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Sample records for ii shallow water

  1. The Moving Contact Line in a Shallow Water Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridson, Robert

    The Moving Contact Line in a Shallow Water Model by Albert C. Wong B.Sc., The University of British with a shallow water model allowing us to track the contact line of the fluid in the shallow water model equation approach. ii #12;Table of Contents Abstract

  2. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hereman, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  3. KP solitons in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuji Kodama

    2010-04-26

    The main purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of our recent studies on soliton solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation. The classification is based on the far-field patterns of the solutions which consist of a finite number of line-solitons. Each soliton solution is then defined by a point of the totally non-negative Grassmann variety which can be parametrized by a unique derangement of the symmetric group of permutations. Our study also includes certain numerical stability problems of those soliton solutions. Numerical simulations of the initial value problems indicate that certain class of initial waves asymptotically approach to these exact solutions of the KP equation. We then discuss an application of our theory to the Mach reflection problem in shallow water. This problem describes the resonant interaction of solitary waves appearing in the reflection of an obliquely incident wave onto a vertical wall, and it predicts an extra-ordinary four-fold amplification of the wave at the wall. There are several numerical studies confirming the prediction, but all indicate disagreements with the KP theory. Contrary to those previous numerical studies, we find that the KP theory actually provides an excellent model to describe the Mach reflection phenomena when the higher order corrections are included to the quasi-two dimensional approximation. We also present laboratory experiments of the Mach reflection recently carried out by Yeh and his colleagues, and show how precisely the KP theory predicts this wave behavior.

  4. SHALLOW WATER WAVES OVER POLYGONAL BOTTOMS MATHIEU CATHALA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1. Water waves over polygonal topographies 1 1.2. Formulation of the waterSHALLOW WATER WAVES OVER POLYGONAL BOTTOMS MATHIEU CATHALA The traditional shallow water model into a flat bottom domain. We derive a new shallow water model which accounts for polygonal topographies

  5. KP solitons and Mach reflection in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuji Kodama

    2012-10-01

    This gives a survey of our recent studies on soliton solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with an emphasis on the Mach reflection problem in shallow water.

  6. Symmetries and exact solutions of the rotating shallow water equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Chesnokov

    2008-08-11

    Lie symmetry analysis is applied to study the nonlinear rotating shallow water equations. The 9-dimensional Lie algebra of point symmetries admitted by the model is found. It is shown that the rotating shallow water equations are related with the classical shallow water model with the change of variables. The derived symmetries are used to generate new exact solutions of the rotating shallow equations. In particular, a new class of time-periodic solutions with quasi-closed particle trajectories is constructed and studied. The symmetry reduction method is also used to obtain some invariant solutions of the model. Examples of these solutions are presented with a brief physical interpretation.

  7. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves Willy Hereman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hereman, Willy A.M.

    . Water Wave Experiments and Observations VII. Future Directions VIII. Bibliography Glossary Deep water A surface wave is said to be in deep water if its wavelength is much shorter than the local water depthShallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves Willy Hereman Department of Mathematical and Computer

  8. Modelling of unidirectional thermal diffusers in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joseph Hun-Wei

    1977-01-01

    This study is an experimental and theoretical investigation of the temperature field and velocity field induced by a unidirectional thermal diffuser in shallow water. A multiport thermal diffuser is essentially a pipe laid ...

  9. Shallow Water Simulation of Overland Flows in Idealised Catchments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Dongfang; Özgen, Ilhan; Hinkelmann, Reinhard; Xiao, Yang; Chen, Jack M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the rainfall and runoff in idealised catchments, either with or without obstacle arrays, using an extensively-validated fullydynamic shallow water model. This two-dimensional hydrodynamic model allows...

  10. Particle trajectories in linearized irrotational shallow water flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delia Ionescu-Kruse

    2011-06-20

    We investigate the particle trajectories in an irrotational shallow water flow over a flat bed as periodic waves propagate on the water's free surface. Within the linear water wave theory, we show that there are no closed orbits for the water particles beneath the irrotational shallow water waves. Depending on the strength of underlying uniform current, we obtain that some particle trajectories are undulating path to the right or to the left, some are looping curves with a drift to the right and others are parabolic curves or curves which have only one loop.

  11. Moving-Water Equilibria Preserving Central-Upwind Schemes for the Shallow Water Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurganov, Alexander

    Moving-Water Equilibria Preserving Central-Upwind Schemes for the Shallow Water Equations Yuanzhen Cheng and Alexander Kurganov Abstract We construct a new second-order moving-water equilibria preserving central-upwind scheme for the one-dimensional Saint-Venant system of shallow water equations. Special

  12. Coupling conditions for the shallow water equations on a network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caputo, Jean-Guy; Gleyse, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    We study numerically and analytically how nonlinear shallow water waves propagate in a fork. Using a homothetic reduction procedure, conservation laws and numerical analysis in a 2D domain, we obtain angle dependent coupling conditions for the water height and the velocity. We compare these to the ones for a class of scalar nonlinear wave equations for which the angle plays no role.

  13. Invariant discretization schemes for the shallow-water equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bihlo; Roman O. Popovych

    2013-01-03

    Invariant discretization schemes are derived for the one- and two-dimensional shallow-water equations with periodic boundary conditions. While originally designed for constructing invariant finite difference schemes, we extend the usage of difference invariants to allow constructing of invariant finite volume methods as well. It is found that the classical invariant schemes converge to the Lagrangian formulation of the shallow-water equations. These schemes require to redistribute the grid points according to the physical fluid velocity, i.e., the mesh cannot remain fixed in the course of the numerical integration. Invariant Eulerian discretization schemes are proposed for the shallow-water equations in computational coordinates. Instead of using the fluid velocity as the grid velocity, an invariant moving mesh generator is invoked in order to determine the location of the grid points at the subsequent time level. The numerical conservation of energy, mass and momentum is evaluated for both the invariant and non-invariant schemes.

  14. Conditionally invariant solutions of the rotating shallow water wave equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoit Huard

    2010-05-11

    This paper is devoted to the extension of the recently proposed conditional symmetry method to first order nonhomogeneous quasilinear systems which are equivalent to homogeneous systems through a locally invertible point transformation. We perform a systematic analysis of the rank-1 and rank-2 solutions admitted by the shallow water wave equations in (2 + 1) dimensions and construct the corresponding solutions of the rotating shallow water wave equations. These solutions involve in general arbitrary functions depending on Riemann invariants, which allow us to construct new interesting classes of solutions.

  15. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warneford, Emma S. Dellar, Paul J.

    2014-01-15

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune explains the transition from a prograde to a retrograde equatorial jet, while the broader jets are due to the deformation radius being a larger fraction of the planetary radius.

  16. GRAVITY DRIVEN SHALLOW WATER MODELS FOR ARBITRARY TOPOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blömker, Dirk

    GRAVITY DRIVEN SHALLOW WATER MODELS FOR ARBITRARY TOPOGRAPHY FRANC¸OIS BOUCHUT AND MICHAEL over a general topography. A first model is valid for small slope variation, i.e. small curvature, and a second model is valid for arbitrary topography. In both cases no particular assumption is made

  17. Miocene shallow-water carbonates on the Eratosthenes Seamount, easternmost Mediterranean Sea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Alastair H F

    1998-01-01

    Miocene shallow-water limestones of the Eratosthenes Seamount add considerably to the picture of widespread and heterogeneous Mediterranean Miocene reef development. Shallow-water limestones were cored at two sites on the ...

  18. Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Department of Sciences, Division of Mathematics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

    1 Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Equations A.I. Delis solution of shallow water flows and the transport and diffusion of pollutant in such flows. By first can be considered as an alternative to classical finite difference methods. Keywords--Shallow water

  19. Boundary conditions control for a Shallow-Water model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazantsev, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A variational data assimilation technique was used to estimate optimal discretization of interpolation operators and derivatives in the nodes adjacent to the rigid boundary. Assimilation of artificially generated observational data in the shallow-water model in a square box and assimilation of real observations in the model of the Black sea are discussed. It is shown in both experiments that controlling the discretization of operators near a rigid boundary can bring the model solution closer to observations as in the assimilation window and beyond the window. This type of control allows also to improve climatic variability of the model.

  20. New Exact Solutions of a Generalized Shallow Water Wave Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bijan Bagchi; Supratim Das; Asish Ganguly

    2010-07-01

    In this work an extended elliptic function method is proposed and applied to the generalized shallow water wave equation. We systematically investigate to classify new exact travelling wave solutions expressible in terms of quasi-periodic elliptic integral function and doubly-periodic Jacobian elliptic functions. The derived new solutions include rational, periodic, singular and solitary wave solutions. An interesting comparison with the canonical procedure is provided. In some cases the obtained elliptic solution has singularity at certain region in the whole space. For such solutions we have computed the effective region where the obtained solution is free from such a singularity.

  1. Pattern of shallow ground water flow at Mount Princeton Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pattern of shallow ground water flow at Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Colorado, using geoelectrical methods Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  2. Soliton Turbulence in Shallow Water Ocean Surface Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costa, Andrea; Resio, Donald T; Alessio, Silvia; Chrivì, Elisabetta; Saggese, Enrica; Bellomo, Katinka; Long, Chuck E

    2014-01-01

    We analyze shallow water wind waves in Currituck Sound, North Carolina and experimentally confirm, for the first time, the presence of $soliton$ $turbulence$ in ocean waves. Soliton turbulence is an exotic form of nonlinear wave motion where low frequency energy may also be viewed as a $dense$ $soliton$ $gas$, described theoretically by the soliton limit of the Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation, a $completely$ $integrable$ $soliton$ $system$: Hence the phrase "soliton turbulence" is synonymous with "integrable soliton turbulence." For periodic/quasiperiodic boundary conditions the $ergodic$ $solutions$ of KdV are exactly solvable by $finite$ $gap$ $theory$ (FGT), the basis of our data analysis. We find that large amplitude measured wave trains near the energetic peak of a storm have low frequency power spectra that behave as $\\sim\\omega^{-1}$. We use the linear Fourier transform to estimate this power law from the power spectrum and to filter $densely$ $packed$ $soliton$ $wave$ $trains$ from the data. We apply ...

  3. Some approximate Godunov schemes to compute shallow-water equations with topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallouët, Thierry

    Some approximate Godunov schemes to compute shallow-water equations with topography Thierry the computation of shallow-water equations with topography by Finite Volume methods, in a one are based on a discretisation of the topography by a piecewise function constant on each cell of the mesh

  4. Risk assessment and evaluation of the conductor setting depth in shallow water, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Yong B.

    2006-08-16

    Factors related to operations of a well that impact drilling uncertainties in the shallow water region of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) can be directly linked to the site specific issues; such as water depth and local geological ...

  5. Global shallow water magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar tachocline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. V. Zaqarashvili; R. Oliver; J. L. Ballester

    2008-12-05

    We derive analytical solutions and dispersion relations of global magnetic Poincar\\'e (magneto-gravity) and magnetic Rossby waves in the approximation of shallow water magnetohydrodynamics. The solutions are obtained in a rotating spherical coordinate system for strongly and weakly stable stratification separately in the presence of toroidal magnetic field. In both cases magnetic Rossby waves split into fast and slow magnetic Rossby modes. In the case of strongly stable stratification (valid in the radiative part of the tachocline) all waves are slightly affected by the layer thickness and the toroidal magnetic field, while in the case of weakly stable stratification (valid in the upper overshoot layer of the tachocline) magnetic Poincar\\'e and fast magnetic Rossby waves are found to be concentrated near the solar equator, leading to equatorially trapped waves. However, slow magnetic Rossby waves tend to concentrate near the poles, leading to polar trapped waves. The frequencies of all waves are smaller in the upper weakly stable stratification region than in the lower strongly stable stratification one.

  6. Analytical expressions for transient specific yield and shallow water table drainage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nachabe, Mahmood H.

    between water table fluctuations and released volumes holds for a deep water table aquiferAnalytical expressions for transient specific yield and shallow water table drainage Mahmood H and depth to water table. The expressions allow the user to convert observations of water table fluctuations

  7. Ensemble Kalman filter based state estimation in 2D shallow water equations using Lagrangian sensing and state augmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ensemble Kalman filter based state estimation in 2D shallow water equations using Lagrangian method for two- dimensional shallow water equations in rivers using Lagrangian drifter positions of the state of the river. This information is incorporated into shallow water equations by using Ensemble

  8. Interaction between shallow groundwater, saline surface water and contaminant discharge at a seasonally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Interaction between shallow groundwater, saline surface water and contaminant discharge the behaviour of the hydrocarbon plume at the groundwater/surface water transition zone to be strongly B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Ground water; Surface water; Hydrocarbons; Discharge; Tides

  9. Geoacoustic inversion in laterally varying shallow-water experiments using high-resolution wavenumber estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Kyle M

    2002-01-01

    Sound propagation in shallow water is highly dependent on the interaction of the sound field with the bottom. In order to fully understand this problem, it is necessary to obtain reliable estimates of bottom geoacoustic ...

  10. Three-dimensional acoustic propagation through shallow water internal, surface gravity and bottom sediment waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shmelev, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the physics of fully three-dimensional low frequency acoustic interaction with internal waves, bottom sediment waves and surface swell waves that are often observed in shallow waters and on continental ...

  11. On the inconsistency of the Camassa-Holm model with the shallow water theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rikesh Bhatt; Alexander V Mikhailov

    2010-10-10

    In our paper we show that the Camassa-Holm equation does not represent a long wave asymptotic due to a major inconsistency with the theory of shallow water waves. We state that any solution of the Camassa-Holm equation, which is not asymptotically close to a solution of the Korteweg--de Vries equation is an artefact of the model and irrelevant to the theory of shallow water waves.

  12. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Shallow-water sloshing in vessels undergoing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridges, Tom

    Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Shallow-water sloshing in vessels-water equations, for sloshing in three dimensions (two horizontal and one vertical) in a vessel which is undergoing rigid-body motion in 3-space, are derived. The rigid-body motion of the vessel (roll-pitch-yaw and

  13. ENERGY-PRESERVING AND STABLE APPROXIMATIONS FOR THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENERGY-PRESERVING AND STABLE APPROXIMATIONS FOR THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS EITAN water equations 13 5.1. Energy stable schemes 13 5.2. Energy preserving schemes 17 6. Numerical TADMOR AND WEIGANG ZHONG Abstract. We present a systematic development of energy-stable approximations

  14. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2009-05-15

    , increased wind speed should enhance air to water transfer of elemental mercury, thus one would expect a negative correlation. DGM co-varied negatively with salinity during the continuous studies, suggesting that the DGM pool is reduced in surface waters...

  15. Local well-posedness of the two-layer shallow water model with free surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronan Monjarret

    2014-02-13

    In this paper, we adress the question of the hyperbolicity and the local well-posedness of the two-layer shallow water model, with free surface, in two dimensions. We first provide a general criterion that proves the symmetrizability of this model, which implies hyperbolicity and local well-posedness in $\\mathcal{H}^s(\\mathbb{R}^2)$, with s>2. Then, we analyze rigorously the eigenstructure associated to this model and prove a more general criterion of hyperbolicity and local well-posedness, under weak density-stratification assumption. Finally, we consider a new conservative two-layer shallow water model, prove the hyperbolicity and the local well-posedness and rely it to the basic two-layer shallow water model.

  16. Equilibrium statistical mechanics and energy partition for the shallow water model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renaud, Antoine; Bouchet, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to use large deviation theory in order to compute the entropy of macrostates for the microcanonical measure of the shallow water system. The main prediction of this full statistical mechanics computation is the energy partition between a large scale vortical flow and small scale fluctuations related to inertia-gravity waves. We introduce for that purpose a discretized model of the continuous shallow water system, and compute the corresponding statistical equilibria. We argue that microcanonical equilibrium states of the discretized model in the continuous limit are equilibrium states of the actual shallow water system. We show that the presence of small scale fluctuations selects a subclass of equilibria among the states that were previously computed by phenomenological approaches that were neglecting such fluctuations. In the limit of weak height fluctuations, the equilibrium state can be interpreted as two subsystems in thermal contact: one subsystem corresponds to the large scale v...

  17. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed, these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the western-most pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground-water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Channel equalization based on data reuse LMS algorithm for shallow water acoustic communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kastner, Ryan

    Channel equalization based on data reuse LMS algorithm for shallow water acoustic communication in the design of underwater modems. This paper presents a data reuse least mean square (DR-LMS) algorithm of the proposed method compared to classic LMS (Least mean square) and RLS (Recursive least square) algorithms

  19. J. Fluid Mech. (in press) 1 Shallow-water sloshing in vessels undergoing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridges, Tom

    J. Fluid Mech. (in press) 1 Shallow-water sloshing in vessels undergoing prescribed rigid vertical) in a vessel which is undergoing rigid-body motion in 3-space, are derived. The rigid-body motion of the vessel (roll- pitch-yaw and/or surge-sway-heave) is modelled exactly and the only approximations

  20. JUSTIFICATION OF THE SHALLOW WATER LIMIT FOR A RIGID LID FLOW WITH BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Marcel

    JUSTIFICATION OF THE SHALLOW WATER LIMIT FOR A RIGID LID FLOW WITH BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY MARCEL OLIVER with bottom topography. We prove an a priori estimate in the Sobolev space H m for m #21; 3 which shows and the magnitude of the initial data in H m , the gradient of the bottom topography in H m+1 , and the aspect ratio

  1. Central-Upwind Scheme for Shallow Water Equations with Discontinuous Bottom Topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertock, Alina

    Central-Upwind Scheme for Shallow Water Equations with Discontinuous Bottom Topography Andrew are achieved, in particular, by using continuous piecewise linear interpolation of the bottom topography function. However, when the bottom function is discontinuous or a model with a moving bottom topography

  2. A new two-component system modelling shallow-water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delia Ionescu-Kruse

    2013-05-22

    For propagation of surface shallow-water waves on irrotational flows, we derive a new two-component system. The system is obtained by a variational approach in the Lagrangian formalism. The system has a non-canonical Hamiltonian formulation. We also find its exact solitary-wave solutions.

  3. A connection between the shallow-water equations and the Euler-Poincaré equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Camassa; Long Lee

    2014-04-18

    The Euler-Poincar\\'e differential (EPDiff) equations and the shallow water (SW) equations share similar wave characteristics. Using the Hamiltonian structure of the SW equations with flat bottom topography, we establish a connection between the EPDiff equations and the SW equations in one and multi-dimensions. Additionally, we show that the EPDiff equations can be recast in a curl formulation.

  4. TSUNAMI SIMULATION IN INDONESIA'S AREAS BASED ON SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    TSUNAMI SIMULATION IN INDONESIA'S AREAS BASED ON SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS AND VARIATIONAL BOUSSINESQ Studi Matematika INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG 2008 #12;ABSTRACT TSUNAMI SIMULATION IN INDONESIA'S AREAS of the bathymetry of Indonesia which is incorporated into our FEM schemes. The tsunami simulation in the two areas

  5. Exact solution describing a shallow water flow in an extending stripe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey V. Golovin

    2008-02-28

    Partially invariant solution to (2+1)D shallow water equation is constructed and investigated. The solution describes an extension of a stripe, bounded by linear source and drain of fluid. Realizations of smooth flow and of hydraulic jump are possible. Particle trajectories and sonic characteristics on the obtained solution are calculated.

  6. Washington State Exotics Expedition 2000: A Rapid Survey of Exotic Species in the Shallow Waters of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Claudia E.

    Washington State Exotics Expedition 2000: A Rapid Survey of Exotic Species in the Shallow Waters T. Sewell, Kathy Welch For: The Nearshore Habitat Program Washington State Department of Natural Resources 1111 Washington Street SE, PO Box 47027, Olympia, WA 98504-7027 (360) 902-1100 October 2001 #12

  7. A note on the carbuncle in shallow water simulations Friedemann Kemm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathematics and Scientific Computing, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus, Platz der Deutschen in shallow water simulations and give numerical evidence that all cures developed for gas dynamics should is known to be most prone to that numerical artifact and the Osher solver to be least prone to it. Solvers

  8. Quadratic Programming based data assimilation with passive drifting sensors for shallow water flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , transportation, hydroelectric power, and waste disposal; the growing world population, and societal shifts variational methods [14], Kalman filtering and its extensions [6], optimal statistical interpolation [13: · A linearization of the Shallow Water Equations (SWE) that can be used for formulating the optimization prob- lem

  9. A MULTILEVEL METHOD FOR FINITE VOLUME DISCRETIZATION OF THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR SHALLOW-WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temam, Roger

    shallow-water equations. The multilevel method is based on a central-upwind finite volume scheme and uses new incremental unknowns which enable to preserve the numerical conservation of the scheme. The method originally developed for the study of turbulent flows ([8], [9], [10], [19], [20]) but can be of interest

  10. Emergence of Jets from Turbulence in the Shallow-Water Equations on an Equatorial Beta Plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Brian F.

    Emergence of Jets from Turbulence in the Shallow-Water Equations on an Equatorial Beta Plane BRIAN (Manuscript received 2 September 2008, in final form 24 April 2009) ABSTRACT Coherent jets, such as the Jovian the essential mechanism of jet formation, which is systematic eddy mo- mentum flux directed up the mean velocity

  11. Algorithmically scalable block preconditioner for fully implicit shallow water equations in CAM-SE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lott, P Aaron [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Woodward, Carol [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Evans, Katherine J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Performing accurate and efficient numerical simulation of global atmospheric climate models is challenging due to the disparate length and time scales over which physical processes interact. Implicit solvers enable the physical system to be integrated with a time step commensurate with processes being studied. The dominant cost of an implicit time step is the ancillary linear system solves, so we have developed a preconditioner aimed at improving the efficiency of these linear system solves. Our preconditioner is based on an approximate block factorization of the linearized shallow-water equations and has been implemented within the spectral element dynamical core within the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-SE). In this paper we discuss the development and scalability of the preconditioner for a suite of test cases with the implicit shallow-water solver within CAM-SE.

  12. Variational derivation of two-component Camassa-Holm shallow water system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delia Ionescu-Kruse

    2012-02-22

    By a variational approach in the Lagrangian formalism, we derive the nonlinear integrable two-component Camassa-Holm system (1). We show that the two-component Camassa-Holm system (1) with the plus sign arises as an approximation to the Euler equations of hydrodynamics for propagation of irrotational shallow water waves over a flat bed. The Lagrangian used in the variational derivation is not a metric.

  13. Particle trajectories beneath small amplitude shallow water waves in constant vorticity flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delia Ionescu-Kruse

    2011-06-20

    We investigate the particle trajectories in a constant vorticity shallow water flow over a flat bed as periodic waves propagate on the water's free surface. Within the framework of small amplitude waves, we find the solutions of the nonlinear differential equations system which describes the particle motion in the considered case, and we describe the possible particle trajectories. Depending on the relation between the initial data and the constant vorticity, some particle trajectories are undulating curves to the right, or to the left, others are loops with forward drift, or with backward drift, others can follow some peculiar shapes.

  14. Removal of water from a shallow bath under laser pulse irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonova, L I; Gladush, G G; Glova, A F; Drobyazko, S V; Krasyukov, A G; Mainashev, V S; Rerikh, V L; Taran, M D [State Research Center of Russian Federation 'Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research', Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-31

    An experimental investigation was made of water removal from a shallow bath under the action of a CO{sub 2}-laser radiation pulse focused to a spot of size substantially smaller than the bath length. We showed that the specific expenditure of energy is determined by the intensity of laser radiation at the water surface for different values of the focal spot area and pulse duration. The removal dynamics was studied by single-frame photography technique. It was determined that the water is removed layerwise only from the walls of the cavern, which expands in the horizontal direction upon cessation of the radiation pulse. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were made of the water removal, and a mechanism was proposed to explain the experimentally observed removal pattern. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  15. Importance of wind conditions, fetch, and water levels on wave-generated shear stresses in shallow intertidal basins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Importance of wind conditions, fetch, and water levels on wave-generated shear stresses in shallow, and wind direction on water depth, fetch, and the resulting wave-generated shear stresses. We identify four. Wiberg (2009), Importance of wind conditions, fetch, and water levels on wave-generated shear stresses

  16. Well-Balanced Positivity Preserving Central-Upwind Scheme for the Shallow Water System with Friction Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertock, Alina

    . Hydrol., 382 (2010), pp. 88­102], designed to mimic the rain water drainage in urban areas containing houses. Since the rain water depth is typically several orders of magnitude smaller than the heightWell-Balanced Positivity Preserving Central-Upwind Scheme for the Shallow Water System

  17. Symmetry analysis of a system of modified shallow-water equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Szatmari; Alexander Bihlo

    2012-12-23

    We revise the symmetry analysis of a modified system of one-dimensional shallow-water equations (MSWE) recently considered by Raja Sekhar and Sharma [Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simulat. 20 (2012) 630-636]. Only a finite dimensional subalgebra of the maximal Lie invariance algebra of the MSWE, which in fact is infinite dimensional, was found in the aforementioned paper. The MSWE can be linearized using a hodograph transformation. An optimal list of inequivalent one-dimensional subalgebras of the maximal Lie invariance algebra is constructed and used for Lie reductions. Non-Lie solutions are found from solutions of the linearized MSWE.

  18. Symmetry analysis of a system of modified shallow-water equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szatmari, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We revise the symmetry analysis of a modified system of one-dimensional shallow-water equations (MSWE) recently considered by Raja Sekhar and Sharma [Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simulat. 20 (2012) 630-636]. Only a finite dimensional subalgebra of the maximal Lie invariance algebra of the MSWE, which in fact is infinite dimensional, was found in the aforementioned paper. The MSWE can be linearized using a hodograph transformation. An optimal list of inequivalent one-dimensional subalgebras of the maximal Lie invariance algebra is constructed and used for Lie reductions. Non-Lie solutions are found from solutions of the linearized MSWE.

  19. On the Classical Solutions of Two Dimensional Inviscid Rotating Shallow Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bin Cheng; Chunjing Xie

    2009-07-01

    We prove global existence and asymptotic behavior of classical solutions for two dimensional inviscid Rotating Shallow Water system with small initial data subject to the zero-relative-vorticity constraint. One of the key steps is a reformulation of the problem into a symmetric quasilinear Klein-Gordon system, for which the global existence of classical solutions is then proved with combination of the vector field approach and the normal forms. We also probe the case of general initial data and reveal a lower bound for the lifespan that is almost inversely proportional to the size of the initial relative vorticity.

  20. To Split or Not to Split, That Is the Question in Some Shallow Water Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martínez, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the use of time splitting techniques for solving shallow water equation. We discuss some properties that these schemes should satisfy so that interactions between the source term and the shock waves are controlled. This paper shows that these schemes must be well balanced in the meaning expressed by Greenberg and Leroux [5]. More speci?cally, we analyze in what cases it is enough to verify an Approximate C-property and in which cases it is required to verify an Exact C-property (see [1], [2]). We also include some numerical tests in order to justify our reasoning.

  1. Optical tsunamis: shoaling of shallow water rogue waves in nonlinear fibers with normal dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wabnitz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In analogy with ocean waves running up towards the beach, shoaling of prechirped optical pulses may occur in the normal group-velocity dispersion regime of optical fibers. We present exact Riemann wave solutions of the optical shallow water equations and show that they agree remarkably well with the numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, at least up to the point where a vertical pulse front develops. We also reveal that extreme wave events or optical tsunamis may be generated in dispersion tapered fibers in the presence of higher-order dispersion.

  2. POD/DEIM Nonlinear model order reduction of an ADI implicit shallow water equations model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanescu, Razvan

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper we consider a 2-D shallow-water equations (SWE) model on a $\\beta$-plane solved using an alternating direction fully implicit (ADI) finite-difference scheme on a rectangular domain. The scheme was shown to be unconditionally stable for the linearized equations. The discretization yields a number of nonlinear systems of algebraic equations. We then use a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to reduce the dimension of the SWE model. Due to the model nonlinearities, the computational complexity of the reduced model still depends on the number of variables of the full shallow - water equations model. By employing the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) we reduce the computational complexity of the reduced order model due to its depending on the nonlinear full dimension model and regain the full model reduction expected from the POD model. To emphasize the CPU gain in performance due to use of POD/DEIM, we also propose testing an explicit Euler finite difference scheme (EE) as an a...

  3. Shallow water areas (defined as areas with less than 6 feet of water) are important components of the shoreline ecosystem providing food

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dredge to create deep water access to large creeks and rivers. After the initial impacts from-boatable areas. In this way activities in a confined area (e.g. shallow water) can affect both birds and deep of deep water shoreline. As populations on the coastal plain of Virginia grow, more and more development

  4. Probing the thermal character of analogue Hawking radiation for shallow water waves?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florent Michel; Renaud Parentani

    2014-09-15

    We study and numerically compute the scattering coefficients of shallow water waves blocked by a stationary counterflow. When the flow is transcritical, the coefficients closely follow Hawking's prediction according to which black holes should emit a thermal spectrum. We study how the spectrum deviates from thermality when reducing the maximal flow velocity, with a particular attention to subcritical flows since these have been recently used to test Hawking's prediction. For such flows, we show that the emission spectrum is strongly suppressed, and that its Planckian character is completely lost. For low frequencies, we also show that the scattering coefficients are dominated by elastic hydrodynamical channels. Our numerical results reproduce rather well the observations made by S. Weinfurtner {\\it et al.} in the Vancouver experiment. Nevertheless, we propose a new interpretation of what has been observed, as well as new experimental tests.

