National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ii portland cement

  1. Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Shannon Golden, Alabama DOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Shannon Golden, Alabama DOT PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT may be substituted for part of the required Portland cement. Substitution of mineral admixtures shall Cement shall not exceed the percentages shown in the following table: MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SUBSTITUTION

  2. MODELING OF HYDRATION KINETICS AND SHRINKAGE OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Christian

    MODELING OF HYDRATION KINETICS AND SHRINKAGE OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE Feng Lin Submitted in partial and Sciences COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 2006 #12;MODELING OF HYDRATION KINETICS AND SHRINKAGE OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE;ABSTRACT MODELING OF HYDRATION KINETICS AND SHRINKAGE OF PORTLAND CEMENT PASTE Feng Lin A mathematical

  3. Stabilizing coal-water mixtures with portland cement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Krishna, Coimbatore R. (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1986-01-01

    Coal-water mixes stabilized by the addition of portland cement which may additionally contain retarding carbohydrates, or borax are described.

  4. Stabilizing coal-water mixtures with Portland cement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Krishna, C.R.

    1984-10-17

    Coal-water mixes stabilized by the addition of Portland cement which may additionally contain retarding carbohydrates, or borax are described. 1 tab.

  5. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anton K. Schindler; Steve R. Duke; Thomas E. Burch; Edward W. Davis; Ralph H. Zee; David I. Bransby; Carla Hopkins; Rutherford L. Thompson; Jingran Duan; Vignesh Venkatasubramanian; Stephen Giles.

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted at a full-scale cement plant with alternative fuels to examine their compatibility with the cement production process. Construction and demolition waste, woodchips, and soybean seeds were used as alternative fuels at a full-scale cement production facility. These fuels were co-fired with coal and waste plastics. The alternative fuels used in this trial accounted for 5 to 16 % of the total energy consumed during these burns. The overall performance of the portland cement produced during the various trial burns performed for practical purposes very similar to the cement produced during the control burn. The cement plant was successful in implementing alternative fuels to produce a consistent, high-quality product that increased cement performance while reducing the environmental footprint of the plant. The utilization of construction and demolition waste, woodchips and soybean seeds proved to be viable replacements for traditional fuels. The future use of these fuels depends on local availability, associated costs, and compatibility with a facilityâ??s production process.

  6. Identification and characterization of agent for reductive dechlorination in mixtures of ferrous iron and Portland cement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Sae Bom

    2001-01-01

    were conducted to identify a potential active agent in a mixture of Fe(II) and Portland cement extract (PCX). Results of XRD analysis indicated that a potential active agent is likely to be green rust chloride, which is a layered Fe(II)/Fe(III...

  7. Transcending Portland Cement with 100 percent fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, D.; Akin, M.; Stephens, J.; Cuelh, E.

    2009-07-01

    The use of concrete, made with 100% fly ash and no Portland cement, in buildings at the Transportation Institute in Bozeman, MT, USA, is described. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  8. In What Form is Lime Present in Portland Cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Claude W.

    1910-01-01

    ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection In What Form is Lime Present in Portland Cement 1910 by Claude W. Wright This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries...’ Center for Digital Scholarship. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Submitted to the School of Engineering of the University of Kansas for completion of Masters of Cheimcal Engineering. IN WHAT FORM IS LIME PRESENT IN PORTLAND CEMENT. A Dissertation...

  9. Odor investigation of a Portland cement plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pleus, R.C. [Intertox, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The main concern expressed by Smithville residents is whether the odors they were smelling during odor events were due to chemicals that could cause adverse health effects. Odors were allegedly emanating from the town`s Portland cement plant. The purpose of the study was to measure the ambient air for 20 reduced sulfur, 50 volatile organic compounds, and air samples for olfactometric analysis. Carbonyl sulfide was found to be at a concentration that could create a sense of odor and irritation. This sense of irritation may be due to a physiological response by the central nervous system, and is not associated with any known adverse effects. This physiological response could account for some or all of the irritation experienced by residents during odor events. Comparing chemical concentrations that were detected in air samples to standard and recognized guidelines for acceptable exposure, all measured concentrations were found to be well below the acceptable criteria. From these data the authors conclude that no acute or chronic adverse health effects are expected at the concentrations of the chemicals detected downwind of the cement plant, either routinely or during odor events.

  10. Hydration kinetics modeling of Portland cement considering the effects of curing temperature and applied pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Christian

    pressure. However, elevated temperatures and high pressures are frequently encountered in oil wells whereHydration kinetics modeling of Portland cement considering the effects of curing temperature 2006 Accepted 28 January 2009 Keywords: Hydration Kinetics Portland cement Modeling Thermodynamics

  11. Influence of Nucleation Seeding on the Compressive Strength of Ordinary Portland Cement and Alkali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portland Cement and Alkali Activated Blast-Furnace Slag M. Hubler, H. Jennings OF NUCLEATION SEEDING ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT AND ALKALI ACTIVATED BLAST on the early hydration kinetics and compressive strength by seeding of Portland cement and alkali

  12. Revised 08-2014 TASK FORCE ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT FOR PORTLAND CEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revised 08-2014 TASK FORCE ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT FOR PORTLAND CEMENT AND BLENDED CEMENTS CEMENT OF CEMENT COMPANY: FACILITY LOCATED AT CEMENT TYPE & ASSOCIATED PRODUCT NAME 1. The host state agency that performs testing for acceptance of hydraulic cement plants within its boundaries shall have a laboratory

  13. Nondestructive Monitoring of Setting and Hardening of Portland Cement Mortar with Sonic Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nondestructive Monitoring of Setting and Hardening of Portland Cement Mortar with Sonic Methods of Portland cement mortar, represented by setting time, dynamic elastic moduli, compressive strength analysis and adiabatic heat release. The water/cement ratio was varied for the tested mixture composition

  14. PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT FOR FLEXIBLE OVER RIGID COMPOSITE PAVEMENTS (Tollway)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT FOR FLEXIBLE OVER RIGID COMPOSITE PAVEMENTS (Tollway) Effective portland cement concrete for special applications to composite pavements as shown and described. Constructing the Jointed Plain Ternary Cement Concrete Pavement layer of the composite pavement on a prepared

  15. A Comparison Study of Portland Cement Hydration Kinetics as Measured by Chemical Shrinkage and Isothermal Calorimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    1 A Comparison Study of Portland Cement Hydration Kinetics as Measured by Chemical Shrinkage methods of evaluating cement hydration kinetics, namely chemical shrinkage and isothermal calorimetry tests, are used to investigate the early stage hydration of different classes of oilwell cement

  16. Chromium stabilization chemistry of paint removal wastes in Portland cement and blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of cement based systems for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes has been proposed. The stabilization of Cr contaminated paint removal wastes in ordinary Portland cement and in a Portland cement and blast furnace slag matrix was investigated. A loading by volume of 75% waste and 25% cement (or cement + slag) was used. The expression of pore solution was utilized to determine the chemical environment encountered by the waste species in the cement matrix. The highly alkaline conditions of ordinary Portland cement determined the stability of the metal species, with Cr being highly soluble. The replacement of 25% of the Portland cement by blast furnace slag was found to decrease the [OH-] of the pore solution resulting in a decrease of the Cr concentration. For cement wastes forms hydrated for 28 days, the Cr concentration decreased in the expressed pore solution. During the TCLP tests the cement waste form and extraction solution were found to react, changing the chemistry of the extraction solution. The expression of pore solution was found to give a direct measure of the chemistry of the waste species in the cement matrix. This avoids the reaction of the TCLP extraction solution with the cement matrix which changes the solubility of the hazardous metals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Portland cement for SO.sub.2 control in coal-fired power plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

    1985-01-01

    There is described a method of removing oxides of sulfur from the emissions of fossil fuel combustion by injecting portland cement into the boiler with the fuel, the combustion air, or downstream with the combustion gases. There is also described the cement products that result from this method.

  18. Portland cement for SO/sub 2/ control in coal-fired power plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.

    1984-10-17

    A method is described for removing oxides of sulfur from the emissions of fossil fuel combustion by injecting portland cement into the boiler with the fuel, the combustion air, or downstream with the combustion gases. The cement products that result from this method is also described. 1 tab.

  19. Examples of cooler reflective streets for urban heat-island mitigation : Portland cement concrete and chip seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chang, S.-C.; Levinson, R.; Pon, B.

    2003-01-01

    1995). “Mitigation of Urban Heat Islands: Materials, UtilityStreets for Urban Heat-Island Mitigation: Portland CementR. Levinson and B. Pon Heat Island Group Energy Analysis

  20. Zinc electrode with cement additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charkey, Allen (Brookfield, CT)

    1982-06-01

    A zinc electrode having a cement additive, preferably, Portland Cement, distributed in the zinc active material.

  1. A Coupled Nanoindentation/SEM-EDS Study on Low Water/Cement Ratio Portland Cement Paste: Evidence for C-S-H/Ca(OH)[subscript 2] Nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jeffrey J.

    A low water/cement ratio (w/c=0.20) hydrated Portland cement paste was analyzed by grid-indentation coupled with ex situ scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (SEM-EDS) analysis at each indentation ...

  2. Contact Mechanics Based Mechanical Characterization of Portland Cement Paste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Christopher

    2012-02-14

    Current research interest in multi-scale modeling of cement paste requires accurate characterization of the time-dependent mechanical properties of the material, particularly the C-S-H phase. Nanoindentation is evaluated as a tool for measuring...

  3. Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment at the Arizona Portland Cement Plant in Rillito, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen J. Coppinger, P.E.; Bruce Colburn, Ph.D., P.E., CEM

    2007-05-17

    A Department of Energy Plant-wide Assessment was undertaken by Arizona Portland Cement (APC) beginning in May 2005. The assessment was performed at APC’s cement production facility in Rillito, Arizona. The assessment included a compressed air evaluation along with a detailed process audit of plant operations and equipment. The purpose of this Energy Survey was to identify a series of energy cost savings opportunities at the Plant, and provide preliminary cost and savings estimates for the work. The assessment was successful in identifying projects that could provide annual savings of over $2.7 million at an estimated capital cost of $4.3 million. If implemented, these projects could amount to a savings of over 4.9 million kWh/yr and 384,420 MMBtu/year.

  4. Time-variability of NO{sub x} emissions from Portland cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, L.J. Jr.; May, M.S. III [PSM International, Dallas, TX (United States)] [PSM International, Dallas, TX (United States); Johnson, D.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Statistics] [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Statistics; MacMann, R.S. [Penta Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Penta Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States); Woodward, W.A. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics] [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics

    1999-03-01

    Due to the presence of autocorrelation between sequentially measured nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) concentrations in stack gas from portland cement kilns, the determination of the average emission rates and the uncertainty of the average has been improperly calculated by the industry and regulatory agencies. Documentation of permit compliance, establishment of permit levels, and the development and testing of control techniques for reducing NO{sub x} emissions at specific cement plants requires accurate and precise statistical estimates of parameters such as means, standard deviations, and variances. Usual statistical formulas such as for the variance of the sample mean only apply if sequential measurements of NO{sub x} emissions are independent. Significant autocorrelation of NO{sub x} emission measurements revealed that NO{sub x} concentration values measured by continuous emission monitors are not independent but can be represented by an autoregressive, moving average time series. Three orders of time-variability of NO{sub x} emission rates were determined from examination of continuous emission measurements from several cement kilns.

  5. Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Petroleum Products Institute, Canadian Portland Cement Association, Canadian Pulp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Canadian Steel Producers Association, Canadian Textiles InstituteSponsors of CIEEDAC: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Petroleum Products Institute, Canadian Portland Cement Association

  6. Incorporation of trace elements in Portland cement clinker: Thresholds limits for Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gineys, N.; Aouad, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Damidot, D.

    2011-11-15

    This paper aims at defining precisely, the threshold limits for several trace elements (Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn) which correspond to the maximum amount that could be incorporated into a standard clinker whilst reaching the limit of solid solution of its four major phases (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 4}AF). These threshold limits were investigated through laboratory synthesised clinkers that were mainly studied by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The reference clinker was close to a typical Portland clinker (65% C{sub 3}S, 18% C{sub 2}S, 8% C{sub 3}A and 8% C{sub 4}AF). The threshold limits for Cu, Ni, Zn and Sn are quite high with respect to the current contents in clinker and were respectively equal to 0.35, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%. It appeared that beyond the defined threshold limits, trace elements had different behaviours. Ni was associated with Mg as a magnesium nickel oxide (MgNiO{sub 2}) and Sn reacted with lime to form a calcium stannate (Ca{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}). Cu changed the crystallisation process and affected therefore the formation of C{sub 3}S. Indeed a high content of Cu in clinker led to the decomposition of C{sub 3}S into C{sub 2}S and of free lime. Zn, in turn, affected the formation of C{sub 3}A. Ca{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}Al{sub 4}O{sub 15} was formed whilst a tremendous reduction of C{sub 3}A content was identified. The reactivity of cements made with the clinkers at the threshold limits was followed by calorimetry and compressive strength measurements on cement paste. The results revealed that the doped cements were at least as reactive as the reference cement.

