFS Fish Culture and Fish Physiol- ogy Sections co

  13. Land, Food & Community III LFS 450 -W2009 Term 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Land, Food & Community III LFS 450 - W2009 Term 2 Wednesdays 2:00-5:00 pm Classrooms: MCML 166-822-9607 UBC Food System Project Coordinator Sophia Baker-French sophiabakerfrench@yahoo.com Teaching Office, Campus and Community Planning Additional Resource Persons: Art Bomke, Agroecology, Food

  14. Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Departamento de Matem aticas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moro, Esteban

    Madrid. Abril de 1999 #12; #12; Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Departamento de Matem#19;aticas Tesis suelen aparecer los amigos y compa~neros, que son esa parte de la tesis que no depende de uno mismo. En#19;asticas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Objetivos de la tesis

  15. LABORATORY ROTATION REGISTRATION FORM Part III: ACKNOWLEDGED APPROVED BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmons, Scott

    LABORATORY ROTATION REGISTRATION FORM Part III: ACKNOWLEDGED APPROVED BY Part II: ROTATION LABORATORY INFORMATION Instructions to the student: This form must be submitted with a completed OSHA Form). The Associate Dean's signature will be obtained by the Graduate Office. First Laboratory Rotation Period

  16. Predicting Efficient Antenna Ligands for Tb(III) Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, Amanda P.S.; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-10-06

    A series of highly luminescent Tb(III) complexes of para-substituted 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (5LI-IAM-X) has been prepared (X = H, CH{sub 3}, (C=O)NHCH{sub 3}, SO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}, OCH{sub 3}, F, Cl, Br) to probe the effect of substituting the isophthalamide ring on ligand and Tb(III) emission in order to establish a method for predicting the effects of chromophore modification on Tb(III) luminescence. The energies of the ligand singlet and triplet excited states are found to increase linearly with the {pi}-withdrawing ability of the substituent. The experimental results are supported by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations performed on model systems, which predict ligand singlet and triplet energies within {approx}5% of the experimental values. The quantum yield ({Phi}) values of the Tb(III) complex increases with the triplet energy of the ligand, which is in part due to the decreased non-radiative deactivation caused by thermal repopulation of the triplet. Together, the experimental and theoretical results serve as a predictive tool that can be used to guide the synthesis of ligands used to sensitize lanthanide luminescence.

  17. Part III Research Project Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Part III Research Project Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone Observed by Data Assimilation Stratosphere-Troposphere exchange of ozone at tropopause folds is an important process in the atmosphere. Reconstruction of the evolution of ozone at a tropopause fold by conventional means requires synoptic ozone

  18. A "Circle Limit III" Backbone Arc Formula Douglas Dunham1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Doug

    lines make with the bounding circle, and (2) are other such patterns of fish possible? H.S.M. Coxeter provided an exact expression to the answer the first question, and a 3-parameter family of possible fish III by showing a computer rendition of it in Figure 1. Figure 2 shows a pattern of angular fish from

  19. The Family of "Circle Limit III" Escher Patterns Douglas Dunham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Doug

    consider the third one of this sequence, Circle Limit III -- a pattern of fish, to be the most beautiful. In this woodcut, four fish meet at right fin tips, three fish meet at left fin tips, and three fish meet at their noses. The backbones of the fish are aligned along white circular arcs. Fish on one arc are the same

  20. MICCAI 2008 Workshop Proceedings Computational Biomechanics for Medicine III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vese, Luminita A.

    MICCAI 2008 Workshop Proceedings Computational Biomechanics for Medicine III Karol Miller, Poul M to fields outside traditional engineering, in particular to biology, the biomedical sciences, and medicine. Computational Biomechanics for Medicine Workshop series was established in 2006 with the first meeting held

  1. Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    , 2005. Energy Information Agency, Annual Energy Outlook 2006, Regional Tables, 2007. WECC/CA WECC/RM 29Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory First Western Forum on Energy & Water on Energy & Water, March 22, 2007 Outline · Background on issue · Thermoelectric withdrawal and consumption

  2. III. Commercial viability of second generation biofuel technology27

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    29 III. Commercial viability of second generation biofuel technology27 The previous chapters focused on first generation biofuels. In this chapter we focus on second generation biofuels, specifically biofuels derived from cellulosic or lignocellulosic conversion. Advocates for the development of cellulosic