  5. Parametric Instabilities in Shallow Water Magnetohydrodynamics Of Astrophysical Plasma in External Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klimachkov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    This letter discusses rotating magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of a thin layer of astrophysical plasma. To describe a thin plasma layer with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field we use the shallow water ap- proximation. The presence of a vertical magnetic field essentially changed the wave processes dynamics in astrophysical plasma compared to the neu- tral uid and plasma layer in a thoroidal magnetic field. In present case thre are three-waves nonlinear interactions. Using the asymptotic mul- tiscale we deduced nonlinear wave packets interaction equations: three magneto-Poincare waves interaction, three magnetostrophic waves inter- action, the interaction of two magneto-Poincare and one magnetostrophic wave and two magnetostrophic and one magneto-Poincare wave interac- tion. The existence of decay instabilities and parametric amplifications is predicted. We found following four types of decay instabilities: magneto- Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, magnetostrophic wave decays ...

  6. Hodograph Method and Numerical Integration of Two Hyperbolic Quasilinear Equations. Part I. The Shallow Water Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. V. Shiryaeva; M. Yu. Zhukov

    2014-10-10

    In paper [S.I. Senashov, A. Yakhno. 2012. SIGMA. Vol.8. 071] the variant of the hodograph method based on the conservation laws for two hyperbolic quasilinear equations of the first order is described. Using these results we propose a method which allows to reduce the Cauchy problem for the two quasilinear PDE's to the Cauchy problem for ODE's. The proposed method is actually some similar method of characteristics for a system of two hyperbolic quasilinear equations. The method can be used effectively in all cases, when the linear hyperbolic equation in partial derivatives of the second order with variable coefficients, resulting from the application of the hodograph method, has an explicit expression for the Riemann-Green function. One of the method's features is the possibility to construct a multi-valued solutions. In this paper we present examples of method application for solving the classical shallow water equations.

  7. Accelerating Time Integration for the Shallow Water Equations on the Sphere Using GPUs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Archibald, R.; Evans, K. J.; Salinger, A.

    2015-06-01

    The push towards larger and larger computational platforms has made it possible for climate simulations to resolve climate dynamics across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This direction in climate simulation has created a strong need to develop scalable time-stepping methods capable of accelerating throughput on high performance computing. This work details the recent advances in the implementation of implicit time stepping on a spectral element cube-sphere grid using graphical processing units (GPU) based machines. We demonstrate how solvers in the Trilinos project are interfaced with ACME and GPU kernels can significantly increase computational speed of the residual calculations in themore »implicit time stepping method for the shallow water equations on the sphere. We show the optimization gains and data structure reorganization that facilitates the performance improvements.« less

  8. A shallow-water theory for annular sections of Keplerian Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. M. Umurhan

    2008-09-22

    A scaling argument is presented that leads to a shallow water theory of non-axisymmetric disturbances in annular sections of thin Keplerian disks. To develop a theoretical construction that will aid in physically understanding the relationship of known two-dimensional vortex dynamics to their three-dimensional counterparts in Keplerian disks. Using asymptotic scaling arguments varicose disturbances of a Keplerian disk are considered on radial and vertical scales consistent with the height of the disk while the azimuthal scales are the full $2\\pi$ angular extent of the disk. The scalings lead to dynamics which are radially geostrophic and vertically hydrostatic. It follows that a potential vorticity quantity emerges and is shown to be conserved in a Lagrangian sense. Uniform potential vorticity linear solutions are explored and the theory is shown to contain an incarnation of the strato-rotational instability under channel flow conditions. Linearized solutions of a single defect on an infinite domain is developed and is shown to support a propagating Rossby edgewave. Linear non-uniform potential vorticity solutions are also developed and are shown to be similar in some respects to the dynamics of strictly two-dimensional inviscid flows. Based on the framework of this theory, arguments based on geophysical notions are presented to support the assertion that the strato-rotational instability is in a generic class of barotropic/baroclinic potential vorticity instabilities. Extensions of this formalism are also proposed. The shallow water formulation achieved by the asymptotic theory developed here opens a new approach to studying disk dynamics.

  9. Ordering of two small parameters in the shallow water wave problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgy I. Burde; Artur Sergyeyev

    2013-01-28

    The classical problem of irrotational long waves on the surface of a shallow layer of an ideal fluid moving under the influence of gravity as well as surface tension is considered. A systematic procedure for deriving an equation for surface elevation for a prescribed relation between the orders of the two expansion parameters, the amplitude parameter $\\alpha$ and the long wavelength (or shallowness) parameter $\\beta$, is developed. Unlike the heuristic approaches found in the literature, when modifications are made in the equation for surface elevation itself, the procedure starts from the consistently truncated asymptotic expansions for unidirectional waves, a counterpart of the Boussinesq system of equations for the surface elevation and the bottom velocity, from which the leading order and higher order equations for the surface elevation can be obtained by iterations. The relations between the orders of the two small parameters are taken in the form $\\beta=O(\\alpha^n)$ and $\\alpha=O(\\beta^m)$ with $n$ and $m$ specified to some important particular cases. The analysis shows, in particular, that some evolution equations, proposed before as model equations in other physical contexts (like the Gardner equation, the modified KdV equation, and the so-called 5th-order KdV equation), can emerge as the leading order equations in the asymptotic expansion for the unidirectional water waves, on equal footing with the KdV equation. The results related to the higher orders of approximation provide a set of consistent higher order model equations for unidirectional water waves which replace the KdV equation with higher-order corrections in the case of non-standard ordering when the parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ are not of the same order of magnitude. (See the paper for the complete abstract.)

  10. Methods for Quantifying Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2012-04-09

    As part of regulatory requirements for shallow-water habitat (SWH) restoration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completes periodic estimates of the quantity of SWH available throughout the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. To date, these estimates have been made by various methods that consider only the water depth criterion for SWH. The USACE has completed estimates of SWH availability based on both depth and velocity criteria at four river bends (hereafter called reference bends), encompassing approximately 8 river miles within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. These estimates were made from the results of hydraulic modeling of water depth and velocity throughout each bend. Hydraulic modeling of additional river bends is not expected to be completed for deriving estimates of available SWH. Instead, future estimates of SWH will be based on the water depth criterion. The objective of this project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the USACE Omaha District, was to develop geographic information system methods for estimating the quantity of available SWH based on water depth only. Knowing that only a limited amount of water depth and channel geometry data would be available for all the remaining bends within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River, the intent was to determine what information, if any, from the four reference bends could be used to develop methods for estimating SWH at the remaining bends. Specifically, we examined the relationship between cross-section channel morphology and relative differences between SWH estimates based on combined depth and velocity criteria and the depth-only criterion to determine if a correction factor could be applied to estimates of SWH based on the depth-only criterion. In developing these methods, we also explored the applicability of two commonly used geographic information system interpolation methods (TIN and ANUDEM) for estimating SWH using four different elevation data scenarios. Relative differences in SWH estimates among the four data scenarios were compared to illustrate estimation ranges.

  11. A Discontinuous Galerkin Global Shallow Water Model RAMACHANDRAN D. NAIR, STEPHEN J. THOMAS, AND RICHARD D. LOFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Ramachandran D.

    , AND RICHARD D. LOFT Scientific Computing Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, without any filter or limiter. Numerical results are reported for the standard shallow water test suite conserves mass to machine precision. Although the scheme does not formally conserve global invariants

  12. A PV Dynamics for Rotating Shallow Water on the Sphere search for a balance dynamics on the full sphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muraki, David J.

    A PV Dynamics for Rotating Shallow Water on the Sphere search for a balance dynamics on the full vorticity (PV) geometric obstacle: local Rossby number singular at Equator, 1 #12;rSW on the Full Sphere r2 gH0 !-1/2 1 Balanced Dynamics PV Inversion on a Hemisphere, McIntyre/Norton 1999 landmark for PV

  13. Application of 2D-Nonlinear Shallow Water Model of Tsunami by using Adomian Decomposition Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waewcharoen, Sribudh; Boonyapibanwong, Supachai; Koonprasert, Sanoe [Department of Mathematics, King Mongkut's University of Technology, North Bangkok (Thailand)

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important questions in tsunami modeling is the estimation of tsunami run-up heights at different points along a coastline. Methods for numerical simulation of tsunami wave propagation in deep and shallow seas are well developed and have been widely used by many scientists (2001-2008). In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water model of tsunami given by Tivon Jacobson is work [1]. u{sub t}+uu{sub x}+{nu}u{sub y} -c{sup 2}(h{sub x}+(h{sub b}){sub x}) {nu}{sub t}+u{nu}{sub x}+{nu}{nu}{sub y} = -c{sup 2}(h{sub y}+(h{sub b}){sub y}) h{sub t}+(hu){sub x}+(h{nu}){sub y} = 0 g-shore, h is surface elevation and s, t is time, u is velocity of cross-shore, {nu} is velocity of along-shore, h is surface elevation and h{sub b} is function of shore. This is a nondimensionalized model with the gravity g and constant reference depth H factored into c = {radical}(gH). We apply the Adomian Decompostion Method (ADM) to solve the tsunami model. This powerful method has been used to obtain explicit and numerical solutions of three types of diffusion-convection-reaction (DECR) equations. The ADM results for the tsunami model yield analytical solutions in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series. Symbolic computation, numerical results and graphs of solutions are obtained by Maple program.

  14. Comment on ``A modified leapfrog scheme for shallow water equations'' by Wen-Yih Sun and Oliver M.T. Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Paul

    Commentary Comment on ``A modified leapfrog scheme for shallow water equations'' by Wen-Yih Sun and Oliver M.T. Sun Paul D. Williams Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK a r t i c l e i n f integration of the shallow-water equa- tions using the leapfrog time-stepping scheme [Sun Wen-Yih, Sun Oliver

  15. Early Cretaceous benthic associations (foraminifera and calcareous algae) of a shallow tropical-water platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husinec, Antun

    Early Cretaceous benthic associations (foraminifera and calcareous algae) of a shallow tropical of benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae in order to establish a precise, combined benthic biozonation species of calcareous algae, distributed among 11 genera, were recovered from the Lower Cretaceous shallow

  16. Using Snow Fences to Augument Fresh Water Supplies in Shallow Arctic Lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuefer, Svetlana

    2013-03-31

    This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to address environmental research questions specifically related to Alaska?s oil and gas natural resources development. The focus of this project was on the environmental issues associated with allocation of water resources for construction of ice roads and ice pads. Earlier NETL projects showed that oil and gas exploration activities in the U.S. Arctic require large amounts of water for ice road and ice pad construction. Traditionally, lakes have been the source of freshwater for this purpose. The distinctive hydrological regime of northern lakes, caused by the presence of ice cover and permafrost, exerts influence on lake water availability in winter. Lakes are covered with ice from October to June, and there is often no water recharge of lakes until snowmelt in early June. After snowmelt, water volumes in the lakes decrease throughout the summer, when water loss due to evaporation is considerably greater than water gained from rainfall. This balance switches in August, when air temperature drops, evaporation decreases, and rain (or snow) is more likely to occur. Some of the summer surface storage deficit in the active layer and surface water bodies (lakes, ponds, wetlands) is recharged during this time. However, if the surface storage deficit is not replenished (for example, precipitation in the fall is low and near?surface soils are dry), lake recharge is directly affected, and water availability for the following winter is reduced. In this study, we used snow fences to augment fresh water supplies in shallow arctic lakes despite unfavorable natural conditions. We implemented snow?control practices to enhance snowdrift accumulation (greater snow water equivalent), which led to increased meltwater production and an extended melting season that resulted in lake recharge despite low precipitation during the years of the experiment. For three years (2009, 2010, and 2011), we selected and monitored two lakes with similar hydrological regimes. Both lakes are located 30 miles south of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, near Franklin Bluffs. One is an experimental lake, where we installed a snow fence; the other is a control lake, where the natural regime was preserved. The general approach was to compare the hydrologic response of the lake to the snowdrift during the summers of 2010 and 2011 against the ?baseline? conditions in 2009. Highlights of the project included new data on snow transport rates on the Alaska North Slope, an evaluation of the experimental lake?s hydrological response to snowdrift melt, and cost assessment of snowdrift?generated water. High snow transport rates (0.49 kg/s/m) ensured that the snowdrift reached its equilibrium profile by winter's end. Generally, natural snowpack disappeared by the beginning of June in this area. In contrast, snow in the drift lasted through early July, supplying the experimental lake with snowmelt when water in other tundra lakes was decreasing. The experimental lake retained elevated water levels during the entire open?water season. Comparison of lake water volumes during the experiment against the baseline year showed that, by the end of summer, the drift generated by the snow fence had increased lake water volume by at least 21?29%. We estimated water cost at 1.9 cents per gallon during the first year and 0.8 cents per gallon during the second year. This estimate depends on the cost of snow fence construction in remote arctic locations, which we assumed to be at $7.66 per square foot of snow fence frontal area. The snow fence technique was effective in augmenting the supply of lake water during summers 2010 and 2011 despite low rainfall during both summers. Snow fences are a simple, yet an effective, way to replenish tundra lakes with freshwater and increase water availability in winter. This research project was synergetic with the NETL project, "North Slope Decision Support System (NSDSS) for Water Resources Planning and Management." The results

  17. Shallow seismic AVO variations related to partial water saturation during a pumping test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Steven D.; Tsoflias, Georgios P.; Steeples, Don W.

    2007-11-27

    High-resolution shallow seismic reflection experiments were conducted during and after a pumping test of an agricultural irrigation well to image the cone of depression. Although variations in the reflection time from the ...

  18. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin; Workman, Jared E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  19. Static and flowing regions in granular collapses down channels: Insights from a sedimenting shallow water model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Static and flowing regions in granular collapses down channels: Insights from a sedimenting shallow extend the model of Larrieu 2006 to include an estimation for the interface between the static, 043301 2007 . An empirical sedimentation term Ls and the instantaneous removal of a static deposit wedge

  20. Energy invariant for shallow water waves and the Korteweg -- de Vries equation. Is energy always an invariant?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karczewska, Anna; Infeld, Eryk

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the KdV equation has an infinite set of conserved quantities. The first three are often considered to represent mass, momentum and energy. Here we try to answer the question of how this comes about, and also how these KdV quantities relate to those of the Euler shallow water equation. Here Luke's Lagrangian is helpful. We also consider higher order extensions of KdV. Though in general not integrable, in some sense they are almost so.

  1. Thin power law film flow down an inclined plane: consistent shallow water models and stability under large scale perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we derive consistent shallow water equations for thin films of power law fluids down an incline. These models account for the streamwise diffusion of momentum which is important to describe accurately the full dynamic of the thin film flows when instabilities like roll-waves arise. These models are validated through a comparison with Orr Sommerfeld equations for large scale perturbations. We only consider laminar flow for which the boundary layer issued from the interaction of the flow with the bottom surface has an influence all over the transverse direction to the flow. In this case the concept itself of thin film and its relation with long wave asymptotic leads naturally to flow conditions around a uniform free surface Poiseuille flow. The apparent viscosity diverges at the free surface which, in turn, introduces a singularity in the formulation of the Orr-Sommerfeld equations and in the derivation of shallow water models. We remove this singularity by introducing a weaker formulation of Cauc...

  2. Shallow water flow is a serious drilling hazard encoun-tered across several areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    , marine environmental impact, and drilling costs across the GoM, with a time-delay factor usu- ally of Mexico (GoM). Numerous incidents have occurred in which intense shallow water flows have disrupted question: "How does fresh- water come to be near the seafloor in deepwater areas of the Gulf of Mexico

  3. Supercritical Shallow Granular and Slurry Flows through a Contraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    results Interim summary Part II. Theory and Simulations 4. 1D Hydraulic shallow layer theory 5. 3D Discrete Particle Model simulations 6. Conclusions H2O: Hydraulic flow through a contraction #12 and outcrops: mixture of tephra and Rhine water, dam formation at nozzle near Andernach in Rhine Valley, lake

  4. Shallow-water sloshing in rotating vessels undergoing prescribed rigid-body motion in two dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridges, Tom

    : the shipping of liquid natural gas, sloshing of trapped water on the deck of a ship, liquid transport along (Wiesche [65]), and transport of liquids by robots in industrial applications (Tzamtzi & Kouvakas [63

  5. Effects of a nonrigid, impermeable bottom on plane surface waves in shallow water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gade, Herman Gerhard

    1957-01-01

    *a aa tt oaa ot Cue p per. Wee ~ haws besa asdsc sad oar haeakedge et the pbsaoaeaoa te date hag beta daadecpcateo Direst obeervatioas of aaf aetaal ?ave oa the iatcsrfhee betwssa ths water sa4 the eodiaeat eee Oeepkksated by tb? fast tbN whore each... the wave& but at the earns time the wave he1ght was reduoo4 considerably? If a complete filtering to a yare s@smeidal fnga hag been yarfegssd~ the yaws' heights wnnt4 have beeeao he sdatl 'ae te anno eeewsate aonearsaeats iayesgNAoa Therofereq the fi...

  6. Self-Similar Blowup Solutions to the 2-Component Degasperis-Procesi Shallow Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manwai Yuen

    2010-08-13

    In this article, we study the self-similar solutions of the 2-component Degasperis-Procesi water system:% [c]{c}% \\rho_{t}+k_{2}u\\rho_{x}+(k_{1}+k_{2})\\rho u_{x}=0 u_{t}-u_{xxt}+4uu_{x}-3u_{x}u_{xx}-uu_{xxx}+k_{3}\\rho\\rho_{x}=0. By the separation method, we can obtain a class of self-similar solutions,% [c]{c}% \\rho(t,x)=\\max(\\frac{f(\\eta)}{a(4t)^{(k_{1}+k_{2})/4}},\\text{}0),\\text{}u(t,x)=\\frac{\\overset{\\cdot}{a}(4t)}{a(4t)}x \\overset{\\cdot\\cdot}{a}(s)-\\frac{\\xi}{4a(s)^{\\kappa}}=0,\\text{}a(0)=a_{0}% \

  7. A PV Dynamics for Rotating Shallow Water on the Sphere search for a theory of balanced flow on the full sphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muraki, David J.

    A PV Dynamics for Rotating Shallow Water on the Sphere search for a theory of balanced flow -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 longitude latitude pv (sPV = color & contour) -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0 Quasigeostrophy (QG) balanced dynamics: NO fast waves, PV dynamics, 0 asymptotic limit restrict to short

  8. A sensitivity study for full-field inversion of geo-acoustic data with a towed array in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesus, Sérgio M.

    .1. Background The solution to the wave equation for an harmonic source exciting a range-independent environmentA sensitivity study for full-field inversion of geo-acoustic data with a towed array in shallow in general small influence on the acoustic field structure and are therefore difficult to estimate

  9. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The workshop was conducted by a trained facilitator using Value Engineering techniques to elicit the most technically sound solutions from the workshop participants. The path forward includes developing the OBA into a well engineered solution for achieving RCRA clean closure of the EBR-II Primary Reactor Tank system. Several high level tasks are also part of the path forward such as reassigning responsibility of the cleanup project to a dedicated project team that is funded by the DOE Office of Environmental Management, and making it a priority so that adequate funding is available to complete the project. Based on the experience of the sodium cleanup specialists, negotiations with the DEQ will be necessary to determine a risk-based de minimus quantity for acceptable amount of sodium that can be left in the reactor systems after cleanup has been completed.

  10. Water adsorption on SrTiO3(001): II. Water, water, everywhere A.E. Becerra-Toledo a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    Water adsorption on SrTiO3(001): II. Water, water, everywhere A.E. Becerra-Toledo a, , J January 2012 Available online 17 January 2012 Keywords: Strontium titanate Density functional theory Water adsorption Surface reconstruction X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Oxide surfaces The role of water

  11. Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 495512 Variability of Antarctic bottom water flow into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenedese, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 495­512 Variability of Antarctic bottom water flow into the North a 500-m-deep layer of bottom water. The deep Antarctic bottom water current into the North Atlantic as earlier at revisited locations. The long-term drift of the deep Antarctic bottom water temperature

  12. Pollution on the Federal Lands II: Water Pollution Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    text. FEDERAL LANDS WATER POLLUTION nonpoint sources. 19at 622. FEDERAL LANDS WATER POLLUTION The third requirement,n.25. FEDERAL LANDS WATER POLLUTION form a nondiscretionary

  13. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water standards might be exceeded was evaluated. A variety of scenarios and aquifer conditions was considered in a sensitivity evaluation. The scenarios and conditions simulated in Section 4, in particular those describing the geochemistry and mineralogy of potable aquifers, were selected based on the comprehensive geochemical model developed in Section 3.

  14. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P.; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-02-21

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs.

  15. Polychaete Annelid Dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, From Shallow Water to the Deep-Sea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Fangyuan

    2014-12-16

    Polychaete annelids dominated the macrobenthos in sediments located 5 to 9 km from the Deep Water Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill site five months after the event. Numbers of species, abundance, and biodiversity indices in the polychaete taxa were...

  16. Larval Fish Diets in Shallow Coastal Waters off San Onofre, William Watson and Raymond L. Davis, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Brewer et a1. 1981, 1984; Gruber et al. 1982; Barnett et al. 1984; Brewer and Kleppel 1986; Petersen et a1. 1986; Barnett and Jahn 1987; Walker et al. 1987). Feeding studies are begin- ning to be reported, occur principally in the lower water column and epibenthos (Schlotterbeck and Connally 1982; Barnett et

  17. Wiring of Photosystem II to Hydrogenase for Photoelectrochemical Water-splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mersch, Dirk; Lee, Chong-Yong; Zhang, Jenny Zhenqi; Brinkert, Katharina; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C.; Rutherford, A. William; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-06-05

    for understanding the process itself. Here, we employ a semi-artificial approach to study photo-biological water-splitting via a pathway unavailable to nature: the direct coupling of the water-oxidation enzyme, Photosystem II, to the H2 evolving enzyme, hydrogenase...

  18. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    gives you more flexibility in the layout. Mostly, it's going to be very difficult to design houses so that you can deliver hot water within a half a gallon in the piping from the...

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the Challenge Home program and here to set this up for you. Today's session on hot water distribution is one of a continuing series of tech training webinars to support our...

  20. Heat Pump Water Heater Durabliltiy Testing - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, VAND.

    2004-05-29

    Ten heat pump water heaters (HPWH) were placed in an environmentally controlled test facility and run through a durability test program of approximately 7300 duty cycles (actual cycles accumulated ranged from 6640 to 8324 for the ten units). Five of the units were upgraded integral types (HPWH mounted on storage tank, no pump) from the same manufacturer as those tested in our first durability program in 2001 (Baxter and Linkous, 2002). The other five were ''add-on'' type units (HPWH with circulation pump plumbed to a separate storage tank) from another manufacturer. This durability test was designed to represent approximately 7-10 years of normal operation to meet the hot water needs of a residence. The integral units operated without incident apart from two control board failures. Both of these were caused by inadvertent exposure to very hot and humid (>135 F dry bulb and >120 F dew point) conditions that occurred due to a test loop failure. It is not likely that any residential water heater would be installed where such conditions were expected so these failures are not considered a long-term reliability concern. Two of the integral HPWHs featured a condensate management system (CMS) option that effectively eliminated any need for an evaporator condensate drain, but imposed significant efficiency penalties when operating in high humidity ambient conditions. The add-on units experienced no operational failures (breakdowns with loss of hot water production) during the course of the testing. However, their control systems exhibited some performance degradation under the high temperature, high humidity test conditions--HPWHs would shut off with tank water temperatures 15-20 F lower than when operating under moderate ambient conditions. One unit developed a refrigerant leak during the test program and lost about 50% of its charge resulting in reduced efficiency. Efficiency measurements on all the integral units and four of the add-on units showed significantly higher efficiencies than conventional electric water heaters (EWH). DOE Simulated Use Tests conducted prior to starting the durability testing resulted in energy factors (EF) of about 2.3 for the integral design and 1.4 for the add-on design compared to the minimum value of 0.86 prescribed for EWHs. Based on the experience from this and the previous durability testing, there is no evidence that strongly suggests that any of the HPWHs suffered significant performance degradation after undergoing over 7000 water heat cycles.

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II-- How to Get it Right Webinar (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the webinar, Efficient Hot Water Distribution II -- How to Get it Right, presented in January2014.

  2. Shallow Flaws Under Biaxial Loading Conditions, Part II: Application of a Weibull Stress Analysis of the Cruciform Bend Specimen Using a Hydrostatic Stress Criterion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.

    1999-08-01

    Cruciform beam fracture mechanics specimensl have been developed in the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a prototypic, far- field, out-of-plane biaxird bending stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear biaxial stresses resulting from pressurized-thernxd-shock or pressure-temperature loading of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shtdlow, surface flaws. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for RPV materials. Two and three- parameter Weibull models have been calibrated using a new scheme (developed at the University of Illinois) that maps toughness data from test specimens with distinctly different levels of crack-tip constraint to a small scale yielding (SSY) Weibull stress space. These models, using the new hydrostatic stress criterion in place of the more commonly used maximum principal stress in the kernel of the OW integral definition, have been shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxiaI effect in cruciform specimens, thereby providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states.

  3. New water masers in Seyfert and FIR bright galaxies. II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Castangia; A. Tarchi; C. Henkel; K. M. Menten

    2007-12-05

    Recently, a relationship between the water maser detection rate and far infrared (FIR) flux density has been found as a result of a 22 GHz maser survey in a sample comprised of northern galaxies with 100 micron flux density > 50 Jy and a declination >-30 degrees. The survey has been extended toward galaxies with lower FIR flux densities in order to confirm this correlation and to discover additional maser sources for relevant follow-up interferometric studies. A sample of 41 galaxies with 30 Jy -30 degrees was observed with the 100-m telescope at Effelsberg in a search for the 22 GHz water vapor line. The average 3-sigma noise level of the survey is 40 mJy for a 1 km/s channel, corresponding to a detection threshold for the isotropic maser luminosity of about 0.5 solar luminosities at a distance of 25 Mpc. Two detections are reported: a megamaser with an isotropic luminosity of approximately 35 solar luminosities in the Seyfert/HII galaxy NGC613 and a kilomaser of approximately 1 solar luminosity in the merger system NGC520.[abridged

  4. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.

  5. Top hole drilling with dual gradient technology to control shallow hazards 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elieff, Brandee Anastacia Marie

    2006-10-30

    , shallow gas and shallow water flows. These negative aspects of "Pump and Dump" are in addition to the environmental impact, high drilling fluid (mud) costs and limited mud options. Dual gradient technology offers a closed system, which improves drilling...

  6. Simultaneous observation of water and class I methanol masers toward class II methanol maser sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Hyunwoo; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Seokho; Park, Yong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    We present a simultaneous single-dish survey of 22 GHz water maser and 44 GHz and 95 GHz class I methanol masers toward 77 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser sources, which were selected from the Arecibo methanol maser Galactic plane survey (AMGPS) catalog.Water maser emission is detected in 39 (51%) sources, of which 15 are new detections. Methanol maser emission at 44 GHz and 95 GHz is found in 25 (32%) and 19 (25%) sources, of which 21 and 13 sources are newly detected, respectively. We find 4 high-velocity (> 30 km/s) water maser sources, including 3 dominant blue- or redshifted outflows.The 95 GHz masers always appear with the 44 GHz maser emission. They are strongly correlated with 44 GHz masers in velocity, flux density, and luminosity, while they are not correlated with either water or 6.7 GHz class II methanol masers. The average peak flux density ratio of 95 GHz to 44 GHz masers is close to unity, which is two times higher than previous estimates. The flux densities of class I methanol masers are more ...