  7. CEMENT RELATED RESEARCH HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    CEMENT RELATED RESEARCH HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY GROUP Josep M. Soler Jordi Cama Carles Ayora Ana Trapote.soler@idaea.csic.es #12;NOMECLATURE cement + water = hardened cement paste cement + water + sand = mortar cement + waterC) clinker + gypsum portland cement PORTLAND CEMENT #12;GTS-HPF Core Infiltration Experiment Experimental

  8. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydrationmore »of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators« less

  9. Suppression of phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng-Peng Ye; Fan-Zhong Chen; Yan-Qing Sheng; Guo-Ying Sheng; Jia-Mo Fu

    2006-08-15

    In this study, the effect of suppression on phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated by small scale experiment. A system including sediment, lake water, and several kinds of capping materials was designed to clarify the suppression of phosphate liberation from sediment under the anaerobic condition. The suppression efficiencies of fly ash, OPC and glass bead used as control material were also determined, and these effects were discussed. The suppression efficiency of glass bead was 44.4%, and those of fly ash and OPC were 84.4%, 94.9%, respectively. The suppression by fly ash and OPC was mainly carried out by the adsorption effect, in addition to the covering effect. The suppression efficiency depended on the amounts of the material used, and about 90% of liberated phosphate was suppressed by fly ash of 10.0 Kg m{sup -2}, and OPC of 6.0 Kg m{sup -2}. The concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, chromium, silver, arsenic and nickel, in fly ash and OPC were lower than those in the environmental materials. And it was considered that the concentrations of heavy metals in fly ash and OPC were too low to influence the ecosystem in natural water region.

  10. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschner, Florian; Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank; Neubauer, Jürgen

    2013-10-15

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 °C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C–S–H and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 °C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 °C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C–S–H. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C–S–H and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: •The reaction of quartz powder at 80 °C strongly enhances the compressive strength. •Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 °C was found after 2 days. •Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. •Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. •Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 °C correlates with sulphate content of C–S–H.

  11. Theory of sorption hysteresis in nanoporous solids: Part II Molecular condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Motivated by the puzzle of sorption hysteresis in Portland cement concrete or cement paste, we develop in Part II of this study a general theory of vapor sorption and desorption from nanoporous solids, which attributes ...

  12. Methodological and Practical Considerations for Developing Multiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects in Central America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion, Kristel

    2008-01-01

    in: Innovations in Portland Cement Manufacturing, Skokie,IL, Portland Cement Association. Worrell, E. , Price, L. ,emissions from the global cement industry’, Ann. Rev. Energy

  13. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    eds. ) 2004. Innovations in Portland Cement Manufacturing.Portland Cement Association. Venkateswaran, S.R. and H.E.Lowitt. 1988. The U.S. Cement Industry, An Energy

  14. Concrete international /january 2010 35 Portland limestone cement (PLC) is produced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) such as slag cement or fly ash. PLCs can, therefore, significantly PLCs are combined with slag cement or fly ash. This article presents results from a recent part fly ash, by mass. The PLC was produced by intergrinding limestone with calcium sulfate

  15. Examples of cooler reflective streets for urban heat-island mitigation : Portland cement concrete and chip seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chang, S.-C.; Levinson, R.; Pon, B.

    2003-04-30

    Part of the urban heat island effect can be attributed to dark pavements that are commonly used on streets and parking lots. In this paper we consider two light colored, hence cooler, alternative paving materials that are in actual use in cities today. These are Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and chip seals. We report measurements of the albedos of some PCC and chip sealed pavements in the San Francisco Bay Area. The albedos of the PCC pavements ranged from about 0.18 to 0.35. The temperatures of some PCC pavements are also measured and calculated. We then consider how the albedos of the constituent materials of the PCC (stone, sand and cement) contribute to the albedos of the resulting finished concrete. The albedos of a set of chip sealed pavements in San Jose, CA, were measured and correlated with the times of their placement. It is found that the albedos decrease with age (and use) but remain higher than that of standard asphalt concrete (AC) for about five years. After t hat, the albedos of the chip seals are about 0.12, similar to aged AC. The fact that many PCC pavements have albedos at least twice as high as aged AC suggests that it is possible to have pavement albedos that remain high for many years.

  16. Normal and refractory concretes for LMFBR applications. Volume 1. Review of literature on high-temperature behavior of portland cement and refractory concretes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chern, J.C.; Abrams, M.S.; Gillen, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive literature on the properties and behavior at elevated temperature of portland cement concrete and various refractory concretes was reviewed to collect in concise form the physical and chemical properties of castable refractory concretes and of conventional portland cement concretes at elevated temperature. This survey, together with an extensive bibliography of source documents, is presented in Volume 1. A comparison was made of these properties, the relative advantages of the various concretes was evaluated for possible liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications, and a selection was made of several materials of interest for such applications. Volume 2 concludes with a summary of additional knowledge needed to support such uses of these materials together with recommendations on research to provide that knowledge.

  17. The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Daniel, J. [Lafarge Corp., Alpena, MI (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Emissions from the Global Cement Industry, Annual Review ofThe Use of Limestone in Portland Cement: a State- of-the-Review, Skokie, IL: Portland Cement Association. Dolores, R.

  19. Hydration mechanisms of ternary Portland cements containing limestone powder and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Weerdt, K.; Haha, M. Ben; Le Saout, G.; Kjellsen, K.O.; Justnes, H.; Lothenbach, B.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of minor additions of limestone powder on the properties of fly ash blended cements was investigated in this study using isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and pore solution analysis. The presence of limestone powder led to the formation of hemi- and monocarbonate and to a stabilisation of ettringite compared to the limestone-free cements, where a part of the ettringite converted to monosulphate. Thus, the presence of 5% of limestone led to an increase of the volume of the hydrates, as visible in the increase in chemical shrinkage, and an increase in compressive strength. This effect was amplified for the fly ash/limestone blended cements due to the additional alumina provided by the fly ash reaction.

  20. The physical and chemical aspects of the leaching behavior of metals from portland cement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ricardo Corye

    1990-01-01

    intrusion pozosimetzy (NIP) is another method applied to correlate structural changes to the effects of addition of metal nitrates and subsequent leaching of waste forms. The changes in the void, capillary and gel pores (diameters greater than 0. 15 )(m..., between 0. 15 and 0. 01 pm and less than 0. 01 )lm, respectively) are related to the following: mixing enhancement, precipitation of complex metal compounds and retardation of clinker hydration on addition of metal nitrates to cement, and dissolution...

  1. Comparison of reactive magnesia-, carbide slag-activated ground granulated blastfurnace slag and Portland cement for stabilisation of a natural soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Yaolin; Zheng, Xu; Liu, Songyu; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2015-04-11

    -Tabbaa, 2013). Compared to PC, less energy is required for manufacturing reactive MgO (~2400 MJ/t MgO) due to its lower calcination temperature, and renewable energy sources can be used (Liska, 2009). Manufacturing 1t reactive MgO consumes 2.08 t MgCO3... ; Kitazume and Terash, 2013; Terashi, 2003; Terashi and Kitazume, 2011); however, there are significant environmental impacts associated with Portland cement (PC) production, such as high CO2 emissions (0.95t CO2/t PC), energy consumption (5000 MJ/t PC...

  2. Solidification/Stabilization of High Nitrate and Biodenitrified Heavy Metal Sludges with a Portland Cement/Flyash System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canonico, J.S.

    1995-07-26

    Pond 207C at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) contains process wastewaters characterized by high levels of nitrates and other salts, heavy metal contamination, and low level alpha activity. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of treating a high-nitrate waste, contaminated with heavy metals, with a coupled dewateriug and S/S process, as well as to investigate the effects of biodenitrification pretreatment on the S/S process. Pond 207C residuals served as the target waste. A bench-scale treatability study was conducted to demonstrate an S/S process that would minimize final product volume without a significant decrease in contaminant stabilization or loss of desirable physical characteristics. The process formulation recommended as a result a previous S/S treatability study conducted on Pond 207C residuals was used as the baseline formulation for this research. Because the actual waste was unavailable due to difficulties associated with radioactive waste handling and storage, a surrogate waste, of known composition and representative of Pond 207C residuals, was used throughout this research. The contaminants of regulatory concern added to the surrogate were cadmium, chromium, nickel, and silver. Product volume reduction was achieved by dewatering the waste prior to S/S treatment. The surrogate was dewatered by evaporation at 60 to 80 C to total solids contents from 43% to 78% by weight, and treated with Portland cement and fly ash. Two cement to flyash ratios were tested, 2:1 and 1:2, by weight. Contaminant leachability testing was conducted with a 0.5 water to pozzolan (the cement/flyash mixture) ratio and both cement to flyash ratios. Each product was tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and for contaminant leachability by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At the highest solids content achieved by dewatering, 78% solids by weight, the predicted final waste form volume f or Pond 207C residuals after S/S processing was reduced by over 60 A when compared to the baseline process. All tested process formulations produced final waste forms with an average UCS of 100 psi or greater. Percent fixation of Chrome (VI) increased at higher solids contents. Fixation of nickel varied from over 87% to 69%, and cadmium fixation was greater than 99% at every solids content tested. Silver TCLP extract concentrations were below detection limits in all cases except for one anomalous measurement. Final product volume reduction was not achieved with coupled dewatering and S/S processing after biodenitrification pretreatment. The waste slurry became too viscous to mix with reagents after dewatering to approximately 55% solids. Fixation of contaminant constituents and final product UCSs were similar to the results of S/S processing without biodenitrification. Due to the lack of volume reduction, biodenitrification was not successful as a pretreatment for S/S processing under the test conditions of this research.

  3. Performance of Concrete Made With Slag Cement and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Performance of Concrete Made With Slag Cement and Portland-Limestone Blended Cement Philadelphia;Today's Discussion ! The materials ! Slag cement ! Portland-limestone cement ! Use in concrete is slag cement? #12;! Non-metallic product of an iron blast furnace ! Granulated ! Ground ! Cementitious

  4. Performance of Typical Concrete Mixtures for Transportation Structures as Influenced by Portland-Limestone Cements from Five Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , including 0% SCM, 25% Class C fly ash, 25% Class F fly ash, and 40% slag cement mixtures. All mixtures used

  5. Carbon nanotube and nanofiber reinforcement for improving the flexural strength and fracture toughness of portland cement paste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyson, Bryan Michael

    2012-07-16

    ................................................................................................... 14 2.1.1 Noncovalent Functionalization ....................................................... 17 2.1.2 Covalent Functionalization ............................................................. 19 2.1.3 Defect Site Functionalization... ......................................................................................................... 48 4.1.1 Nano-filament Preparation ............................................................. 48 4.1.2 Incorporation of Cement and Nano-filaments ................................ 49 4.1.3 Molding...

  6. The use of electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the hydration products of Portland cement mortars with high percentage of pozzolans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Fita, I.C.; Soriano, L.; Payá, J.; Borrachero, M.V.

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, mortars and pastes containing large replacement of pozzolan were studied by mechanical strength, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of metakaolin (35%) and fly ash (60%) was evaluated and compared with an inert mineral addition (andalusite). The portlandite content was measured, finding that the pozzolanic reaction produced cementing systems with all portlandite fixed. The EIS measurements were analyzed by the equivalent electrical circuit (EEC) method. An EEC with three branches in parallel was applied. The dc resistance was related to the degree of hydration and allowed us to characterize plain and blended mortars. A constant phase element (CPE) quantified the electrical properties of the hydration products located in the solid–solution interface and was useful to distinguish the role of inert and pozzolanic admixtures present in the cement matrix.

  7. Materials of Cement Science Primer Principal Investigators: Professors Hamlin Jennings and Jeffery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Materials of Cement Science Primer Principal Investigators: Professors Hamlin Jennings and Jeffery Chapter 3. The Concrete Construction Process 19 Chapter 4. Manufacture and composition of Portland cement 24 Chapter 5. Hydration and microstructure of Portland cement paste 45 Chapter 6. The pore structure

  8. History and some potentials of oil shale cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knutson, C.F.; Smith, R.P.; Russell, B.F. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of oil shale as a cement component is discussed. It was investigated in America and Europe during World War I. Additional development occurred in Western Europe, Russia, and China during the 1920s and 1930s. World War II provided further development incentives and a relatively mature technology was in place in Germany, Russia, and China prior to 1980. The utilization of oil shale in cement has taken a number of different paths. One approach has been to utilize the energy in the oil shale as the principal source for the cement plant and to use the combusted shale as a minor constituent of the plant's cement product. A second approach has been to use the combusted shale as a class C or cementitious fly-ash component in portland cement concrete. Other approaches utilizing eastern oil shale have been to use the combusted oil shale with additives as a specialty cement, or to cocombust the oil shale with coal and utilize the sulfur-rich combustion product.

  9. Thermodynamics and cement science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damidot, D.; Lothenbach, B.; Herfort, D.; Glasser, F.P.

    2011-07-15

    Thermodynamics applied to cement science has proved to be very valuable. One of the most striking findings has been the extent to which the hydrate phases, with one conspicuous exception, achieve equilibrium. The important exception is the persistence of amorphous C-S-H which is metastable with respect to crystalline calcium silicate hydrates. Nevertheless C-S-H can be included in the scope of calculations. As a consequence, from comparison of calculation and experiment, it appears that kinetics is not necessarily an insuperable barrier to engineering the phase composition of a hydrated Portland cement. Also the sensitivity of the mineralogy of the AFm and AFt phase compositions to the presence of calcite and to temperature has been reported. This knowledge gives a powerful incentive to develop links between the mineralogy and engineering properties of hydrated cement paste and, of course, anticipates improvements in its performance leading to decreasing the environmental impacts of cement production.