  3. Wireless Networks III, Fall 05 Lecture 2. Wireless TCP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    Wireless Networks III, Fall 05 Lecture 2. Wireless TCP Exercises 1. TCP Performance: GPRS Scenario or re-orderings occur.] c) Now consider cases of exactly one segment loss on the wireless link. Consider:] The network is now wireless and the wireless link causes an additional packet loss of p'=2%. Furthermore

  4. Redshift of photons penetrating a hot plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Brynjolfsson

    2005-10-07

    A new interaction, plasma redshift, is derived, which is important only when photons penetrate a hot, sparse electron plasma. The derivation of plasma redshift is based entirely on conventional axioms of physics. When photons penetrate a cold and dense plasma, they lose energy through ionization and excitation, Compton scattering on the individual electrons, and Raman scattering on the plasma frequency. But in sparse hot plasma, such as in the solar corona, the photons lose energy also in plasma redshift. The energy loss per electron in the plasma redshift is about equal to the product of the photon's energy and one half of the Compton cross-section per electron. In quiescent solar corona, this heating starts in the transition zone to the corona and is a major fraction of the coronal heating. Plasma redshift contributes also to the heating of the interstellar plasma, the galactic corona, and the intergalactic plasma. Plasma redshift explains the solar redshifts, the redshifts of the galactic corona, the cosmological redshifts, the cosmic microwave background, and the X-ray background. The plasma redshift explains the observed magnitude-redshift relation for supernovae SNe Ia without the big bang, dark matter, or dark energy. There is no cosmic time dilation. The universe is not expanding. The plasma redshift, when compared with experiments, shows that the photons' classical gravitational redshifts are reversed as the photons move from the Sun to the Earth. This is a quantum mechanical effect. As seen from the Earth, a repulsion force acts on the photons. This means that there is no need for Einstein's Lambda term. The universe is quasi-static, infinite, and everlasting.

  5. The [O III] Veil: Astropause of Eta Carinae's Wind?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith; Jon A. Morse; John Bally

    2005-07-07

    We present narrowband images of eta Carinae in the light of [O III] 5007 obtained with HST/WFPC2, as well as a ground-based image in the same emission line with a larger field of view. These images show a thin veil of [O III] emission around eta Car and its ejecta, confirming the existence of an oxygen-bearing ``cocoon'' inferred from spectra. This [O III] veil may be the remnant of the pre-outburst wind of eta Car, and its outer edge probably marks the interface where eta Car's ejecta meet the stellar wind of the nearby O4 V((f)) star HD303308 or other ambient material -- i.e., it marks the ``astropause'' in eta Car's wind. This veil is part of a more extensive [O III] shell that appears to be shaped and ionized by HD303308. A pair of HST images with a 10 yr baseline shows no proper motion, limiting the expansion speed away from eta Car to 12pm13 km/s, or an expansion age of a few times 10^4 yr. Thus, this is probably the decelerated pre-outburst LBV wind of eta Car. The [O III] morphology is very different from that seen in [N II], which traces young knots of CNO-processed material; this represents a dramatic shift in the chemical makeup of material recently ejected by eta Car. This change in the chemical abundances may have resulted from the sudden removal of the star's outer envelope during eta Car's 19th century outburst or an earlier but similar event.

  6. Wireless communication capability of a reconfigurable plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Rajneesh [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382428 (India); Bora, Dhiraj [ITER Organisation, Cadarache-13108 (France)

    2011-03-15

    A 30 cm long plasma column is excited by a surface wave, which acts as a plasma antenna. Using plasma properties (pattern formation/striations in plasmas) single plasma antenna can be transformed into array, helical, and spiral plasma antenna. Experiments are carried out to study the power patterns, directivity, and half power beam width of such different plasma antennas. Moreover, field properties of plasma and copper antenna are studied. Further, wireless communication and jamming capability of plasma antenna are tested. Findings of this study suggest that directivity and communication range can be increased by converting single plasma antenna in to array/helical/spiral plasma antenna. Field frequencies of plasma antenna determine the communication and jamming of radio frequency waves. Therefore, this study invokes applications of pattern formation or striations of plasmas in plasma antenna technology.