  7. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Esdaile, J.D. (1966), The lead oxide-lead sulfate system. J.1958), The structure of lead oxide monohydrate. Vestn.of formation of lead(II) oxide carbonates by scanning

  8. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport: Simulation of Impact of Hydraulic Fracturing on Groundwater

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore »general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less

  9. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore »general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less

  10. Reactivity of Pb(II) at the Mn(III,IV) (Oxyhydr)Oxide-Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    A T O C H A , * , E V E R T J . E L Z I N G A , A N D D O N A L D L . S P A R K S DepartmentReactivity of Pb(II) at the Mn(III,IV) (Oxyhydr)Oxide-Water Interface C H R I S T O P H E R J . M and surface functional groups on R-Al2O3 depending on the specific surface site exposed. The uptake of Pb

  11. II*

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Hydrocarbon Gas2 II Now

  12. Final Report: Phase II Nevada Water Resources Data, Modeling, and Visualization (DMV) Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackman, Thomas; Minor, Timothy; Pohll, Gregory

    2013-07-22

    Water is unquestionably a critical resource throughout the United States. In the semi-arid west -- an area stressed by increase in human population and sprawl of the built environment -- water is the most important limiting resource. Crucially, science must understand factors that affect availability and distribution of water. To sustain growing consumptive demand, science needs to translate understanding into reliable and robust predictions of availability under weather conditions that could be average but might be extreme. These predictions are needed to support current and long-term planning. Similar to the role of weather forecast and climate prediction, water prediction over short and long temporal scales can contribute to resource strategy, governmental policy and municipal infrastructure decisions, which are arguably tied to the natural variability and unnatural change to climate. Change in seasonal and annual temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and runoff affect the distribution of water over large temporal and spatial scales, which impact the risk of flooding and the groundwater recharge. Anthropogenic influences and impacts increase the complexity and urgency of the challenge. The goal of this project has been to develop a decision support framework of data acquisition, digital modeling, and 3D visualization. This integrated framework consists of tools for compiling, discovering and projecting our understanding of processes that control the availability and distribution of water. The framework is intended to support the analysis of the complex interactions between processes that affect water supply, from controlled availability to either scarcity or deluge. The developed framework enables DRI to promote excellence in water resource management, particularly within the Lake Tahoe basin. In principle, this framework could be replicated for other watersheds throughout the United States. Phase II of this project builds upon the research conducted during Phase I, in which the hydrologic framework was investigated and the development initiated. Phase II concentrates on practical implementation of the earlier work but emphasizes applications to the hydrology of the Lake Tahoe basin. Phase 1 efforts have been refined and extended by creating a toolset for geographic information systems (GIS) that is usable for disparate types of geospatial and geo-referenced data. The toolset is intended to serve multiple users for a variety of applications. The web portal for internet access to hydrologic and remotely sensed product data, prototyped in Phase I, has been significantly enhanced. The portal provides high performance access to LANDSAT-derived data using techniques developed during the course of the project. The portal is interactive, and supports the geo-referenced display of hydrologic information derived from remotely sensed data, such as various vegetative indices used to calculate water consumption. The platform can serve both internal and external constituencies using inter-operating infrastructure that spans both sides of the DRI firewall. The platform is intended grow its supported data assets and to serve as a template for replication to other geographic areas. An unanticipated development during the project was the use of ArcGIS software on a new computer system, called the IBM PureSytems, and the parallel use of the systems for faster, more efficient image processing. Additional data, independent of the portal, was collected within the Sagehen basin and provides detailed information regarding the processes that control hydrologic responses within mountain watersheds. The newly collected data include elevation, evapotranspiration, energy balance and remotely sensed snow-pack data. A Lake Tahoe basin hydrologic model has been developed, in part to help predict the hydrologic impacts of climate change. The model couples both the surface and subsurface hydrology, with the two components having been independently calibrated. Results from the coupled simulations involving both surface water and groundwater processes

  13. Experimental Breeder Reactor-II Primary Tank System Wash Water Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1994 Congress ordered the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and a closure project was initiated.

  14. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  15. Sustainable Practices Policy Sections II, III.I. and V.I. Sustainable Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    , or lubricating equipment. Purified Water: Water that is free of impurities such as microorganisms, particulate consumption because it contains objectionable pollution, contamination minerals or infective agents, including water quality standards for human consumption. Reclaimed or Recycled Water: Wastewater treated

  16. Rapid Evolution of the Photosystem II Electronic Structure during Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Katherine M; Palenik, Mark; Yan, Lifen; Purohit, Vatsal; Robison, Gregory; Kosheleva, Irina; Henning, Robert W; Seidler, Gerald T; Pushkar, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic water oxidation is a fundamental process that sustains the biosphere. A Mn$_{4}$Ca cluster embedded in the photosystem II protein environment is responsible for the production of atmospheric oxygen. Here, time-resolved x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) was used to observe the process of oxygen formation in real time. These experiments reveal that the oxygen evolution step, initiated by three sequential laser flashes, is accompanied by rapid (within 50 $\\mu$s) changes to the Mn K$\\beta$ XES spectrum. However, no oxidation of the Mn$_{4}$Ca core above the all Mn$^{\\text{IV}}$ state was detected to precede O-O bond formation. A new mechanism featuring Mn$^{\\text{IV}}$=O formation in the S$_{3}$ state is proposed to explain the spectroscopic results. This chemical formulation is consistent with the unique reactivity of the S$_{3}$ state and explains facilitation of the following S$_{3}$ to S$_{0}$ transition, resolving in part the kinetic limitations associated with O-O bond formation. In the propo...

  17. Void distribution in a shallow bubbling pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Ting, Lu

    1989-01-01

    An analytical model based on the variational principle of minimum energy is derived to determine the steady-state two-phase mixture level and axial void distribution of a non-condensable gas that is introduced uniformly across the base of a shallow liquid pool. The model expresses pool void fraction and mixture level in terms of the Froude and Weber numbers, while the void fraction just below the free surface depends only on the Weber number. The shallow pool model is based on the assumption of one-dimensional flow of an inviscid bubbly mixture in a pool with its height much less than its diameter. It is also assumed that both the hydrostatic pressure of the pool and the pressure difference across the bubble surface are much smaller than the ambient pressure. By including the dependency of the added mass coefficient on void fraction, the model predicts a maximum bubbly flow void fraction of 0.3 which agrees well with the observed transition from bubbly to churn-turbulent flow at a void fraction between 0.2 and 0.3. When the theoretical results for an inviscid shallow pool are compared with available experimental data for void fraction in pools which are not shallow and hence the viscous and wall effects are not negligible, the model under-estimates the data on pool fraction by about a factor of 5. Good agreement is obtained between the inviscid model and a drift flux correlation for pool void fraction when the viscosity of water is extrapolated to 1/10 of the value at room temperature. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  18. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get it Right

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Zero Energy Ready Homes include critical systems to ensure both energy efficiency and performance.  Hot water distribution is one of these critical systems – affecting energy use , water...

  19. Monitoring of Total Type II Pyrethroid Pesticides in Citrus Oils and Water by Converting to a Common Product 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Monitoring of Total Type II Pyrethroid Pesticides in Citrus Oils and Water by Converting to a Common Product 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Mark R. McCoy, Zheng Yang, Xun Fu,§ Ki Chang Ahn, Shirley J. Gee an alternative method that converts the type II pyrethroids to a common chemical product, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid

  20. PII S0016-7037(01)00595-6 Spectroscopic studies of Pb(II)-sulfate interactions at the goethite-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    PII S0016-7037(01)00595-6 Spectroscopic studies of Pb(II)-sulfate interactions at the goethite molecular scale studies on Pb(II)-sulfate interactions at the solid-water interface of goethite at pH 4.5, 5 the formation Pb-SO4 ternary complexes at the goethite surface. Based on the combined information from the IR

  1. Field comparison of shallow seismic sources near Chino, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard D.; Pullan, Susan E.; Steeples, Don W.; Hunter, James A.

    1992-05-01

    Data from a shallow seismic?source comparison test conducted in an area with a water?table depth in excess of 30 m and near?surface velocities less than 330 m/s were acquired from 13 different sources at a single site near Chino, California...

  2. 1Shallow Survey 2005 Plymouth Shallow Survey 2005 Plymouth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southampton, University of

    Resolution Imaging · Marine Engineering · Defence · Marine Geology · Marine Archaeology ·... #12;3Shallow amplitude · Mid-point binning OR · 3D pre-stack Kirchhoff migration · Move reflection energy to correct · Commercially available · Applicable to problems in · Marine Engineering · Marine Archaeology · Marine Geology

  3. Coupling reactions of phenylacetylene with water, hydrogen sulfide and primary amines mediated by a Ru(II) phenylvinylidene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, C.; Peruzzini, M.; Zanobini, F. [Istituto per lo Studio della Stereochimica ed Energetica dei Composti di Coordinazione, Florence (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Ru(II) fragment [(PNP)RuCl{sub 2}] assists the reaction of phenylacetylene with water, hydrogen sulfide and primary amines to give carbonyl, {eta}{sup 1}-benzylthioaldehyde, and isonitrile complexes, respectively [PNP = CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PPh{sub 2}){sub 2}]. In all of these processes, the reaction is initiated by the 1-alkyne to vinylidene tautomerization at the Ru(II) center, followed by attack of the H{sub 2}Z molecule (Z = O, S, NR) on the vinylidene ligand. The mechanisms which account for these transformations have been completely elucidated and several of the intermediates in these reactions have been isolated and fully characterized. The scope of these reactions in view of their potential applications in organic syntheses involving thioaldehydes and optically pure isonitriles will be briefly presented.

  4. CENSSIS SEABED: DIVERSE APPROACHES FORCENSSIS SEABED: DIVERSE APPROACHES FOR IMAGING SHALLOW AND DEEP CORAL REEFSIMAGING SHALLOW AND DEEP CORAL REEFS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    AND DEEP CORAL REEFSIMAGING SHALLOW AND DEEP CORAL REEFS Fernando Gilbes,Fernando Gilbes, Roy Armstrong to separate complex subsurface signals. This multi-university Engineering Research Center aims in oligotrophic waters), which defines a practical limit for effective airborne and satellite remote sensing, we

  5. Abstract No. Graf0532 The Speciation of Arsenate (As (V)) at the Goethite-Water Interface in the Presence of Zinc (II)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Abstract No. Graf0532 The Speciation of Arsenate (As (V)) at the Goethite-Water Interface investigating the sorption behavior of As (V) at the goethite-water interface in the presence of Zn cations(II) were reacted simultaneously in 2.5 g L -1 suspensions of goethite at pH 4 and 7 with initial

  6. Chemical Reduction of U(VI) by Fe(II) at the Solid-Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    ) oxides and highly Fe(III) oxide-enriched (18-35 wt % Fe) Atlantic coastal plain sediments. In contrast with relatively low Fe(III) oxide content (1-5 wt % Fe). Fe(II) sorption site density was severalfold lower Uranium(VI) is stable in oxic environments and typically exists as soluble carbonate complexes in aerobic

  7. Impact Of Standing Water On Saltstone Placement II - Hydraulic Conductivity Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A. D.; Pickenheim, B. R.

    2012-12-06

    The amount of water present during placement and subsequent curing of saltstone has the potential to impact several properties important for grout quality. An active drain water system can remove residual standing water and expose the surface of the placed saltstone to air. Oxidation of the saltstone may result in an increase in the leachability of redox sensitive elements. A dry surface can lead to cracking, causing an increase in hydraulic conductivity. An inactive drain water system can allow standing water that generates unnecessary hydrostatic head on the vault walls. Standing water that cannot be removed via the drain system will be available for potential incorporation into subsequent grout placements. The objective of this work is to study the impact of standing water on grout quality pertaining to disposal units. A series of saltstone mixes was prepared and cured at ambient temperature to evaluate the impact of standing water on saltstone placement. The samples were managed to control drying effects on leachability by either exposing or capping the samples. The water to premix ratio was varied to represent a range of processing conditions. Samples were analyzed for density, leachability, and hydraulic conductivity. Report SRNL-STI-2012-00546 was issued detailing the experimental procedure, results, and conclusions related to density and leachability. In the previous report, it was concluded that: density tends to increase toward the bottom of the samples. This effect is pronounced with excess bleed water; drying of the saltstone during curing leads to decreased Leachability Index (more leaching) for potassium, sodium, rhenium, nitrite, and nitrate; there is no noticeable effect on saltstone oxidation/leachability by changing the water to premix ratio (over the range studied), or by pouring into standing water (when tested up to 10 volume percent). The hydraulic conductivity data presented in this report show that samples cured exposed to the atmosphere had about three orders of magnitude higher hydraulic conductivity than any of the other samples. Considering these data, along with the results presented in the previous report, leads to the conclusion that small changes in water to premix ratio and the inclusion of up to 10 volume percent standing water should not be expected to have a detrimental effect on saltstone grout quality. The hydraulic conductivity results further demonstrate that curing in a moist environment is critical to maintaining saltstone quality.

  8. Boundary Creek thermal areas of Yellowstone National Park: II, thermal water analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.M. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA); Hutchinson, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    Water samples from 28 thermal springs, 2 non-thermal springs, and 2 creeks from the Boundary Creek Thermal Areas (BCTA) in the southwestern corner of Yellowstone National Park were analyzed to help establish a chemical water-quality base line prior to possible geothermal exploitation of the Island Park Geothermal Area (IPGA). The springs, situated at the southwestern end of the Madison Plateau, are the Yellowstone Park thermal waters nearest to the IPGA and might respond to geothermal exploitation in the IPGA. Water temperatures ranging from 50/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/C and low Cl concentrations (< 110 mgL/sup -1/) characterize spring waters in the BCTA. They are chemically distinct from the major geysers and hot springs in Yellowstone Park. The Na-K-Ca and silica geothermometers are in general agreement, usually within 10/sup 0/C, and indicate reservoir temperatures of 150 to 170/sup 0/C.

  9. Inversion for subbottom sound velocity profiles in the deep and shallow ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souza, Luiz Alberto Lopes de

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigates the application of acoustic measurements in the deep and shallow ocean to infer the sound velocity profile (svp) in the seabed. For the deep water ocean, an exact method based on the Gelfand-Levitan ...

  10. Singularity-free interpretation of the thermodynamics of supercooled water. II. Thermal and volumetric behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and volumetric behavior Luis Paulo N. Rebelo,a) Pablo G. Debenedetti,b) and Srikanth Sastryc) Department in support of the two critical point hypothesis includes thermal and volumetric measurements on glassy water

  11. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    James Barber

    2010-09-01

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  12. ..'.ii11 WATER RESOURCES BULLETIN ,.. VOL. 26,NO.2 AMERICAN WATERRESOURCESASSOCIATION APRIL 1990

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    ,simpleto use,and aboutaspreciseas and for durations (d) other than 7 days, this study mos~~revious models- Fennessey and Vogel, 1990) are provided in Table 1, ing and/or renewing National Pollution Discharge gaging stations employed here are about the ments from hydropower, irrigation, water-supply and only long

  13. Two doctoral, four master's and two undergraduate degree programs World-class expertise in studies of the Earth's shallow subsurface, and in chemical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    > EARTHQUAKE HAZARD analyses to determine location and uplift history of fault zones > GROUNDWATER studies. Students work on problems of water flow in the shallow subsurface using electrical

  14. Water Waves and Integrability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossen I. Ivanov

    2007-07-12

    The Euler's equations describe the motion of inviscid fluid. In the case of shallow water, when a perturbative asymtotic expansion of the Euler's equations is taken (to a certain order of smallness of the scale parameters), relations to certain integrable equations emerge. Some recent results concerning the use of integrable equation in modeling the motion of shallow water waves are reviewed in this contribution.

  15. Shallow water modeling of Antarctic Bottom Water crossing the equator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choboter, Paul

    path is consistent with existing observations [DeMadron and Weatherly, 1994; Speer and Zenk, 1993 observed [Hall et al., 1997; Mercier and Speer, 1998; Rhein et al., 1995], the source and nature-Atlantic Ridge to the northeast of the basin is 1.22 ± 0.25 Sv [Mercier and Speer, 1998]. The remaining 3.6 Sv

  16. Integrated Policy and Planning for Water and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ....................................................................... 24 II.1.3. Water Consumption by Hydroelectric Power Plants................................ 25 II.1

  17. Sedimentation in Shallow ReservoirsPoster n 21 Large shallow reservoirs of run-of-river

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Sedimentation in Shallow ReservoirsPoster n° 21 Large shallow reservoirs of run-of-river power plants on rivers with high suspended sediments are endangered by significant sedimentation. INTRODUCTION

  18. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers over- lying producing shale

  19. Combinatorial Development of Water Splitting Catalysts Based on the Oxygen Evolving Complex of Photosystem II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodbury, Neal

    2010-03-31

    The use of methods to create large arrays of potential catalysts for the reaction H2O ���������������¯�������������������������������  �������������������������������½ O2 + 2H+ on the anode of an electrolysis system were investigated. This reaction is half of the overall reaction involved in the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. This method consisted of starting with an array of electrodes and developing patterned electrochemical approaches for creating a different, defined peptide at each position in the array. Methods were also developed for measuring the rate of reaction at each point in the array. In this way, the goal was to create and then tests many thousands of possible catalysts simultaneously. This type of approach should lead to an ability to optimize catalytic activity systematically, by iteratively designing and testing new libraries of catalysts. Optimization is important to decrease energy losses (over-potentials) associated with the water splitting reaction and thus for the generation of hydrogen. Most of the efforts in this grant period were focused on developing the chemistry and analytical methods required to create pattern peptide formation either using a photolithography approach or an electrochemical approach for dictating the positions of peptide bond formation. This involved testing a large number of different reactions and conditions. We have been able to find conditions that have allowed us to pattern peptide bond formation on both glass slides using photolithographic methods and on electrode arrays made by the company Combimatrix. Part of this effort involved generating novel approaches for performing mass spectroscopy directly from the patterned arrays. We have also been able to demonstrate the ability to measure current at each electrode due to electrolysis of water. This was performed with customized instrumentation created in collaboration with Combimatrix. In addition, several different molecular designs for peptides that bound metals (primarily Mn) were developed and synthesized and metal binding was demonstrated. Finally, we investigated a number of methods. We have shown that we can create surfaces on glass slides appropriate for patterning peptide formation and have made arrays of peptides as large as 30,000 using photolithographic methods. However, side reactions with certain amino acid additions greatly limited the utility of the photolithographic approach. In addition, we found that transferring this patterned chemistry approach to large arrays was problematic. Thus, we turned to direct electrochemical patterning using the Combimatrix electrode arrays. Here we were also able to demonstrate patterned peptide bond forming chemistry, but yield and consistency of the reaction remains insufficient to create the quality of array required for realistic optimization of catalytic peptide sequences. We are currently exploring both new polymerization chemistries for generating catalysts on surface as well as adopting methods developed at Intel for creating peptide arrays directly on electronic substrates (silicon wafers).

  20. Shallow-deep transitions of impurities in semiconductor nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranjan, V.; Singh, Vijay A.

    2001-06-01

    We study the hydrogenic impurity in a quantum dot (QD). We employ the effective mass theory with realistic barrier and variable effective mass. The model is simple, but it predicts features not previously observed. We observe that the shallow hydrogenic impurity becomes deeper as the dot size (R) is reduced and with further reduction of the dot size it becomes shallow and at times resonant with the conduction band. Such a shallow-deep (SHADE) transition is investigated and a critical size in terms of the impurity Bohr radius (a{sub I}{sup *}) is identified. A relevant aspect of a QD is reduction in the dielectric constant, {epsilon}, as its size decreases. Employing a size dependent {epsilon}(R), we demonstrate that the impurity level gets exceptionally deep in systems for which a{sub I}{sup *} is small. Thus, carrier {open_quotes}freeze out{close_quotes} is a distinct possibility in a wide class of materials such as ZnS, CdS, etc. The behavior of the impurity level with dot size is understood on the basis of simple scaling arguments. Calculations are presented for III{endash}V (AlGaAs) and II{endash}VI (ZnS, CdS) QDs. We speculate that the deepening of the impurity level is related to the high luminescence efficiency of QDs. It is suggested that quantum dots offer an opportunity for defect engineering. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  1. Water vapor in the spectrum of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b. II. The eclipse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crouzet, Nicolas; McCullough, Peter R.; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-11-10

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are crucial to infer the composition and properties of their atmospheres. HD 189733b is one of the most extensively studied exoplanets and is a cornerstone for hot Jupiter models. In this paper, we report the dayside emission spectrum of HD 189733b in the wavelength range 1.1-1.7 ?m obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in spatial scan mode. The quality of the data is such that even a straightforward analysis yields a high-precision Poisson noise-limited spectrum: the median 1? uncertainty is 57 ppm per 0.02 ?m bin. We also build a white-light curve correcting for systematic effects and derive an absolute eclipse depth of 96 ± 39 ppm. The resulting spectrum shows marginal evidence for water vapor absorption, but can also be well explained by a blackbody spectrum. However, the combination of these WFC3 data with previous Spitzer photometric observations is best explained by a dayside atmosphere of HD 189733b with no thermal inversion and a nearly solar or subsolar H{sub 2}O abundance in a cloud-free atmosphere. Alternatively, this apparent subsolar abundance may be the result of clouds or hazes that future studies need to investigate.

  2. Recent ooids from Mesopotamian shallow shelf, northwest Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aqrawi, A.A.M.; Sadooni, F.N.

    1987-05-01

    Petrographic and mineralogical analyses of available oolitic samples from Khor Abdulla and Khor Al-Umaya, Mesopotamian shallow shelf of the northwest Arabian Gulf, showed that the ooids exhibit extensive variations in their forms according to their nuclei shapes. The ooids cortices are usually of radial structure and are formed mainly of high magnesium calcite. The sediment distribution of the studied area revealed the existence of an oolitic zone extending NW-SE from east of Bubiyan Island toward the open sea. It is believed that these ooids are usually formed in sheltered environments by direct precipitation of high magnesium-calcite around any available nuclei. Then they are concentrated by agitation on small shoal-margins located to the east of Bubiyan Island. At these shoals they attained their final shapes and then dispersed through the studied area. It is thought that these ooids represent a peculiar example of ooid formation in quiet shallow-water environments.

  3. Observations of the first aerosol indirect effect in shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Barnard, James C.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.

    2011-02-08

    Data from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) are used to estimate the impact of both aerosol indirect effects and cloud dynamics on the microphysical and optical properties of shallow cumuli observed in the vicinity of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Not surprisingly, we find that the amount of light scattered by the clouds is dominated by their liquid water content (LWC), which in turn is driven by cloud dynamics. However, removing the effect of cloud dynamics by examining the scattering normalized by LWC shows a strong sensitivity of scattering to pollutant loading. These results suggest that even moderately sized cities, like Oklahoma City, can have a measureable impact on the optical properties of shallow cumuli.

  4. Seepage from a special class of a curved channel with drainage layer at shallow depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chahar, B. R.

    solution corresponding to the water table below the top of the drainage layer has also been deduced from is below the top of the drainage layer then the seepage is much more than that in homogeneous medium with drainage layer at shallow depth, Water Resour. Res., 45, W09423, doi:10.1029/2009WR007899. 1. Introduction

  5. Shallow gas off the Rhone prodelta, Gulf of Lions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    in press. What controls shallow gas in Western Adriatic Sea?L. , Arntsen, B. , 2003. Gas chimneys – indicating aseismic maping of shallow gas in the Belgian coastal zone.

  6. Numerical-Model Investigation of the Hydrothermal Regime of a Straight-Through Shallow Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, A. S. [JSC 'VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva' (Russian Federation)] [JSC 'VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva' (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    A mathematic model based on solution of hydrodynamics and heat-transfer equations by the finite-element method is constructed to predict the hydrothermal regime of a straight-through shallow cooling pond, which provides cooling circulating water to a repository of spent nuclear fuel. Numerical experiments made it possible to evaluate the influence exerted by wind conditions and flow rate of water in the river on the temperature of the circulating water.

  7. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 8: Wells () August 28, 2012 project, utilizing enhanced ground-water. Water lifted from storage, to accumulate overnight from aquifer. Water from shallow aquifer, of about 7-8m thickness. accounts for about 30% of irrigation Unique

  8. Fracture Detection and Water Sweep Characterization Using Single-well Imaging, Vertical Seismic Profiling and Cross-dipole Methods in Tight and Super-k Zones, Haradh II, Saudi Arabia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aljeshi, Hussain Abdulhadi A.

    2012-07-16

    This work was conducted to help understand a premature and irregular water breakthrough which resulted from a waterflooding project in the increment II region of Haradh oilfield in Saudi Arabia using different geophysical methods. Oil wells cannot...

  9. Water management studies in PEM fuel cells, Part II: Ex situ investigation of flow maldistribution, pressure drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    the proton conductivity of the polymer electrolyte membrane; however, excess water must be removed from the cell to avoid flooding. Flooding is a phenomenon in which liquid water accumulation inside

  10. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-09-01

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. This study, Appendix II addresses the first Wilhelm Sands and its sub unites and pools. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent verification. This study has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoir. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. It is hoped that this volume can now additionally serve as a take off point for exploitation engineers to develop specific programs toward the end.

  11. Shallow and Deep Lunge Feeding of Humpback Whales in Fjords of the West Antarctic Peninsula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ware, Colin

    1 Shallow and Deep Lunge Feeding of Humpback Whales in Fjords of the West Antarctic Peninsula Colin lunges during which they engulf large volumes of water equal to as much as 70% of their body mass. To understand the kinematics of humpback lunge feeding, we attached high-resolution digital recording tags

  12. Hydraulics of horizontal wells in fractured shallow aquifer systems Eungyu Parka,*, Hongbin Zhanb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Hydraulics of horizontal wells in fractured shallow aquifer systems Eungyu Parka,*, Hongbin Zhanb Accepted 1 May 2003 Abstract An analysis of groundwater hydraulic head in the vicinity of a horizontal well in fractured or porous aquifers considering confined, leaky confined, and water-table aquifer boundary

  13. Fundamental aspects of coal-water fuel droplet combustion and secondary atomization of coal-water mixtures. Volume II, final report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ber?, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    This Final Report is issued in two volumes, covering research into the combustion of Coal Water Fuels (CWF). Two separate but related tasks are discussed; Volume I contains results obtained under Task 1 - Fundamental aspects ...

  14. Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    using shallow temperature surveys. Semi-annual technical report Abstract Shallow (2-m) soil temperature data have been collected at 27 sites at Long Valley, California, and at 102...

  15. Phase II Final Project Report Paso del Norte Watershed Council Coordinated Water Resources Database and GIS Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Christopher; Sheng, Zhuping; Bourdon, Marc

    2007-01-01

    suggestions to improve the Project Website, ? Development and making available online for download a Microsoft Access database of Project water resource data to provide search and query functions, ? Development of an online help tutorial that would...

  16. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  17. Eulerian-Lagrangian analysis of pollutant transport in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baptista, Antonio E. de M.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical method for the solution of the two-dimensional, unsteady, transport equation is formulated, and its accuracy is tested.

  18. Developing the Resource Potential of a Shallow Water Table

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimes, D. W; Henderson, D. W

    1984-01-01

    Pachic Haploxerolls Tulare loam mk, Sec. 30, T.20S. , R.20E.Gragnani (Oxalis) Newton (Tulare) Stone (Merced) Stone (Pucheu (Levis) Newton (Tulare) Soil bulk density, gem

  19. Nonlinear Wave-Currents interactions in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lannes, David

    2015-01-01

    We study here the propagation of long waves in the presence of vorticity. In the irrotational framework, the Green-Naghdi equations (also called Serre or fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations) are the standard model for the propagation of such waves. These equations couple the surface elevation to the vertically averaged horizontal velocity and are therefore independent of the vertical variable. In the presence of vorticity, the dependence on the vertical variable cannot be removed from the vorticity equation but it was however shown in [?] that the motion of the waves could be described using an extended Green-Naghdi system. In this paper we propose an analysis of these equations, and show that they can be used to get some new insight into wave-current interactions. We show in particular that solitary waves may have a drastically different behavior in the presence of vorticity and show the existence of solitary waves of maximal amplitude with a peak at their crest, whose angle depends on the vorticity. We als...

  20. Strict self-adjointness and shallow water models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priscila Leal da Silva; Igor Leite Freire

    2014-03-25

    We consider a class of third order equations from the point of view of strict self-adjointness. Necessary and sufficient conditions to the investigated class be strictly self-adjoint are obtained. Then, from a strictly self-adjoint subclass we consider those who admits a suitable scaling transformation. Consequently it is derived a family of equations including the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony, Camassa-Holm and Novikov equation. By a suitable choice of the parameters, we deduce an one-parameter family of equations unifying the last two mentioned equations. Then, using some recent techniques for constructing conserved vectors, we show that from the scale invariance it is obtained as a conserved density the same quantity employed to construct one of the well known Hamiltonians for the cited integrable equations.

  1. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2008-10-10

    , Gary A. Gill, for helping me as much as he did with this thesis, both as a mentor and financially. I would also like to thank him for the tremendous amount of patience and understanding he had for me during this long endeavor. I am also grateful... with collecting my data in California. Last but not least, to Peter Santschi, who took the helm as my committee chair when Gary left and whose confidence in me gave me the inspiration and motivation to finish this work. And I would like to thank Robert Duce...

  2. Hyperbolic theory of the ``shallow water'' magnetohydrodynamics H. De Stercka)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Sterck, Hans

    . The SMHD equations are presently being used in the study of the dynamics of layers in the solar interior in the context of the study of the global dynamics of the solar ta- chocline, which is a thin layer in the solar interior at the base of the solar convection zone. The SMHD system is a mag- netohydrodynamic MHD analog

  3. Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Molly E.

    the depolarizing nature of the seafloor. The simulations, executed with the software package RayXP, are solutions be computed point- wise over a large range of scattering angles and wavelengths. Trends also become apparent impedes engineering applications, such as remote sensing and target detection, and hin- ders our

  4. HOLLISTER, G. 1936. Caudal skeleton of Bermuda shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and March 1970. Procedure The velocity of the river current was measured with a Savonius meter' suspended

  5. Methods to Study Intervention Sustainability Using Pre-existing, Community Interventions: Examples from the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Benjamin Ford

    2009-01-01

    water treatment and ii Contents 3.4A.2 Water qualityfor using household water treatment . . . . . . . . . . . .