  10. Influence of Curing Conditions on Water Loss and Hydration in Cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Influence of Curing Conditions on Water Loss and Hydration in Cement Pastes with and without Fly Loss and Hydration in Cement Pastes with and without Fly Ash Substitution Dale P. Bentz Building at different rates from portland cement, blended cements may require that special attention be paid

  11. Quantum Mechanical Metric for Internal Cohesion in Cement Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharmawardhana, C. C.; Misra, Anil; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2014-12-05

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the main binding phase of Portland cement, the single most important structural material in use worldwide. Due to the complex structure and chemistry of CSH at various length scales, the focus has progressively...

  12. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky, Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-01-01

    Cement Portland Cement Fly Ash Cement Blast Furnace SlagCement Portland Cement Fly Ash Cement Blast Furnace SlagCEM II), up to 35% can be fly ash and 65% clinker; for blast

  13. A geotechnical description of fresh cement groutfiltration and consolidation behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolton, Malcolm

    . For stress levels above the filtration pressure the calculated permeability values are similar to those from ratio eg grout void ratio Gs specific gravity of a solid kc filter cake permeability Lc filter cake to cement grouting or concrete placement in the ground. 1 Mixtures of Portland cement and water have a wide

  14. Speciation of heavy metals in cement-stabilized waste forms: A micro-spectroscopic study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    structures of nuclear power plants. Previous experi- ments of Ni uptake by blended cement (Atkins et al. Vespa). Journal of Geochemical Exploration 88 (2006) 77­80 www.elsevier.com/locate/jgeoexp #12;studied.1. Sample preparation The cement samples were prepared from a com- mercial sulfate-resisting Portland cement

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Hydraulic Institute/Europump/ United States Department of Energy.Hydraulic Institute standards and motor performance data from the MotorMaster+ database to calculate potential energy andhydraulic cements, including portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana cements. The production of cement is an energy-

  16. Solar Policy Environment: Portland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City of Portland’s Solar Now! Program will pursue solar market transformation for Portland residents, businesses, and city operations. The program will work with other City bureaus to ease the regulatory process by streamlining city-level regulations for contractors, homeowners and businesses. The City will use its influence as a regulator, educator and motivator to reach the larger regional community.

  17. Thermal Energy Storage/Waste Heat Recovery Applications in the Cement Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beshore, D. G.; Jaeger, F. A.; Gartner, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    , and the Portland Cement Association have studied the potential benefits of using waste heat recovery methods and thermal energy storage systems in the cement manufacturing process. This work was performed under DOE Contract No. EC-77-C-01-50S4. The study has been...

  18. Comparative Analysis of Cement and Lateralite on the Engineering Properties of Niger Delta Soils for Pavement Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alayaki, F. M.; Al-Tabbaa, A.; Meshida, E. A.; Ayotamuno, M. J.

    2015-05-13

    not have the cementing capability of Portland cement, it however compared well to cement in affecting the engineering properties of the soils that will make them applicable as sub-base and base soils for pavement construction. Lateralite also... of test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purpose. British Standards Institution, London; 1990. 15. AASHTO T 131-06: Standard Method of Test for Time of Setting of Hydraulic Cement by Vicat Needle. American Association of State Highway...

  19. Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement–basalt caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-08-01

    Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50 ºC and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-basalt core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-basalt interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-saturated groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of basalt caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-basalt interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.

  20. Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2011-11-01

    Portland cement, a common sealing material for wellbores for geological carbon sequestration was reacted with CO{sub 2} in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases at various pressure and temperature conditions to simulate cement-CO{sub 2} reaction along the wellbore from carbon injection depth to the near-surface. Hydrated Portland cement columns (14 mm diameter x 90 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.33) including additives such as steel coupons and Wallula basalt fragments were reacted with CO{sub 2} in the wet supercritical (the top half) and dissolved (the bottom half) phases under carbon sequestration condition with high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 5 months, while small-sized hydrated Portland cement columns (7 mm diameter x 20 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.38) were reacted with CO{sub 2} in dissolved phase at high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 1 month or with wet CO{sub 2} in gaseous phase at low pressure (0.2 MPa) and temperature (20 C) for 3 months. XMT images reveal that the cement reacted with CO{sub 2} saturated groundwater had degradation depth of {approx}1 mm for 1 month and {approx}3.5 mm for 5 month, whereas the degradation was minor with cement exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2}. SEM-EDS analysis showed that the carbonated cement was comprised of three distinct zones; the innermost less degraded zone with Ca atom % > C atom %, the inner degraded zone with Ca atom % {approx} C atom % due to precipitation of calcite, the outer degraded zone with C atom % > Ca atom % due to dissolution of calcite and C-S-H, as well as adsorption of carbon to cement matrix. The outer degraded zone of carbonated cement was porous and fractured because of dissolution-dominated reaction by carbonic acid exposure, which resulted in the increase in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. In contrast, cement-wet CO{sub 2}(g) reaction at low P (0.2 MPa)-T (20 C) conditions for 1 to 3 months was dominated by precipitation of micron-sized calcite on the outside surface of cement, which resulted in the decrease in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. Cement carbonation and pore structure change are significantly dependent on pressure and temperature conditions as well as the phase of CO{sub 2}, which controls the balance between precipitation and dissolution in cement matrix. Geochemical modeling result suggests that ratio of solid (cement)-to-solution (carbonated water) has a significant effect on cement carbonation, thus the cement-CO{sub 2} reaction experiment needs to be conducted under realistic conditions representing the in-situ wellbore environment of carbon sequestration field site. Total porosity and air permeability for a duplicate cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 measured after oven-drying by Core Laboratories using Boyle's Law technique and steady-state method were 31% and 0.576 mD. A novel method to measure the effective liquid permeability of a cement column using X-ray micro-tomography images after injection of pressurized KI (potassium iodide) is under development by PNNL. Preliminary results indicate the permeability of a cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 is 4-8 mD. PNNL will apply the method to understand the effective permeability change of Portland cement by CO{sub 2}(g) reaction under a variety of pressure and temperature conditions to develop a more reliable well-bore leakage risk model.

  1. [Task 1.] Biodenitrification of low nitrate solar pond waters using sequencing batch reactors. [Task 2.] Solidification/stabilization of high strength and biodenitrified heavy metal sludges with a Portland cement/flyash system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, L.; Cook, N.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mosher, J.; Terry, S.; Canonico, S.

    1995-09-22

    Process wastewater and sludges were accumulated on site in solar evaporation ponds during operations at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant (DOE/RF). Because of the extensive use of nitric acid in the processing of actinide metals, the process wastewater has high concentrations of nitrate. Solar pond waters at DOE/RF contain 300-60,000 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L. Additionally, the pond waters contain varying concentrations of many other aqueous constituents, including heavy metals, alkali salts, carbonates, and low level radioactivity. Solids, both from chemical precipitation and soil material deposition, are also present. Options for ultimate disposal of the pond waters are currently being evaluated and include stabilization and solidification (S/S) by cementation. Removal of nitrates can enhance a wastes amenability to S/S, or can be a unit operation in another treatment scheme. Nitrate removal is also a concern for other sources of pollution at DOE/RF, including contaminated groundwater collected by interceptor trench systems. Finally, nitrate pollution is a problem at many other DOE facilities where actinide metals were processed. The primary objective of this investigation was to optimize biological denitrification of solar pond waters with nitrate concentrations of 300--2,100 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L to below the drinking water standard of 45 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L (10 mg N/L). The effect of pH upon process stability and denitrification rate was determined. In addition, the effect Cr(VI) on denitrification and fate of Cr(VI) in the presence of denitrifying bacteria was evaluated.

  2. ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 21 (9), 512-517, 2009. Early-Age Properties of Cement-Based Materials: II. Influence of Water-to-Cement Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    potentially be major contributors to early-age cracking of cement-based materials (ACI 2008). This paper of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8615, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (301)975-5865, FAX: (301 Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8615, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (301)975-3175, E

  3. Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel...

  4. Portland State UNIVERSITY HOUSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elzanowski, Marek

    Portland State UNIVERSITY HOUSING AND RESIDENCE LIFE Release From Liability and Consent to Check Criminal History University Housing and Residence Life requires all prospective residents with a felony evidence satisfactory to the UHRL Student Services Office in Broadway 210 or housing@pdx.edu. Your contract

  5. Revised 5/7/10 Portland State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    323, 324 Analysis of Environmental Systems I, II Lab 4 ESM 322 Environmental Risk Assessment 4 ESM 325 Environmental Risk Assessment Lab 2 ESM 335 Intro to Environmental Management 4 ESM 407Revised 5/7/10 Portland State University Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Science in Environmental

  6. EA-97-C Portland General Electric | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Order authorizing Portland General Electric to export electic energy to Canada EA-97-C Portland General Electric More Documents & Publications EA-97-D Portland...

  7. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    CEM II), up to 35% can be fly ash and 65% clinker; for blastvalue of 70 kgce/tonne (fly ash cement with clinker-to=Blended cement (additives: fly ash, pozzolans, and blast

  8. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  9. COMPOSITE PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS (Tollway) Effective: January 30, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Transportation (IDOT) #12;· Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction, Adopted with Section 1020 of the Standard Specifications as an IDOT approved Class PV mix using coarse aggregate aggregate sources that are certified by IDOT as 30 year life aggregates. An IDOT approved Class PV mix shall

  10. CO2 Alteration Rates for Class H Portland Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, W.K.; Verba, C.A.; Ideker, J

    2011-05-10

    CuPd alloys are among the most promising candidate materials for hydrogen separation membranes and membrane reactor applications due to their high hydrogen permeability. In order to reduce the Pd content and, therefore, the cost of the membrane materials, efforts have been initiated to develop CuPdM ternary alloys having a bcc structure. Searching for alloying elements is done using first principles electronic density functional theory calculations. Potential ternary alloys are synthesized via arc melting, followed by a homogenization heat treatment and equilibrium annealing. The phase stability and bcc phase boundary in Cu-Pd-M systems are investigated by microstructural observation (Optical microscopy and SEM), thermal analysis, and XRD. Finally, the hydrogen permeability of promising alloys is determined.

  11. Hydration and leaching characteristics of cement pastes made from electroplating sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ying-Liang [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Ko, Ming-Sheng [Institute of Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chunghsiao E. Rd., Taipei City 10608, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yi-Chieh [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, No. 200, Chung-Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Chang, Juu-En, E-mail: juuen@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydration and leaching characteristics of the pastes of belite-rich cements made from electroplating sludge. The compressive strength of the pastes cured for 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days was determined, and the condensation of silicate anions in hydrates was examined with the {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. The leachabilities of the electroplating sludge and the hardened pastes were studied with the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (MTCLP) and the tank leaching test (NEN 7345), respectively. The results showed that the electroplating sludge continued to leach heavy metals, including nickel, copper, and zinc, and posed a serious threat to the environment. The belite-rich cement made from the electroplating sludge was abundant in hydraulic {beta}-dicalcium silicate, and it performed well with regard to compressive-strength development when properly blended with ordinary Portland cements. The blended cement containing up to 40% the belite-rich cement can still satisfy the compressive-strength requirements of ASTM standards, and the pastes cured for 90 days had comparable compressive strength to an ordinary Portland cement paste. It was also found that the later hydration reaction of the blended cements was relatively more active, and high fractions of belite-rich cement increased the chain length of silicate hydrates. In addition, by converting the sludge into belite-rich cements, the heavy metals became stable in the hardened cement pastes. This study thus indicates a viable alternative approach to dealing with heavy metal bearing wastes, and the resulting products show good compressive strength and heavy-metal stability.

  12. Portland State University Shattuck Hall

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Portland, OR Portland State's Shattuck hall was originally constructed as an elementary school in 1915. In 2007 the university undertook extensive renovations of the building to bring it up to current seismic requirements. In addition to structural improvements, the design team was able to upgraded the building's aging mechanical and electrical systems, upgrade plumbing, and restore the large light wells that bring daylight into the U-shaped building. The resulting building houses Portland State's Architecture department, where students are able to learn from the exposed building systems.

  13. Investing in Their Future: Portlands Purchase and Conversion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    round out the inventory. In all, there were more than 60 combinations of fixtures and poles installed around the city prior to the lighting conversion. The Portland Bureau of...