  7. Modeling the Lunar plasma wake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmstrom, M

    2013-01-01

    Bodies that lack a significant atmosphere and internal magnetic fields, such as the Moon and asteroids, can to a first approximation be considered passive absorbers of the solar wind. The solar wind ions and electrons directly impact the surface of these bodies due to the lack of atmosphere, and the interplanetary magnetic field passes through the obstacle relatively undisturbed because the bodies are assumed to be non-conductive. Since the solar wind is absorbed by the body, a wake is created behind the object. This wake is gradually filled by solar wind plasma downstream of the body, through thermal expansion and the resulting ambipolar electric field, along the magnetic field lines. Here we study this plasma expansion into a vacuum using a hybrid plasma solver. In the hybrid approximation, ions are treated as particles, and electrons as a massless fluid. We also derive corresponding one- and two-dimensional model problems that account for the absorbing obstacle. It is found that the absorbing obstacle crea...

  8. Cyclotron resonance in plasma flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Agapitov, O. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2013-12-15

    This paper is devoted to the mechanism of particle acceleration via resonant interaction with the electromagnetic circular wave propagating along the inhomogeneous background magnetic field in the presence of a plasma flow. We consider the system where the plasma flow velocity is large enough to change the direction of wave propagation in the rest frame. This system mimics a magnetic field configuration typical for inner structure of a quasi-parallel shock wave. We consider conditions of gyroresonant interaction when the force corresponding to an inhomogeneity of the background magnetic field is compensated by the Lorentz force of the wave-magnetic field. The wave-amplitude is assumed to be about 10% of the background magnetic field. We show that particles can gain energy if kv{sub sw}>?>kv{sub sw}??{sub c} where k is the wave number, v{sub sw} is a plasma flow velocity, and ? and ?{sub c} are the wave frequency and the particle gyrofrequency, respectively. This mechanism of acceleration resembles the gyrosurfing mechanism, but the effect of the electrostatic field is replaced by the effect of the magnetic field inhomogeneity.

  9. Complexation of Am(III) and Nd(III) by 1,10-Phenanthroline-2,9-Dicarboxylic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Nilsson, Mikael; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Hancock, Robert D.; Nash, Ken L.

    2013-01-01

    The complexant 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid (PDA) is a planar tetradentate ligand that is more preorganized for metal complexation than its unconstrained analogue ethylendiiminodiacetic acid (EDDA). Furthermore, the backbone nitrogen atoms of PDA are aromatic, hence are softer than the aliphatic amines of EDDA. It has been hypothesized that PDA will selectively bond to trivalent actinides over lanthanides. In this report, the results of spectrophotometric studies of the complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) by PDA are reported. Because the complexes are moderately stable, it was necessary to conduct these titrations using competitive equilibrium methods, competitive cation omplexing between PDA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and competition between ligand protonation and complex formation. Stability constants and ligand protonation constants were determined at 0.1 mol/L ionic strength and at 0.5 mol/L ionic strength nitrate media at 21 ± 1 C. The stability constants are lower than those predicted from first principles and speciation calculations indicate that Am(III) selectivity over Nd(III) is less than that exhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline.

  10. Relationship between fractional pancreatic beta cell area and fasting plasma glucose concentration in monkeys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    beta cell area and fasting plasma glucose concentration inrelationship between fasting plasma glucose concentrationsfascicularis). Methods Fasting plasma glucose and pancreatic

  11. Aero III/IV Complex Variable Theory Handout 1 A. G. Walton Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Andrew G

    Aero III/IV Complex Variable Theory Handout 1 A. G. Walton Derivatives If i+}, is single the coefficients dn are unique. #12;Aero III/IV Complex Variable Theory Handout 2 A. G. Walton Residues

  12. Design of scaled electronic devices based on III-V materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lingquan

    2009-01-01

    superior III-V semiconductor material properties, namely theproperties and material versatility of the III-V semiconductormaterial properties, i.e. the electronic structure. Conventional treatment of semiconductor

  13. Computational plasma physics Plasma physics is blossoming and flourishing. It is a very fertile research area, from both a scientific and technological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebert, Ute

    , in general, computational plasma physics is a powerful alternative for experimental plasma research

  14. Nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth of non-polar group III nitrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T. (Albuquerque, NM); Li, Qiming (Albuquerque, NM); Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-03-02

    A method for growing high quality, nonpolar Group III nitrides using lateral growth from Group III nitride nanowires. The method of nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth (NTLEG) employs crystallographically aligned, substantially vertical Group III nitride nanowire arrays grown by metal-catalyzed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) as templates for the lateral growth and coalescence of virtually crack-free Group III nitride films. This method requires no patterning or separate nitride growth step.