  6. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Analysis Framework for the 2009 / 16 #12;Vol II and Vol III Vol. II 1 Annexure I, Chap. 1: Bulk-water and tariffs-Principles. 2 Annexure I, Chap. 2: International Case Studies. 3 Annexure II: Report on water conservation technologies

  7. NEW MASER EMISSION FROM NONMETASTABLE AMMONIA IN NGC 7538. II. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS INCLUDING WATER MASERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Seojin Kim, Stella

    2011-12-15

    We present new maser emission from {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) in NGC 7538. Our observations include the known spectral features near v{sub LSR} = -60 km s{sup -1} and -57 km s{sup -1} and several more features extending to -46 km s{sup -1}. In three epochs of observation spanning two months we do not detect any variability in the ammonia masers, in contrast to the >10-fold variability observed in other {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) masers in the Galaxy over comparable timescales. We also present observations of water masers in all three epochs for which emission is observed over the velocity range -105 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -4 km s{sup -1}, including the highest velocity water emission yet observed from NGC 7538. Of the remarkable number of maser species in IRS 1, H{sub 2}O and, now, {sup 14}NH{sub 3} are the only masers known to exhibit emission outside of the velocity range -62 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -51 km s{sup -1}. However, we find no significant intensity or velocity correlations between the water emission and ammonia emission. We also present a non-detection in the most sensitive search to date toward any source for emission from the CC{sup 32}S and CC{sup 34}S molecules, indicating an age greater than Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} yr for IRS 1-3. We discuss these findings in the context of embedded stellar cores and recent models of the region.

  8. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  9. Plugging Abandoned Water Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2002-02-28

    is abandoned without proper plugging, upward flow of salty water from the deeper aquifer may cause contamination of the shallow, fresh water aquifer. Also, any pollu- tants that occur in one zone can migrate to another zone through a well. Unplugged abandoned... wells may deplete pres- sure within an aquifer. Pressure in artesian aquifers decreases as water discharges at land surface or to less pressurized aquifers. Eventually a drop in pres- sure causes flowing wells to stop flowing and the water level...

  10. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for...

  11. Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    structure in the shallow crust beneath the region containing the Coso volcanic-geothermal area of eastern California. SV and P wave amplitudes were measured from...

  12. Bouguer gravity anomalies, depth to bedrock, and shallow temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bouguer gravity anomalies, depth to bedrock, and shallow temperature in the Humboldt House geothermal area, Pershing County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  13. Improvements in Shallow (Two-Meter) Temperature Measurements...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Measurements and Data Interpretation Abstract The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy has been working on improvements in shallow (two-meter) temperature surveys in two...

  14. Effectiveness of Shallow Temperatures Surveys to Target a Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Effectiveness of Shallow Temperatures Surveys to Target a Geothermal Reservoir at Previously Explored Site at Mcgee Mountain, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  15. Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of tree species from a semi-arid habitat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of tree species from of tomography for vessel network analysis and the important role of 3-D xylem organization in plant hydraulic Root water uptake and hydraulic transport through xylem are critical for plant functioning and survival

  16. PRESTO-II: a low-level waste environmental transport and risk assessment code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Chester, R.O.; Little, C.A.; Hiromoto, G.

    1986-04-01

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code designed for the evaluation of possible health effects from shallow-land and, waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach. Data are included for three example sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. A code listing and example input for each of the three sites are included in the appendices to this report.

  17. Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2A, Analytical data packages September--October 1991 sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Riordan, C.J. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. (United States); Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K. [Normandeau Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled solely of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

  18. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Acid and Sour Gas: Waste Water Treating Process", Chern.of Coal Gasification Waste Water", Department of ChemicalAcid and Sour Gas: Waste Water Treating Process", Chern.

  19. Annotation of the Shallow and the Deep Siegfried Handschuh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staab, Steffen

    Annotation of the Shallow and the Deep Web Siegfried Handschuh½ and Steffen Staab½ ¾ ½ Institute a framework,CREAM, that allows the creation of semantic annotation on the Shallow and the Deep Web. Hence with the simultaneous creation of metadata, and the deep annotation. 1 Introduction The semantic web ­ the web

  20. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. In the last quarter, we have developed streamline generation and convection subroutines for miscible gas injection. The WAG injection algorithms are being developed. We formulated a four-phase relative permeability model based on two-phase relative permeabilities. The new relative permeability formulations are being incorporated into the simulator. Wettabilities and relative permeabilities are being measured. Plans for the next quarter includes modeling of WAG injection in streamline based simulation, relative permeability studies with cores, incorporation of complex well-architecture.

  2. What does water look like? Marta Kryven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterloo, University of

    is shallow and pure it is transparent. Deep water is a saturated blue-green colour [Pope and Fry 1997]. MuddyWhat does water look like? Marta Kryven William Cowan University of Waterloo (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f of water look like water? We conducted four psychophysical experiments to isolate perceptual qualities

  3. Water Requirements for Future Energy production in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    CALIFORNIA WATER RESOURCES. Water Demand Energy Suppon future forecasts of of Water energy predicted energy aunder these PHASE II: WATER ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR FUTURE

  4. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    $/1000 gal water) COMBINED STRIPPING/EXTRACTION a Sour Waterthe pH of the sour water leaving an extraction stage is notpH of the sour water leaving an extraction stage is assumed

  5. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    of Economic Materials from Oil Shale Retort Water by anDerived from In Situ Oil Shale Processing", Proceedings, 2ndWastewaters Sour Waters from Oil Shale Retorting Sour Waters

  6. Drinking Water Quality and Child Health in South Asia: The Role of Secondary Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ercumen, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    DPHE.  2001.  Arsenic  contamination  of  groundwater  in  for  microbial  contamination  of  well  water.   J.  al.  2011.  Fecal   contamination  of  shallow  tubewells  

  7. Quantification of sediment bed - water column exchange processes in the South San Francisco Bay estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gladding, Steven Michael

    2011-01-01

    Term Sediment Deposition and Resuspension in the Fox River,2010). "Wind- enhanced resuspension in the shallow waters ofFlocculation, Deposition, and Resuspension of Fine-Grained

  8. Waterflood and Enhanced Oil Recovery Studies using Saline Water and Dilute Surfactants in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alotaibi, Mohammed

    2012-02-14

    . In addition to seawater and dilute seawater (50, 20, 10, and 1 vol%), formation brine, shallow aquifer water, deionized water and different crude oil samples were used throughout this study. The crude oil/water/carbonates interactions were also investigated...

  9. Capture zone design for a contaminated shallow unconfined aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cann, Eric Roy

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum contamination has impacted a shallow unconfined Pleistocene terrace aquifer, in Travis County, East Austin, Texas (Figure 1). The aquifer was contaminated from accidental spills released from a bulk petroleum storage facility that operated...

  10. Chloride-Magnesium Ratio of Shallow Groundwaters as a Regional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chloride-Magnesium Ratio of Shallow Groundwaters as a Regional Geothermal Indicator in Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  11. Sediment Transport in Shallow Subcritical Flow Disturbed by Simulated Rainfall 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machemehl, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Studies were conducted in a closed system recirculating research flume to evaluate the relative effects of high intensity rainfall on von Karman's universal constant and the sediment transport capacity of shallow flow The tests in this study were...

  12. A Methodology for Evaluating Liquefaction Susceptibility in Shallow Sandy Slopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buscarnera, Giuseppe

    This paper illustrates a modeling approach for evaluating the liquefaction susceptibility of shallow sandy slopes. The methodology is based on a theoretical framework for capturing undrained bifurcation in saturated granular ...

  13. Accidental Gas Emission From Shallow Pressurized Aquifers At...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    impervious cover. Gas consists mostly of CO2 with minor H2S and the diffuse CO2 soil flux is locally very high. Accidental gas blowouts, occurred during shallow well...

  14. Carbon Emissions from Smouldering Peat in Shallow and Strong Fronts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo; Cohen, Simon; Simeoni, Albert

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments of shallow and strong smouldering fronts in boreal peat have been conducted under laboratory conditions to study the CO and CO2 emissions. Peat samples of 100 mm by 100 mm in cross section and 50 ...

  15. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  16. The behavior of shallow flaws in reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolfe, S.T. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Both analytical and experimental studies have shown that the effect of crack length, a, on the elastic-plastic toughness of structural steels is significant. The objective of this report is to recommend those research investigations that are necessary to understand the phenomenon of shallow behavior as it affects fracture toughness so that the results can be used properly in the structural margin assessment of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) with flaws. Preliminary test results of A 533 B steel show an elevated crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) toughness similar to that observed for structural steels tested at the University of Kansas. Thus, the inherent resistance to fracture initiation of A 533 B steel with shallow flaws appears to be higher than that used in the current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) design curves based on testing fracture mechanics specimens with deep flaws. If this higher toughness of laboratory specimens with shallow flaws can be transferred to a higher resistance to failure in RPV design or analysis, then the actual margin of safety in nuclear vessels with shallow flaws would be greater than is currently assumed on the basis of deep-flaw test results. This elevation in toughness and greater resistance to fracture would be a very desirable situation, particularly for the pressurized-thermal shock (PTS) analysis in which shallow flaws are assumed to exist. Before any advantage can be taken of this possible increase in initiation toughness, numerous factors must be analyzed to ensure the transferability of the data. This report reviews those factors and makes recommendations of studies that are needed to assess the transferability of shallow-flaw toughness test results to the structural margin assessment of RPV with shallow flaws. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    19,20). In the coking step, coal is heated III the absencethe "coking" process in In the second step the which coal isCoal Liquefaction Wastewaters Sour Waters from Oil Shale Retorting Sour Waters from Petroleum Refining Sour Waters from Coking

  18. Shallow (2-meter) temperature surveys in Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado 2m Survey Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: Shallow temperature surveys are useful in early-stage geothermal exploration to delineate surface outflow zones, with the intent to identify the source of upwelling, usually a fault. Detailed descriptions of the 2-meter survey method and equipment design can be found in Coolbaugh et al. (2007) and Sladek et al. (2007), and are summarized here. The survey method was devised to measure temperature as far below the zone of solar influence as possible, have minimal equilibration time, and yet be portable enough to fit on the back of an all-terrain vehicle (ATV); Figure 2). This method utilizes a direct push technology (DPT) technique where 2.3 m long, 0.54” outer diameter hollow steel rods are pounded into the ground using a demolition hammer. Resistance temperature devices (RTD) are then inserted into the rods at 2-meter depths, and allowed to equilibrate for one hour. The temperatures are then measured and recorded, the rods pulled out of the ground, and re-used at future sites. Usually multiple rods are planted over the course of an hour, and then the sampler returns back to the first station, measures the temperatures, pulls the rods, and so on, to eliminate waiting time. At Wagon Wheel Gap, 32 rods were planted around the hot springs between June 20 and July 1, 2012. The purpose was to determine the direction of a possible upflow fault or other structure. Temperatures at 1.5m and 2m depths were measured and recorded in the attribute table of this point shapefile. Several anomalous temperatures suggest that outflow is coming from a ~N60W striking fault or shear zone that contains the quartz-fluorite-barite veins of the adjacent patented mining claims. It should be noted that temperatures at 2m depth vary according to the amount of solar heating from above, as well as possible geothermal heating from below. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4490310.560635 m Left: 150307.008238 m Right: 433163.213617 m Bottom: 4009565.915398 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard “Rick” Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  19. Assessing the Impact of Animal Waste Lagoon Seepage on the Geochemistry of an Underlying Shallow Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNab, W W; Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K

    2006-03-07

    Dairy facilities and similar confined animal operation settings pose a significant nitrate contamination threat via oxidation of animal wastes and subsequent transport to shallow groundwater. While nitrate contamination resulting from application of animal manure as fertilizer to fields is well recognized, the impact of manure lagoon leakage on groundwater quality is less well characterized. In this study, a dairy facility located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California has been instrumented with monitoring wells as part of a two-year multidisciplinary study to evaluate nitrate loading and denitrification associated with facility operations. Among multiple types of data collected from the site, groundwater and surface water samples have been analyzed for major cations, anions, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic carbon, and selected dissolved gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne). Modeling of putative geochemical processes occurring within the dairy site manure lagoons shows substantial off-gassing of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in response to mineralization of organic matter. The gas ebullition appears to strip dissolved gases, including Ar and Ne, from the lagoon water leaving concentrations that are undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The resulting fractionated dissolved gas signature serves as an effective tracer for the lagoon water in the underlying shallow groundwater and can be used to constrain inverse geochemical models that assess mixing fractions of lagoon water and local groundwater water. Together with ion exchange and mineral equilibria reactions, identification of lagoon seepage helps explain key attributes of the local groundwater chemistry, including input and cycling of nitrogen, across the site.

  20. Simulations of long-term health risk from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. The model is intended to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for up to 1000 years following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios that may be considered by model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and near site farming. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include:groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Off-site population and individual doses and cancer risks may be calculated as well as doses and risks to the intruder and farmer. Data have been compiled for three extant shallow land burial sites: Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and West Valley, New York. Some simulation results for the Barnwell site are presented. 13 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Undrained sliding resistance of shallow foundations subjected to torsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nouri, Hamidreza; Biscontin, Giovanna; Aubeny, Charles P.; ASCE, M.

    2014-05-02

    OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS 1 SUBJECT TO TORSION 2 Hamidreza Nouri1, Giovanna Biscontin2 and Charles P. Aubeny, M. ASCE3 3 ABSTRACT 4 While the behavior of shallow foundations under vertical load combinations has been the sub-5 ject of numerous studies... of the baseline solutions and PLA approach are evaluated through 56 comparisons to three-dimensional finite element solutions. 57 58 BACKGROUND 59 Murff and Miller (1977) used upper bound limit analysis to study the bearing capacity of mul-60 tiple...

  2. Laboratory Analysis of Vortex Dynamics For Shallow Tidal Inlets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whilden, Kerri Ann

    2010-10-12

    OF VORTEX DYNAMICS FOR SHALLOW TIDAL INLETS A Thesis by KERRI ANN WHILDEN Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Ocean... Engineering LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF VORTEX DYNAMICS FOR SHALLOW TIDAL INLETS A Thesis by KERRI ANN WHILDEN Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  3. Hydrologic and geologic aspects of low-level radioactive-waste site management. [Shallow land burial at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Olsen, C.R.; Huff, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic site characterization is a critical phase in development of shallow land-burial sites for low-level radioactive-waste disposal, especially in humid environments. Structural features such as folds, faults, and bedding and textural features such as formation permeability, porosity, and mineralogy all affect the water balance and water movement and, in turn, radionuclide migration. Where these features vary over short distance scales, detailed mapping is required in order to enable accurate model predictions of site performance and to provide the basis for proper design and planning of site-disposal operations.

  4. Mercury in shallow Savannah River Plant soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, W.H.; Price, V.; Cook, J.R.

    1988-10-01

    Soil concentrations of adsorbed mercury at 999 sites at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were determined by Microseeps Limited of Indianola, PA. The sites were in and around the 643-C Burial Ground, at the Savannah River Swamp adjacent to TNX Area, and at a background area. The Burial Ground was chosen as a test site because of a history of disposal of radioactive mercury there prior to 1968. Extremely low traces of mercury have been detected in the water table beneath the Burial Ground. Although the mercury concentrations at the majority of these sites are at background levels, several areas appear to be anomalously high. In particular, an area of large magnitude anomaly was found in the northwest part of the Burial Ground. Three other single point anomalies and several other areas of more subtle but consistently high values were also found. Several sites with anomalous mercury levels were found in an area of the Savannah River flood plain adjacent to TNX Area.

  5. Frost-protected shallow foundations. Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandell, J.H.; Lund, E.M.; Bruen, M.G.; Nowak, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    Frost-protected shallow foundations (FPSFs) offer a proven technology designed to substantially lower construction costs in colder climates, enhancing housing affordability for families in many parts of the United States. This document provides step-by-step procedures to assist building professionals in designing and laying a slab-on-grade FPSF.

  6. Development Practices for Optimized MEOR in Shallow Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Dunn-Norman

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate an economically viable and sustainable method of producing shallow heavy oil reserves in southwest Missouri and southeast Kansas using a combination of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and hydraulic fracturing of vertical wells.

  7. Regular paper Search for intermediates of photosynthetic water oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junge, Wolfgang

    II of cyanobacteria and plants incorporates the catalytic centre of water oxidation. PoweredRegular paper Search for intermediates of photosynthetic water oxidation Juergen Clausen & Wolfgang Key words: intermediate, photosynthesis, Photosystem II, S-state, water oxidation Abstract Photosystem

  8. Development of a low background liquid scintillation counter for a shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Russell O.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-08-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently opened a shallow underground laboratory intended for measurement of lowconcentration levels of radioactive isotopes in samples collected from the environment. The development of a low-background liquid scintillation counter is currently underway to further augment the measurement capabilities within this underground laboratory. Liquid scintillation counting is especially useful for measuring charged particle (e.g., B, a) emitting isotopes with no (orvery weak) gamma-ray yields. The combination of high-efficiency detection of charged particle emission in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of an appropriately-designed shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides the opportunity for increased-sensitivity measurements of a range of isotopes. To take advantage of the 35-meter water-equivalent overburden of the underground laboratory, a series of simulations have evaluated the instrumental shield design requirements to assess the possible background rate achievable. This report presents the design and background evaluation for a shallow underground, low background liquid scintillation counter design for sample measurements.

  9. True Polar Wander: linking Deep and Shallow Geodynamics to Hydro-and Bio-Spheric Hypotheses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    True Polar Wander: linking Deep and Shallow Geodynamics to Hydro- and Bio-Spheric Hypotheses T. D on the bulk solid Earth over longer tirnescales 565 #12;566 Linking Deep and Shallow Geodynamics to Hydro

  10. Experimental warming increases CO2 saturation in a shallow prairie pond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flanagan, Kyla M.; McCauley, Edward

    2010-01-01

    in a shallow prairie pond Kyla M. Flanagan • Edward McCauleydynamics of lakes and ponds in order to assess contributionsin a shallow prairie pond. We outline and test three

  11. Demonstration of the CDMS II ZIP technology at a shallow underground site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    10.7 kg of polyethylene and 42.6 kg of Pb shielding, and the six ZIPs stacked on top of each other. The detectors are surrounded by 10.7 kg of polyehtylene and 42.6 kg of lead shielding. temperature electronics

  12. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 10: Minor Structures for Ground and Surface Water () March 23, 2010 1 / 31 #12;Classification by Purpose We may classify the velocity of water-flow (ii) increasing the infiltration coefficient (iii) explicit groundwater recharge

  13. The Development of a Coordinated Database for Water Resources and Flow Model in the Paso Del Norte Watershed (Phase III) Part II Availability of Flow and Water Quality Data for the Rio Grande Project Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillery, Sue; Sheng, Zhuping; King, J. Phillip; Creel, Bobby; Brown, Christopher; Michelsen, Ari; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Granados, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    of the Rio Grande flow between Elephant Butte Dam and American Dam by using data collected in the first development phase of the PdNWC/Corps Coor dinated Water Resources Database and to enhance the data portal capabilities of the PdNWC Coordinated... monitoring sites from associated canals, drains, and dams along the Rio Grande. Flow data for the years from 1908 through 2002 and water quality data for the years 1938 to 2005 collected periodically by different agencies include historic chemical...

  14. Water Entry and Related Problems James Mark Oliver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breward, Chris J W

    Water Entry and Related Problems James Mark Oliver St Anne's College University of Oxford A thesis, reconcile and generalize some existing mathematical models for deep- and shallow-water entry at small this thesis builds and discuss our main modelling assumptions. In Chapter 2, the small-deadrise-angle deep-water

  15. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01

    System Piping Time, Water, and Energy Waste- Phase I: TestSystem Piping Time, Water, and Energy Waste - Phase II TestSystem Piping Time, Water, and Energy Waste— Phase III: Test

  16. Differences Between Tropical and Trade-Wind Shallow Cumuli

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent BondingMeetingDifferences Between Tropical and Trade-Wind Shallow

  17. Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohno, Kenichi; Joseph Heremans, F.; Bassett, Lee C.; Myers, Bryan A.; Toyli, David M.; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.; Palmstrom, Christopher J.; Awschalom, David D.

    2012-08-20

    We demonstrate nanometer-precision depth control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation near the surface of synthetic diamond using an in situ nitrogen delta-doping technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Despite their proximity to the surface, doped NV centers with depths (d) ranging from 5 to 100 nm display long spin coherence times, T{sub 2} > 100 {mu}s at d = 5 nm and T{sub 2} > 600 {mu}s at d {>=} 50 nm. The consistently long spin coherence observed in such shallow NV centers enables applications such as atomic-scale external spin sensing and hybrid quantum architectures.

  18. Synergetic effects of II-VI sensitization upon TiO{sub 2} for photoelectrochemical water splitting; a tri-layered structured scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumtaz, Asad, E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, University Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    World's energy demands are growing on a higher scale increasing the need of more reliable and long term renewable energy resources. Efficient photo-electrochemical (PEC) devices based on novel nano-structured designs for solar-hydrogen generation need to be developed. This study provides an insight of the tri-layered-TiO2 based nanostructures. Observing the mechanism of hydrogen production, the comparison of the structural order during the synthesis is pronounced. The sequence in the tri-layered structure affects the photogenerated electron (e{sup ?}) and hole (h{sup +}) pair transfer and separation. It is also discussed that not only the semiconductors band gaps alignment is important with respect to the water redox potential but also the interfacial regions. Quasi-Fermi-level adjustment at the interfacial regions plays a key role in deciding the solar to hydrogen efficiency. More efficient multicomponent semiconductor nano-design (MCSN) could be developed with the approach given in this study.

  19. Water Resources People cand Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Water Resources People cand Issues Interview With Professor Arthur Maass US Army Corps of Engineers Maass. (Water resources people and issues) 1. Water resources development--United States-- Planning--History. 2. Water resources development-- United States--Planning--History--Sources. I. Maass, Arthur. II

  20. Modeling aerosols and their interactions with shallow cumuli during the 2007 CHAPS field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Laskin, Alexander; Chapman, Elaine G.; Gustafson, William I.; Liu, Ying; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2013-02-07

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate relationships between aerosols and clouds in the vicinity of Oklahoma City during the June 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The regional scale simulation completed using 2 km horizontal grid spacing evaluates four important relationships between aerosols and shallow cumulus clouds observed during CHAPS. First, the model reproduces the trends of higher nitrate volume fractions in cloud droplet residuals compared to interstitial non-activated aerosols, as measured using the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Comparing simulations with cloud chemistry turned on and off, we show that nitric acid vapor uptake by cloud droplets explains the higher nitrate content of cloud droplet residuals. Second, as documented using an offline code, both aerosol water and other inorganics (OIN), which are related to dust and crustal emissions, significantly affect predicted aerosol optical properties. Reducing the OIN content of wet aerosols by 50% significantly improves agreement of model predictions with measurements of aerosol optical properties. Third, the simulated hygroscopicity of aerosols is too high as compared to their hygroscopicity derived from cloud condensation nuclei and particle size distribution measurements, indicating uncertainties associated with simulating size-dependent chemical composition and treatment of aerosol mixing state within the model. Fourth, the model reasonably represents the observations of the first aerosol indirect effect where pollutants in the vicinity of Oklahoma City increase cloud droplet number concentrations and decrease the droplet effective radius. While previous studies have often focused on cloud-aerosol interactions in stratiform and deep convective clouds, this study highlights the ability of regional-scale models to represent some of the important aspects of cloud-aerosol interactions associated with fields of short-lived shallow cumuli.

  1. A Low-threshold Analysis of CDMS Shallow-site Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akerib, D.S.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Attisha, M.J.; /Brown U.; Baudis, L.; /Zurich-Irchel U.; Bauer, D.A.; /Fermilab; Bolozdynya, A.I.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Bunker, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Caldwell, D.O.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Chang, C.L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Clarke, R.M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Cooley, J.; /Southern Methodist U.; Crisler, M.B.; /Fermilab; Cushman, P.; /Minnesota U.; DeJongh, F.; /Fermilab; Dixon, R.; /Fermilab; Driscoll, D.D.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Filippini, J.; /Caltech; Funkhouser, S.; /UC, Berkeley; Gaitskell, R.J.; /Brown U.; Golwala, S.R.; /Caltech /Fermilab /Fermilab /Colorado U., Denver /Case Western Reserve U. /Texas A-M /Minnesota U. /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Caltech /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Minnesota U. /Queen's U., Kingston /Minnesota U. /St. Olaf Coll. /Florida U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Texas A-M /UC, Santa Barbara /Syracuse U. /UC, Berkeley /Princeton U. /Case Western Reserve U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara /Fermilab /Santa Clara U.

    2012-06-04

    Data taken during the final shallow-site run of the first tower of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) detectors have been reanalyzed with improved sensitivity to small energy depositions. Four {approx}224 g germanium and two {approx}105 g silicon detectors were operated at the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) between December 2001 and June 2002, yielding 118 live days of raw exposure. Three of the germanium and both silicon detectors were analyzed with a new low-threshold technique, making it possible to lower the germanium and silicon analysis thresholds down to the actual trigger thresholds of {approx}1 and {approx}2 keV, respectively. Limits on the spin-independent cross section for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) to elastically scatter from nuclei based on these data exclude interesting parameter space for WIMPs with masses below 9 GeV/c{sup 2}. Under standard halo assumptions, these data partially exclude parameter space favored by interpretations of the DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT experiments data as WIMP signals, and exclude new parameter space for WIMP masses between 3 and 4 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  2. A low-threshold analysis of CDMS shallow-site data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akerib, D.S.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Attisha, M.J.; /Brown U.; Baudis, L.; /Zurich-Irchel U.; Bauer, D.A.; /Fermilab; Bolozdynya, A.I.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Bunker, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Caldwell, D.O.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Chang, C.L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Clarke, R.M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Southern Methodist U.

    2010-10-01

    Data taken during the final shallow-site run of the first tower of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) detectors have been reanalyzed with improved sensitivity to small energy depositions. Four {approx}224 g germanium and two {approx}105 g silicon detectors were operated at the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) between December 2001 and June 2002, yielding 118 live days of raw exposure. Three of the germanium and both silicon detectors were analyzed with a new low-threshold technique, making it possible to lower the germanium and silicon analysis thresholds down to the actual trigger thresholds of {approx}1 keV and {approx}2 keV, respectively. Limits on the spin-independent cross section for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) to elastically scatter from nuclei based on these data exclude interesting parameter space for WIMPs with masses below 9 GeV/c{sup 2}. Under standard halo assumptions, these data partially exclude parameter space favored by interpretations of the DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT experiments data as WIMP signals, and exclude new parameter space for WIMP masses between 3 GeV/c{sup 2} and 4 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  3. Seismic imaging of the shallow subsurface with high frequency seismic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaelin, B [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-07-01

    Elastic wave propagation in highly heterogeneous media is investigated and theoretical calculations and field measurements are presented. In the first part the dynamic composite elastic medium (DYCEM) theory is derived for one-dimensional stratified media. A self-consistent method using the scattering functions of the individual layers is formulated, which allows the calculation of phase velocity, attenuation and waveform. In the second part the DYCEM theory has been generalized for three-dimensional inclusions. The specific case of spherical inclusions is calculated with the exact scattering functions and compared with several low frequency approximations. In the third part log and VSP data of partially water saturated tuffs in the Yucca Mountain region of Nevada are analyzed. The anomalous slow seismic velocities can be explained by combining self-consistent theories for pores and cracks. The fourth part analyzes an air injection experiment in a shallow fractured limestone, which has shown large effects on the amplitude, but small effects on the travel time of the transmitted seismic waves. The large amplitude decrease during the experiment is mainly due to the impedance contrast between the small velocities of gas-water mixtures inside the fracture and the formation. The slow velocities inside the fracture allow an estimation of aperture and gas concentration profiles.

  4. Seismic Structure of Shallow Lithosphere at Locations of Distinctive Seafloor Spreading /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henig, Ashlee Shae

    2013-01-01

    et al. , 2011) to process the seismic data. The downwardSeismic constraints on shallow crustal emplacement processesemplacement processes from the variation in seismic layer 2a

  5. Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, Jay R.

    -i- Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling In Urban Areas: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Committee in Charge 2008 #12;-ii- TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................................... 4 BENEFICIAL USES OF RECYCLED WATER

  6. Modeling water waves beyond perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clamond, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we illustrate the advantage of variational principles for modeling water waves from an elementary practical viewpoint. The method is based on a `relaxed' variational principle, i.e., on a Lagrangian involving as many variables as possible, and imposing some suitable subordinate constraints. This approach allows the construction of approximations without necessarily relying on a small parameter. This is illustrated via simple examples, namely the Serre equations in shallow water, a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in deep water and how to unify these equations in arbitrary depth. The chapter ends with a discussion and caution on how this approach should be used in practice.

  7. Short Paper: OFDM in Deep Water Acoustic Channels with Extremely Long Delay Spread

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Shengli

    Short Paper: OFDM in Deep Water Acoustic Channels with Extremely Long Delay Spread Zhaohui Wang ABSTRACT Deep water horizontal channels usually have very long de- lay spreads relative to shallow water-block-interference (IBI) in the received signals. In this paper, we consider the application of ZP-OFDM in deep water

  8. Water wave packets over variable depth R. H. J. Grimshaw and S. Y. Annenkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deep to shallow water. It is well-known that in the framework of the usual nonlinear Schrodinger equation, a wave packet can only exist in deep water, more precisely when kh > 1.363 where k water kh 1.363, depending on the sign of the initial value in deep water

  9. A Surface Water Protection Assessment Tool that uses Digital Elevation Models1 Darwin L. Sorensen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    . A first approximation estimate of pollutant concentration reaching the drinking water treatment plant of surface water supplies to pollution from current and future activities in the watershed. Surface water of pollution under various storm intensities can be analyzed. The influences of shallow ground water quality (e

  10. Horizontal-well pilot waterflood tests shallow, abandoned field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpine, J.L. ); Joshi, S.D. )

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on the suitability of using horizontal wells in a waterflood of shallow, partially depleted sands which will be tested in the Jennings field in Oklahoma. The vertical wells drilled in the Jennings field intersect several well-known formations such as Red Fork, Misner, and Bartlesville sand. Most of these formations have been produced over a number of years, and presently no wells are producing in the field. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, wells were drilled on 10-acre spacing, and the last well was plugged in 1961. The field was produced only on primary production and produced approximately 1 million bbl of oil. Because the field was not waterflooded, a large potential exists to produce from the field using secondary methods. To improve the economics for the secondary process, a combination of horizontal and vertical wells was considered.