  14. Application of 'Six Sigma{sup TM}' and 'Design of Experiment' for Cementation - Recipe Development for Evaporator Concentrate for NPP Ling AO, Phase II (China) - 12555

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH (Germany); Perdue, Robert [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Cementation of radioactive waste is a common technology. The waste is mixed with cement and water and forms a stable, solid block. The physical properties like compression strength or low leach ability depends strongly on the cement recipe. Due to the fact that this waste cement mixture has to fulfill special requirements, a recipe development is necessary. The Six Sigma{sup TM}' DMAIC methodology, together with the Design of experiment (DoE) approach, was employed to optimize the process of a recipe development for cementation at the Ling Ao nuclear power plant (NPP) in China. The DMAIC offers a structured, systematical and traceable process to derive test parameters. The DoE test plans and statistical analysis is efficient regarding the amount of test runs and the benefit gain by getting a transfer function. A transfer function enables simulation which is useful to optimize the later process and being responsive to changes. The DoE method was successfully applied for developing a cementation recipe for both evaporator concentrate and resin waste in the plant. The key input parameters were determined, evaluated and the control of these parameters were included into the design. The applied Six Sigma{sup TM} tools can help to organize the thinking during the engineering process. Data are organized and clearly presented. Various variables can be limited to the most important ones. The Six Sigma{sup TM} tools help to make the thinking and decision process trace able. The tools can help to make data driven decisions (e.g. C and E Matrix). But the tools are not the only golden way. Results from scoring tools like the C and E Matrix need close review before using them. The DoE is an effective tool for generating test plans. DoE can be used with a small number of tests runs, but gives a valuable result from an engineering perspective in terms of a transfer function. The DoE prediction results, however, are only valid in the tested area. So a careful selection of input parameter and their limits for setting up a DoE is very important. An extrapolation of results is not recommended because the results are not reliable out of the tested area. (authors)

  15. Experimental study of potential wellbore cement carbonation by various phases of carbon dioxide during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2013-08-16

    Hydrated Portland cement was reacted with carbon dioxide (CO2) in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases to understand the potential cement alteration processes along the length of a wellbore, extending from deep CO2 storage reservoir to the shallow subsurface during geologic carbon sequestration. The 3-D X-ray microtomography (XMT) images displayed that the cement alteration was significantly more extensive by CO2-saturated synthetic groundwater than dry or wet supercritical CO2 at high P (10 MPa)-T (50°C) conditions. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis also exhibited a systematic Ca depletion and C enrichment in cement matrix exposed to CO2-saturated groundwater. Integrated XMT, XRD, and SEM-EDS analyses identified the formation of extensive carbonated zone filled with CaCO3(s), as well as the porous degradation front and the outermost silica-rich zone in cement after exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater. The cement alteration by CO2-saturated groundwater for 2-8 months overall decreased the porosity from 31% to 22% and the permeability by an order of magnitude. Cement alteration by dry or wet supercritical CO2 was slow and minor compared to CO2-saturated groundwater. A thin single carbonation zone was formed in cement after exposure to wet supercritical CO2 for 8 months or dry supercritical CO2 for 15 months. Extensive calcite coating was formed on the outside surface of a cement sample after exposure to wet gaseous CO2 for 1-3 months. The chemical-physical characterization of hydrated Portland cement after exposure to various phases of carbon dioxide indicates that the extent of cement carbonation can be significantly heterogeneous depending on CO2 phase present in the wellbore environment. Both experimental and geochemical modeling results suggest that wellbore cement exposure to supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases of CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration is unlikely to damage the wellbore integrity because cement alteration by all phases of CO2 is dominated by carbonation reaction. This is consistent with previous field studies of wellbore cement with extensive carbonation after exposure to CO2 for 3 decades. However, XMT imaging indicates that preferential cement alteration by supercritical CO2 or CO2-saturated groundwater can occur along the cement-steel or cement-rock interfaces. This highlights the importance of further investigation of cement degradation along the interfaces of wellbore materials to ensure permanent geologic carbon storage.

  16. The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

  17. Portland Bike History Weather Prophet Pague,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Portland Bike History Weather Prophet Pague, Governor Geer, & Portland's First Bicycle Paths Eric, as a trooper is bred to his horse. From dawn till dark she lives in the saddle. Whatever be her errand, she, and bowls home again, serene tranquil, content. Since bicycles came to Portland, not to play with

  18. Performance Cements Focus on Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with low associated CO2 emissions Blended cements versus separate components Limestone in cement #12;3 High the beneficial re-use of byproducts Maximize use of materials with low associated CO2 emissions Blended cements versus separate components Limestone in cement #12;4 High Limestone Cements 5/21/08 Cost Holcim (US) Inc

  19. Determination of Diffusion Profiles in Altered Wellbore Cement Using X-ray Computed Tomography Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Harris E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walsh, Stuart D. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); DuFrane, Wyatt L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carroll, Susan A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The development of accurate, predictive models for use in determining wellbore integrity requires detailed information about the chemical and mechanical changes occurring in hardened Portland cements. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) provides a method that can nondestructively probe these changes in three dimensions. Here, we describe a method for extracting subvoxel mineralogical and chemical information from synchrotron XRCT images by combining advanced image segmentation with geochemical models of cement alteration. The method relies on determining “effective linear activity coefficients” (ELAC) for the white light source to generate calibration curves that relate the image grayscales to material composition. The resulting data set supports the modeling of cement alteration by CO2-rich brine with discrete increases in calcium concentration at reaction boundaries. The results of these XRCT analyses can be used to further improve coupled geochemical and mechanical models of cement alteration in the wellbore environment.

  20. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnectionmore »of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is much lower than that of CO2-saturated brine. The study suggests that in deep geological reservoirs the geochemical and geomechanical processes have coupled effects on the wellbore cement fracture evolution and fluid flow along the fracture surfaces.« less

  1. City of Portland- Streamlined Building Permits for Residential Solar Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Portland's Bureau of Development Services (BDS) developed a streamlined permitting process for residential solar energy system installations. The City of Portland has staff at the...

  2. Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  3. QER Public Meeting in Portland, OR: Electricity Transmission...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Portland, OR: Electricity Transmission, Storage and Distribution - West QER Public Meeting in Portland, OR: Electricity Transmission, Storage and Distribution - West Meeting Date...

  4. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on hydraulic cement from spent oil shale,"April 16-18, 1980 HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGIpressi ve b strength, MPa this cement in moist environments.

  5. Cement (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cement (2010 MECS) Cement (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Cement Sector (NAICS 327310) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint...

  6. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    P. , "Investigations on hydraulic cement from spent oilCO, April 16-18, 1980 HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROMUniversity of California. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM

  7. Portland Public School Children Move with Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 2-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes the use of propane as a fuel source for Portland Public Schools' fleet of buses. It includes information on the history of the program, along with contact information for the local Clean Cities Coordinator and Portland Public Schools.

  8. Communication Cement-based thermocouples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Cement-based thermocouples Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Received 31 May 2000; accepted 4 August 2000 Abstract A cement-based thermocouple in the form of a junction between dissimilar cement pastes and exhibiting thermocouple sensitivity 70 7 mV/°C is provided

  9. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  10. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  11. Alex Benson Cement Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    with steel balls which grind mix into a fine powder -> Final Cement Product Associated Air Pollution: o From.4 million dollars for violating the Clean Air Act and 2 million dollars for pollution controls #12; Pollution Controls: o Electrostatic Precipitator: ionizes contaminated air so that the charge particles

  12. Brownfield reuse of dredged New York Harbor sediment by cement-based solidification/stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loest, K. [ECDC Environmental L.C., Pembroke, MA (United States). Eastern Operations; Wilk, C.M. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Newly effective federal regulations restrict the ocean disposal of sediments dredged from the harbors of New York and Newark. The New York Port Authority is faced with a critical situation: find land-based disposal/uses for 10`s of millions cubic yards of sediments or lose standing as a commercial port for ocean-going ships. One of the technologies now being employed to manage the sediments is portland cement-based solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment. At least 4 million cubic yards of the sediments will undergo cement-based S/S treatment. This treatment will immobilize heavy metals, dioxin, PCBs and other organic contaminants in the sediment. The treatment changes the sediment from a environmental liability into a valuable structural fill. This structural fill is being used at two properties. The first property is an old municipal landfill in Port Newark, New Jersey. The treated sediments are being used as structural fill to cover about 20 acres of the landfill. This will allow planned redevelopment of the landfill property into a shopping mall. The second property called the Seaboard site, was the location of a coal gasification facility and later a wood preservation facility. This 160-acre property has been designated for brownfield redevelopment. Over 4 million cubic yards of treated sediments will eventually cover this site. Portland cement is the selected S/S binding reagent. Nearly 500,000 tons of cement will eventually be used to treat the sediments. Cement was selected for its ability to (a) change the peanut butter-like consistency of the sediments into a structural material and (b) to physically and chemically immobilize hazardous constituents in the sediment.

  13. University of Portland Google Vernier Software + Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sponsors for their support of the bpa science bowl University of Portland Google Vernier Software + Technology Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A...

  14. Portland General Electric- Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Portland General Electric's (PGE) Heat Pump Rebate Program offers residential customers a $200 rebate for an energy-efficient heat pump installed to PGE’s standards by a PGE-approved contractor....

  15. Modelling and simulation of acrylic bone cement injection and curing within the framework of vertebroplasty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landgraf, Ralf; Kolmeder, Sebastian; Lion, Alexander; Lebsack, Helena; Kober, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    The minimal invasive procedure of vertebroplasty is a surgical technique to treat compression fractures of vertebral bodies. During the treatment liquid bone cement gets injected into the affected vertebral body and therein cures to a solid. In order to investigate the treatment and the impact of injected bone cement on the vertebra, an integrated modelling and simulation framework has been developed. The framework includes (i) the generation of computer models based on microCT images of human cancellous bone, (ii) CFD simulations of bone cement injection into the trabecular structure of a vertebral body as well as (iii) non-linear FEM simulations of the bone cement curing. Thereby, microstructural models of trabecular bone structures are employed. Furthermore, a detailed description of the material behaviour of acrylic bone cements is provided. More precisely, a non-linear fluid flow model is chosen for the representation of the bone cement behaviour during injection and a non-linear viscoelastic material mo...

  16. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  17. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  18. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group: Welcome to Portland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers welcoming attendees to Portland at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  19. Evaluation of cement production using a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Eshbach, R.

    1994-01-01

    There are several primary conclusions which can be reached and used to define research required in establishing the feasibility of using PFBC-derived materials as cement feedstock. 1. With appropriate blending almost any material containing the required cement-making materials can be utilized to manufacture cement. However, extensive blending with multiple materials or the use of ash in relatively small quantities would compromise the worth of this concept. 2. The composition of a potential feedstock must be considered not only with respect to the presence of required materials, but just as significantly, with respect to the presence and concentration of known deleterious materials. 3. The processing costs for rendering the feedstock into an acceptable composition and the energy costs associated with both processing and burning must be considered. It should be noted that the cost of energy to produce cement, expressed as a percentage of the price of the product is higher than for any other major industrial product. Energy consumption is, therefore, a major issue. 4. The need for conformance to environmental regulations has a profound effect on the cement industry since waste materials can neither be discharged to the atmosphere or be shipped to a landfill. 5. Fifth, the need for achieving uniformity in the composition of the cement is critical to controlling its quality. Unfortunately, certain materials in very small concentrations have the capability to affect the rate and extent to which the cementitious compound in portland cement are able to form. Particularly critical are variations in the ash, the sulfur content of the coal or the amount and composition of the stack dust returned to the kiln.

  20. Cementation and solidification of miscellaneous mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site produces a variety of wastes which are amenable to micro-encapsulation in cement Portland cement is an inexpensive and readily available material for this application. The Waste Projects (WP) group at Rocky Flats evaluated cementation to determine its effectiveness in encapsulating several wastes. These included waste analytical laboratory solutions, incinerator ash, hydroxide precipitation sludge, and an acidic solution from the Delphi process (a chemical oxidation technology being evaluated as an alternative to incineration). WP prepared surrogate wastes and conducted designed experiments to optimize the cement formulation for the waste streams. These experiments used a Taguchi or factorial experimental design, interactions between the variables were also considered in the testing. Surrogate waste samples were spiked with various levels of each of six Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed metals (Cd, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, and Ag), cemented using the optimized formulation, and analyzed for leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The metal spike levels chosen were based on characterization data, and also based on an estimate of the highest levels of contaminants suspected in the waste. This paper includes laboratory test results for each waste studied. These include qualitative observations as well as quantitative data from TCLP analyses and environmental cycling studies. The results from these experiments show that cement stabilization of the different wastes can produce final waste forms which meet the current RCRA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements. Formulations that resulted in LDR compliant waste forms are provided. The volume increases associated with cementation are also lower than anticipated. Future work will include verification studies with actual mixed radioactive waste as well as additional formulation development studies on other waste streams.

  1. A review of Title V operating permit application requirements caused by the use of waste-derived fuel at cement plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarmac, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required the USEPA to establish a comprehensive operating permit program which is being administered by the states. Most major air pollution sources will be required to submit operating permit applications by November 15, 1995 or earlier. Portland cement plants that burn waste-derived fuel face some special permitting problems that need to be addressed during the permit application process. This paper presents a brief summary of the Title V application with special emphasis on the permitting requirements incurred by the utilization of waste fuel at cement plants.

  2. Unum Life Insurance Company of America Portland, Maine 04122

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cina, Jeff

    Unum Life Insurance Company of America Portland, Maine 04122 Election for Continuation of Coverage - A Long Term Care Mail to: Unum LTC Customer Services 2211 Congress Street Portland, Maine 04122 Services 2211 Congress Street Portland, Maine 04122-1760 How Long Will Unum Continue To Pay For Long Term

  3. II*

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Hydrocarbon Gas2 II Now

  4. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    1993. Present and Future Energy Use of Energy in the Cement1993. Present and Future Energy Use of Energy in the Cement1993. Present and Future Energy Use of Energy in the Cement

  5. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Concepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants EnergyM. 1990. Waste Gas Heat Recovery in Cement Plants EnergyDiagram or Photo: Waste heat recovery at cement plant, image

  6. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Concepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants EnergyM. 1990. Waste Gas Heat Recovery in Cement Plants EnergyConcepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants Energy

  7. QER- Comment of Portland General Electric

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thanks, Karen. As per our email exchange earlier this week, we're attaching prepared comments from PGE to support the statement Jim Piro offered at the QER public meeting in Portland this past summer. We appreciate your flexibility on the submission deadline! Please let me know if you need anything else from us.