  15. Multi-Stage Plasma Switch | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMissionStressMove dataKiel ingMulti-Stage Plasma Switch

  16. Plasma Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeerFederal FleetUpSmall WindPrincetonPlasma Synthesis

  17. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, Frederick M (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  18. Boundary Plasma Turbulence Simulations for Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X; Umansky, M; Dudson, B; Snyder, P

    2008-05-15

    The boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT models tokamak boundary-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density (ni), electron and ion temperature (T{sub e}; T{sub i}) and parallel momenta. The BOUT code solves for the plasma fluid equations in a three dimensional (3D) toroidal segment (or a toroidal wedge), including the region somewhat inside the separatrix and extending into the scrape-off layer; the private flux region is also included. In this paper, a description is given of the sophisticated physical models, innovative numerical algorithms, and modern software design used to simulate edge-plasmas in magnetic fusion energy devices. The BOUT code's unique capabilities and functionality are exemplified via simulations of the impact of plasma density on tokamak edge turbulence and blob dynamics.

  19. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2011-01-01

    from 1998-2009 Tracking the Sun III: The Installed Cost ofSystems MW Total Tracking the Sun III: The Installed Cost ofthrough 2009. Tracking the Sun III: The Installed Cost of

  20. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2011-01-01

    U.S. from 1998-2009 Tracking the Sun III: The Installed CostMW No. Systems MW Total Tracking the Sun III: The InstalledU.S. through 2009. Tracking the Sun III: The Installed Cost

  1. Comparing the performance of plasma impedance probes and Langmuir probes for RF plasma diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    conducted in a 14-ft diameter, 22-ft long diffusion-pumped vacuum chamber. Plasma was produced waves via RF heating. Results Conclusions For the discharge plasma condition, there was a significant hybrid frequency. RF Ca

  2. Interchange modes in a collisional plasma Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as a levitated dipole, pro- vide a promising new approach for the magnetic confinement of plasmas for controlled- dimensional systems . This comes about as a result of an assumed simple form for the plasma equation of state

  3. The plasma source of the Large Plasma Device at University of California, Los Angeles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Troy

    .1063/1.2150829 I. INTRODUCTION Barium oxide-coated cathodes have been used for de- cades in vacuum tubes and plasma research. When they are used to inject accelerated electrons into neutral gas, dense quiescent plasmas can

  4. Magnetic field distribution in the plasma flow generated by a plasma focus discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitrofanov, K. N.; Krauz, V. I. Myalton, V. V.; Velikhov, E. P.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Vinogradova, Yu. V.

    2014-11-15

    The magnetic field in the plasma jet propagating from the plasma pinch region along the axis of the chamber in a megajoule PF-3 plasma focus facility is studied. The dynamics of plasma with a trapped magnetic flow is analyzed. The spatial sizes of the plasma jet region in which the magnetic field concentrates are determined in the radial and axial directions. The magnetic field configuration in the plasma jet is investigated: the radial distribution of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field inside the jet is determined. It is shown that the magnetic induction vector at a given point in space can change its direction during the plasma flight. Conclusions regarding the symmetry of the plasma flow propagation relative to the chamber axis are drawn.

  5. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conserved molecules on microorganisms called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) sometimes pathogen Pseudomonas syrin- gae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1

  6. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, Jr., Francis W. (Princeton, NJ); Chiu, Shiu-Chu (San Diego, CA); Parks, Paul (San Diego, CA); Rawls, John M. (Del Mar, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a resonant coil cavity wave launcher for energizing a plasma immersed in a magnetic field. Energization includes launching fast Alfven waves to excite ion cyclotron frequency resonances in the plasma. The cavity includes inductive and capacitive reactive members spaced no further than one-quarter wavelength from a first wall confinement chamber of the plasma. The cavity wave launcher is energized by connection to a waveguide or transmission line carrying forward power from a remote radio frequency energy source.

  7. Plasma torch with liquid metal electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Predtechenskii, M.R.; Tukhto, O.M.

    2006-03-15

    In order to eliminate the negative effect of erosion processes on electrodes in arc plasma generators, a new scheme of arc discharge was proposed in which the surface of a molten metal acts as electrodes. A plasma reactor was designed on the basis of this concept. The electrophysical characteristics of such a discharge in steam and air as plasma gases were studied. Experiments on destruction of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls and steam coal gasification were performed.