  11. Mechanics of exchange flow between open water and an aquatic canopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    The presence of aquatic vegetation is a common feature in shallow water systems. It alters the dynamics of the system by producing additional drag and by generating differential heating between regions of vegetation and ...

  12. A strip theory approximation for wave forces on submerged vehicles in finite depth water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rybka Jan A. (Jan Andrzej)

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV's) are becoming of increasing use in shallow waters for oceanographic data collection, coastal mapping, and military operations such as mine surveillance along enemy coastlines. Currently ...

  13. Water budgets and cave recharge on juniper rangelands in the Edwards Plateau 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory, Lucas Frank

    2006-08-16

    Increasing demand for water supplies in semi-arid regions, such as San Antonio, has sparked an interest in potential recharge management through brush control. Two shallow caves under woody plant cover in northern Bexar ...

  14. Effects of Brush Management on Water Resources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, C. Allan; Gregory, Lucas

    2008-01-01

    vegetation growing on abandoned agricultural fields nearby used only 6.2 inches of water. 10 Tromble (1972) also measured the daily rise and fall of a shallow riparian aquifer with a typical depth of 10 to 13 feet below a mesquite woodland...

  15. Critical bifurcation of shallow microtidal landforms in tidal flats and salt marshes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Critical bifurcation of shallow microtidal landforms in tidal flats and salt marshes Sergio by the Editorial Board April 14, 2006 (received for review September 25, 2005) Shallow tidal basins are characterized by extensive tidal flats and salt marshes that lie within specific ranges of elevation, whereas

  16. Biofoam II

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Robert L. (Modesto, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Biofoam is a rigid, microcellular organic foam made from organic materials derived from natural products and biological organisms. Starting materials include agar, agarose, gelatin, algin, alginates, gellan gum, and microcrystalline cellulose. The organic material is dissolved in a polar solvent, typically water, and the mixture is gelled. The water in the gel pores is replaced at least once with another solvent to reduce the pore size of the final biofoam. The solvent in the gel pores may be replaced several times. After the final replacement of solvent, the gel is frozen and freeze-dried to form a biofoam. Translucent biofoams are formed by selecting a final solvent that forms very small crystals. A variety of crystalline, fibrous, amorphous, or metallic additives may be incorporated into the foam structure to produce lightweight composite materials with enhanced strength and insulating properties.

  17. Biofoam II

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, R.L.

    1994-11-01

    Biofoam is a rigid, microcellular organic foam made from organic materials derived from natural products and biological organisms. Starting materials include agar, agarose, gelatin, algin, alginates, gellan gum, and microcrystalline cellulose. The organic material is dissolved in a polar solvent, typically water, and the mixture is gelled. The water in the gel pores is replaced at least once with another solvent to reduce the pore size of the final biofoam. The solvent in the gel pores may be replaced several times. After the final replacement of solvent, the gel is frozen and freeze-dried to form a biofoam. Translucent biofoams are formed by selecting a final solvent that forms very small crystals. A variety of crystalline, fibrous, amorphous, or metallic additives may be incorporated into the foam structure to produce lightweight composite materials with enhanced strength and insulating properties. 1 fig.

  18. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new underwater laser scanning system, providing microbathymetric information in coastal waters is described the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide

  19. The Modeling and Animation of Myriapoda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jingyi

    2015-01-01

    Shallow Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answimming model with shallow water simulation . . . Straightway Coupling with a Shallow-Water Simulation . . . . . . . .

  20. The Soil and Water Assessment Environmental Consequences of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    River Basin #12;Root Zone Shallow (unconfined) Aquifer Vadose (unsaturated) Zone Confining Layer Deep Weather Stations and Time Series Hydrography Run Output Maps The Soil and Water Assessment Tool #12;The Tana River Basin Poor Land Management Poor Downstream Water Supply Disruption of wildlife habitat

  1. Hydroelastic slamming response in the evolution of a flip-through event during shallow-liquid sloshing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lugni, C.; CeSOS Bardazzi, A.; DIMA - University of Rome “Sapienza,” Roma ; Faltinsen, O. M.

    2014-03-15

    The evolution of a flip-through event [6] upon a vertical, deformable wall during shallow-water sloshing in a 2D tank is analyzed, with specific focus on the role of hydroelasticity. An aluminium plate, whose dimensions are Froude-scaled in order to reproduce the first wet natural frequency associated with the typical structural panel of a Mark III containment system, is used. (Mark III Containment System is a membrane-type tank used in the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier to contain the LNG. A typical structural panel is composed by two metallic membranes and two independent thermal insulation layers. The first membrane contains the LNG, the second one ensures redundancy in case of leakage.) Such a system is clamped to a fully rigid vertical wall of the tank at the vertical ends while being kept free on its lateral sides. Hence, in a 2D flow approximation the system can be suitably modelled, as a double-clamped Euler beam, with the Euler beam theory. The hydroelastic effects are assessed by cross-analyzing the experimental data based both on the images recorded by a fast camera, and on the strain measurements along the deformable panel and on the pressure measurements on the rigid wall below the elastic plate. The same experiments are also carried out by substituting the deformable plate with a fully stiff panel. The pressure transducers are mounted at the same positions of the strain gauges used for the deformable plate. The comparison between the results of rigid and elastic case allows to better define the role of hydroelasticity. The analysis has identified three different regimes characterizing the hydroelastic evolution: a quasi-static deformation of the beam (regime I) precedes a strongly hydroelastic behavior (regime II), for which the added mass effects are relevant; finally, the free-vibration phase (regime III) occurs. A hybrid method, combining numerical modelling and experimental data from the tests with fully rigid plate is proposed to examine the hydroelastic effects. Within this approach, the measurements provide the experimental loads acting on the rigid plate, while the numerical solution enables a more detailed analysis, by giving additional information not available from the experimental tests. More in detail, an Euler beam equation is used to model numerically the plate with the added-mass contribution estimated in time. In this way the resulting hybrid method accounts for the variation of the added mass associated with the instantaneous wetted length of the beam, estimated from the experimental images. Moreover, the forcing hydrodynamic load is prescribed by using the experimental pressure distribution measured in the rigid case. The experimental data for the elastic beam are compared with the numerical results of the hybrid model and with those of the standard methods used at the design stage. The comparison against the experimental data shows an overall satisfactory prediction of the hybrid model. The maximum peak pressure predicted by the standard methods agrees with the result of the hybrid model only when the added mass effect is considered. However, the standard methods are not able to properly estimate the temporal evolution of the plate deformation.

  2. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  3. Pen Branch fault program: Consolidated report on the seismic reflection surveys and the shallow drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.L.; Stephenson, D.E.; Aadland, R.K.

    1991-03-23

    The Pen Branch fault was identified in the subsurface at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1989 based upon interpretation of earlier seismic reflection surveys and other geologic investigations (Seismorgraph Services Incorp., 1973; Chapman and DiStefano, 1989; Snipes, Fallaw and Price, 1989). A program was initiated at that time to determine the capability of the fault to release seismic energy (Price and others, 1989) as defined in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines, 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. This report presents the results of the Pen Branch fault investigation based on data acquired from seismic reflection surveys and shallow drilling across the fault completed at this time. The Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has reviewed the results of these investigations and unanimously agrees with the conclusion of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) that the Pen Branch fault is a non-capable fault. ESAC is a committee of 12 earth science professionals from academia and industry with the charter of providing outside peer review of SRS geotechnical, seismic, and ground water modeling programs.

  4. Determining the Fate of Methane Released from the Seafloor in Deep and Shallow Water Environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Mengran

    2014-08-12

    Marine gas seeps and accidental marine oil spills are sources of methane (CH_(4)) to the ocean, and potentially to the atmosphere, though the magnitude of the fluxes and dynamics of these systems are poorly defined. For example, the ultimate...

  5. Linear acoustic sensitivity kernels and their applications in shallow water environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Bikramjit

    2011-01-01

    have on acoustic propagation via the wave equation. TSKwave equation has been previously explored with respect to travel-time sensitivity of peak-arrivals in ocean acoustic

  6. Soliton solutions of the KP equation and application to shallow water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarvarish Chakravarty; Yuji Kodama

    2009-04-17

    The main purpose of this paper is to give a survey of recent development on a classification of soliton solutions of the KP equation. The paper is self-contained, and we give a complete proof for the theorems needed for the classification. The classification is based on the Schubert decomposition of the real Grassmann manifold, Gr$(N,M)$, the set of $N$-dimensional subspaces in $\\mathbb{R}^M$. Each soliton solution defined on Gr$(N,M)$ asymptotically consists of the $N$ number of line-solitons for $y\\gg 0$ and the $M-N$ number of line-solitons for $y\\ll 0$. In particular, we give the detailed description of those soliton solutions associated with Gr$(2,4)$, which play a fundamental role of multi-soliton solutions. We then consider a physical application of some of those solutions related to the Mach reflection discussed by J. Miles in 1977.

  7. A ROBUST WELL-BALANCED SCHEME FOR MULTI-LAYER SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the overall property of being conservative in the total momentum. It is based on a source-centered hydro of the layers with respect to horizontal scales, small viscosity, hydrostatics, small slope for the topography-centered hydro- static reconstruction scheme for the one-layer system, a variant of the hydrostatic

  8. Critical controls in transcritical shallow-water flow over obstacles Roger H.J. Grimshaw1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    upstream and a depression chock propagating downstream. Classical shock closure conditions are used the obstacle, which has an upstream elevation and a downstream depression, each terminated by upstream. The upstream flow can be characterised as subcritical, supercritical, and transcritical respectively. We review

  9. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Transcritical shallow-water flow past

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wave amplitudes for the upstream and downstream undular bores, the speeds of the undular bores edges is with the upstream and downstream waves that may be generated for flow over a one-dimensional localized obstacle lee waves are found downstream, together with transients propagating both upstream and downstream

  10. Optimized Schwarz methods with an overset grid for the shallow-water equations: preliminary results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gander, Martin J.

    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, Montr´eal, Canada Section de Math by the Canadian Foundation for Climate Atmospheric Science Partially supported by U.S. Department of Energy

  11. A higher order discontinuous Galerkin, global shallow water model: Global ocean tides and aquaplanet benchmarks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peltier, W. Richard

    and aquaplanet benchmarks H. Salehipour , G.R. Stuhne, W.R. Peltier Physics Department, University of Toronto, not only under modern global warming conditions but also in the deep past (Griffiths and Peltier, 2008; Griffiths and Peltier, 2009; Egbert et al., 2004; Uehara et al., 2006). In order to better address all

  12. Design and environmental force-induced moment analysis of a shallow water oceanographic mooring dynamic antenna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Nam Huu

    2012-01-01

    on the Underside of the GEOCE Buoy . . . . . . . . . . . .Ransacked Buoy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .by NOAA National Data Buoy Center. Oceans 2009, Marine Tech-

  13. Dynamic coupling between horizontal vessel motion and two-layer shallow-water sloshing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridges, Tom

    and control of liquid transport, e.g. the terrestrial transport of liquids, oil and liquid natural gas are obtained for the linear problem, giving the natural frequencies and the resonance structure, particularly between the vessel and fluid motion. 1 Introduction The effect of liquid sloshing on the dynamics

  14. Substrate selection by demersal calanoid copepods in shallow waters of Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Eric Kingsbury

    1986-01-01

    the different substrates provided density estimates of ppdpplt'h'hp lllddyt'd't'. ~pdd' t coronatus was the dominant species in the benthic samples and was most abundant on the silty-sand substrate fringing the oyster reef. A manipulative field experiment.... ~pd 1 p. f d 1 t 1 ( ly th y t h 11 the substrate container. Pigmented calanoid copepods that are larger (P. t ) d 1 (~pd y 1 p) p 'tly t'1'* different substrates as an adaptive strategy against predation pressure. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I gratefully...

  15. Shallow-Water Piscivore-Prey Dynamics in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nobriga, Matthew L.; Feyrer, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, partfeeding, and behavior of Sacramento squawfish (Ptychocheilusblages of the alien-dominated Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta,

  16. Study of spatial variability of surficial shallow water sediment properties with wavelet correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mechanisms are poorly understood. In particular, what is the acoustic-seismic energy conversion process Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55415-1227, U.S.A. Abstract Seismic waves traveling? As seismic waves involve both time and space parameters it should be able to relate directly the propagation

  17. Analysis of Multi-Component Seismic Data in the Shallow Water Environment of the Arabian Gulf 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhao

    2015-05-13

    and determining radial and transverse components. Third, we introduce the new 4C ocean bottom cable (OBC) processing strategy using both compressional and shear waves to recover the image of the subsurface from noisy seismic data. Comparing the time slices...

  18. Applying Single-Layer Shallow-Water Theory to Gap Flows in the Brenner Pass Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    /22 +-= cc BFFM1=cF Arakawa (69), Armi (84) = bbB cc / orography layer height #12;The Wipp valley orography: · pressure jumps · speed maximum in lower third of Wipp valley (several secondary maxima) 2. Radiosoundings.9 at GED 3. Wind and aerosol backscatter lidar: · speed-up in lower third of Wipp valley indicating

  19. A Standard Test Set for Numerical Approximations to the Shallow Water Equations in Spherical Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of algorithms adapted to massively parallel computers. 1 #12; 1 Introduction The early days of global atmospheric modeling saw significant efforts in adapting then current numerical methods to solving fluid flow alternative methods of approximation for global atmospheric models. Currently there is renewed interest

  20. Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Geothermal Research. () . Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (1) Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Area (Richards, Et Al.,...

  1. Carbonate clumped isotope variability in shallow water corals: Temperature dependence and growth-related vital effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -related vital effects Casey Saenger a, , Hagit P. Affek a , Thomas Felis b , Nivedita Thiagarajan c , Janice M in the winter growth of a hermatypic coral provided early evidence for possible D47 vital effects. Here, we mechanisms as the leading cause for this apparent D47 vital effect including: salinity, organic matter

  2. Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio Program |View NewParatekPassaic County, NewRenewables LLCColorado,

  3. Pattern of shallow ground water flow at Mount Princeton Hot Springs,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio Program |View NewParatekPassaic County, NewRenewables

  4. The Failure of EPA's Water Quality Reforms: From Environment-Enhancing Competition to Uniformity and Polluter Profits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Andrew P.; Yandle, Bruce; Meiners, Roger E.

    2001-01-01

    Regulation. II. The Need for Federalism in Water PollutionIntegrated Approaches to Water Pollution: Lessons from theAccoUNTING OFFICE, WATER POLLUTION: DIFFERENCES AMONG THE

  5. The Failure of EPA's Water Quality Reforms: From Environment-Enhancing Competition to Uniformity and Polluter Profits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Andrew P.; Yandle, Bruce; Meiners, Roger E.

    2001-01-01

    there were no federal water pollution control statutes.Regulation. II. The Need for Federalism in Water PollutionIntegrated Approaches to Water Pollution: Lessons from the

  6. Artificial Photosynthesis II -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II - Artificial Photosynthesis II - Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) Simulations NathanLewis.png Schematic of a photoelectrochemical cell being designed to harness...

  7. Sensor integration study for a shallow tunnel detection system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, Mark L.; Abbott, Robert E.; Bonal, Nedra; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Senglaub, Michael E.

    2010-02-01

    During the past several years, there has been a growing recognition of the threats posed by the use of shallow tunnels against both international border security and the integrity of critical facilities. This has led to the development and testing of a variety of geophysical and surveillance techniques for the detection of these clandestine tunnels. The challenges of detection of these tunnels arising from the complexity of the near surface environment, the subtlety of the tunnel signatures themselves, and the frequent siting of these tunnels in urban environments with a high level of cultural noise, have time and again shown that any single technique is not robust enough to solve the tunnel detection problem in all cases. The question then arises as to how to best combine the multiple techniques currently available to create an integrated system that results in the best chance of detecting these tunnels in a variety of clutter environments and geologies. This study utilizes Taguchi analysis with simulated sensor detection performance to address this question. The analysis results show that ambient noise has the most effect on detection performance over the effects of tunnel characteristics and geological factors.

  8. The impact of shrimp trawling and associated sediment resuspension in mud dominated, shallow estuaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dellapenna, Timothy M.; Allison, Mead A.; Gill, Gary A.; Lehman, Ronald D.; Warnken, Kent W.

    2006-07-18

    To address the relative importance of shrimp trawling on seabed resuspension and bottom characteristics in shallow estuaries, a series of disturbance and monitoring experiments were conducted at a bay bottom mud site (2.5 m depth) in Galveston Bay, Texas in July 1998 and May 1999. Based on pre- and post-trawl sediment profiles of 7Be; pore water dissolved oxygen and sulfide concentration; and bulk sediment properties, it was estimated that the trawl rig, including the net, trawl doors, and ‘‘tickler chain,’’ excavate the seabed to a maximum depth of approximately 1.5 cm, with most areas displaying considerably less disturbance. Water column profile data in the turbid plume left by the trawl in these underconsolidated muds (85e90% porosity; <0.25 kPa undrained shear strength) demonstrate that suspended sediment inventories of up to 85e90 mg/cm2 are produced immediately behind the trawl net; an order of magnitude higher than pre-trawl inventories and comparable to those observed during a 9e10 m/s wind event at the study site. Plume settling and dispersion caused suspended sediment inventories to return to pre-trawl values about 14 min after trawl passage in two separate experiments, indicating particles re-settle primarily as flocs before they can be widely dispersed by local currents. As a result of the passage of the trawl rig across the seabed, shear strength of the sediment surface showed no significant increase, suggesting that bed armoring is not taking place and the trawled areas will not show an increase in critical shear stress.

  9. Assessment of Injection Well Construction and Operation for Water Injection Wells and Salt Water Disposal Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as drilling mud and work- over fluids. These are all shallow wells using injected fresh water to dissolve salt Disposal Wells in the Nine Township Area ­ 2009 September 2009 Prepared by Delaware Basin Drilling into a brine solution. In order to develop a solution mine, either a new well is drilled for brine extraction

  10. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in thermal waters at Zunil, Guatemala

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, R.O.; Hanshaw, B.B.; Urrutia Sole, J.F.

    1982-10-01

    Enthalpy-chloride relations suggest that a deep reservoir exists at Zunil with a temperature near 300/sup 0/C. Water from that reservoir moves to shallower and cooler local reservoirs, where it mixes with diluted water and then attains a new water-rock chemical equilibrium. This mixed water, in turn, generally is further diluted before being discharged from thermal springs. The stable-isotopic composition of the thermal water indicates that recharge for the deep water at Zunil comes mainly from local sources. The presence of measurable tritium, which suggests that the deep water has been underground about 20 to 30 years, also indicates a local source for the recharge.

  11. Environmental influences on largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides populations in shallow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). Vegetation coverage of lakes plays a vital role in the population dynamics of largemouth bass (Aggus & Elliot), and too little coverage apparently is linked to low recruitment in some waters (Aggus & Elliot 1975

  12. Water wave packets over variable depth R. H. J. Grimshaw and S. Y. Annenkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water wave packets over variable depth R. H. J. Grimshaw and S. Y. Annenkov Department to describe how a water wave packet will deform and eventually be destroyed as it propagates shoreward from deep to shallow water. It is well-known that in the framework of the usual nonlinear Schrodinger

  13. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  14. Automatic deployment of a 2-D geophone array for efficient ultra-shallow seismic imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsoflias, Georgios P.; Steeples, Don W.; Czarnecki, Gerard P.; Sloan, Steven D.; Eslick, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    -shallow seismic data. Field tests show automatic planting and moving of the geophone array is possible in three minutes by one or two field operators. Conceptually, the design could accommodate hundreds of geophones handled by a single operator...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon in soil and shallow groundwater, Konza Prairie LTER Site, NE Kanas, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsypin, Mikhail

    2011-12-31

    Sources and seasonal trends of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in a shallow limestone aquifer were studied for 1 year at the Konza Prairie LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) Site in northeastern Kansas, from spring 2010 to spring 2011. Annual...

  16. Measurements of Heat Transfer Coefficients to Cylinders in Shallow Bubble Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tow, Emily W.

    High heat transfer coefficients and large interfacial areas make bubble columns ideal for dehumidification. However, the effect of geometry on the heat transfer coefficients outside cooling coils in shallow bubble columns, ...

  17. Surface and bottom boundary layer dynamics on a shallow submarine bank : southern flank of Georges Bank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werner, Sandra R. (Sandra Regina)

    1999-01-01

    The thesis investigates the circulation at a 76-m deep study site on the southern flank of Georges Bank, a shallow submarine bank located between the deeper Gulf of Maine and the continental slope. Emphasis is placed on ...

  18. Observations and modeling of shallow fault creep along the San Andreas Fault System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Meng

    2011-01-01

    third goal is to test the two-layer creep model for aseismican additional test, we removed data where the creep rate wastest the hypothesis that the depth of the long-term shallow steady creep

  19. PRINCIPLES OF SEISMIC HOLOGRAPHY FOR DIAGNOSTICS OF THE SHALLOW SUBPHOTOSPHERE Charles Lindsey and D. C. Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Douglas C.

    PRINCIPLES OF SEISMIC HOLOGRAPHY FOR DIAGNOSTICS OF THE SHALLOW SUBPHOTOSPHERE Charles Lindsey develop the wave-mechanical formalism for phase-correlation computational seismic holography headinggs: Sun: activity -- Sun: helioseismology -- sunspots 1. INTRODUCTION Computational seismic

  20. Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled release experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a...

  1. Western Shallow Oil Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General Reservoir Study, Executive Summary: Bittium, Wilhelm, Gusher, and Calitroleum Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, K.B.

    1987-12-22

    The general Reservoir Study of the Western Shallow Oil Zone was prepared by Evans, Carey and Crozier as Task Assignment 009 with the United States Department of Energy. The study addresses the Bittium Wilhelm, Gusher, and Calitroleum Sands and their several sub units and pools. A total of twenty-eight (28) separate reservoir units have been identified and analyzed. Areally, these reservoirs are located in 31 separate sections of land including and lying northwest of sections 5G, 8G, and 32S, all in the Elk Hills Oil Fileds, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County California. Vertically, the reservoirs occur as shallow as 2600 feet and as deep as 4400 feet. Underlying a composite productive area of about 8300 acres, the reservoirs originally contained an estimated 138,022,000 stock tank barrels of oil, and 85,000 MMCF of gas, 6300 MMCF of which occurred as free gas in the Bittium and W-1B Sands. Since original discovery in April 1919, a total of over 500 wells have been drilled into or through the zones, 120 of which were completed as Western Shallow Oil Zone producers. Currently, these wells are producing about 2452 barrels of oil per day, 1135 barrels of water per day and 5119 MCF of gas per day from the collective reservoirs. Basic pressure, production and assorted technical data were provided by the US Department of Energy staff at Elk Hills. These data were accepted as furnished with no attempt being made by Evans, Carey and Crozier for independent vertification. This study has successfully identified the size and location of all commercially productive pools in the Western Shallow Oil Zone. It has identified the petrophysical properties and the past productive performance of the reservoirs. Primary reserves have been determined and general means of enhancing future recovery have been suggested. 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan P. Byrnes; Saibal Bhattacharya; John Victorine; Ken Stalder

    2007-09-30

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on carbonate reservoirs of widely varying moldic pore systems that represent the major of reservoirs in Kansas and are important nationally and worldwide. A goal of the project is to measure wettability, using representative oils from Kansas fields, on a wide range of moldic-porosity lithofacies that are representative of Kansas and midcontinent shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs. This investigation will discern the relative influence of wetting and pore architecture. In the midcontinent, reservoir water saturations are frequently greater than 'irreducible' because many reservoirs are largely in the capillary transition zone. This can change the imbibition oil-water relative permeability relations. Ignoring wettability and transition-zone relative permeabilities in reservoir modeling can lead to over- and under-prediction of oil recovery and recovery rates, and less effective improved recovery management. A goal of this project is to measure drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeabilities for a large representative range of lithofacies at differ ent initial water saturations to obtain relations that can be applied everywhere in the reservoir. The practical importance of these relative permeability and wettability models will be demonstrated by using reservoir simulation studies on theoretical/generic and actual reservoir architectures. The project further seeks to evaluate how input of these new models affects reservoir simulation results at varying scales. A principal goal is to obtain data that will allow us to create models that will show how to accurately simulate flow in the shallow-structure, complex carbonate reservoirs that lie in the transition zone. Tasks involved to meet the project objectives include collection and consolidation of available data into a publicly accessible relational digital database and collection of oil and rock samples from carbonate fields around the state (Task 1). Basic properties of these rocks and oils will be measured and used in wettability tests. Comparison will be performed between crude and synthetic oil wettability and

  3. Water Mist Suppression in Conjunction with Displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Water Mist Suppression in Conjunction with Displacement Ventilation By Benjamin Piers Hume-2758 #12;#12;Displacement Water Mist System Masters of Fire Engineering Thesis 2003 i A man of genius makes Water Mist System Masters of Fire Engineering Thesis 2003 ii #12;Displacement Water Mist System Masters

  4. Water Clean Water Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Keep Our Water Clean Keep Our Water Clean Home and garden pesticides and fertilizers are polluting residues wash into gutters, storm drains, and streams by rain,garden watering,or cleaning up drinking water. Follow these tips to keep our rivers, creeks, and oceans clean. What can you do to protect

  5. Water, water everywhere,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Marc O.

    1 Water, water everywhere, but is it safe to drink? An Inquiry-based unit investigating the journey of your drinking water from source to tap of drinking water will contain different contaminants, based on surrounding land uses (guided inquiry activity

  6. Water Resources Forests & Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Forests & Water More than half of the nation's freshwater supply originates on forestland. Healthy and sustainable forests can help ensure a continuous supply of clean and abundant water. Not only does forestland provide the cleanest water of any land use, it also helps absorb rainfall

  7. The Reactor engineering of the MITR-II : construction and startup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, G. C.

    1976-01-01

    The heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor, MITR-I, has been replaced with a light water cooled, heavy water reflected reactor called the MITR-II. The MITR-II is designed to operate at 5 thermal megawatts. The ...

  8. Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/WaterEnergy Marketing CorpMember CorpPhilippines |surveys.

  9. Chap. II : Les structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poinsot, Laurent

    Chap. II : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot Chap. II : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot 12 f´evrier 2009 #12;Chap. II : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot Les objets structur´es Pour de types "structur´es". #12;Chap. II : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot Les objets structur´es

  10. Volume II, Chapter 12 Lewis River Subbasin--Upper North Fork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volume II, Chapter 12 Lewis River Subbasin--Upper North Fork #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................. 12-17 12.5.3 Water Quality

  11. Volume II, Chapter 11 Lewis River Subbasin--Lower North Fork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volume II, Chapter 11 Lewis River Subbasin--Lower North Fork #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................................... 11-33 11.5.3 Water Quality

  12. Ocean Response to Wind Variations, Warm Water Volume, and Simple Models of ENSO in the Low-Frequency Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocean Response to Wind Variations, Warm Water Volume, and Simple Models of ENSO in the Low the smallness of the ratio «k 5 Tk/T to expand solutions of the ocean shallow-water equations into power series- izontal redistribution of warm surface water along the equator: during an El Nin~o, weakened zonal winds

  13. Reconstruction of Early Paleogene North Pacific Deep-Water Circulation using the Neodymium Isotopic Composition of Fossil Fish Debris 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hague, Ashley Melissa

    2012-10-19

    Seamount sites. The Emperor Seamount chain likely played a major role in the flow of the North Pacific deep-water mass as it acted as a physical barrier to flow at deep-water sites compared to shallow depths (albeit still deep-water). ?Nd values indicate...

  14. PNNL offers 'virtual tour' of Shallow Underground Laboratory | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal of HonorPoster SessionPrograms |Y-12 reduces waterM, Page

  15. Seismic interpretation and regional geologic correlation established for offshore Togo, West Africa: a preliminary evaluation of hydrocarbon potential in deep water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Max Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Offshore Togo, West Africa provides exciting potential for hydrocarbon exploration. Previous exploration is limited to four wells, drilled prior to 1986 in shallow water. This investigation focuses on a 625 km² section of 3100 km² of high quality...

  16. Two-component equations modelling water waves with constant vorticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim Escher; David Henry; Boris Kolev; Tony Lyons

    2014-09-30

    In this paper we derive a two-component system of nonlinear equations which model two-dimensional shallow water waves with constant vorticity. Then we prove well-posedness of this equation using a geometrical framework which allows us to recast this equation as a geodesic flow on an infinite dimensional manifold. Finally, we provide a criteria for global existence.