  8. rom urban downtown Portland to rural north-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decision-making Puget Sound Energy's Latest 4 Wind Project Adds to the Region's Renewables Federal Judge Portland used informa- tion in the Willamette plan to facilitate a cost share with the Corps of Engineers here matters. The plan helps us make the transformation as a city from a simple provider of utilities

  9. Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Portland, OR, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  10. The Swelling of Clays Within Portland Brownstone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    the stone comes into contact with water. Water enters between the clay layers and surrounds the positive and buckling Ex.: rain #12;Example of Damage: Victoria Mansion in Portland, Maine oh my #12;2. Equipment: How 2. Water is poured on top, causes differential swelling 3. Sample warps due to the stress from

  11. Portland State University Robert Noyce Scholarship Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholarship US Citizen US Citizen Admitted to PSU Seeking BA/BS in a science field, math or ElementaryPortland State University Robert Noyce Scholarship Program A Partnership for Science Teacher Preparation from the Graduate School of Education, the Center for Science Education and the Beaverton School

  12. Portland State University June 8, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Aaron

    -Threatening Crisis Water is one of the most widely distributed substances on earth, and is a basic human need careless and water has for the most part gone untreated and unprotected. Worldwide, we are challengedJoe Parker Portland State University June 8, 2006 Forestalling Water Wars: Returning to Our (Grass

  13. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Research INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OILCalifornia. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENTA process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale

  14. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Concepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants EnergyM. 1990. Waste Gas Heat Recovery in Cement Plants Energyleading to increased heat recovery efficiency and reduced

  15. Better Buildings: Workforce: Spotlight on Portland, Oregon: Making...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oregon; Financing and Incetntives: Use Incentives to Get Attention and Encourage Deep Savings Portland Summary of Reported Data Voluntary Initiative: Designing Incentives...

  16. EA-97-D Portland General Electric Company | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portland General Electric Company Order authorizing PGE to export electric energy to Canada. EA-97-D PGE (CN).pdf More Documents & Publications Application to Export Electric...

  17. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    have requirements similar to fly ash. These data are used tocommon Portland, slag, fly ash, Pozzolana, and/or blendedone or more additives (fly ash, pozzolans, blast furnace

  18. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    http://www.wbcsd.ch/web/projects/cement/pop-report.pdfShui Ni 1 and Shui Ni 2 cement plants in Shangdong ProvinceReferences Ash Grove Cement, n.d. , “Cement Manufacturing

  19. Opportunity and Competitiveness for the Region: Portland State University Strategic Plan 2011-2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elzanowski, Marek

    erected on the northern border of Portland to house wartime shipyard workers. Today that tiny extension

  20. Transport in Cement:Transport in Cement: Relating Permeability and PoreRelating Permeability and Pore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    #12;Background:Background: CementitiousCementitious MaterialsMaterials Raw Materials:Raw MaterialsProduces Cement Clinker (basic cementClinker (basic cement material)material) #12;THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS preheating clinker 2. BURNING 1. RAW GRINDING : The raw materials are very finely ground in order to produce

  1. Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veazey, G.W.; Ames, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, compatibility with Rocky Flats equipment, and throughput efficiency. The work was performed with surrogate gel-type Dowex cation- and anion-exchange resins chosen to be representative of the resin inventory at RFETS. Work was initiated with nonactinide resins to establish formulation ranges that would meet performance standards. Results were then verified and refined with actinide-containing resins. The final recommended formulation that passed all performance standards was determined to be a cement/water/resin (C/W/R) wt % ratio of 63/27/10 at a pH of 9 to 12. The recommendations include the acceptable compositional ranges for each component of the C/W/R ratio. Also included in this report are a recommended procedure, an equipment list, and observations/suggestions for implementation at RFETS. In addition, information is included that explains why denitration of the resin is unnecessary for stabilizing its ignitability potential.

  2. Westinghouse Cementation Facility of Solid Waste Treatment System - 13503

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Torsten; Aign, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    During NPP operation, several waste streams are generated, caused by different technical and physical processes. Besides others, liquid waste represents one of the major types of waste. Depending on national regulation for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, solidification can be one specific requirement. To accommodate the global request for waste treatment systems Westinghouse developed several specific treatment processes for the different types of waste. In the period of 2006 to 2008 Westinghouse awarded several contracts for the design and delivery of waste treatment systems related to the latest CPR-1000 nuclear power plants. One of these contracts contains the delivery of four Cementation Facilities for waste treatment, s.c. 'Follow on Cementations' dedicated to three locations, HongYanHe, NingDe and YangJiang, of new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in the People's Republic of China. Previously, Westinghouse delivered a similar cementation facility to the CPR-1000 plant LingAo II, in Daya Bay, PR China. This plant already passed the hot functioning tests successfully in June 2012 and is now ready and released for regular operation. The 'Follow on plants' are designed to package three 'typical' kind of radioactive waste: evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the Westinghouse experience to design and execution of cementation facilities. (authors)

  3. Palomar Community College District Portland State University Transfer Worksheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caughman, John

    Palomar Community College District Portland State University Transfer Worksheet If you are taking classes that are part of the Intersegmental General Education Transfer Curriculum (IGETC) at a Palomar. Degree Requirements (BA, BS) #12;Palomar Community College District Portland State University 2. DEGREE

  4. Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste is a nightmare for any construction engineer of the concrete or cement paste surface. Inspired by the art of molecular cooking a team of TU Delft scientists for instance sodium alginates. When sprayed on the surface of concrete or cement paste, a rapid chemical

  5. Portland cement mortar modified with latex and fiber glass for thin shell construction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymond, Jewell Duane

    1963-01-01

    owners. Thin shell construction began first in Italy and Spain, later spreading to the western hemisphere, notably Mexico. In the United States widespread application of thin shell roof construction has been hampered by the high cost of labor...

  6. Identification of active agents for tetrachloroethylene degradation in Portland cement slurry containing ferrous iron 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Sae Bom

    2006-08-16

    the the important elements that affect degradation activity. Elemental compositions of the mixtures and the conditions affecting solid formation might be the important factors in determining how active solids are formed. Second, instrumental analyses (XRD, SEM, SEM...

  7. A study of immobilization of four heavy metals by solidification/stabilization with portland cement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trussell, Susan A

    1994-01-01

    Two sites were established in Harris County, Texas, to relate seasonal saturation to soil morphology, micromorphology, soil reduction potential (Eh), and iron phases; and to test a,a'-dipyridyl dye for field identification of iron...

  8. COARSE AGGREGATE FOR COMPOSITE PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT Effective: January 30, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Specifications: "(g) Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA). If recycled coarse aggregate is specified for use in a concrete mix design, the recycled coarse aggregate will be generated from a Tollway approved source of existing concrete or asphalt pavement. The recycled coarse aggregate may be processed from a non

  9. USE ON SPECIFIED PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PROJECTS REQUIRING IRI SURFACE TOLERANCE REQUIREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the following. 601.11 SURFACE TOLERANCE REQUIRMENTS (a) General: This subsection outlines the method. Longitudinal surface profile is measured in inches per mile (mm per km) and reported as the International verification and profiler system parameter settings. These settings shall be verified by the inspector before

  10. Assessment of durability performance of "Early-Opening-to-Traffic" Portland Cement Concrete pavement and patches 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Pradhumna Babu

    1999-01-01

    -thaw, shrinkage, chemical attack, abrasion resistance, fatigue life, volumetric expansion, practicality, and concrete costs. The assessment discusses material combinations, mixture designs, and construction practices on performance. A computer program using...

  11. Preliminary non-destructive assessment of moisture content, hydration and dielectric properties of Portland cement concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avelar Lezama, Ivan

    2007-04-25

    ) where ? is graphically the angle between the two vectorial components (dielectric constant and loss) of the complex permittivity. The dielectric constant can be thought of as a measure of the ability of a material to store charge or electrical...

  12. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 emissions from China’s cement production: methodologiesfossil fuel consumption and cement production. Geophys. Res.NTNU, 2006). 27. China Cement Association. China Cement

  13. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eilers, Louis H. (Inola, OK)

    1985-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  14. MHK Projects/Portland | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5 < MHKKembla < MHK Projects Jump to:Portland

  15. Portland, Connecticut: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) |Texas: EnergyOklahoma:Ewen,Risk Modeling Jump to:Portland,

  16. TECHNICAL NOTE Geotechnical properties of fresh cement groutpressure ltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolton, Malcolm

    TECHNICAL NOTE Geotechnical properties of fresh cement groutÐpressure ®ltration and consolidation relations; grouting; laboratory tests; permeability. INTRODUCTION Cement is a basic construction material, and in geotechnics the hydraulic cements known as Port- land cements are particularly important. Hydraulic cements

  17. CONSTRUCTION-GRADE CEMENT PRODUCTION FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    1 CONSTRUCTION-GRADE CEMENT PRODUCTION FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS USING CEMENT-LOCKTM TECHNOLOGY A manufacturing technology for producing construction-grade cements from a wide variety of contaminated waste cementitious properties that allow it to be transformed into construction-grade cement. The Cement

  18. Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skibsted, Joergen; Hall, Christopher

    Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, ...

  19. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    S. , 1990. Energy Outlook in West Germany’s Cement Industry.imported from Germany and/or Japan. 1 Energy/Environment/® Energy Converter at the Lengfurt Cement, Germany, image

  20. Primary cementing across massive lost circulation zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turki, W.H.; Mackay, A.S.

    1983-03-01

    As a result of severe lost circulation problems in some wells in the Ghawar and Abqaiq Fields, Aramco has been unable to cover the Umm Er-Radhuma (Paleocene) and Wasia (Cretaceous) aquifers with cement. This has necessitated setting an extended liner opposite the Wasia aquifer, to ensure that there are two casing strings and a cement sheath across the aquifer, resulting in increased casing cost and reduced well productivity. This paper describes the results of field trial tests performed, along with conclusions and recommendations aimed at solving this problem. Field methods employed include light weight extended cements, ultra-light cement slurries weighing as little as 55 lbm/ft/sup 3/ (pcf), using ceramic hollow spheres, glass bubbles and foam, plus hydrostatic cementing, and mechanical devices. Finally, methods of job evaluation are discussed. These include temperature surveys, bond logs, radioactive tracers, and a new cement volume log.

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Emissions from the Global Cement Industry, Annual Review ofBösche, A. , 1993. “Variable Speed Drives in Cement Plants,”World Cement 6 24 pp.2- Buzzi, S. 1997. Die Horomill® - Eine

  2. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff Aprilhydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this

  3. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P, K, Mehta Civil Engineering

  4. Squeeze cement method using coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underdown, D.R.; Ashford, J.D.; Harrison, T.W.; Eastlack, J.K.; Blount, C.G.; Herring, G.D.

    1986-12-09

    A method is described of squeeze cementing a well wherein the well has a casing throughout the wellbore, casing cement between the casing and the wellbore of the well, perforations through the casing and the casing cement to establish fluid communication between the interior of the casing and a formation adjacent the perforations, channels in the casing cement in fluid communication with at least some of the perforations, a well tubing string in the casing extending from the surface to the proximity of the perforations, and a packer means for sealing between the tubing and the casing above the perforations. The method consists of: isolating the casing adjacent the perforations; lowering a coiled tubing down the well tubing string to a point adjacent the perforations; flowing uncontaminated squeeze cement through the coiled tubing and through the perforations into the channels; flowing a cement contaminating liquid down the coiled tubing to mix with the squeeze cement remaining in the casing; allowing the uncontaminated squeeze cement in the channels to harden; and removing the contaminated squeeze cement from the casing through the coiled tubing.

  5. Portland Company to Receive $1.3 Million to Improve Hydro Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portland Company to Receive 1.3 Million to Improve Hydro Power Technologies Portland Company to Receive 1.3 Million to Improve Hydro Power Technologies September 15, 2009 -...

  6. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well...

  7. Wellbore Integrity Assurance with NETL's Safe Cementing Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Contact Us Wellbore cement integrity is paramount to safe, successful oil and natural gas drilling. Cement acts as the primary barrier between the wellbore and...

  8. Guide to Cement-Based Integrated Pavement Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guide to Cement-Based Integrated Pavement Solutions August 2011 #12;Cement-Based Integrated Commercial Residential Recreation LAND USE CEMENT-BASED INTEGRATED PAVEMENT SOLUTIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Conventional Overlays CRCP VIBRATORY COMPACTION Pervious Concrete Full-Depth Reclamation Cement- Treat- ed Base

  9. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  10. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  11. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tooland domestic best practice energy use. Comparing the barson the next sheet) best practice energy use. Comparing the

  12. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    waste heat recovery on dioxin emissions from cement kilns (low-temperature, catalytic dioxin formation reactions. Heattime for the flue gas at the dioxin formation temperature

  13. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    D.  Tamás.  “Burnability of Cement Raw Materials at Rapid Calcination Conditions. ” Cement and Concrete Research and Herman H.  Tseng.  Cement Plant Operations Handbook: 

  14. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01

    House, Beijing. CCA (China Cement Association), 2009.China Cement Almanac 2008. Jiangsu People'sHouse, Nanjing. CCA (China Cement Association), 2010. China

  15. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Burnability of Cement Raw Materials at Rapid  Calcination of Alternative Fuels and Raw  Materials in the Cement cement shipping and raw materials receiving system  Union 

  16. Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete Incorporated With Phase Change Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Chia-So

    2015-01-01

    Portland cement: Type II 2. Fly ash: Class F coal ash. (15%Damage Constitutive Model of Fly Ash Concrete under Freeze-sand, coarse aggregate, fly ash and supercizer. In addition,

  17. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p. 54S,Colorado's primary oil shale resource for vertical modifiedSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

  18. A nanochemomechanical investigation of carbonated cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanzo, James (James F.)

    2009-01-01

    Concrete, and in particular its principal component, cement paste, has an interesting relation with carbon dioxide. Concrete is a carbon dioxide generator-- it is estimated that 5-10% of atmospheric CO? comes from this ...