  8. Quantum Electrodynamical Effects in Dusty Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marklund; L. Stenflo; P. K. Shukla; G. Brodin

    2005-05-31

    A new nonlinear electromagnetic wave mode in a magnetized dusty plasma is predicted. Its existence depends on the interaction of an intense circularly polarized electromagnetic wave with a dusty plasma, where quantum electrodynamical photon-photon scattering is taken into account. Specifically, we consider a dusty electron-positron-ion plasma, and show that the propagation of the new mode is admitted. It could be of significance for the physics of supernova remnants and in neutron star formation.

  9. Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

    2006-01-10

    A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

  10. Hydrophilization of Liquid Surfaces by Plasma Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor Multanen; Gilad Chaniel; Roman Grynyov; Ron Yosef Loew; Naor Siany; Edward Bormashenko

    2014-09-01

    The impact of the cold radiofrequency air plasma on the surface properties of silicone oils (polydimethylsiloxane) was studied. Silicone oils of various molecular masses were markedly hydrophilized by the cold air plasma treatment. A pronounced decrease of the apparent water contact angles was observed after plasma treatment. A general theoretical approach to the calculation of apparent contact angles is proposed. The treated liquid surfaces demonstrated hydrophobic recovery. The characteristic time of the hydrophobic recovery grew with the molecular mass of the silicone oil.

  11. Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

  12. Computational Scientist | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department, with interest in leadership class computing of gyrokinetic fusion edge plasma research. A candidate who has knowledge in hybrid parallel programming with MPI, OpenMP,...

  13. Theoretical Research Physicist | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    level). Candidates interested in playing a leading role in conducting fusion edge plasma research through large-scale first-principles particle simulation on leadership class...

  14. Plasma planar filament instability and Alfven waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia de Andrade

    2007-03-05

    Inhomogeneous plasmas filaments instabilities are investigated by using the techniques of classical differential geometry of curves where Frenet torsion and curvature describe completely the motion of curves. In our case the Frenet frame changes in time and also depends upon the other coordinates taking into account the inhomogeneity of the plasma. The exponential perturbation method so commonly used to describe cosmological perturbatons is applied to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma equations to find longitudinal modes describing Alfven waves propagation modes describing plasma waves in the medium. Stability is investigated in the imaginary axis of the spectra of complex frequencies ${\\omega}$ or $Im(\\omega)\

  15. Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-08-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

  16. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  17. Analise Matematica III semestre de 1999/2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granja, Gustavo

    An´alise Matem´atica III 1o semestre de 1999/2000 Exerc´icio teste 7 Mostre que existe uma vizinhan resolvido para u e v como fun¸c~oes de x e y. Calcule a derivada u x (1, 1). Solu¸c~ao: Consideremos a fun teorema da fun¸c~ao impl´icita, em alguma vizinhan¸ca de (1, 1, 1, 1), o sistema pode ser resolvido em

  18. Can Population III Stars at High Redshifts produce GRB's?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

    2010-08-24

    Gamma ray bursts are the most luminous physical phenomena in the universe, consisting of flashes of gamma rays that last from seconds to hours. There have been attempts to observe gamma ray bursts, for example, from population III stars of about 500 solar mass at high redshifts. Here we argue that collapse of such high mass stars does not lead to gamma ray burst as their core collapse temperatures are not sufficient to produce gamma rays, leading to GRBs.

  19. Raft River III Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/NevadaaToolsRadioactiveRadiometricsIII Geothermal

  20. Final Technical Report: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuster, Eugenio

    2014-05-02

    The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex#2;B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.

  1. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ? ni ~ 10¹? cm?³, Te ? Ti ? 1.4 eV, Vjet ? 30–100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}$ ? 1, sonic Mach number Ms ? Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ? 20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on themore »study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.« less

  2. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, S C; Merritt, E C; Adams, C S; Dunn, J P; Brockington, S; Case, A; Gilmore, M; Lynn, A G; Messer, S J; Witherspoon, F D

    2014-01-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven rail guns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: $n_e\\approx n_i \\sim 10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, $T_e \\approx T_i \\approx 1.4$ eV, $V_{\\rm jet}\\approx 30$-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}\\approx 1$, sonic Mach number $M_s\\equiv V_{\\rm jet}/C_s>10$, jet diameter $=5$ cm, and jet length $\\approx 20$ cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

  3. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Dighe, S.V.; Gass, W.R.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles. 4 figs.