  17. Sedimentology (1983)30, 261-271 Diagenetic density inversionsand the deformationof shallow marine chert beds in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ze'ev, Reches

    1983-01-01

    Sedimentology (1983)30, 261-271 Diagenetic density inversionsand the deformationof shallow marine; Kolodny, Tarablus & Frieslander, 1980), stratigraphy and structure (Steinitz, 1974; Reuf, 1967)of its

  18. 3D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levander, Alan Richard; Zelt, Colin A.

    2015-03-17

    The work plan for this project was to develop and apply advanced seismic reflection and wide-angle processing and inversion techniques to high resolution seismic data for the shallow subsurface to seismically characterize the shallow subsurface at hazardous waste sites as an aid to containment and cleanup activities. We proposed to continue work on seismic data that we had already acquired under a previous DoE grant, as well as to acquire additional new datasets for analysis. The project successfully developed and/or implemented the use of 3D reflection seismology algorithms, waveform tomography and finite-frequency tomography using compressional and shear waves for high resolution characterization of the shallow subsurface at two waste sites. These two sites have markedly different near-surface structures, groundwater flow patterns, and hazardous waste problems. This is documented in the list of refereed documents, conference proceedings, and Rice graduate theses, listed below.

  19. Tuscarora Phase II SEA DOE November 2014 DOE/EA-1849-S-1 SUPPLEMENTAL...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of using water cooling towers. Because air-cooling fans require more space than a water cooling tower, the Phase II plant will have a slightly larger footprint but will use less...

  20. C02 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Kovar; Scott Wehner

    1998-01-31

    The principal objective of this CO2 Huf-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO2 H-n-P process, coupled with reservoir characterization components are to be used to determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan of increasing oil production and deferring abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs.

  1. GIOVE - A New Detector Setup for High Sensitivity Germanium Spectroscopy At Shallow Depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerd Heusser; Marc Weber; Janina Hakenmüller; Matthias Laubenstein; Manfred Lindner; Werner Maneschg; Hardy Simgen; Dominik Stolzenburg; Herbert Strecker

    2015-07-13

    We report on the development and construction of the high-purity germanium spectrometer setup GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer Veto), recently built and now operated at the shallow underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut f\\"ur Kernphysik, Heidelberg. Particular attention was paid to the design of a novel passive and active shield, aiming at efficient rejection of environmental and muon induced radiation backgrounds. The achieved sensitivity level of <100 {\\mu}Bq/kg for primordial radionuclides from U and Th in typical {\\gamma} ray sample screening measurements is unique among instruments located at comparably shallow depths and can compete with instruments at far deeper underground sites.

  2. Shallow Efimov tetramer as inelastic virtual state and resonant enhancement of the atom-trimer relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Deltuva

    2011-08-22

    We use exact four-boson scattering equations in the momentum-space framework to study the universal properties of shallow Efimov tetramers and their dependence on the two-boson scattering length. We demonstrate that, in contrast to previous predictions, the shallow tetramer in a particular experimentally unexplored regime is not an unstable bound state but an inelastic virtual state. This leads to a resonant behaviour of the atom-trimer scattering length and thereby to a resonant enhancement of the trimer relaxation in ultracold atom-trimer mixtures.

  3. Shallow Efimov tetramer as inelastic virtual state and resonant enhancement of the atom-trimer relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deltuva, A

    2011-01-01

    We use exact four-boson scattering equations in the momentum-space framework to study the universal properties of shallow Efimov tetramers and their dependence on the two-boson scattering length. We demonstrate that, in contrast to previous predictions, the shallow tetramer in a certain experimentally unexplored regime is not an unstable bound state but inelastic virtual state. This leads to a resonant behaviour of the atom-trimer scattering length and thereby to a resonant enhancement of the trimer relaxation in ultracold atom-trimer mixtures.

  4. 1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 707, Nonlinear Water Wave Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. Department, Course Number, Title ORE 707, Nonlinear Water Wave Theories 2. Designation as a Required or Elective Course Elective 3. Course Catalog Description Higher-order theories. Forced oscillations. Stokes theory. Nonlinear shallow-water wave equations and hydraulic jumps; effects of rotation

  5. ACRA-II

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003089IBMPC00 ACRA-II: Kernel Integration Code System for Estimation of Radiation Doses Caused by a Hypothetical Reactor Accident   

  6. Seismic hazard due to small-magnitude, shallow-source, induced earthquakes in The Netherlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    using simple model assumptions and are accompanied by an uncertainty analysis. The PSHA provides-land gas reservoirs, which are being exploited since 1960. Small-magnitude (ML 3.5), shallow (depth a Probablistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). We predict, and observe, relatively high Peak Ground Accelerations

  7. Ultra-shallow seismic imaging of the top of the saturated zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Steven D.; Tsoflias, Georgios P.; Steeples, Don W.

    2010-04-08

    We collected ultra-shallow seismic-reflection data to image the near-surface stratigraphy of a Kansas River point bar. We were successful in identifying a discontinuous clay layer and the top of the saturated zone at depths of 0.95 and 1.4 m...

  8. Wind-driven Sediment Suspension Controls Light Availability in a Shallow Coastal Lagoon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGlathery, Karen

    Wind-driven Sediment Suspension Controls Light Availability in a Shallow Coastal Lagoon S. E, was determined for a summer and late fall time period with different wind conditions. We combined field and currents in Hog Island Bay responded strongly to wind forcing, with bottom stresses from wind driven waves

  9. CORIOLIS EFFECTS IN MESOSCALE SHALLOW LAYER FLOWS J. C. R. Hunt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    CORIOLIS EFFECTS IN MESOSCALE SHALLOW LAYER FLOWS J. C. R. Hunt ¢¡ £ ,A. Orr , D. Cresswell layer or inversion layer, is developed for idealised and steady, but typical, mesoscale atmospheric estimates for a wide range of perturbed mesoscale flows, especially where the surface conditions change

  10. A shallow seismic reflection survey in basalts of the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard D.; Steeples, Don W.

    1990-06-01

    recorded along a 500 m long line over a basalt, rhyolite, and sedimentary sequence in the Snake River Plain. Some shallow reflections at 40 to 50 ms on the field files are of exceptional quality with frequency exceeding 150 Hz. Reflections and refractions...

  11. SHALMANESER A Toolchain For Shallow Semantic Parsing Katrin Erk and Sebastian Pad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padó, Sebastian

    SHALMANESER­ A Toolchain For Shallow Semantic Parsing Katrin Erk and Sebastian Padó Computational Linguistics Saarland University Saarbrücken, Germany erk,pado@coli.uni-sb.de Abstract This paper presentsNet (Fillmore et al., 2003) for English, SALSA (Erk et al., 2003) for German, and the Prague Dependency Treebank

  12. Sedimentary environments and processes in a shallow, Gulf Coast Estuary-Lavaca Bay, Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronikowski, Jason Lee

    2004-11-15

    Sedimentation rates in sediment cores from Lavaca Bay have been high within the last 1-2 decays within the central portion of the bay, with small fluctuations from river input. Lavaca Bay is a broad, flat, and shallow (<3 m) microtidal estuary...

  13. Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons at shallow depth J. Busenitz,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piepke, Andreas G.

    Neutron production by cosmic-ray muons at shallow depth F. Boehm,3 J. Busenitz,1 B. Cook,3 G Received 23 June 2000; published 12 October 2000 The yield of neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons of one and two neutron captures was determined. Modeling the neutron capture efficiency allowed us

  14. MULTIPROBE EXPLORATION OF THE GIANT PLANETS SHALLOW PROBES Sushil K. Atreya(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    . Here we discuss a new approach, which combines microwave radiometry with shallow entry probes with probes and microwave radiometry ­ could be ready in the near short term within the cost cap of NASA's New cost savings. 1. INTRODUCTION It was well-known even before the start of the Voyager Project in 1974

  15. Depth determinations of shallow hydrothermal systems by self-potential and multi-scale wavelet tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams-Jones, Glyn

    to significantly enhance our ability to locate geothermal systems and monitor active volcanoes. © 2010 Elsevier BDepth determinations of shallow hydrothermal systems by self-potential and multi-scale wavelet studies, the depth of the hydrothermal system is always required, but rarely known via traditional

  16. Simulating heat transport of harmonic temperature signals in the Earth's shallow subsurface: Lower-boundary sensitivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    Simulating heat transport of harmonic temperature signals in the Earth's shallow subsurface: Lower changes, freeze-thaw cycles, and hydrologic dynamics. It is uncertain, however, whether the reported atmospheric simulations. Citation: Smerdon, J. E., and M. Stieglitz (2006), Simulating heat transport

  17. Multicomponent seismic data registration for subsurface characterization in the shallow Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    OTC 15117 Multicomponent seismic data registration for subsurface characterization in the shallow acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Abstract Using multicomponent ocean-bottom seismic images. The algorithm improves the matching of the two seismic volumes obtained by previous manual

  18. RESEARCH PAPER Centrifuge model test on the face stability of shallow tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borja, Ronaldo I.

    RESEARCH PAPER Centrifuge model test on the face stability of shallow tunnel Gregor Idinger · Pelin on a small-scale tunnel model in a geotechnical centrifuge. By making use of symmetry, half of the tunnel wall and measured by digital image correlation. The results from centrifuge model tests were compared

  19. A New Bulk Shallow-Cumulus Model and Implications for Penetrative Entrainment Feedback on Updraft Buoyancy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bretherton, Chris

    A New Bulk Shallow-Cumulus Model and Implications for Penetrative Entrainment Feedback on Updraft than prognosing, the cumulus-layer gradients and introducing a penetrative entrainment closure assumptions about lateral cumulus entrainment and detrainment and a simplified sub-cloud-layer entrainment

  20. Strontium and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Late Jurassic shallow marine limestone in western Palaeo-Pacific, northwest Borneo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Strontium and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Late Jurassic shallow marine limestone in western-Pacific a b s t r a c t Strontium and carbon isotope stratigraphy was applied to a 202 m-thick shallow marine al., 2002; Philip, 2003). The stratigraphy and palaeontology of Upper Jurassic limestones have been

  1. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  2. LABORATORY II MECHANICAL OSCILLATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Lab II - 1 LABORATORY II MECHANICAL OSCILLATIONS Most of the laboratory problems so far have was constant. In this set of laboratory problems, the total force acting on an object, and thus its's oscillation frequency. OBJECTIVES: After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to

  3. Investigating Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02

    This 3-ring binder contains teaching plans for 12 lessons on topics such as "Water in Our Daily Lives," "The Water Cycle," "Amazing Aquifers," "Water and Soil," "Aquatic Ecosystems," and "Water Wise Use." Accompanying each lesson plan are activity...

  4. Evaluation of a single cell and candidate materials with high water content hydrogen in a generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture, Part II: materials and interface characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-01-01

    A generic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials under realistic conditions. A commerical 50 mm x 50 mm NiO-YSZ anode supported thin YSZ electrolyte cell with lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode was tested to evaluate the stability of candidate materials. The cell was tested in two stages at 800oC: stage I of low (~3% H2O) humidity and stage II of high (~30% H2O) humidity hydrogen fuel at constant voltage or constant current mode. Part I of the work was published earlier with information of the generic test fixture design, materials, cell performance, and optical post-mortem analysis. In part II, detailed microstructure and interfacial characterizations are reported regarding the SOFC candidate materials: (Mn,Co)-spinel conductive coating, alumina coating for sealing area, ferritic stainless steel interconnect, refractory sealing glass, and their interactions with each other. Overall, the (Mn,Co)-spinel coating was very effective in minimizing Cr migration. No Cr was identified in the cathode after 1720h at 800oC. Aluminization of metallic interconnect also proved to be chemically compatible with alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass. The details of interfacial reaction and microstructure development are discussed.

  5. TWO WELL STORAGE SYSTEMS FOR COMBINED HEATING AND AIRCONDITIONING BY GROUNDWATER HEATPUMPS IN SHALLOW AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelka, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Figure 20. Cold water well extraction - Boundary conditions.Figure 20. Cold water well extraction - Boundary conditions.that the warm water well extraction also is not fully

  6. Protecting Solar Rights in California Through an Exploration of the California Water Doctrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    New Rights in Western Waters.  Lincoln: University of Arthur L. , and Eric L.  Garner.  California Water II.  Managing California's Water.  San Francisco, CA: Public 

  7. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-07-21

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

  8. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, James E. (Richland, WA); Fruchter, Jonathan S. (Richland, WA); Gorby, Yuri A. (Richland, WA); Cole, Charles R. (West Richmond, WA); Cantrell, Kirk J. (West Richmond, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

  9. Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, and vicinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janik, C.J.; Nathenson, M.; Scholl, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    Published and new data for chemical and isotopic samples from wells and springs on Kilauea Volcano and vicinity are presented. These data are used to understand processes that determine the chemistry of dilute meteoric water, mixtures with sea water, and thermal water. Data for well and spring samples of non-thermal water indicate that mixing with sea water and dissolution of rock from weathering are the major processes that determine the composition of dissolved constituents in water. Data from coastal springs demonstrate that there is a large thermal system south of the lower east rift of Kilauea. Samples of thermal water from shallow wells in the lower east rift and vicinity have rather variable chemistry indicating that a number of processes operate in the near surface. Water sampled from the available deep wells is different in composition from the shallow thermal water, indicating that generally there is not a significant component of deep water in the shallow wells. Data for samples from available deep wells show significant gradients in chemistry and steam content of the reservoir fluid. These gradients are interpreted to indicate that the reservoir tapped by the existing wells is an evolving vapor-dominated system.

  10. Preliminary PBFA II design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D. L.; VanDevender, J. P.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The upgrade of Sandia National Laboratories particle beam fusion accelerator, PBFA I, to PBFA II presents several interesting and challenging pulsed power design problems. PBFA II requires increasing the PBFA I output parameters from 2 MV, 30 TW, 1 MJ to 4 MV, 100 TW, 3.5 MJ with the constraint of using much of the same PBFA I hardware. The increased PBFA II output will be obtained by doubling the number of modules (from 36 to 72), increasing the primary energy storage (from 4 MJ to 15 MJ), lowering the pulse forming line (PFL) output impedance, and adding a voltage doubling network.

  11. Relativistic Quaternionic Wave Equation II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Relativistic quaternionic wave equation. II J. Math. Phys.Relativistic quaternionic wave equation. II Charles Schwartzcomponent quaternionic wave equation recently introduced. A

  12. STREAM II-V5: REVISION OF STREAM II-V4 TO ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF RAINFALL EVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.

    2010-02-01

    STREAM II-V4 is the aqueous transport module currently used by the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather Information Display (WIND) system. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. STREAM II-V4 predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM II-V4. STREAM II-V4 has been revised to account for the effects of a storm event. The steps used in this method are: (1) generate rainfall hyetographs as a function of total rainfall in inches (or millimeters) and rainfall duration in hours; (2) generate watershed runoff flow based on the rainfall hyetographs from step 1; (3) calculate the variation of stream segment volume (cross section) as a function of flow from step 2; (4) implement the results from steps 2 and 3 into the STREAM II model. The revised model (STREAM II-V5) will find the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations.

  13. Isotope characterization of shallow aquifers in the Horombe region, South of Madagascar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fareze, L P; Ramaroson, V; Andriambololona, Raoelina; Andriamiarintsoa, G; Razafitsalama, P R; Rahobisoa, J J; Randrianarison, H; Ranaivoarisoa, A; Marah, H

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the problem of evaluation of the recharge mechanism and the characterization of the groundwater flow system in the basement shallow aquifer, which is one of the groundwater resource in the semi-arid South region of Madagascar. Stable isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) and tritium are used to achieve with accuracy the hydrogeological and geochemical dynamics study. Chemical analysis is used to provide complementary information to the investigation. A space distribution of tritium concentration and isotopic composition in groundwater shows evidence of two opposite categories of aquifers, which is confirmed by the chemical analysis results and by the geological features of the study site. Some groundwater flow path directions have been identified in the study area thanks to the tritium concentration space distribution and the geological formation. Besides, the groundwater recharge of the shallow aquifers in the South of Madagascar has been characterized by the exponential mixing mode...

  14. Water Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201409813

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Water Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201409813 Ligand Transformations and Efficient Proton/Water converted into an amide complex 4 in presence of adventitious water. Introduction of an N-methyl protecting and CoII 5 show electrocatalytic H2 generation in weakly acidic media as well as in water. Mechanisms

  15. State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2010 State of Washington Water mission of the State of Washington Water Research Center (SWWRC) has been to: i) facilitate, coordinate, conduct, and administer water-related research important to the State of Washington and the region, ii

  16. State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2009 State of Washington Water of the State of Washington Water Research Center (SWWRC) is to: i) facilitate, coordinate, conduct, and administer water-related research important to the State of Washington and the region, ii) educate and train

  17. WATER QUALITY AND SURVIVABILITY OF DIDYMOSPHENIA GEMINATA Submitted by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    THESIS WATER QUALITY AND SURVIVABILITY OF DIDYMOSPHENIA GEMINATA Submitted by Johannes Beeby: John D. Stednick Co-Advisor: Steven R. Fassnacht William H. Clements #12;ii ABSTRACT WATER QUALITY, and is even growing in waters that were thought not ideal habitat for Didymo. Previous research on how water

  18. Preprocessing issues associated with multiple attenuation in water depths of less than 150 meters: ISMA and predictive deconvolution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Jeffrey Robert

    2001-01-01

    Over the past three decades, marine exploration has been essentially limited to water depths within the 200-500 m range. With most reservoirs in this range depleting, exploration is moving towards very shallow water, less than 100 m, as well...

  19. _Part II - Contract Clauses

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    M0572 dated 3215 Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 Modification No. M202 Page I - 1 Part II - Contract Clauses Section I TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. FAR 52.202-1 DEFINITIONS (JAN 2012)...

  20. Shallow meteoric alteration and burial diagenesis of massive dolomite in the Castle Reef Formation, northwest Montana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitsitt, Philip Mark

    1989-01-01

    replacement. Partial dissolution of the replacive dolomite and subsequent precipitation of brightly luminescent dolomite overgrowths ( g 0= -5. 3 to -2. 5 40) occurred in shallow burial meteoric 18 environments. Distribution of the bright overgrowths... indicates flow pathways similar to those recognized by g 0 trends in the replacive dolomite. A final stage of red luminescent dolomite formed after further compaction and local dissolution of the bright overgrowths and prior to hydrocarbon migration...

  1. ARTICLE IN PRESS 2 The mobilization of debris flows from shallow landslides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F ARTICLE IN PRESS 1 2 The mobilization of debris flows from shallow to critical state is 19 fundamentally a function of the hydraulic conductivity of the soil, sandy soils + model #12;U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F ARTICLE IN PRESS 48 and dliquid-likeT behaviorQ (Doraiswamy et al

  2. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    LBNL collected water and waste water tariffs in Californiastate. Current water and waste water tariffs for these areaswas based on water and waste water tariffs in California

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Sustainable Water Consumption -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Into Sustainable Water Consumption - Water Bottles versus WaterFillz Units Alireza Tavassoli, Yee Chung Wong, Sina of a project/report". #12;An Investigation Into Sustainable Water Consumption - Water Bottles versus Water, 2010 TA: Craig Hennessey #12;ii Table of Contents Abstract

  4. Changes in the chemistry of shallow groundwater related to the 2008 injection of CO2 at the ZERT Field Site, Bozeman, Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, T.T.; Kakouros, E.; Ambats, G.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Apps, J.A.; Spycher, N.F.; Zheng, L.; Trautz, R.C.; Rauch, H.W.; Gullickson, K.; Beers, S.R.

    2009-09-01

    Approximately 300 kg/day of food-grade CO2 was injected through a perforated pipe placed horizontally 2-2.3 m deep during July 9-August 7, 2008 at the MSU-ZERT field test to evaluate atmospheric and near-surface monitoring and detection techniques applicable to the subsurface storage and potential leakage of CO2. As part of this multidisciplinary research project, 80 samples of water were collected from 10 shallow monitoring wells (1.5 or 3.0 m deep) installed 1-6 m from the injection pipe, at the southwestern end of the slotted section (zone VI), and from two distant monitoring wells. The samples were collected before, during and following CO2 injection. The main objective of study was to investigate changes in the concentrations of major, minor and trace inorganic and organic compounds during and following CO2 injection.

  5. Probabilistic evaluation of shallow groundwater resources at a hypothetical carbon sequestration site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Keating, Elizabeth; Bacon, Diana H.; Viswanathan, Hari; Stauffer, Philip; Jordan, Amy B.; Pawar, Rajesh

    2014-03-07

    Carbon sequestration in geologic reservoirs is an important approach for mitigating greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. This study first develops an integrated Monte Carlo method for simulating CO2 and brine leakage from carbon sequestration and subsequent geochemical interactions in shallow aquifers. Then, we estimate probability distributions of five risk proxies related to the likelihood and volume of changes in pH, total dissolved solids, and trace concentrations of lead, arsenic, and cadmium for two possible consequence thresholds. The results indicate that shallow groundwater resources may degrade locally around leakage points by reduced pH and increased total dissolved solids (TDS). The volumes of pH and TDS plumes are most sensitive to aquifer porosity, permeability, and CO2 and brine leakage rates. The estimated plume size of pH change is the largest, while that of cadmium is the smallest among the risk proxies. Plume volume distributions of arsenic and lead are similar to those of TDS. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight for understanding risks of deep fluids leaking into shallow aquifers, determining the area of review, and designing monitoring networks at carbon sequestration sites.

  6. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  7. Mach cone in a shallow granular fluid Patrick Heil, E. C. Rericha # , Daniel I. Goldman, and Harry L. Swinney +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ]. For example, measurements on the Von Kâ??armâ??an vortex street of flow past a cylinder, the drag force reduc is inserted into a shallow, vibrofluidized granular layer consisting of bronze spheres with a diameter d = 0

  8. Investigation of active faulting at the Emigrant Peak fault in Nevada using shallow seismic reflection and ground penetrating radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christie, Michael Wayne

    2007-12-18

    The objective of this study was to assess fault displacement, off-fault deformation, and alluvial fan stratigraphy at the Emigrant Peak fault zone (EPFZ) in Fish Lake Valley, Nevada utilizing shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground penetrating...

  9. Shallow Seismic Investigation of Hydrogeologic Problems in the Brazos River Alluvium, Texas A&M Plantation, Burleson County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBrayer, M.A.

    1966-01-01

    Twenty-two shallow, reversed, seismic refraction profiles were conducted in the Brazos River floodplain to test the feasibility of using seismic methods to provide hydrogeologic information in this province. The specific objectives were to map...

  10. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Neill, Malcolm A. (Winterville, GA); Pellerin, Patrice J. M. (Montpellier, FR); Warrenfeltz, Dennis (Athens, GA); Vidal, Stephane (Combaillaux, FR); Darvill, Alan G. (Athens, GA); Albersheim, Peter (Athens, GA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations.

  11. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  12. Shallow seismic investigation of hydrogeologic problems in the Brazos River alluvium, Texas A&M Plantation, Burleson County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBrayer, Michael Albert

    1966-01-01

    SHALLOW SEISMIC INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEOLOGIC PROBLEMS IN THE BRAZOS RIVER ALLUVIUM, TEXAS A&M PLANTATION, BURLESON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis Michael Albert McBrayer Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in Partial... fulfullment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Geology SHALLOW SEISMIC INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEOLOGIC PROBLEMS IN THE BRAZOS RIVER ALLUVIUM, TEXAS DAM PLANTATION, BURLESON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis...

  13. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  14. Gravity Capillary Standing Water Waves Pietro Baldi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomann, Laurent

    Gravity Capillary Standing Water Waves Pietro Baldi Universit`a di Napoli Federico II Joint work with Thomas Alazard (ENS Paris) Pienza, 29 October 2014 Pietro Baldi Gravity Capillary Standing Water Waves construct small amplitude, standing solutions of Sobolev reg. (standing := periodic in time and space

  15. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  16. Parallel Multilevel Methods for Implicit Solution of Shallow Water Equations with Nonsmooth Topography on the Cubed-sphere $

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan

    Topography on the Cubed-sphere $ Chao Yanga,b , Xiao-Chuan Caia aDepartment of Computer Science, University012300. Email addresses: chao.yang@colorado.edu (Chao Yang), cai@cs.colorado.edu (Xiao-Chuan Cai

  17. Studies of ambient noise in shallow water environments off Mexico and Alaska : : characteristics, metrics and time- synchronization applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Melania

    2013-01-01

    Balaena mysticetus, to seismic exploration in the CanadianBalaena mysticetus, to seismic exploration in the Canadianseismic survey used in offshore oil and gas exploration, and

  18. Shallow-Water Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and Tube Anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Ceriantharia) of the Galápagos Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Hickman, Cleveland P. Jr.; Daly, Marymegan; Molodtsova, Tina

    2007-10-01

    We provide the first inventory of members of orders Actiniaria (sea anemones sensu stricto) and Ceriantharia (tube anemones) from the Galápagos Islands. Based on observations and collections at 48 localities throughout the ...

  19. The Shallow-water Echinoderms of Yap Results of a Survey Performed 27 July to 9 August 2007,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcilwain, Jenny

    preliminary recommendations for a beche-de-mer management plan include: 1) Institute a moratorium on fishing, for making this survey a reality. We appreciate the efforts of the Chief of Marine Resource Management Division (MRMD), Andy Tafiliechig for overseeing our day-to-day planning and logistics, particularly his

  20. The Shallow-water Echinoderms of Kosrae Results of a Survey Performed 22 February to 7 March 2008,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcilwain, Jenny

    include: 1) Institute a moratorium on fishing until a management plan is in place. 2) Conduct an inventory especially thank Director Simpson Abraham, Kosrae Island Resource Management Authority (KIRMA Specialist, for overseeing our day-to-day planning and logistics, as well as the staff of KIRMA

  1. Combined State-Parameter Estimation for Shallow Water Equations Mohammad Rafiee Andrew Tinka Jerome Thai Alexandre M. Bayen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from an experiment performed at the USDA-ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit (HERU) in Stillwater- space model is obtained. Lagrangian measurements of the flow velocity field are used as observations or measurements. These measurements may be obtained from a group of drifters equipped with GPS receivers

  2. SOLAR INDUCED WATER SPLITTING WITH p/n HETEROTYPE PHOTOCHEMICAL DIODES: n-Fe203/p-GaP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mettee, Howard

    2014-01-01

    I and II, in addition to the water redox reactions, areMaterials SOLAR INDUCED WATER SPLITTING WITH pjn HETEROTYPEof California. Solar Induced Water Splitting with p/n

  3. Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf carbonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purkis, Sam

    Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf their production is tied to light and wave energy, carbonate sediments are most effectively produced in shallow energy regime to be reliable indicators of facies type when considered in isolation. Consid- ered

  4. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +}-implants in Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, B. R.; Darby, B. L.; Jones, K. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Petersen, D. H. [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, O. [DTU Nanotech, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); CINF, Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Lin, R.; Nielsen, P. F. [CAPRES A/S, Scion-DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Romano, L. [IMM-CNR MATIS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Doyle, B. L. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-1056, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Kontos, A. [Applied Materials, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in crystalline (c-Ge) and preamorphized Ge (PA-Ge) following rapid thermal annealing was investigated using micro Hall effect and ion beam analysis techniques. The residual implanted dose of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants in Ge was characterized using elastic recoil detection and was determined to correlate well with simulations with a dose loss of 23.2%, 21.4%, and 17.6% due to ion backscattering for 2, 4, and 6 keV implants in Ge, respectively. The electrical activation of ultra-shallow B{sup +} implants at 2, 4, and 6 keV to fluences ranging from 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} was studied using micro Hall effect measurements after annealing at 400-600 Degree-Sign C for 60 s. For both c-Ge and PA-Ge, a large fraction of the implanted dose is rendered inactive due to the formation of a presumable B-Ge cluster. The B lattice location in samples annealed at 400 Degree-Sign C for 60 s was characterized by channeling analysis with a 650 keV H{sup +} beam by utilizing the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha})2{alpha} nuclear reaction and confirmed the large fraction of off-lattice B for both c-Ge and PA-Ge. Within the investigated annealing range, no significant change in activation was observed. An increase in the fraction of activated dopant was observed with increasing energy which suggests that the surface proximity and the local point defect environment has a strong impact on B activation in Ge. The results suggest the presence of an inactive B-Ge cluster for ultra-shallow implants in both c-Ge and PA-Ge that remains stable upon annealing for temperatures up to 600 Degree-Sign C.

  5. State of the art review of alternatives to shallow land burial of low level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    A review of alternatives to shallow land burial for disposal of low level radioactive waste was conducted to assist ORNL in developing a program for the evaluation, selection, and demonstration of the most acceptable alternatives. The alternatives were categorized as follows: (1) near term isolation concepts, (2) far term isolation concepts, (3) dispersion concepts, and (4) conversion concepts. Detailed descriptions of near term isolation concepts are provided. The descriptions include: (1) method of isolation, (2) waste forms that can be accommodated, (3) advantages and disadvantages, (4) facility and equipment requirements, (5) unusual operational or maintenance requirements, (6) information/technology development requirements, and (7) related investigations of the concept.