  19. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    hydraulic cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p.J. W. , "Colorado's primary oil shale resource for verticalSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

  20. Supply chain management in the cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agudelo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally supply chain management has played an operational role within cement and mineral extraction commodity companies. Recently, cost reduction projects have brought supply chain management into the limelight. In ...

  1. Computational fluid dynamics improves liner cementing operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, N.A.; Archer, G.L. ); Seymour, D.A. )

    1994-09-26

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), an analytical tool for studying fluid mechanics, helped plan the successful cementing of a critical liner in a North Sea extended reach well. The results from CFD analysis increased the confidence in the primary cementing of the liner. CFD modeling was used to quantify the effects of increasing the displacement rate and of rotating the liner on the mud flow distribution in the annulus around the liner.

  2. Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2014-11-01

    We model and assess the possibility of shear failure, using the Mohr-Coulomb model ? along the vertical well by employing a rigorous coupled flow-geomechanic analysis. To this end, we vary the values of cohesion between the well casing and the surrounding cement to representing different quality levels of the cementing operation (low cohesion corresponds to low-quality cement and/or incomplete cementing). The simulation results show that there is very little fracturing when the cement is of high quality.. Conversely, incomplete cementing and/or weak cement can causes significant shear failure and the evolution of long fractures/cracks along the vertical well. Specifically, low cohesion between the well and cemented areas can cause significant shear failure along the well, but the same cohesion as the cemented zone does not cause shear failure. When the hydraulic fracturing pressure is high, low cohesion of the cement can causes fast propagation of shear failure and of the resulting fracture/crack, but a high-quality cement with no weak zones exhibits limited shear failure that is concentrated near the bottom of the vertical part of the well. Thus, high-quality cement and complete cementing along the vertical well appears to be the strongest protection against shear failure of the wellbore cement and, consequently, against contamination hazards to drinking water aquifers during hydraulic fracturing operations.

  3. Analysis of CCRL proficiency cements 151 and 152 using the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, Jeffrey W. . E-mail: jeffrey.bullard@nist.gov; Stutzman, Paul E.

    2006-08-15

    To test the ability of the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory (VCCTL) software to predict cement hydration properties, characterization of mineralogy and phase distribution is necessary. Compositional and textural characteristics of Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory (CCRL) cements 151 and 152 were determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis followed by computer modeling of hydration properties. The general procedure to evaluate a cement is as follows: (1) two-dimensional SEM backscattered electron and X-ray microanalysis images of the cement are obtained, along with a measured particle size distribution (PSD); (2) based on analysis of these images and the measured PSD, three-dimensional microstructures of various water-to-cement ratios are created and hydrated using VCCTL, and (3) the model predictions for degree of hydration under saturated conditions, heat of hydration (ASTM C186), setting time (ASTM C191), and strength development of mortar cubes (ASTM C109) are compared to experimental measurements either performed at NIST or at the participating CCRL proficiency sample evaluation laboratories. For both cements, generally good agreement is observed between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  4. Low fluid leakoff cementing compositions and filtration control additive for cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A cementing composition is described, for cementing oil or gas wells penetrating subterranean formations, capable of forming a fluid slurry when mixed with water comprising: dry hydraulic cement; and a filtration control additive of from about 0.2 to 5.0 percent by weight, based upon dry hydraulic cement, of finely ground peanut hulls, wherein 10 percent or more of the finely ground peanut hulls is in the particle size range of less than 20 standard sieve mesh and greater than 500 standard sieve mesh. In a process for cementing a casing in an oil or gas well penetrating a subterranean formation wherein a cement slurry, formed by mixing water and hydraulic cement, is pumped down the well to flow upwardly between the casing and the subterranean formation, the improvement is described comprising: utilizing as a filtration control additive of from about 0.2 to 5.0 percent by weight, based upon dry hydraulic cement, of finely ground peanut hulls, and utilizing finely ground peanut hulls wherein 10 percent or more of the finely ground peanut hulls is in the particle size range of less than 20 standard sieve mesh and greater than 500 standard sieve mesh.

  5. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    García-Maté, M.; De la Torre, A.G.; León-Reina, L.; Aranda, M.A.G.; CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona ; Santacruz, I.

    2013-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 ± 2 and 72 ± 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  6. Use of Finite-element Analysis to Improve Well Cementing in HTHP Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arias, Henry

    2013-07-30

    ........................................................................... 50 3.4 Shrinkage and Cement Expansion ................................................................... 52 3.5 Flexible Cements ............................................................................................. 57 3.6 Self...

  7. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  8. Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Develop a novel, zeolite-containing lightweight, high temperature, high pressure geothermal cement, which will provide operators with an easy to use, flexible cementing system that saves time and simplifies logistics.

  9. Identification of Concrete Incompatibilities Using Cement Paste Rheology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Se Hoon

    2010-07-14

    The complex interaction between cement and chemical/mineral admixtures in concrete mixtures sometimes leads to unpredictable concrete performance in the field which is generally defined as concrete incompatibilities. Cement paste rheology...

  10. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P.Cement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,203 (1974), E. D. York, Amoco Oil Co. , letter to J, P. Fox,

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Concepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants Energyalso installed waste heat recovery equipment on its 2400 tpdM. 1990. Waste Gas Heat Recovery in Cement Plants Energy

  12. Portland State University Graduate School of Education Research unit Early Childhood Outcomes Measurement Project (ECOMP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portland State University Graduate School of Education Research unit Early Childhood Outcomes Measurement Project (ECOMP) US Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative

  13. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: NE Cully Blvd., Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, M. P.; Poplawski, M. E.; Tuenge, J. R.

    2012-08-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED roadway lighting on NE Cully Boulevard in Portland, OR, a residential collector road.

  14. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-97-D Portland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Company: Federal Register Notice, Volume 79, No. 103 - May 29, 2014 Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-97-D Portland General Electric Company: Federal Register...

  15. High temperature expanding cement composition and use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Erik B. (Tulsa County, OK); Eilers, Louis H. (Rogers County, OK)

    1982-01-01

    A hydratable cement composition useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expanding cement at temperatures above about 150.degree. C. comprising a water soluble sodium salt of a weak acid, a 0.1 molar aqueous solution of which salt has a pH of between about 7.5 and about 11.5, a calcium source, and a silicon source, where the atomic ratio of sodium to calcium to silicon ranges from about 0.3:0.6:1 to about 0.03:1:1; aqueous slurries prepared therefrom and the use of such slurries for plugging subterranean cavities at a temperature of at least about 150.degree. C. The invention composition is useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expansive cement having about 0.2 to about 2 percent expansion, by volume, when cured at at least 150.degree. C.

  16. ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 20 (7), 502-508, 2008. Early-Age Properties of Cement-Based Materials: I. Influence of Cement Fineness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    of Cement-Based Materials: I. Influence of Cement Fineness Dale P. Bentz1* , Gaurav Sant1 , and Jason Weiss1 Abstract The influence of cement fineness on early-age properties of cement-based materials is investigated deformation. Measurements of these properties for two cements of widely different fineness are supplemented

  17. Communication Effect of stress on the electric polarization in cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Effect of stress on the electric polarization in cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung the extent of electric polarization in the transverse direction in cement pastes with and without carbon smaller when carbon fibers were present. It was smaller for carbon fiber cement paste containing silica

  18. Microcapsule-Induced Toughening of Bone Cement Gina M. Miller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    27 Microcapsule-Induced Toughening of Bone Cement Gina M. Miller Senior in Aerospace Engineering R. White, and TAM Prof. Nancy R. Sottos Acrylic bone cement is the primary material used cement, it may be possible to extend the lifetime of the implant, thus reducing the occurrence

  19. Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Abstract Cement pastes containing short steel fibers, which contribute to electron conduction, exhibit.0% by mass of cement gives a higher value of the absolute thermoelectric power than a content of 0.5% by mass

  20. Communication Electric polarization in carbon fiber-reinforced cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Electric polarization in carbon fiber-reinforced cement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung-reinforced cement paste during resistivity measurement. The effect was diminished by increasing the conductivity of the cement paste through the use of carbon fibers that were more crystalline, the increase of the fiber

  1. A NONLINEAR LEARNING CONTROL APPROACH FOR A CEMENT MILLING PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efe, Mehmet Önder

    A NONLINEAR LEARNING CONTROL APPROACH FOR A CEMENT MILLING PROCESS 1 OGUZ H. DAGCI, 2 M. ÖNDER EFE, control of a cement milling circuit is studied with time-varying set values, time-varying plant parameters popularity since the field of nonlinear control still does not offer systematized procedures. Cement mill

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Percutaneous Cement Injection into a Created Cavity for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casto, Joseph M.

    on these assumptions by finding minimal pressure increases (9.4 6 8.5 mm Hg) during direct injection of cement into exORIGINAL ARTICLE Percutaneous Cement Injection into a Created Cavity for the Treatment of Vertebral, CA). PV involves the injection of polymethylmethacrylate cement into an injured vertebral body via

  3. Better Buildings- Spotlight on Portland, Oregon; Financing and Incetntives: Use Incentives to Get Attention and Encourage Deep Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings - Spotlight on Portland, Oregon; Financing and Incentives: Use Incentives to Get Attention and Encourage Deep Savings.

  4. Influence of Cement Particle-Size Distribution on Early Age Autogenous Strains and Stresses in Cement-Based Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Influence of Cement Particle-Size Distribution on Early Age Autogenous Strains and Stresses in Cement-Based Materials Dale P. Bentz* Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute-Jochen Haecker* Wilhelm Dyckerhoff Institut, 65203 Wiesbaden, Germany The influence of cement particle

  5. PORTLAND SHOWS HOW CLEAN ENERGY WORKS | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuilding energy codes have a moreINCREASES | Department ofPORTLAND

  6. The variability of fly ash and its effects on selected properties of fresh Portland cement/fly ash mortars 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKerall, William Carlton

    1980-01-01

    for air content testing for 15 cubic feet of mortar per cubic yard of concrete 44 13 Summary of samples failing to meet ASTM C-618 uniformity specifications for specific gravity and fineness Average and relative rankings of flow, set, and air... of Energy (2). C Faber and Styron (9). Figure 2. Photomicrograph of' f'l y ash from sub-bituminous coal exposed to moisture ior seven days. 14 ~Sit'i ti ASTM recommends speci f1cat1ons for both class F and class C fly ashes (8). Tables 3 and 4 list...

  7. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-04-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes.

  8. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Economic Output in Chinese Cement Kilns,” Proceedings of thereduction of China’s cement industry. Energy Policy 45 (751. Kong, Xiangzhong (China Cement Association, CCA), 2009.

  9. Corrosion-resistant Foamed Cements for Carbon Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Gill, S.; Pyatina, T., Muraca, A.; Keese, R.; Khan, A.; Bour, D.

    2012-12-01

    The cementitious material consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate designed as an alternative thermal-shock resistant cement for the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells was treated with cocamidopropyl dimethylamine oxide-based compound as foaming agent (FA) to prepare numerous air bubble-dispersed low density cement slurries of and #61603;1.3 g/cm3. Then, the foamed slurry was modified with acrylic emulsion (AE) as corrosion inhibitor. We detailed the positive effects of the acrylic polymer (AP) in this emulsion on the five different properties of the foamed cement: 1) The hydrothermal stability of the AP in 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cements; 2) the hydrolysis-hydration reactions of the slurry at 85 and #61616;C; 3) the composition of crystalline phases assembled and the microstructure developed in autoclaved cements; 4) the mechanical behaviors of the autoclaved cements; and, 5) the corrosion mitigation of carbon steel (CS) by the polymer. For the first property, the hydrothermal-catalyzed acid-base interactions between the AP and cement resulted in Ca-or Na-complexed carboxylate derivatives, which led to the improvement of thermal stability of the AP. This interaction also stimulated the cement hydration reactions, enhancing the total heat evolved during cement’s curing. Addition of AP did not alter any of the crystalline phase compositions responsible for the strength of the cement. Furthermore, the AP-modified cement developed the porous microstructure with numerous defect-free cavities of disconnected voids. These effects together contributed to the improvement of compressive-strength and –toughness of the cured cement. AP modification of the cement also offered an improved protection of CS against brine-caused corrosion. There were three major factors governing the corrosion protection: 1) Reducing the extents of infiltration and transportation of corrosive electrolytes through the cement layer deposited on the underlying CS surfaces; 2) inhibiting the cathodic reactions at the corrosion site of CS; 3) extending the coverage of cement over CS surfaces; and, 4) improving the adherence of the cement to CS surfaces. Thus, the CS’s corrosion rate of 176 milli inch/per year (mpy) for 1 wt% FA-foamed cement without AP was considerably reduced to 69 mpy by adding only 2 wt% AP. Addition of AP at 10 wt% further reduced this rate to less than 10 mpy.

  10. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, J.

    2011-01-01

    10 References Anonymous. 1994. Cement Plant Modernization inCentral Europe, World Cement (November): 35-38 Bösche, A.Variable Speed Drives in Cement Plants, World Cement 6 24

  11. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Azure. Alternative Fuel Use in the Cement Sector in ShandongSector Analysis Report: Cement Testing Sectoral ProposalTemplates In China’s Cement Sector. 2009. Bao , Xianfa.