  4. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, David F. (Oakmont, PA); Dighe, Shyam V. (North Huntingdon, PA); Gass, William R. (Plum Boro, PA)

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles.

  5. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  6. Characterization of the conduction phase of a plasma opening switch using a hydrogen plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of the conduction phase of a plasma opening switch using a hydrogen plasma J. J is characterized by the propagation of a current channel through the switch region that pushes a significant to be characterized by fast magnetic field (current) penetration into the plasma.9­11 In recent experiments

  7. Operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-12-21

    The operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators are discussed. Beamstrahlung limits the charge per bunch at low plasma densities. Reduced laser intensity is examined to improve accelerator efficiency in the beamstrahlung-limited regime.

  8. Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeerFederal FleetUpSmall Wind ElectricPlansheating in

  9. Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeerFederal FleetUpSmall Wind ElectricPlansheating

  10. Plasma Basics Plasma is often called the "Fourth State of Matter". Although found in virtually every home and business,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lighting, arc welders, and computer displays. Plasma is a state of matter just as a solid, liquid or gasPlasma Basics Plasma is often called the "Fourth State of Matter". Although found in virtually every home and business, gas plasma is not well known. In fact, plasma is quite common - it is estimated

  11. Advanced plasma flow simulations of cathodic-arc and ferroelectric plasma sources for neutralized drift compression experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilson, Erik

    Advanced plasma flow simulations of cathodic-arc and ferroelectric plasma sources for neutralized cathodic-arc plasma source show the coupling efficiency of the plasma flow from the source to the drift drift compression experiments Adam B. Sefkow, Ronald C. Davidson, and Erik P. Gilson Plasma Physics

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 32, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2004 1843 Investigation of Plasma Evolution in a Coaxial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Richard A.

    with a current pulse rise time of 70 ns. Two kinds of plasma objects were observed in experiments: plasma of arc of electrodes. Arc discharge typically arises near the cathode. Anode plasma arises in the later stage, after which, the plasma fills the gap. A scenario of plasma evolution of the arc discharge is discussed. Low

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 31, NO. 4, AUGUST 2003 691 Plasma Molding Over Surface Topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economou, Demetre J.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 31, NO. 4, AUGUST 2003 691 Plasma Molding Over Surface) simulation model was developed to study plasma "molding" over a trench. The radio frequency sheath potential (MC) simulation, plasma molding, two-dimensional (2-D) plasma sheath. I. INTRODUCTION ASHEATH forms

  14. PROJECT PROFILE: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost, One-Sun, III-V Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-cost III-V photovoltaics have the potential to lower the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) because III-V cells outperform silicon in terms of efficiency and annual energy harvesting efficiency. In this project, researchers will address both the high costs of III-V epitaxy and single crystal substrates. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is the most promising inexpensive, rapid-growth technique for high efficiency, III-V materials. The continued development of high-throughput HVPE, will be coupled with novel epitaxial liftoff strategies to enable III-V solar cells that are cost-competitive under one-sun conditions.

  15. Sawtooth oscillations in shaped plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazarus, E. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Luce, T. C.; Burrell, K. H.; Chu, M. S.; Ferron, J. R.; Hyatt, A. W.; Lao, L. L.; Lohr, J.; Osborne, T. H.; Petty, C. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Prater, R.; Scoville, J. T.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M. E.; Waelbroeck, F. L. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Brennan, D. P. [University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Jayakumar, R. J.; Makowski, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    The role of interchange and internal kink modes in the sawtooth oscillations is explored by comparing bean- and oval-shaped plasmas. The n=1 instability that results in the collapse of the sawtooth has been identified as a quasi-interchange in the oval cases and the internal kink in the bean shape. The ion and electron temperature profiles are followed in detail through the sawtooth ramp. It is found that electron energy transport rates are very high in the oval and quite low in the bean shape. Ion energy confinement in the oval is excellent and the sawtooth amplitude ({delta}T/T) in the ion temperature is much larger than that of the electrons. The sawtooth amplitudes for ions and electrons are comparable in the bean shape. The measured q profiles in the bean and oval shapes are found to be consistent with neoclassical current diffusion of the toroidal current, and the observed differences in q largely result from the severe differences in electron energy transport. For both shapes the collapse flattens the q profile and after the collapse return to q{sub 0} > or approx. 1. Recent results on intermediate shapes are reported. These shapes show that the electron energy transport improves gradually as the plasma triangularity is increased.