  6. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Shallow Land Disposal Area - PA 45

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co - OH 51Savannah River SwampShallow Land

  7. (MATH 1302) Calculus II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haiying

    (MATH 1302) MATH 1426 Calculus I MATH 2425 Calculus II MATH 2326 Calculus III IE 3312 PHYS 1443 PHYS 1444 IE 3301 EE 2440 Circuits MATH 3319 ENGL 1301 ENGL 1302 (1310) (Intro) 1320 C/C++ 2312 Ass Sw Des Pat *4321 Testing *4322 Sw Mgmt (CHEM 1300) CHEM 1441 Math Placement Test / Advising (MATH

  8. Smog Check II Evaluation Part II: Overview of Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Smog Check II Evaluation Part II: Overview of Vehicle Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepared in Later Sections ____________________ 1 3. Older Vehicles Have Higher Emissions on Average _____________ 3 ___________________________________ 12 7. Emissions of Individual Vehicles Vary from Test to Test ________ 15 8. Total Emissions

  9. CO2 leakage impacts on shallow groundwater. Field-scale reactive-transport simulations informed by observations at a natural analog site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Keating, Elizabeth H.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J. William; Pawar, Rajesh; Guthrie, George D.; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna

    2013-03-01

    It is challenging to predict the degree to which shallow groundwater might be affected by leaks from a CO2 sequestration reservoir, particularly over long time scales and large spatial scales. In this study observations at a CO2 enriched shallow aquifer natural analog were used to develop a predictive model which is then used to simulate leakage scenarios. This natural analog provides the opportunity to make direct field observations of groundwater chemistry in the presence of elevated CO2, to collect aquifer samples and expose them to CO2 under controlled conditions in the laboratory, and to test the ability of multiphase reactivemore »transport models to reproduce measured geochemical trends at the field-scale. The field observations suggest that brackish water entrained with the upwelling CO2 are a more significant source of trace metals than in situ mobilization of metals due to exposure to CO2. The study focuses on a single trace metal of concern at this site: U. Experimental results indicate that cation exchange/adsorption and dissolution/precipitation of calcite containing trace amounts of U are important reactions controlling U in groundwater at this site, and that the amount of U associated with calcite is fairly well constrained. Simulations incorporating these results into a 3-D multi-phase reactive transport model are able to reproduce the measured ranges and trends between pH, pCO2, Ca, total C, U and Cl-at the field site. Although the true fluxes at the natural analog site are unknown, the cumulative CO2 flux inferred from these simulations are approximately equivalent to 37.8E-3 MT, approximately corresponding to a .001% leak rate for injection at a large (750 MW) power plant. The leakage scenario simulations suggest that if the leak only persists for a short time the volume of aquifer contaminated by CO2-induced mobilization of U will be relatively small, yet persistent over 100 a.« less

  10. Elucidating geochemical response of shallow heterogeneous aquifers to CO2 leakage using high-performance computing: Implications for monitoring of CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Siirila, Erica R.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2013-03-01

    Predicting and quantifying impacts of potential carbon dioxide (CO2) leakage into shallow aquifers that overlie geologic CO2 storage formations is an important part of developing reliable carbon storage techniques. Leakage of CO2 through fractures, faults or faulty wellbores can reduce groundwater pH, inducing geochemical reactions that release solutes into the groundwater and pose a risk of degrading groundwater quality. In order to help quantify this risk, predictions of metal concentrations are needed during geologic storage of CO2. Here, we present regional-scale reactive transport simulations, at relatively fine-scale, of CO2 leakage into shallow aquifers run on the PFLOTRAN platform using high-performance computing. Multiple realizations of heterogeneous permeability distributions were generated using standard geostatistical methods. Increased statistical anisotropy of the permeability field resulted in more lateral and vertical spreading of the plume of impacted water, leading to increased Pb2+ (lead) concentrations and lower pH at a well down gradient of the CO2 leak. Pb2+ concentrations were higher in simulations where calcite was the source of Pb2+ compared to galena. The low solubility of galena effectively buffered the Pb2+ concentrations as galena reached saturation under reducing conditions along the flow path. In all cases, Pb2+ concentrations remained below the maximum contaminant level set by the EPA. Results from this study, compared to natural variability observed in aquifers, suggest that bicarbonate (HCO3) concentrations may be a better geochemical indicator of a CO2 leak under the conditions simulated here.

  11. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Print Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II), the largest known eukaryotic enzyme that breaks down proteins (a protease), is...

  12. A smooth landscape: ending saddle point inflation requires features to be shallow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battefeld, Diana; Battefeld, Thorsten E-mail: tbattefe@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2013-07-01

    We consider inflation driven near a saddle point in a higher dimensional field space, which is the most likely type of slow roll inflation on the string theoretical landscape; anthropic arguments need to be invoked in order to find a sufficiently flat region. To give all inflatons large masses after inflation and yield a small but positive cosmological constant, the trajectory in field space needs to terminate in a hole on the inflationary plateau, introducing a curved end-of-inflation hypersurface. We compute non-Gaussianities (bi- and tri-spectrum) caused by this curved hyper-surface and find a negative, potentially large, local non-linearity parameter. To be consistent with current observational bounds, the hole needs to be shallow, i.e. considerably wider than deep in natural units. To avoid singling out our vacuum as special (i.e. more special than a positive cosmological constant entails), we deduce that all features on field space should be similarly shallow, severely limiting the type of landscapes one may use for inflationary model building. We justify the use of a truncated Fourier series with random coefficients, which are suppressed the higher the frequency, to model such a smooth landscape by a random potential, as is often done in the literature without a good a priory reason.

  13. BOAST II for the IBM 3090 and RISC 6000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebert, P.; Bourgoyne, A.T. Jr.; Tyler, J.

    1993-05-01

    BOAST II simulates isothermal, darcy flow in three dimensions. It assumes that reservoir liquids can be described in three fluid phases (oil, gas, and water) of constant composition, with physical properties that depend on pressure, only. These reservoir fluid approximations are acceptable for a large percentage of the world's oil and gas reservoirs. Consequently, BOAST II has a wide range of applicability. BOAST II can simulate oil and/or gas recovery by fluid expansion, displacement, gravity drainage, and capillary imbibition mechanisms. Typical field production problems that BOAST II can handle include primary depletion studies, pressure maintenance by water and/or gas injection, and evaluation of secondary recovery waterflooding and displacement operations. Technically, BOAST II is a finite, implicit pressure, explicit saturation (IMPES) numerical simulator. It applies both direct and iterative solution techniques for solving systems of algebraic equations. The well model allows specification of rate or pressure constraints on well performance, and the user is free to add or to recomplete wells during the simulation. In addition, the user can define multiple rock and PVT regions and can choose from three aquifer models. BOAST II also provides flexible initialization, a bubble-point tracking scheme, automatic time-step control, and a material balance check on solution stability. The user controls output, which includes a run summary and line-printer plots of fieldwide performance.

  14. Recommendations for the shallow-crack fracture toughness testing task within the HSST (Heavy-Section Steel Technology) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiss, T.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Recommendations for Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program's investigation into the influence of crack depth on the fracture toughness of a steel prototypic of those in a reactor pressure vessel are included in this report. The motivation for this investigation lies in the fact that probabilistic fracture mechanics evaluations show that shallow flaws play a dominant role in the likelihood of vessel failure, and shallow-flaw specimens have exhibited an elevated toughness compared with conventional deep-notch fracture toughness specimens. Accordingly, the actual margin of safety of vessels may be greater than that predicted using existing deep-notch fracture-toughness results. The primary goal of the shallow-crack project is to investigate the influence of crack depth on fracture toughness under conditions prototypic of a reactor vessel. A limited data base of fracture toughness values will be assembled using a beam specimen of prototypic reactor vessel material and with a depth of 100 mm (4 in.). This will permit comparison of fracture-toughness data from deep-cracked and shallow-crack specimens, and this will be done for several test temperatures. Fracture-toughness data will be expressed in terms of the stress-intensity factor and crack-tip-opening displacement. Results of this investigation are expected to improve the understanding of shallow-flaw behavior in pressure vessels, thereby providing more realistic information for application to the pressurized-thermal shock issues. 33 refs., 17 figs.

  15. 5) Management ii) Mechanical methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods = manually or mechanically damaging plants #12;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods Advantages · Generally much less public opposition #12;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods Advantages · Generally much less public opposition · Works well

  16. Water footprint assessment of crop production in Shaanxi, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    #12;i Water footprint assessment of crop production in Shaanxi, China Bachelor Thesis Civil, Yangling, China Keywords: Agricultural crops, water footprint, Shaanxi province, CROPWAT #12;ii #12;iii ABSTRACT The water footprint, introduced by professor A.Y. Hoekstra, is an indicator of freshwater use

  17. NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY STORM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    · Pollution Prevention/Good Housekeeping for Municipal Operations #12;Storm Water Management Program July 2009NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY STORM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR NPDES GENERAL PERMIT NO. NMR040000 79902-1049 (915) 433-9254 #12;#12;#12;Storm Water Management Program July 2009 ii This Page

  18. State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2002 Introduction The mission of the State of Washington Water Research Center (SWWRC) is to: i) facilitate, coordinate, conduct, and administer water-related research important to the State of Washington and the region, ii) educate and train

  19. State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction The mission of the State of Washington Water Research Center (SWWRC) is to: i) facilitate, coordinate, conduct, and administer water-related research important to the State of Washington and the region, ii) educate and train

  20. State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2004 Introduction The mission of the State of Washington Water Research Center (SWWRC) is to: i) facilitate, coordinate, conduct, and administer water-related research important to the State of Washington and the region, ii) educate and train

  1. State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction The mission of the State of Washington Water Research Center (SWWRC) is to: i) facilitate, coordinate, conduct, and administer water-related research important to the State of Washington and the region, ii) educate and train

  2. State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2003 Introduction The mission of the State of Washington Water Research Center (SWWRC) is to: i) facilitate, coordinate, and administer water-related research important to the State of Washington and the region; ii) educate and train engineers, scientists

  3. Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B+-implants in Ge B. R. Yates, B. L. Darby, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, R. Lin et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B+-implants in Ge B. R. Yates, B. L. Darby, D. H://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow B1 -implants in Ge B. R. Yates,1,a) B. L. Darby 2012; published online 27 December 2012) The activation and thermal stability of ultra-shallow

  4. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  5. SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AT RD 838 OF I. G. N. P. STAGE -II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    1 SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AT RD 838 OF I. G. N. P. STAGE - II C. P. Kumar* Sanjay knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h) and unsaturated presents the soil moisture retention characteristics at RD 838 of Indira Gandhi Nahar Priyojana, Stage - II

  6. Reactor materials study of EBR-II and BN350 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yilmaz, Fatma

    2002-01-01

    would lead to reviewing and combining the data from both sides as it concerns important issues for the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and fast reactor communities. The most important issue is the applicability of the BN350 and EBR-II data for the studies...

  7. II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    2 II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar Monitoring Laboratory has operated a solar radiation monitoring network in the Pacific Northwest. The number of stations participat of utilities headed by the Eugene Water and Electric Board initiated the Re- gional Solar Radiation Monitoring

  8. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  9. Goal Seek Pamphlet II for VIDRA© - HCID#1 (version 2.6 / December 18, 2008) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sturdivant, A.; Rister, M.; Lacewell, R.; Rogers, C.

    2008-01-01

    TR-339 2008 Goal Seek Pamphlet II forVIDRA? - HCID#1 (version 2.6 / December 18, 2008) By: Allen W. Sturdivant Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center, Weslaco, TX M... Texas Water Resources Institute Technical Report December 2008 Texas Water Resources Institute Report: TR-339 December, 2008 Goal Seek Pamphlet II for VIDRA ? - HCID#1 (version 2.6 / December 18, 2008) using Microsoft ? Excel ? 2003...

  10. Arid site water balance: evapotranspiration modeling and measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-09-01

    In order to evaluate the magnitude of radionuclide transport at an aird site, a field and modeling study was conducted to measure and predict water movement under vegetated and bare soil conditions. Significant quantities of water were found to move below the roo of a shallow-rooted grass-covered area during wet years at the Hanford site. The unsaturated water flow model, UNSAT-1D, was resonably successful in simulating the transient behavior of the water balance at this site. The effects of layered soils on water balance were demonstrated using the model. Models used to evaluate water balance in arid regions should not rely on annual averages and assume that all precipitation is removed by evapotranspiration. The potential for drainage at arid sites exists under conditions where shallow rooted plants grow on coarse textured soils. This condition was observed at our study site at Hanford. Neutron probe data collected on a cheatgrass community at the Hanford site during a wet year indicated that over 5 cm of water drained below the 3.5-m depth. The unsaturated water flow model, UNSAT-1D, predicted water drainage of about 5 cm (single layer, 10 months) and 3.5 cm (two layers, 12 months) for the same time period. Additional field measurements of hydraulic conductivity will likely improve the drainage estimate made by UNSAT-1D. Additional information describing cheatgrass growth and water use at the grass site could improve model predictions of sink terms and subsequent calculations of water storage within the rooting zone. In arid areas where the major part of the annual precipitation occurs during months with low average potential evapotranspiration and where soils are vegetated but are coarse textured and well drained, significant drainage can occur. 31 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  11. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies are used for agriculture, natural resources, salt water intrusion protection, drinking water, industry

  12. Tensiometer for shallow or deep measurements including vadose zone and aquifers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A two cell tensiometer is described in which water level in the lower cell is maintained at a relatively constant height, and in equilibrium with the water pressure of materials that surround the tensiometer. An isolated volume of air in the lower cell changes pressure proportionately to the changing water pressure of the materials that surround the tensiometer. The air pressure is measured remotely. The tensiometer can be used in drying as well as wetting cycles above and below the water table.

  13. Thermodynamic Depth of Causal States: When Paddling around in Occam's Pool Shallowness Is a Virtue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James P. Crutchfield; Cosma Rohilla Shalizi

    1998-08-13

    Thermodynamic depth is an appealing but flawed structural complexity measure. It depends on a set of macroscopic states for a system, but neither its original introduction by Lloyd and Pagels nor any follow-up work has considered how to select these states. Depth, therefore, is at root arbitrary. Computational mechanics, an alternative approach to structural complexity, provides a definition for a system's minimal, necessary causal states and a procedure for finding them. We show that the rate of increase in thermodynamic depth, or {\\it dive}, is the system's reverse-time Shannon entropy rate, and so depth only measures degrees of macroscopic randomness, not structure. To fix this we redefine the depth in terms of the causal state representation---$\\epsilon$-machines---and show that this representation gives the minimum dive consistent with accurate prediction. Thus, $\\epsilon$-machines are optimally shallow.

  14. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  15. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  16. Shallow Cavity Flow Tone Experiments: Onset of Locked-On States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Rockwell; J.C. Lin; P. Oshkai; M. Reiss; M. Pollack

    2000-09-05

    Fully turbulent inflow past a shallow cavity is investigated for the configuration of an axisymmetric cavity mounted in a pipe. Emphasis is on conditions giving rise to coherent oscillations, which can lead to locked-on states of flow tones in the pipe-cavity system. Unsteady surface pressure measurements are interpreted using three-dimensional representations of amplitude-frequency-inflow velocity; these representations are constructed for a range of cavity depth. Assessment of these data involves a variety of approaches. Evaluation of pressure gradients on plan views of the three-dimensional representations allows extraction of the frequencies of the instability (Strouhal) modes of the cavity oscillation. These frequency components are correlated with traditional models originally formulated for cavities in a free-stream. In addition, they are normalized using two length scales; inflow boundary-layer thickness and pipe diameter. These scales are consistent with those employed for the hydrodynamic instability of the separated shear layer, and are linked to the large-scale mode of the shear layer oscillation, which occurs at relatively long cavity length. In fact, a simple scaling based on pipe diameter can correlate the frequencies of the dominant peaks over a range of cavity depth. The foregoing considerations provide evidence that pronounced flow tones can be generated from a fully-turbulent inflow at very low Mach number, including the limiting case of fully-developed turbulent flow in a pipe. These tones can arise even for the extreme case of a cavity having a length over an order of magnitude longer than its depth. Suppression of tones is generally achieved if the cavity is sufficiently shallow.

  17. PART II - CONTRACT CLAUSES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctoberConsumptionPoweredE Contract No.No. 330 J.2-1 ContractII

  18. PARS II TRAINING

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuilding energy codes have a more than 20-yearPAE EvaluationPARS II13,

  19. Questions about Cori II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton Delivery and RemovalQuantumdefault Sign In About

  20. Stratigraphy and Reservoir-analog Modeling of Upper Miocene Shallow-water and Deep-water Carbonate Deposits: Agua Amarga Basin, Southeast Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvoretsky, Rachel Ana

    2009-03-10

    This study documents the basin-wide stratigraphic characterization and 3-D reservoir-analog modeling of upper Miocene carbonate deposits in the Agua Amarga basin, southeast Spain. Paleotopography and relative fluctuations ...

  1. Computerized Waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    supply diversions, several hydroelectric plants and numerous environ- mental instream flow requirements. Each of these active permits is included in the datasets. Besides the commission using the WAM/WRAP modeling system in water rights permiting... actions be consistent with relevant regional plans. River authorities, water districts and other water management organizations are beginning to use the WRAP model in operational planning studies to optimize operations of their facilities...

  2. Envir202b Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 F. Stahr Outline & notes for water lecture #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), Tihuanaco (altoplano ­Peru/Bolivia, likewise extensive drought) B. history and current situation stacked dam 1935, Aswan 1971 ii. serves ~ 1/5 power, and high % of irrigation water iii. 3 gorges in China

  3. Arsenic cycling within the water column of a small lake receiving contaminated ground-water discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Robert G.; Wilkin, Richard T.; Hernandez, Gina (EPA); (ECO)

    2008-09-18

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a small, shallow lake at a hazardous waste site was examined to understand the role of iron (hydr)oxide precipitation-dissolution processes within the water column. Field and laboratory observations indicate that arsenic solubility was controlled, in part, by the extent of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption occurring near the lake chemocline. Laboratory experiments were conducted using site-derived water to assess the impact of these coupled processes on the removal of dissolved arsenic from the water column. The measured concentration of organic carbon from epilimnetic and hypolimnetic water sampled from the lake was approximately 1.3 mM and 17.0 mM, respectively. Experiments conducted with these samples along with synthetic controls containing no organic carbon demonstrated that observed rates of formation and crystallinity of the precipitated iron (hydr)oxide were dependent on the concentration of organic carbon in the lake water. Increasing dissolved organic matter concentration did not significantly interfere with ferrous iron oxidation, but inhibited iron (hydr)oxide precipitation and subsequent sorption of arsenic. For experiments using water sampled from the lake hypolimnion there was a strong relationship between the fraction of precipitated iron and the fraction of sorbed arsenic. Laboratory- and field-derived iron (hydr)oxide precipitates were characterized to evaluate mineralogy and arsenic distribution. In-situ suspended solids and precipitates formed in laboratory experiments using hypolimnetic water were identified as poorly crystalline 2-line ferrihydrite. These solids were readily dissolved in the presence of dithionite indicating that elevated dissolved iron and arsenic observed in the hypolimnion resulted, in part, from in-situ reductive dissolution of settling 2-line ferrihydrite near the sediment-water interface. These observations support the contention that the levels of dissolved arsenic observed in the shallow lake can be attributed to ground-water discharge and internal recycling of arsenic within the water column. The efficiency of the process resulting in iron (hydr)oxide precipitation and arsenic sorption limits the downgradient export of arsenic derived from ground-water discharge.

  4. Evolution of the Vertical Thermodynamic Profile during the Transition from Shallow to Deep Convection during CuPIDO 2006*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the action of gravity waves. In the second case, dry air aloft was moistened through the action of the shallow convection thus preventing the erosion of the convective turrets through entrainment of dry air to cumulonimbus as de- scribed by Zehnder et al. (2006). Zehnder et al. attribute the relatively slow development

  5. Effectiveness of Shallow Temperatures Surveys to Target a Geothermal Reservoir at Previously Explored Sites at McGee Mountain, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of two innovative technologies in early-stage geothermal exploration:a) shallow (2m) survey; b) hydroprobe; and Identify a geothermal resource at the project site.

  6. Interpreting multicomponent seismic data in the Gulf of Mexico for shallow sedimentary properties: methodology and case history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    OTC 15118 Interpreting multicomponent seismic data in the Gulf of Mexico for shallow sedimentary a methodology for manually establishing tie points of depth-equivalent surfaces in P-P and P-S seismic data volumes derived from a 4-C ocean bottom seismic survey using seismic attribute volumes viewed in time

  7. Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip deficit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fialko, Yuri

    Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip (Iran) earth- quake using radar data from the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency. Analysis. In this paper we report on deformation associated with the Mw6.5 Bam (Iran) earthquake determined using

  8. CROSSWELL SEISMIC REFLECTION IMAGING OF A SHALLOW COBBLE-AND-SAND AQUIFER: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE BOISE HYDROGEOPHYSICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    CROSSWELL SEISMIC REFLECTION IMAGING OF A SHALLOW COBBLE-AND- SAND AQUIFER: AN EXAMPLE FROM Crosswell seismic data contain first-arrival information for velocity inversion and reflec- tions for seismic stratigraphic analysis. Seismic velocity information is useful for directly com- paring to

  9. Shallow to deep transformation of Se donors in GaSb under hydrostatic pressure H. Navarro-Contreras, F. de Anda-Salazar, and J. Olvera-Hernandez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Matthew

    Shallow to deep transformation of Se donors in GaSb under hydrostatic pressure H. Navarro, although it may be also an indication that the Se shallow donors change to deep donors associated pressures above a certain threshold value. The DX center is a deep-level defect found in many n

  10. Characterization of Damage in Sandstones along the Mojave Section of the San Andreas Fault: Implications for the Shallow Extent of Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    Characterization of Damage in Sandstones along the Mojave Section of the San Andreas Fault: Implications for the Shallow Extent of Damage Generation ORY DOR,1,5 JUDITH S. CHESTER,2 YEHUDA BEN-ZION,1 shallow generation of rock damage during an earthquake rupture, we measure the degree of fracture damage

  11. Supernovae. Part II: The aftermath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trimble, V; Trimble, V

    1983-01-01

    R. Viswanathan, 1980, As- Supernovae. Part II ExperimentalSmith, 1982, Astrophys. Supernovae. Chevalier, R. A. , andC. B. , 1974, Ed. , Supernovae and Supernova Rem- nants,

  12. Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) Daily Modeling System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, R.; Hoffpauir, R.

    2012-10-01

    Modeling System TR-430 Texas Water Resources Institute College Station, Texas August 2012 by Ralph A. Wurbs and Richard J. Hoffpauir Texas A&M University Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) Daily Modeling System...-9-89809 (2008-2011) Contract 582-12-10220 (2011-2013) Technical Report No. 430 Texas Water Resources Institute The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas 77843-2118 August 2012 ii iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Water...

  13. 8. SQL II 8-1 Part 8: SQL II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brass, Stefan

    8. SQL II 8-1 Part 8: SQL II References: · Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, "SQL -- The Relational Database Standard" (Sect. 8.2, 8.3.3, part of 8.3.4.) · Silberschatz/Korth/Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1999: Chapter 4: "SQL

  14. Centre for Water Economics, Environment and Policy THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of extraction for water resources that are overallocated or overused; and (ii) to protect, restore and provide in terms of long-term averages, there will need to be a reduction in water interceptions and/or extractions from water courses in most parts of the Basin. The proposed permissible water extractions for the MDB

  15. Water Uptake and Distribution in Germinating Tobacco Seeds Investigated in Vivo by Nuclear Magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leubner, Gerhard

    Water Uptake and Distribution in Germinating Tobacco Seeds Investigated in Vivo by Nuclear Magnetic-Ludwigs-Universita¨t Freiburg, D­79104 Freiburg i. Br., Germany (K.M., B.K., G.L.-M.) The regulation of water uptake state-of-the-art methods showed that water distribution in the water uptake phases II and III

  16. EARTH'S DEEP WATER CYCLE Steven D. Jacobsen and Suzan van der Lee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Lee, Suzan

    CONTENTS EARTH'S DEEP WATER CYCLE Preface Steven D. Jacobsen and Suzan van der Lee I. Overviews Nominally Anhydrous Minerals and Earth's Deep Water Cycle Joseph R. Smyth and Steven D. Jacobsen Seismological Constraints on Earth's Deep Water Cycle Suzan van der Lee and Doug Wiens II. Water Storage

  17. Tensiometer for shallow or deep measurements including vadose zone and aquifers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, B.

    1999-08-24

    A two cell tensiometer is described in which water level in the lower cell is maintained at a relatively constant height, and in equilibrium with the water pressure of materials that surround the tensiometer. An isolated volume of air in the lower cell changes pressure proportionately to the changing water pressure of the materials that surround the tensiometer. The air pressure is measured remotely. The tensiometer can be used in drying as well as wetting cycles above and below the water table. 8 figs.

  18. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  19. Environmental assessment of a proposed steam flood of the Shallow Oil Zone, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The US Department of Energy proposes to develop a limited enhanced oil recovery project in the Shallow Oil Zone at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) Elk Hills. The project would employ steam forced into the oil-bearing formation through injector wells, and would involve two phases. The initiation of the second phase would be dependent on the economic success of the first phase. The total project would require the drilling of 22 new wells in a 45-acre area supporting seven existing production wells. It would also require construction of various surface facilities including a tank setting (gas-oil separation system), steam generators, and a water treatment plant. Adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed steam flood project would include the effects on vegetation, wildlife and land-use resulting from the total reconfiguration of the topography within the project bondaries. Other adverse impacts include the emission of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulates from steam generators, vehicles and associated surface facilities. Minor adverse impacts include localized noise and dust during constuction, and reduction of visual quality. 48 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosner, Jonathan L.

    QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342 KPTC 103 9:00 ­ 10:20 a.m. 1 Tues., Thurs. ­ Winter Quarter 2011 quantum mechanics at the graduate level. The text for Quantum Mechanics II will be J. J. Sakurai and Jim Napolitano, Modern Quantum Mechanics, Second Edition (Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2011). For supplemental

  1. II JORNADAS "PUBLICAR EN REVISTAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escolano, Francisco

    II JORNADAS "PUBLICAR EN REVISTAS DE IMPACTO" 20 de Septiembre 2011 Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud #12;Taller: "Elaboración de Manuscritos y Proceso Editorial en Revistas Indexadas: el Caso del: Secretaría. Departamento de Psicología de la Salud II JORNADAS "PUBLICAR EN REVISTAS DE IMPACTO" 20 de

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Steve Dierker

    2010-01-08

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  3. Sist. Lin. II Aps Escalonamento

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabral, Marco

    Lineares ­ 2a Parte Paulo Goldfeld Marco Cabral Departamento de Matemática Aplicada Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Álgebra Linear II 2008/2 Prof. Marco Cabral & Prof. Paulo Goldfeld DMA / IM / UFRJ 1 conjunto-solução = { } sistema inconsistente Álgebra Linear II 2008/2 Prof. Marco Cabral & Prof. Paulo

  4. Unit II-5 Interpolation 1 Interpolation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkett, Stephen

    Unit II-5 Interpolation 1 Unit II-5 Interpolation Unit II-5 Interpolation 2 Interpolation outside the range of values of xi use extrapolation Unit II-5 Interpolation 3 Basic ideas · given: n+1 in tabular format Unit II-5 Interpolation 4 Basis functions · n basis functions 1, 2, ... , n can be used

  5. Manuscript for Patagonia Ice Fields Working Group July 31, 2000 INTERPRETING CLIMATE SIGNALS FROM A SHALLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Mark W.

    for additional water diversions and hydroelectric plants in Ecuador using glacial runoff. There is reason core records have the potential to provide proxy climate information that may provide information objectives were to: (1) evaluate whether there was sufficient range in the values of water isotopes

  6. Water Privatisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  7. Grabbing Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...

  8. Shallow gas well drilling with coiled tubing in the San Juan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, R.G.; Ovitz, R.W.; Guild, G.J.; Biggs, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Coiled tubing is being utilized to drill new wells, for re-entry drilling to deepen or laterally extend existing wells, and for underbalanced drilling to prevent formation damage. Less than a decade old, coiled tubing drilling technology is still in its inaugral development stage. Initially, utilizing coiled tubing was viewed as a {open_quotes}science project{close_quotes} to determine the validity of performing drilling operations in-lieu of the conventional rotary rig. Like any new technology, the initial attempts were not always successful, but did show promise as an economical alternative if continued efforts were made in the refinement of equipment and operational procedures. A multiwell project has been completed in the San Juan Basin of Northwestern New Mexico which provides documentation indicating that coiled tubing can be an alternative to the conventional rotary rig. A 3-well pilot project, a 6-well project was completed uniquely utilizing the combined resources of a coiled tubing service company, a producing company, and a drilling contractor. This combination of resources aided in the refinement of surface equipment, personnel, mud systems, jointed pipe handling, and mobilization. The results of the project indicate that utilization of coiled tubing for the specific wells drilled was an economical alternative to the conventional rotary rig for drilling shallow gas wells.

  9. Exploration model for shallow Silurian (Kankakee) carbonate reservoirs in western Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, J.E.; Seyler, B.J.; Whitaker, S.