  12. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    2009. CO 2 Capture in the Cement Industry. Energy Procedia2 Capture Technologies for Cement Industry. Energy Procedia,J.M. Makar, T. Sato. 2010. Cement and concrete nanoscience

  13. Promoting Energy Efficiency in Cement Making: The ENERGY STAR(R) for Industry Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2007-01-01

    information Energy Guide for Cement Making, please contact:Saving Opportunities for the Cement Industry: An ENERGY STARindex.cfm? c=in_focus.bus_cement_manuf_focus Based on data

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Lime Institute. 2001. Energy Efficiency Opportunity Guide inIndustry, Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resourcesof a Cement Kiln, Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme,

  15. NIST Special Publication 1173 Virtual Cement and Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    made with port- land cement clinker, calcium sulfate, fly ash, slag, limestone, and other ma- terials.2 Slags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.3 Fly Ashes

  16. The carbon leakage effect on the cement sector under different ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-08

    Electricity consumption per tons of clinker produced with technology w ? W ...... An application to the cement, steel and oil refining industries in Spain. Climate ...

  17. South Portland, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSiliciumEnergyHouston, Texas:588958°, -80.0386522°Portland,

  18. EA-97-B Portland General Electric Company | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLC to exportEndure Energy,VitolSaracenPortland General

  19. EA-97-C Portland General Electric | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLC to exportEndure Energy,VitolSaracenPortland

  20. EA-97-D Portland General Electric Company | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLC to exportEndure Energy,VitolSaracenPortlandPGE to

  1. Portland Street Lighting Report (August 2015) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,anEnergy Company Weatherizes, PreservesPortland

  2. FUPWG Meeting Agenda - Portland, Oregon | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111, 2015EnergyEnergy 3,4 AgendaPortland,

  3. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Cement Production Source: IEA 2011a, GOI 2012b Appendix 3.International Energy Agency (IEA), 2009, Cement TechnologyInternational Energy Agency (IEA), 2011a. Energy Transition

  4. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Specific cement energy consumption: conversion of power into2006. Cement industry energy consumption status and energyZhou, H. , 2007a. Energy consumption and environment

  5. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    design code for energy saving, energy consumption auditingEnergy Consumption and Energy Saving Potential,” ProceedingsCement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement

  6. Supercement for Annular Seal and Long-Term Integrity in Deep, Hot Wells "Deep Trek"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin D. Edgley; Fred L. Sabins; Larry T. Watters

    2005-08-31

    The purpose of this project is to formulate a ''Supercement'' designed for improving the long-term sealing integrity in HPHT wells. Phase I concentrated on chemistry studies and screening tests to design and evaluate Portland-based, hybrid Portland, and non-Portland-based cement systems suitable for further scale-up testing. Phase II work concentrated on additional lab and field testing to reduce the candidate materials list to two systems, as well as scale up activities aimed at verifying performance at the field scale. Phase II was extended thorough a proposal to develop additional testing capabilities aimed at quantifying cementing material properties and performance that were previously not possible. Two materials are being taken into Phase III for field testing and commercialization: {lg_bullet} Highly-expansive cement (Portland-based), patent pending as ''Pre-Stressed Cement'' {lg_bullet} Epoxy Resin (non-Portland-based), patent pending In Phase II, significant effort was expended on scaling up the processes for handling resin in the field, as it is quite different than conventional Portland-based cements in mixing, personnel protection, and cleanup. Through this effort, over fifty (50) field jobs were done at a variety of temperatures and depths, most with excellent results. Large-scale field testing was less relevant with Pre-stressed Cement, because the materials and surface processes do not vary from those that have been developed for conventional Portland materials over the last eighty (80) years. The formulation is quite unique, however, and performs very differently than conventional Portland cements downhole.

  7. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per year); (5) the amount of production of cement by type and grade (in tonnes per year); (6) the electricity generated onsite; and, (7) the energy used by fuel type; and, the amount (in RMB per year) spent on energy. The tool offers the user the opportunity to do a quick assessment or a more detailed assessment--this choice will determine the level of detail of the energy input. The detailed assessment will require energy data for each stage of production while the quick assessment will require only total energy used at the entire facility (see Section 6 for more details on quick versus detailed assessments). The benchmarking tool provides two benchmarks--one for Chinese best practices and one for international best practices. Section 2 describes the differences between these two and how each benchmark was calculated. The tool also asks for a target input by the user for the user to set goals for the facility.

  8. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-97-D Portland...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Company Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-97-D Portland General Electric Company Application from PGE to export electric energy to Canada. EA-97-D PGE (CN).pdf...

  9. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director www progress report on various activities that are underway. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503

  10. Communication Damage monitoring of cement paste by electrical resistance measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    on the use of electrical resistance measurement to sense strain in cement reinforced with short carbon fibers of curing [2±5]. How- ever, this paper is not concerned with carbon fiber-rein- forced cement. 2 in the elastic deformation regime. However, damage in the plastic deformation regime is much more significant

  11. TRANSIENT EFFECTS IN OILFIELD CEMENTING FLOWS MIGUEL ANGEL MOYERS GONZALEZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    cementing of an oil well. This process involves displacement of a sequence of non-Newtonian fluids alongTRANSIENT EFFECTS IN OILFIELD CEMENTING FLOWS by MIGUEL ANGEL MOYERS GONZ´ALEZ B.Sc., Instituto is in fact well-posed. In chapter 4 we study stability of multi-layer parallel flows, i.e. long fingers

  12. Making a Cement Tray for Compression Molding of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    Making a Cement Tray for Compression Molding of Shape&Roll Prosthetic Foot Cores Andrew Hansen, Ph, MS and Andrew Hansen, PhD. #12;A lever compression molding device for fabrication of Shape entitled "Making a Cement Upper Molding Surface for Compression Molding of Shape&Roll Prosthetic Foot Cores

  13. Communication Improving silica fume cement by using silane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    for enhancing the bond between a ceramic filler and a polymer matrix [57] because the epoxy structure at the end for enhancing the bond between a ceramic filler and a cement matrix [51]. In spite of the difference in chemicalCommunication Improving silica fume cement by using silane Yunsheng Xu, D.D.L. Chung* Composite

  14. Primary Cementing of a Highly Deviated Oil Well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    in the construction of a well. The objective is to provide zonal isolation, i.e., a hydraulic seal between the wellPrimary Cementing of a Highly Deviated Oil Well by Mariana Carrasco-Teja B.Sc., Instituto Tecnol. The study comes from the primary cementing of highly deviated oil and gas wells. Highly deviated wells

  15. High Temperature Cements | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources Jump to:Hershey, Pennsylvania:HiddenTemperature Cements Jump to:

  16. Cement Bond Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPIDCavallo Energy JumpCeiling Fan JumpCement Bond Log

  17. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  18. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  19. Use of hazardous waste in cement kilns backed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieger, J.

    1993-07-19

    Cement kiln operators who are making use of hazardous waste as a partial substitute for fossil fuel now have a better engineering foundation for determining what is going on in the kilns and how to optimize their operations. A just-released study by a scientific advisory board of experts commissioned by the Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) in Washington, DC, has provided an in-depth look, at such operations and finds the practice to be a fundamentally sound' technology. Long residence times and high temperatures in cement kilns maximize the combustion efficiency for waste-derived fuels, according to the study report. The scientific advisory board notes that all organic compounds can be destroyed in a kiln at 99.9999% efficiency. Also, the behavior of metals in cement kilns can be readily measured, predicted, and controlled. Cement kilns are extremely efficient in reducing metals emissions.

  20. Ghabezloo et al.: Poromechanical behaviour of hardened cement paste under isotropic loading Poromechanical behaviour of hardened cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of this cement in oil-wells conditions, i.e. under high stress and elevated temperature, is essential of the well when CO2 storage and sequestration is planned. Whether the mechanical behaviour of hardened cement and drained bulk modulus are discussed. A phenomenon of degradation of elastic properties is observed

  1. The effects of the mechanical–chemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Chang-Jung; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Yu-Lun

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Milling extracted MSWI fly ash. ? Increasing specific surface area, destruction of the crystalline texture, and increasing the amount of amorphous materials. ? Increasing heavy metal stability. ? Inducing pozzolanic reactions and increasing the early and later strength of the cement paste. - Abstract: A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96 h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50 times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} and led to the generation of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste.

  2. Do cement nanoparticles exist in space ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilalbegovic, G; Mohacek-Grosev, V

    2014-01-01

    The calcium-silicate-hydrate is used to model properties of cement on Earth. We study cementitious nanoparticles and propose these structures as components of cosmic dust grains. Quantum density functional theory methods are applied for the calculation of infrared spectra of Ca4Si4O14H4, Ca6Si3O13H2, and Ca12Si6O26H4 clusters. We find bands distributed over the near, mid and far-infrared region. A specific calcium-silicate-hydrate spectral feature at 14 microns, together with the bands at 10 and 18 microns which exist for other silicates as well, could be used for a detection of cosmic cement. We compare calculated bands with the 14 microns features in the spectra of HD 45677, HD 44179, and IRC+10420 which were observed by Infrared Space Observatory and classified as remaining. High abundance of oxygen atoms in cementitious nanoparticles could partially explain observed depletion of this element from the interstellar medium into dust grains.

  3. Incinerators and cement kilns face off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, I.

    1994-04-01

    For the past few years, US incinerators have been at odds with thermal waste processors such as cement kilns. Originally, there was enough room in the industrial waste treatment market for both types of treatment. As waste generators turned to pollution prevention and onsite treatment, however, the volume of waste decreased and its composition changed. Now, each sees the other crowding it out of a tightening market, and the fight between them is growing increasingly bitter. At the center of this battle are the products of alternative thermal processes--for cement kilns, the dust formed after processing, and for other processes, a variety of materials, many of which can be used for construction. Currently, these materials are exempted from regulation under the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In addition, the alternative processes offer generators a significant cost advantage over incineration. The question that US regulators are now grappling with is whether these materials are safe enough to justify this preferential treatment. So far, the answer seems to be a qualified yes. The paper discusses these issues.

  4. Product List Substructure -Foundations -Slab on Grade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % Fly Ash Cement Generic 20% Fly Ash Cement Generic 20% Slag Cement Generic 35% Slag Cement Generic 50Cem Slag Cement (35%) Lafarge NewCem Slag Cement (50%) Generic 35% Fly Ash Cement Lafarge Portland Type I Ash Cement Generic 20% Fly Ash Cement Generic 20% Slag Cement Generic 35% Slag Cement #12;Generic 50

  5. Double percolation in the electrical conduction in carbon fiber reinforced cement-based materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Double percolation in the electrical conduction in carbon fiber reinforced cement-based materials Available online 9 November 2006 Abstract Electrically conductive cement-based materials are important conduction in carbon fiber cement-based materials. It involves fiber percolation and cement paste percolation

  6. USE OF VATERITE AND CALCITE IN FORMING CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CEMENT A. Cuneyt Tas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    USE OF VATERITE AND CALCITE IN FORMING CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CEMENT SCAFFOLDS A. Cuneyt Tas Department calcium phosphate (CaP+CaCO3) cements have been developed. The common point in these cements in the end-product of these cements was carbonated, Ca-deficient, apatitic calcium phosphate, together

  7. Abstract The concurrent goals of cement hydration are to percolate (bridge) the original

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Abstract The concurrent goals of cement hydration are to percolate (bridge) the original cement. The initial volume, particle size distribution, and flocculation/dispersion state of the cement particles have and the alkali content of the cement pastes. Finally, it is proposed that future efforts in this field

  8. Guang Ye, Characterization of cement paste at early age, 1 of 11 Fax: +31 15 2785895

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang Ye, Characterization of cement paste at early age, 1 of 11 Fax: +31 15 2785895 E-mail: ye.guang@ct.tudelft.nl A MICROMECHANIC MODEL FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF CEMENT PASTE AT EARLY AGE VALIDATED WITH EXPERIMENTS Guang Ye Delft of a cement-based material, i.e. the stiffness of cement paste, is the result of the continuous change

  9. Functionally-graded fiber-reinforced cement composite: Processing, microstructure, and properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Functionally-graded fiber-reinforced cement composite: Processing, microstructure, and properties-graded fiber-reinforced cement composite (FGFRCC). Fiber volume fractions were increased linearly from 0: Fiber-reinforced cement composite (FRCC); Functionally-graded fiber-reinforced cement composite (FGFRCC

  10. Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement to an increase of AF use from 8.7% to 20.9% of the total energy consumption. 2. One of the alternative fuels used cement industry produces about 3.3 billion tonnes of cement annually. Cement production is energy

  11. Formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout within weakly cemented sandstones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Tomutsa, Liviu; Myer, Larry R.

    2008-01-01

    within weakly cemented sandstones Seiji Nakagawa, Liviusynthetic high-porosity sandstone with controlled porosity

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this report is based on publicly-available reports, journal articles, and case studies from applications of technologies around the world.

  13. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Asia Pacific Partnership Cement Task Force (APP). 2010.07(3) Utilizing Biosolids in Cement Kilns. (November). Asia-Utilising Biosolids in Cement Kilns. Final Report. Available

  14. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    2007. “Alternative Fuels & Raw Materials in Halyps cement. ”Fuels & Alternative Raw Materials in the Cement Industry.Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials in the European Cement

  15. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    saving in heat energy is pbssible if the hydraulic cement ofEnergy Requirement and Cost It is demonstrated above that a hydraulicEnergy and Environment Division Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT A process for making hydraulic

  16. Development of an OCS Cementing Operational Guidelines Database 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Matthew G.

    2014-08-20

    the goals of the database, identifying its users, and selecting an appropriate database management system. The main goal of the database is to present specific design, testing, and operational procedures to ensure optimized cement seal effectiveness...

  17. Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants By Fluidized Beds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraley, L. D.; Ksiao, H. K.; Thunem, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    , the industry has reduced the fuel requirement per ton of cement from about 7 million Btu per ton in old plants to less than 3 million Btu per ton in the most modern plants....