  16. Plasma Citrulline Levels in Horses at Risk of Acute Laminitis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Amy Lynn

    2013-04-10

    plasma citrulline concentrations. Citrulline is an ?-amino acid circulated in the plasma that is produced mainly by intestinal epithelial cells. We hypothesized that horses in the developmental stage of laminitis would have reduced plasma citrulline...

  17. Asymmetric injection of cathodic arc plasma into a macroparticle filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    setup. The cathodic arc plasma source is flange-mounted andfirewall" twist filter arc plasma source F IG. 1 Current (A)Injection of Cathodic Arc Plasma into a Macroparticle Filter

  18. A Space-Charge-Neutralizing Plasma for Beam Drift Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    of four cathodic arc plasma sources has been fabricated anda system of four cathodic arc plasma source (CAPS) system. AThe system of four cathodic arc plasma sources Two filtered

  19. Measurement of total ion current from vacuum arc plasma sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oks, Efim M.; Savkin, Konstantin P.; Yushkov, Georgiu Yu.; Nikolaev, Alexey G.; Anders, A.; Brown, Ian G.

    2005-01-01

    A. Anders, Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition: From Fractalion current from vacuum arc plasma sources E. M. Oks, K. P.ion current from vacuum arc plasma sources E. M. Oks, K. P.

  20. Growth of large patterned arrays of neurons using plasma methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

    2002-01-01

    of the filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition set-up. Fig. 2suitability of vacuum-arc-plasma based methods of surfacea repetitively pulsed vacuum arc plasma source was used; the

  1. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-01-01

    cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) plasma [24]. In-situ measurementDC cathodic arcs: streams of fully ionized plasma from solidarc deposition [18,19], ion plating [20], and plasma

  2. Ris National Laboratory Optics and Plasma Reserch Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Plasma Research Department, Risø National Laboratory, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark S. Sørensena Optics and Plasma Research Department, Risø National Laboratory, Frederiksborgvej 399 and Plasma Research Department, Risø National Laboratory, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark

  3. Study of internal magnetic field via polarimetry in fusion plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics, October 29–Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics, November 14–Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics, November 8–

  4. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Biologically Active Blood Plasma-Based Biomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Lee E.

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Biologically Active Blood Plasma-Based Biomaterials as a New Paradigm developed solid, bioactive plasma-based biomaterials (PBMs) that may address these issues. Unlike platelet: biology; biomaterial; engineering; growth factors; medicine; platelet-rich plasma Introduction

  5. In vacuo substrate pretreatments for enhancing nanodiamond formation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teii, Kungen; Kouzuma, Yutaka; Uchino, Kiichiro

    2006-09-15

    Substrate pretreatment conditions at low pressures have been examined for enhancing nanocrystalline diamond formation on silicon in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Three kinds of pretreatments (I) exposure to an ECR H{sub 2} plasma with application of a substrate bias from -100 to +30 V (II) hot-filament heating in H{sub 2} gas, and (III) hot-filament heating in vacuum, were used alone or followed by carburization prior to a two-step process of ion-enhanced nucleation in an ECR plasma and subsequent growth in a hot-filament system. The number density of diamond particles after the final growth step was greatly increased up to the order of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} when applying pretreatment (I) at the bias of 0 V corresponding to the ion-bombardment energy of around 10 eV. In this treatment, a clean and smooth surface with minimal damage was made by the dominance of anisotropic etching by hydrogen ions over isotropic etching by hydrogen atoms. The number density of diamond particles was still more increased when applying pretreatment (II), but the treated surface was unfavorably contaminated and roughened.

  6. Magnetic multipole redirector of moving plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crow, James T. (Albuquerque, NM); Mowrer, Gary R. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for redirecting moving plasma streams using a multiple array of magnetic field generators (e.g., permanent magnets or current bearing wires). Alternate rows of the array have opposite magnetic field directions. A fine wire mesh may be employed to focus as well as redirect the plasma.

  7. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  8. Measurements of an expanding surface flashover plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J. R., E-mail: john.harris@colostate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    A better understanding of vacuum surface flashover and the plasma produced by it is of importance for electron and ion sources, as well as advanced accelerators and other vacuum electronic devices. This article describes time-of-flight and biased-probe measurements made on the expanding plasma generated from a vacuum surface flashover discharge. The plasma expanded at velocities of 1.2–6.5?cm/?s, and had typical densities of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?3}. The expansion velocity of the plasma leading edge often exhibited a sharp increase at distances of about 50?mm from the discharge site. Comparison with biased-probe data suggests that, under most conditions, the plasma leading edge was dominated by negative ions, with the apparent increase in velocity being due to fast H{sup ?} overtaking slower, heavier ions. In some cases, biased-probe data also showed abrupt discontinuities in the plasma energy distribution co-located with large changes in the intercepted plasma current, suggesting the presence of a shock in the leading edge of the expanding plasma.