    1987-09-01

    Reservoirs in shallow (600-650 ft deep) basal Silurian Kankakee carbonates at Buckhorn consolidated, Siloam, and Kellerville oil fields in western Illinois have produced nearly 2 million bbl of oil, but were developed essentially by random drilling. A new exploration model that combines lithologic studies and isopach mapping has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey. Isopach mapping of Silurian and Devonian rocks between an organic facies in the Mississippian-Devonian New Albany Shale and the top of the Ordovician Maquoketa Shale reveals thickened sequences that coincide with most of the oil fields. These thickened intervals apparently reflect subtle paleovalleys eroded into the Maquoketa shale during the Ordovician-Silurian hiatus. During the initial Silurian marine transgression, these paleovalleys at the base of the Kankakee were filled with carbonates to form the thickened sequences. Differential erosion at the top of the Kankakee does not satisfactorily explain the locally thickened sequences in the Kankakee. Lithologic studies suggest that subsurface fluid flows concentrated along these paleovalleys contributed to subsequent diagenesis of valleyfill carbonates. Diagenetic alteration of these carbonates resulted in development of basal Kankakee reservoirs within the paleovalleys. This concept of Kankakee reservoirs occurring within paleovalleys at the Ordovician-Silurian unconformity is a new exploration model that can aid in the search for similar traps in western Illinois.

  10. Monitoring and Numerical Modeling of Shallow CO{sub 2} Injection, Greene County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rovey, Charles; Gouzie, Douglas; Biagioni, Richard

    2013-09-30

    The project titled Monitoring and Numerical Modeling of Shallow CO{sub 2} Injection, Greene County, Missouri provided training for three graduate students in areas related to carbon capture and storage. Numerical modeling of CO{sub 2} injection into the St. Francois aquifer at the Southwest Power Plant Site in Greene County, Missouri indicates that up to 4.1 x 10{sup 5} metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year could be injected for 30 years without exceeding a 3 MPa differential injection pressure. The injected CO{sub 2} would remain sequestered below the top of the overlying caprock (St. Francois confining unit) for more than 1000 years. Geochemical modeling indicates that portions of the injected CO{sub 2} will react rapidly with trace minerals in the aquifer to form various solid carbonate mineral phases. These minerals would store significant portions of injected CO{sub 2} over geologic time scales. Finally, a GIS data base on the pore-fluid chemistry of the overlying aquifer system in Missouri, the Ozark aquifer, was compiled from many sources. This data base could become useful in monitoring for leakage from future CO{sub 2} sequestration sites.

  11. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  12. Observation of Coherence in the Photosystem II Reaction Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franklin D. Fuller; Jie Pan; S. Seckin Senlik; Daniel E. Wilcox; Jennifer P. Ogilvie

    2013-10-03

    Photosynthesis powers life on our planet. The basic photosynthetic architecture comprises antenna complexes to harvest solar energy and reaction centers to convert the energy into a stable charge separated state. In oxygenic photosynthesis, the initial charge separation event occurs in the photosystem II reaction center; the only known natural enzyme that uses solar energy to split water. Energy transfer and charge separation in photosynthesis are rapid and have high quantum efficiencies. Recently, nonlinear spectroscopic experiments have suggested that electronic coherence may play a role in energy transfer efficiency in antenna complexes. Here we report the observation of coherence in the photosystem II reaction center by two dimensional electronic spectroscopy. The frequencies of the observed coherences match exciton difference frequencies and/or known vibrational modes of the photosystem II reaction center. These observations raise questions about the possible role of electronic and/or vibrational coherence in the fundamental charge separation process in oxygenic photosynthesis.

  13. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  14. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  15. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  16. Two well storage systems for combined heating and airconditioning by groundwater heatpumps in shallow aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelka, W.

    1980-07-01

    The use of soil and ground water as an energy source and heat storage systems for heat pumps in order to conserve energy in heating and air conditioning buildings is discussed. Information is included on heat pump operation and performance, aquifer characteristics, soil and ground water temperatures, and cooling and heating demands. Mathematical models are used to calculate flow and temperature fields in the aquifer. It is concluded that two well storage systems with ground water heat pumps are desirable, particularly in northern climates. (LCL)

  17. Advection, Moistening, and Shallow-to-deep Convection Transitions During the Initiation and Propagation of Madden-Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Landu, Kiranmayi; Long, Charles N.

    2014-09-11

    Using observations from the 2011 AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign over the Indian Ocean and a high-resolution regional model simulation, the processes that lead to the rapid shallow-to-deep convection transitions associated with the initiation and eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are examined. By tracking the evolution of the depth of several thousand individual model simulated precipitation features, the role of and the processes that control the observed midtropospheric moisture buildup ahead of the detection of deep convection are quantified at large and convection scales. The frequency of shallow-to-deep convection transitions is found to be sensitive to this midlevel moisture and large-scale uplift. This uplift along with the decline of large-scale drying by equator-ward advection causes the moisture buildup leading to the initiation of the MJO. Convection scale moisture variability and uplift, and large-scale zonal advection play secondary roles.

  18. EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAQ MA

    2009-05-12

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

  19. Phase II Planning for Niall Gaffney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phase II Planning for the HET Niall Gaffney March 6, 1997 #12;#12;Phase II Planning for the HET 3 ................................................................................................................................. 38 Plan Templates .............................................................................................................................................. 47 Example Plans

  20. Phase II Planning for Niall Gaffney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phase II Planning for the HET Niall Gaffney March 6, 1997 #12; #12; Phase II Planning for the HET 3 ................................................................................................................................. 38 Plan Templates .............................................................................................................................................. 47 Example Plans

  1. State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2008 State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2008 1 #12;Introduction The mission of the State of Washington-related research important to the State of Washington and the region, ii) Educate and train engineers, scientists

  2. Photooxidation of Hg(0) in Artificial and Natural Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morel, François M. M.

    artificial and natural waters irradiated with a UV-B lamp. No change in Hg speciation was observed in dark waters could represent a net balance between Hg(II) photoreduction and Hg(0) photooxidation oxidized in the dark (7, 8). But it is not known iftheseresultsobtainedwithliquiddropsofHg(0)arerelevant

  3. Thermostable purified endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Thomas, Steven R. (Denver, CO); Nieves, Rafael A. (Lakewood, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A purified low molecular weight endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is disclosed. The endoglucanase is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1, and C.sub.x types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 81.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and at a inactivation temperature of about 100.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9.

  4. Thermostable purified endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adney, W.S.; Thomas, S.R.; Nieves, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1994-11-22

    A purified low molecular weight endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is disclosed. The endoglucanase is water soluble, possesses both C[sub 1], and C[sub x] types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 81 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and at a inactivation temperature of about 100 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9. 9 figs.

  5. Management of shallow impoundments to provide emergent and submergent vegetation for waterfowl 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polasek, Len Gerard

    1994-01-01

    adjacent to water; and, grasses in upper, drier zones. Seed production of grasses, sedges, and forbs generally reflected vegetation present in each soil-moisture zone. Taxon richness of emergent plants was highest in dewatered zones. Drawdown timing did...

  6. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  7. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    in order to reduce the water and energy wasted in hot waterhot water) and 17% if hot water energy is included. The datafrom the delivered hot water energy of 66% to provide the

  8. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to identify any nuclear fuel cycle technology or option that may result in a significant beneficial impact to the issues as compared to the current U.S. approach of once-through use of nuclear fuel in LWRs or similar reactors followed by direct disposal of UNF. This approach was taken because incremental differences may be difficult to clearly identify and justify due to the large uncertainties that can be associated with the specific causes of the issues. Phase II of this Options Study continued the review of nuclear fuel cycle options that was initiated and documented during Phase I, concentrating on reviewing and summarizing the potential of integrated nuclear fuel cycles. However, based on the reviews of previous studies and available data, it was not always possible to clearly determine sufficiently large differences between the various fuel cycle and technology options for some of the issues or evaluation measures, for example, in cases where only incremental differences with respect to the issues might be achieved regardless of the fuel cycle option or technologies being considered, or where differences were insufficient to clearly rise above the uncertainties.

  9. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  10. Constraints on shallow {sup 56}Ni from the early light curves of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Anthony L. [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nakar, Ehud, E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-03-20

    Ongoing transient surveys are presenting an unprecedented account of the rising light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). This early emission probes the shallowest layers of the exploding white dwarf (WD), which can provide constraints on the progenitor star and the properties of the explosive burning. We use semianalytic models of radioactively powered rising light curves to analyze these observations. As we have summarized in previous work, the main limiting factor in determining the surface distribution of {sup 56}Ni is the lack of an unambiguously identified time of explosion, as would be provided by detection of shock breakout or shock-heated cooling. Without this the SN may in principle exhibit a 'dark phase' for a few hours to days, where the only emission is from shock-heated cooling that is too dim to be detected. We show that by assuming a theoretically motivated time-dependent velocity evolution, the explosion time can be better constrained, albeit with potential systematic uncertainties. This technique is used to infer the surface {sup 56}Ni distributions of three recent SNe Ia that were caught especially early in their rise. In all three we find fairly similar {sup 56}Ni distributions. Observations of SN 2011fe and SN 2012cg probe shallower depths than SN 2009ig, and in these two cases {sup 56}Ni is present merely ?10{sup –2} M {sub ?} from the WDs' surfaces. The uncertainty in this result is up to an order of magnitude given the difficulty of precisely constraining the explosion time. We also use our conclusions about the explosion times to reassess radius constraints for the progenitor of SN 2011fe, as well as discuss the roughly t {sup 2} power law that is inferred for many observed rising light curves.

  11. Olig sand, shallow oil zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Olig Sand Reservoirs, classified as part of the Shallow Oil Zone, were studied and evaluated. The reservoirs are located in Section 30R, T30S, R23E and Section 24Z, T30S, R22E, M.D.B. and M., all in Elk Hills Oil Field, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California. The three productive reservoirs studied cover an area of 255 acres, and originally contained 3311 MMCF of gas condensate in 4292 acre-feet of sand. The main reservoir, Fault Block I in Section 30R, has been on production since 1982 and is largely depleted. The reservoirs around wells 324-30R and 385-24Z should still be in a virgin state. They can be depleted either through those wells, when their service as Stevens Zone producers is completed, or by twin well replacements drilled specifically as Olig Sand completions. Thirty-six exhibits have been included to present basic data and study results in a manner that will enhance the readers's understanding of the reservoirs. These exhibits include six maps in the M-series, six sections in the S-Series, and fourteen figures in the F-Series, as well as ten tables. The Appendix includes miscellaneous basic data such as well logs, core analyses, pressure measurements, and well tests. The Calculations Section of the report develops and explains the analytical methods used to define well productivity, determine reserves, and schedule future production of those reserves. Although no MER recommendations have been made for these gas condensate reservoirs, recommended depletion schemes and schedules are presented. These schemes include one eventual recompletion and one new well to maximize present worth of these reservoirs which carry proved reserves of 289 MMCF and probable reserves of 853 MMCF, effective August 1, 1986. In addition, potential future testing is earmarked for wells 322-30R and 344-30R. 11 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. by popular demand: Addiction II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niv, Yael

    by popular demand: Addiction II PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making: Psychological, size of other non-drug rewards, and cost (but ultimately the demand is inelastic, or at least

  13. Experience with capture cavity II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koeth, T.; /Fermilab /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Branlard, J.; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.; Harms, E.; Hocker, A.; McGee, M.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Valuable experience in operating and maintaining superconducting RF cavities in a horizontal test module has been gained with Capture Cavity II. We report on all facets of our experience to date.

  14. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Marketing water savings.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9143 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marketing water savings.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2... are partnering with federal and state agencies and universities to develop new programs or market existing ones. In North Central Texas, the city of McKin- ney and Texas AgriLife Research and Exten- sion Urban Solutions Center at Dallas recently began...

  15. STREAM II-V5: REVISION OF STREAM II-V4 AQUEOUS TRANSPORT CODE TO ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF RAINFALL EVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.

    2011-05-18

    STREAM II is an aqueous transport model developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for use in the Savannah River Site (SRS) emergency response program. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) is used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. A recent version of the code (STREAM II-V4) predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM IIV4. STREAM II-V5 is an upgraded version which accounts for the effects of a storm event. The revised model finds the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 then adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations. This paper will discuss the required modifications to STREAM II and a comparison of results between the older and newer versions for an example involving a rainfall event.

  16. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  17. The effect of rainfall on the velocity distribution in shallow channel flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass, Larry Joe

    1965-01-01

    . Although the I. O 0. 8 0. 6 DEPTH O. I 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 05 SYMBOL 0 0 0. 4 0. 3 Cl ILI ID IJJ O IJI c( II LLI CI O. I 0. 08 0. 06 004 003 POINT VELOCITY ? MEAN VELOGITY SHEAR VELOCITY v-V (gdS) 2 FIGURE 16 . VELOCITY.... 03 POINT VELOCITY ? MEAN VELOCITY v-V SHEAR VELOCITY Ig (gdSj 2 FIGURE 17 . VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION REGRESSION CURVE USING THE TOTAL HEAD TUBE WITHOUT SIMULATED RAINFALL ON A CONCRETE BED I. O 0. 8 06 DEPTH SYMBOL 0. 2 Q 0. 3 Q 0, 4 35 04...

  18. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  19. Enabling better water management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    CASE STUDY Enabling better water management Seasonal Streamflow Forecast Service influencing water decisions Water management decisions made with confidence Using the Bureau's streamflow forecasting, ACTEW Water confidently removed temporary water restrictions after the millennium drought. Millennium drought

  20. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  1. Relationships among oils and water compositions in Niger delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, P.A.; George, G.O.; Barker, C.

    1987-10-01

    In some fields of the Tertiary Niger delta of Nigeria, heavy, asphaltic oil is found in shallow reservoirs and light, waxy oil is found in deeper reservoirs in the same field. Both oils appears to have had the same source. The change with depth from heavy to light oil is usually abrupt and occurs at a reservoir temperature between 150/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/F (66/sup 0/ and 82/sup 0/C). In other areas similar degradation of oil has been ascribed to bacteria brought into the oil reservoir by invading meteoric water. In Nigeria, meteoric water is low in dissolved solids and high in bicarbonate, whereas connate water is saltier and contains more chloride. Samples of both types of oil and associated water from six fields were analyzed and compared with previously acquired analyses from these fields. No clear relationship between meteoric water and degraded oil was found. Degraded oil may occur with either meteoric or connate water, and undegraded oil is sometimes found with meteoric water. This suggests extensive secondary migration of oil from one structure to another as well as deep penetration of meteoric water. 14 figures, 1 table.

  2. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  3. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  4. Ozone decomposition in water solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewes, Cecil Grayson

    1969-01-01

    OF LITERATUR 1V Vi ~ V111 III ~ EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM AND ITS OPERATION 14 IV. DISCUSS10N OF RESULTS AND COiJCLUSION. . . 24 i~JOMENCLATUHE. BIBLIOGRAPIFY APPENDIX I. WASTE WATER REGENERATION BY OZONATION. II. AMINE REMOVAL BY OZONATION...ATER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIII. REACTION RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE D'COMPOSITION OF OZONE IN INTER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIV COD REMOVAL BY OZONE XV. OZONIZATION OF MATER CONTAINIiNG RESIDUAL AMINE. 57 60 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. FIOW DIAGRAM OF THZ...

  5. Nestle Waters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to: navigation,National MarineUSAID Climate Activities JumpNestle Waters

  6. Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Wei; C. M. Cejas; R. Barrois; R. Dreyfus; D. J. Durian

    2014-03-13

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed raining condition, we combine the effects of grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to rain water channelization phenomenon, including pre-wetting sandy soils at different level before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  7. Second generation Research Reactor Fuel Container (RRFC-II).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhold, M. E.; Baker, M. C.; Bourret, S. C.; Harker, W. C.; Pelowitz, D. G.; Polk, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    The second generation Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC-II) has been developed to measure the remaining {sup 235}U content in foreign spent Material Test Reactor (MTR)-type fuel being returned to the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS) for interim storage and subsequent disposal. The fuel to be measured started as fresh fuel nominally with 93% enriched Uraniuin alloyed with A1 clad in Al. The fuel was irradiated to levels of up to 65% burnup. The RRFC-II, which will be located in the L-Basin spent fuel pool, is intended to assay the {sup 235}U content using a combination of passive neutron coincidence counting, active neutron coincidence counting, and active-multiplicity analysis. Measurements will be done underwater, eliminating the need for costly and hazardous handling operations of spent fuel out of water. The underwater portion of the RRFC-II consists of a watertight stainless steel housing containing neutron and gamma detectors and a scanning active neutron source. The portion of the system that resides above water consists of data-processing electronics; electromechanical drive electronics; a computer to control the operation of the counter, to collect, and to analyze data; and a touch screen interface located at the equipment rack. The RRFC-II is an improved version of the Los Alamos-designed RRFC already installed in the SRS Receipts Basin for Offsite Fuel. The RRFC-II has been fabricated and is scheduled for installation in late FY 2001 pending acceptance testing by Savannah River Site personnel.

  8. EBR-II Data Digitization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Rabiti, Cristian; Sackett, John

    2014-08-01

    1. Objectives To produce a validation database out of those recorded signals it will be necessary also to identify the documents need to reconstruct the status of reactor at the time of the beginning of the recordings. This should comprehends the core loading specification (assemblies type and location and burn-up) along with this data the assemblies drawings and the core drawings will be identified. The first task of the project will be identify the location of the sensors, with respect the reactor plant layout, and the physical quantities recorded by the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) data acquisition system. This first task will allow guiding and prioritizing the selection of drawings needed to numerically reproduce those signals. 1.1 Scopes and Deliverables The deliverables of this project are the list of sensors in EBR-II system, the identification of storing location of those sensors, identification of a core isotopic composition at the moment of the start of system recording. Information of the sensors in EBR-II reactor system was summarized from the EBR-II system design descriptions listed in Section 1.2.

  9. Geophysical (time domain electromagnetic model) delineation of a shallow brine beneath a freshwater lake,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gvirtzman, Haim

    groundwaters. It is hypothesized that salt transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in the central part streams entering the lake. This order of magnitude difference is a result of salt fluxes from two major cores and nineteen 0.5-m cores drilled to sediments within the lake basin (Figure 1). At the water

  10. Flume Studies of Sediment Transportation in Shallow Flow with Simulated Rainfall 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nail, F.M.

    1966-01-01

    , Trinity, Neches and Sabine River Basins," is a general discussion of the economic factors as they are related to demand for water in each basin. In addition to a statewide outlook, a separate discussion for each basin is presented which includes future...

  11. Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers by Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak Bachelor means, without the permission of the author. #12;ii Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion State University) Abstract Liquid water management has a major impact on the performance and durability

  12. Networking Lessons: From Computers to Water Iyswarya Narayanan, Venkatesh Sarangan, Arunchandar Vasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Aravind

    Networking Lessons: From Computers to Water Iyswarya Narayanan, Venkatesh Sarangan, Arunchandar- working can be applied in water distribution networks to improve their energy footprint and/or efficiency networking can be used to better water distribution; (ii) we focus on a specific infrastructure enhancement

  13. Evidence for catalytic water oxidation by a dimanganese tetrakis-Schiff base macrocycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinolfo, Peter H.

    Evidence for catalytic water oxidation by a dimanganese tetrakis-Schiff base macrocycle Subhadeep August 2014 Keywords: Water oxidation Homogeneous catalysis Manganese Artificial photosynthesis order depen- dence on H2O and [MnII 2L]2+ , indicative of electrocatalytic water oxidation. Controlled

  14. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths occur globally every year due to a lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene (1

  15. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    they join tributaries to the Mississippi River. · The deep ground water divide is the underground boundary Deep ground water divide Racine Kenosha Walworth Waukesha Washington Ozaukee Milwaukee LAKE MICHIGANGround water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also

  16. Biomass production, forage quality, and cation uptake of Quail bush, four-wing saltbush, and seaside barley irrigated with moderately saline-sodic water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauder, J.W.; Browning, L.S.; Phelps, S.D.; Kirkpatrick, A.D. [Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The study reported here investigated capacity of Atriplex lentiformis (Torr.) S. Wats. (Quail bush), Atriplex X aptera A. Nels. (pro sp.) (Wytana four-wing saltbush), and Hordeum marinum Huds. (seaside barley) to produce biomass and crude protein and take up cations when irrigated with moderately saline-sodic water, in the presence of a shallow water table. Water tables were established at 0.38, 0.76, and 1.14m below the surface in sand-filled columns. The columns were then planted to the study species. Study plants were irrigated for 224 days; irrigation water was supplied every 7 days equal to water lost to evapotranspiration (ET) plus 100mL (the volume of water removed in the most previous soil solution sampling). Water representing one of two irrigation sources was used: Powder River (PR) or coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wastewater. Biomass production did not differ significantly between water quality treatments but did differ significantly among species and water table depth within species. Averaged across water quality treatments, Hordeum marinum produced 79% more biomass than A. lentiformis and 122% more biomass than Atriplex X aptera, but contained only 11% crude protein compared to 16% crude protein in A. lentiformis and 14% crude protein in Atriplex X aptera. Atriplex spp. grown in columns with the water table at 0.38m depth produced more biomass, took up less calcium on a percentage basis, and took up more sodium on a percentage basis than when grown with the water table at a deeper depth. Uptake of cations by Atriplex lentiformis was approximately twice the uptake of cations by Atriplex X aptera and three times that of H. marinum. After 224 days of irrigation, crop growth, and cation uptake, followed by biomass harvest, EC and SAR of shallow groundwater in columns planted to A. lentiformis were less than EC and SAR of shallow ground water in columns planted to either of the other species.

  17. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  18. Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats of the Lower Columbia River, 2007–2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Storch, Adam; Skalski, J. R.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Mallette, Christine; Borde, Amy B.; Van Dyke, E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Teel, David; Dawley, Earl M.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Jones, Tucker A.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Kuligowski, D. R.

    2011-03-01

    The TFM study was designed to investigate the ecology and early life history of juvenile salmonids within shallow (<5 m) tidal freshwater habitats of the LCRE. We started collecting field data in June 2007. Since then, monthly sampling has occurred in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta (rkm 192–208) and at other sites and times in lower river reaches of tidal freshwater (rkm 110 to 141). This report provides a comprehensive synthesis of data covering the field period from June 2007 through April 2010.

  19. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    8 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water HeaterAssess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heater Marketassess California’s small gas storage water heater market.

  20. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos/01/2012 Page 1Water Power

  1. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from a low H/sub 2/:CO gas in a dry fluidized-bed system. Volume 3. Heat transfer between a supernatant gas and a flowing shallow fluidized bed of solids. Final technical report, October 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, J.H.; Liu, Y.A.; Squires, A.M.

    1986-10-01

    Volume II describes the details of heat-transfer studies in a dry fluidized-bed system (called ''heat tray''), which has been proposed for heat recovery from hot gases and for heat management in exothermic reactions. In particular, this report presents the results of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies which quantify heat transfer between a hot supernatant gas (S-gas) and a flowing shallow fluidized bed of solids. A fractional-factorial design of experiments has been performed on two heat-tray systems using three different solids. The results show that fine fluid cracking catalyst (FCC) particles out-perform larger alumina spheres as a fluidized solid. Heat transfer coefficients between the supernatant gas and the shallow fluidized bed approaches 440 W/m/sup 2/-K using FCC with a heat-exchange area of 0.124 m/sup 2/. Various S-gas inlet nozzle configurations have been studied, with a nozzle height equal to one-half of the static bed height (0.051 m) giving the best results. The study shows that short heat-tray lengths (< 0.8 m) are desirable and that S-gas redistributors are needed to compartmentalize the unit. An economic analysis shows that the proposed heat tray would be economically feasible for adaption as a boiler feedwater preheater in a small steam-generation facility, using boiler combustion gases as the S-gas. The payback time for the system would be as short as 1.9 years when used continuously. The heat transfer results from a supernatant gas to a flowing shallow fluidized bed represent the only data reported thus far, and have led to a better understanding of the heat management in the proposed ''heat-tray'' reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. 20 refs., 46 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  3. Saving Water Saves Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads,Saving Water Saves Energy James E. McMahon, Camilla Dunhamavailable products. The energy savings associated with water

  4. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    paper describing produced water from production of crudeEmerging Issues Paper: Mine Water Pollution. Dep. Environ.40. Vine G. 2010. Cooling water issues and opportunities at

  5. Terrestrial Water Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodell, M; Chambers, D P; Famiglietti, Jay

    2013-01-01

    with Subantarctic Mode Water. J. Geophys. Res. , 116,Global Climate] Stratospheric water vapor [in “State of the18 2. Total column water

  6. Storm Water Analytical Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Individual Permit Storm Water Analytical Period Storm Water Analytical Period The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm water associated with historical industrial...

  7. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01

    connections between water and energy, advances in knowledgeimportant nexus between water and energy. The demand fortwo reports on the water and energy nexus highlighting the

  8. Saving Water Saves Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads,shorter showers). Water- and energy- conserving activitiesstress imposed on limited water (and energy) supplies from

  9. TRUPACT-II Hydrogen G-Valve Program Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mroz, Eugene J.

    1999-01-01

    This test plan describes the objectives, scope, participants, and components of the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) Hydrogen G-Value Program (GH2P). The GH2P builds on the experience, results, and experimental setup of the TRUPACT-II Matrix Depletion Program (MDP) to establish effective hydrogen G-values (G-values) for additional waste matrices. This plan details the experimental design and test matrices for experiments to measure the G-value for additional waste matrices, including first- and second-stage sludges at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and molten salt extraction residues with varying amounts of residual moisture (i.e., unbound water). Data collected from the GH2P will be used to support an application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for G-values and corresponding wattage limits for the TRUPACT-II payloads containing these waste matrices. The testing will also evaluate the ability to determine G-values on a waste stream basis.

  10. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-01-22

    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we have moved forward on several fronts, including data acquisition as well as analysis and application. During this quarter we have: (1) Completed our site selection (finally); (2) Measured fluid effects in Troika deep water sand sample; (3) Applied the result to Ursa ''fizz gas'' zone; (4) Compared thin layer property averaging on AVO response; (5) Developed target oriented NMO stretch correction; (6) Examined thin bed effects on A-B crossplots; and (7) Begun incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models. Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Reservoirs composed of thin bed effects will broaden the reflection amplitude distribution with incident angle. Normal move out (NMO) stretch corrections based on frequency shifts can be applied to offset this effect. Tuning will also disturb the location of extracted amplitudes on AVO intercept and gradient (A-B) plots. Many deep water reservoirs fall this tuning thickness range. Our goal for the remaining project period is to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration.

  11. Nickel(II) and Copper(I,II)-based Metal-Organic Frameworks Incorporati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nickel(II) and Copper(I,II)-based Metal-Organic Frameworks Incorporating an Extended Trispyrazolate Linker Previous Next List Tabacaru, Aurel; Galli, Simona; Pettinari, Claudio;...

  12. Design and Implementation of a CO{sub 2} Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durrent, E.G.; Harpole, K.J.; Owen, Rex; Robertson, C.R.

    1999-01-14

    Work reported in this document covers tasks in Budget Phase II. The principle task in Budget Phase II is Field Demonstration.

  13. HELIOPHYSICS II. ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    with the term "solar flare" dominate our thinking about energy conversion from magnetic storage to other formsHELIOPHYSICS II. ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES edited by CAROLUS J. SCHRIJVER Lockheed Martin of a solar flare 11 2.3.1 Flare luminosity and mechanical energy 11 2.3.2 The impulsive phase (hard X

  14. Assignment II Saha & Boltzmann equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spoon, Henrik

    Assignment II Saha & Boltzmann equations January 21, 2002 This assignment is meant to give you some practical experience in using the Saha and Boltzmann equations that govern the level populations in atoms;s =kT the partition function of ionization stage r. The Saha equation: N r+1 N r = 2U r+1 U r P e #18

  15. Mittwoch, 28.05.2014 Zeit H17, NW II H18, NW II H20, NW II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ott, Albrecht

    Beliefs and Fracking Gebäude Audimax 09:40 (Gebäudewechsel Audimax -> NW II) 10:00 "Hydrogeologie von

  16. Drinking Water Standards 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  17. Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-03-28

    at http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/water/ az9420.pdf. ?Drinking Water Treatment: Distillation.? Nebraska Cooperative Extension. Available at http://ianrpubs. unl.edu/water/g1493.htm. ?Electrodyalisis.? GE Infrastructure Water & Process Technologies. General...

  18. Water quantity and quality model for the evaluation of water-management strategies in the Netherlands: application to the province of Friesland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, J.J.; Griffioen, P.S.; Groot, S.; Los, F.J.

    1987-03-01

    The Netherlands have a rather complex water-management system consisting of a number of major rivers, canals, lakes and ditches. Water-quantity management on a regional scale is necessary for an effective water-quality policy. To support water management, a computer model was developed that includes both water quality and water quantity, based on three submodels: ABOPOL for the water movement, DELWAQ for the calculation of water quality variables and BLOOM-II for the phytoplankton growth. The northern province of Friesland was chosen as a test case for the integrated model to be developed, where water quality is highly related to the water distribution and the main trade-off is minimizing the intake of (eutrophicated) alien water in order to minimize external nutrient load and maximizing the intake in order to flush channels and lakes. The results of the application of these models to this and to a number of hypothetical future situations are described.

  19. Integrated regional water management: Collaboration or water politics as usual?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubell, Mark N.; Lippert, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    the water quality and waste water elements. At the sameAll water supply, waste water, and flood control agenciesprovide services like waste water treatment and drinking

  20. Water watch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.