  9. 2006200620062006 Taiwan-Korea Plasma Conference 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Jang-Yu

    2006200620062006 Taiwan-Korea Plasma Conference 2006 (subject to change without notice) Time: 1 Electron Acceleration C. S. Liu, National Central University, ChongLi, Taiwan Solar coronal heating, Taiwan Nonlinear analysis of the edge turbulence in a Hanbit mirror plasma, Chang-Mo Ryu Department

  10. Chapter eae124 Magnetic Plasma Sails

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    EAE124 Chapter eae124 Magnetic Plasma Sails Robert M. Winglee Department of Earth and Space c 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-470-75440-5 Plasma propulsion systems offer a tenfold for propulsion. It suffices to say that solar photons produce 9 N m-2 of pressure. The mechanics of solar sail

  11. Combined plasma/liquid cleaning of substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-04-15

    Apparatus and method for cleaning substrates. A substrate is held and rotated by a chuck and an atmospheric pressure plasma jet places a plasma onto predetermined areas of the substrate. Subsequently liquid rinse is sprayed onto the predetermined areas. In one embodiment, a nozzle sprays a gas onto the predetermined areas to assist in drying the predetermined areas when needed.

  12. Proposal for PLASMA LENS EXPERIMENT AT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proposal for PLASMA LENS EXPERIMENT AT THE FINAL FOCUS TEST BEAM April 1, 1997 THE PLASMA LENS. Weidemann7. 1Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, California 2University of California, Los Angeles, Berkeley, California 5University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 6National Laboratory for High Energy

  13. Effects of fast atoms and energy-dependent secondary electron emission yields in PIC/MCC simulations of capacitively coupled plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derzsi, A; Schuengel, E; Donko, Z; Schulze, J

    2014-01-01

    In most PIC/MCC simulations of radio frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) several simplifications are made: (i) fast neutrals are not traced, (ii) heavy particle induced excitation and ionization are neglected, (iii) secondary electron emission from boundary surfaces due to neutral particle impact is not taken into account, and (iv) the secondary electron emission coefficient is assumed to be constant, i.e. independent of the incident particle energy and the surface conditions. Here we question the validity of these simplifications under conditions typical for plasma processing applications. We study the effects of including fast neutrals and using realistic energy-dependent secondary electron emission coefficients for ions and fast neutrals in simulations of CCPs operated in argon at 13.56 MHz and at neutral gas pressures between 3 Pa and 100 Pa. We find a strong increase of the plasma density and the ion flux to the electrodes under most conditions, if these processes are included realistically in ...

  14. PLASMA DYNAMICS AND PLASMA WALL INTERACTION 130 Problems of Atomic Science and Technology. 2006, 6. Series: Plasma Physics (12), p. 130-134

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    PLASMA DYNAMICS AND PLASMA WALL INTERACTION 130 Problems of Atomic Science and Technology. 2006, 6 for the Tokamak reactor concept. The deposited plasma energy causes significant surface erosion, possible structural failure, and frequent plasma contamination. The chamber walls in inertial fusion energy (IFE

  15. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, 382 428 Gujarat (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, 382 428 Gujarat (India)

    2013-12-15

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma.

  16. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  17. Tokamak plasma current disruption infrared control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ); Ulrickson, Michael (E. Windsor, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    In a magnetic plasma confinment device having an inner toroidal limiter mounted on an inner wall of a plasma containment vessel, an arrangement is provided for monitoring vertical temperature profiles of the limiter. The temperature profiles are taken at brief time intervals, in a time scan fashion. The time scans of the vertical temperature profile are continuously monitored to detect the presence of a peaked temperature excursion, which, according to the present invention, is a precursor of a subsequent major plasma disruption. A fast scan of the temperature profile is made so as to provide a time interval in real time prior to the major plasma disruption, such that corrective action can be taken to reduce the harmful effects of the plasma disruption.

  18. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-26

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  19. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-25

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  20. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.