  18. User's Guide to the NIST Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    , a user may create starting microstructures of cement (gypsum, fly ash, etc.) particles in water, hydrate . 20 2.12 Menu Selection 11) Distribute fly ash phases amongst fly ash particles

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    S. , 1990. Energy Outlook in West Germany’s Cement Industry.Energy, Emissions, Savings Potential and Policy Actions, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems Technology and Innovation, Karlsruhe, Germany.Wiesbaden, Germany: 296-304. Caffal, C. 1995. Energy

  20. Wellbore Cement: Research That Begins Where the Sidewalk Ends...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is needed to determine how adeptly cement is placed in a well to ensure that hydrocarbons or other fluids do not leak into surrounding rock, even after years or decades of...

  1. Determination of age in forensic dentistry from cemental incremental lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sousa, Eliane Marques Duarte de

    1987-01-01

    ) John E. Martin (Member) H. Del Var Petersen (Member) Gerald R. Bratton (Head of Department) December lg87 ABSTNACT Determination of Age in Forensic Dentistry from Cemental Incremental Lines. (December 1987) Eliane Marques Duarte de Sousa, D. D...DETERMINATION OF AGE IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY FROM CEMENTAL INCREMENTAL LINES Thes' s by ELIANE MARJUES DLARTE DF SOUSA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A?M Univer ity ' n r. srt' al f"lf' llment of the requirements for the degree...

  2. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  3. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    2012. Potential energy savings and CO 2 emissions reductiondesign code for energy saving, energy consumption auditingCement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement

  4. 'The Overriding Demand for Energy Conservation in the Cement Industry' An Update 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spellman, L. U.

    1981-01-01

    Incentives and constraints to upgrade the U. S. cement industry and its energy efficiency are discussed. Emphasis is given to those measures most accessible to the industry, such as increased use of blended cements and waste fuels....

  5. Nano-ChemoMechanical assessment of Rice Husk Ash cement by wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and nanoindentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abuhaikal, Muhannad (Muhannad A. R.)

    2011-01-01

    Cement global production stands at 3 Giga tons making concrete the most consumed structural mateial worldwide. This massively produced material comes with a heavy environmental footprint rendering the cement industry ...

  6. Unprocessed rice husk ash as a partial replacement of cement for low-cost concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Dorothy Kamilah

    2012-01-01

    Cement is a very valuable commodity as it can be used to construct structurally sound buildings and infrastructure. However, in many developing countries cement is expensive due to the unavailability of local resources to ...

  7. CO2 on the Integrity of Well Cement | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 on the Integrity of Well Cement Effect of CO2 on the Integrity of Well Cement under Geologic Storage Conditions Geologic carbon storage is the separation and capture of carbon...

  8. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Development waste heat recovery World Wide Fund for NatureTaishan Cement Works Waste Heat Recovery and Utilisation forCement Plant 9100KW Waste Heat Recovery and Utilisation for

  9. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    oil shale. Emerging technologies enable the use of these alternative raw materials as well as production of cement

  10. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    continuous kiln operation (Perkins 2000). For example, Texas Industries has licensed its patented CemStar cement production process

  11. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01

    is coal-fired power generation. power generation. China Cement (10), 18-heat recovery (WHR) power generation technologies have been

  12. A comparison of normal and worst case cement plant emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J.; Gossman, D.; Johnson, N.

    1996-12-31

    Lone Star Industries, Inc. in Cape Girardeau, Missouri conducted a trial burn in October, 1995. Two metals emissions test days were conducted. One of the test days was a worst case metals spiking day and one of the test days was a normal emissions day. This paper examines and compares the emissions from these two test days. Much has been made of metals emissions from hazardous waste burning cement kilns, but for the most part, this has been due to the worst case metals emissions data that became available from the 1992 BIF compliance testing performed and reported by 24 cement plants. By comparison, very little data exists on normal cement kiln emissions. This paper provides one comparison.

  13. Pacific Northwest Generating Cooperative 711 NE Halsey Portland, OR 97232-1268

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacific Northwest Generating Cooperative 711 NE Halsey Portland, OR 97232-1268 (503) 288-1234 Fax and Wildlife Program, guided by principles of cost effectiveness. Because our members continue to contribute significantly to the fish and wildlife program through their electric rates, PNGC is deeply interested in seeing

  14. The 2014 Clean Tech Challenge New Building Materials May Reduce Waste At Portland Grocers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    The 2014 Clean Tech Challenge #12;New Building Materials May Reduce Waste At Portland Grocers. According to Teak Wall, Sustainability Program Manager for New Seasons Markets, waxed cardboard boxes represent roughly 80 percent of the organization's compostable materials. "We estimated New Seasons com

  15. Marquam Hill Campus OHSU's central campus, Marquam Hill, is Portland's largest medical destination.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    . The intersection of SW Moody Ave & SW Gibbs St alone is host to an aerial tram, pedestrian bridge, streetcar, bike for Students OHSU Transportation & Parking Mail code: PP22A 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road Portland, OR 97239 Waterfront (SW Moody Ave & Gibbs St) to Marquam Hill (OHSU Kohler Pavilion) in 5 minutes. The tram operates

  16. Communication Uniaxial compression in carbon fiber-reinforced cement, sensed by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Uniaxial compression in carbon fiber-reinforced cement, sensed by electrical 2000; accepted 23 September 2000 Abstract Uniaxial compression of carbon fiber-reinforced cement pastes. The fractional change in resistivity per unit strain is higher in magnitude for carbon fiber silica fume cement

  17. Communication Origin of the thermoelectric behavior of steel fiber cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Origin of the thermoelectric behavior of steel fiber cement paste Sihai Wen, D fiber cement. The scattering sites include the fiber­matrix interface, which is like a pn junction, since the fiber and cement paste have opposite signs of the absolute thermoelectric power

  18. The application of an ultrasonic shear wave reflection method for nondestructive testing of cement-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The application of an ultrasonic shear wave reflection method for nondestructive testing of cement for Nondestructive Testing of Cement-Based Materials at Early Ages An Experimental and Numerical Analysis by Dr associate under the supervision of Professor Surendra P. Shah at the Center for Advanced Cement

  19. MULTIVARIABLE NONLINEAR MODEL REFERENCE CONTROL OF CEMENT MILLS Mehmet nder Efe1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efe, Mehmet Önder

    MULTIVARIABLE NONLINEAR MODEL REFERENCE CONTROL OF CEMENT MILLS Mehmet Önder Efe1 and Okyay Kaynak2 reference control of a cement-milling circuit that has been studied previously. The approach presented studies focusing on cement mills have appeared. Clarke (1988) discusses the predictive control technique

  20. Sr radionuclide in cement: An atomistic modeling study Mostafa Youssef a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    Docking 90 Sr radionuclide in cement: An atomistic modeling study Mostafa Youssef a , Roland J: Available online xxxx Keywords: Molecular simulation Cement Nuclear waste storage Mechanical properties a b crystalline analog, the 9 Å-tobermorite. C­S­H is the major binding phase of cement. Strontium was shown

  1. Probing Water Phases in Cement Blends using 1 Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Probing Water Phases in Cement Blends using 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry Jean)114 222 5973 Fax: +44 (0)114 222 5943 E-Mail: j.gorce@sheffield.ac.uk Extended Abstract: Cement and Concrete Science, Warwick, 16th + 17th September 2004 Introduction The nuclear industry uses blended cement

  2. Communication Role of moisture in the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Role of moisture in the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials Jingyao Cao, D of liquid water contributes little, if any, to the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials. Moisture loss Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Fiber reinforcement; Cement paste; Electrical properties

  3. Monitoring the hydration of cement using highly nonlinear solitary waves Xianglei Ni a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Monitoring the hydration of cement using highly nonlinear solitary waves Xianglei Ni Available online 22 May 2012 Keywords: Highly nonlinear solitary waves Cement Hydration Nondestructive on the propagation of highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs) to monitor the hydration of cement. HNSWs

  4. Fabrication of Functionally Graded-cellular Structures of Cement-based Materials by Co-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Fabrication of Functionally Graded-cellular Structures of Cement-based Materials by Co- extrusion Y-extrusion of layered cement-based materials. The paste flow in the barrel and the die land in a ram extruder should. The functionally graded cellular structures of cement-based materials were successfully fabricated by co

  5. Piezoresistive Cement-based Materials for Strain Sensing D. D. L. CHUNG*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Piezoresistive Cement-based Materials for Strain Sensing D. D. L. CHUNG* Composite Materials ABSTRACT: Cement-based materials that exhibit piezoresistivity with sufficient magnitude and reversibility. The piezoresistive behavior, mechanism and materials are reviewed, including cement-based materials with continuous

  6. Pyroelectric behavior of cement-based materials Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Pyroelectric behavior of cement-based materials Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials for temperature sensing, was observed in cement-based materials. The use of short steel fibers (8 mm diameter dielectric constant, the pyroelectric voltage is lower than those of plain cement paste or carbon fiber (15

  7. DELETERIOUS EXPANSION OF CEMENT PASTE SUBJECTED TO WET-DRY CYCLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ·I CEMENT PASTE SUBJECTED TO WET-DRY CYCLES John A. Wells*, Emmanuel K with five cements produced in different regions of Canada. Test specimens with nominal diameters of 25 mm program show that cement paste specimens exhibit significant differences in the magnitude of expansion

  8. Electric polarization and depolarization in cement-based materials, studied by apparent electrical resistance measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Electric polarization and depolarization in cement-based materials, studied by apparent electrical September 2003 Abstract Electric polarization in cement-based materials (without conductive admixture) under in carbon fiber cement, due to the fast hole response. Sand addition slowed down polarization saturation

  9. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates Roland J.-M. Pellenqa,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates Roland J.-M. Pellenqa,b , Akihiro Kushimac , Rouzbeh-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics and cracking. atomistic simulation mechanical properties structural properties By mixing water and cement

  10. Quartz cementation inhibited by crestal oil charge: Miller deep water sandstone,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Quartz cementation inhibited by crestal oil charge: Miller deep water sandstone, UK North Sea A. M cement continued to precipitate in the water zone of the reservoir up to the present day. KEYWORDS: quartz cementation, Miller deep water sandstone, North Sea, diagenetic quartz. The Miller Field

  11. Sandstone cementation and fluids in hydrocarbon basins R.S. Haszeldinea,*, C.I. Macaulaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Sandstone cementation and fluids in hydrocarbon basins R.S. Haszeldinea,*, C.I. Macaulaya , A there is an intermediate view. Processes governing sandstone cementation in the deep sub-surface are elusive, case have driven studies of sandstone cementation in the past ten years: Firstly, the economic motive

  12. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  13. Hydromania II: Journey of the Oncorhynchus. Summer Science Camp Curriculum 1994.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moura, Joan; Swerin, Rod

    1995-01-01

    The Hydromania II curriculum was written for the third in a series of summer science camp experiences targeting students in grades 4--6 who generally have difficulty accessing supplementary academic programs. The summer science camp in Portland is a collaborative effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the Portland Parks and Recreation Community Schools Program along with various other cooperating businesses and organizations. The curriculum has also been incorporated into other summer programs and has been used by teachers to supplement classroom activities. Camps are designed to make available, affordable learning experiences that are fun and motivating to students for the study of science and math. Inner-city, under-represented minorities, rural, and low-income families are particularly encouraged to enroll their children in the program.

  14. The effect of additives on effective diffusivities in solidified/stabilized wastes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyi, Aye Aye

    1992-01-01

    Cement ? Fly Ash (PCFA) Portland Cement-Bentonite (PCB) Portland Cement-Silica Fume (PCSF) Portland Cement-Sodium Silicate (PCSS) COMPARISON BETWEEN SCC AND SSCC TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) ANALYSIS COST ANALYSIS SUMMARY OF RESULTS CONCLUSIONS... Solutions PORTLAND CEMENT BASED SOLIDIFICATION Soft Water 18 18 19 20 vii SIMPLE LEACH MODEL THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY METHOD CORRELATIONS BETWEEN POROSITY AND EFFECTIVE DIFFUSIVITY ADDITIVES Pozzolans Fly Ash . Microsilica Sodium Silicate...

  15. Modeling of diffusive mass transport in micropores in cement based materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuji, E-mail: yamaguchi.tetsuji@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Negishi, Kumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Taiheiyo Consultant Company Limited, 2-4-2, Osaku, Sakura, Chiba 285-8655 (Japan); Hoshino, Seiichi; Tanaka, Tadao [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    In order to predict long-term leaching behavior of cement constituents for safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal, we modeled diffusive mass transport in micropores in cement based materials. Based on available knowledge on the pore structure, we developed a transport porosity model that enables us to estimate effective porosity available for diffusion (transport porosity) in cement based materials. We microscopically examined the pore structure of hardened cement pastes to partially verify the model. Effective diffusivities of tritiated water in hardened cement pastes were also obtained experimentally, and were shown to be proportional to the estimated transport porosity.

  16. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for customers of Portland General Electric, Pacific Power, NW Natural and Cascade Natural Gas. Attached you policies and strategies that support the Energy Security and Climate Stewardship Platform

  17. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feb (Portland) · Issues for 6th Plan: comments proposed changes · Briefing on carbon sequestration · Demand and conservation interface May (Walla Walla) · Sequestration project report (PNL Peter Mc

  18. More durable roof coverings such as steel and fiber cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - heating equipment saves money. Tankless water heaters provide hot water on demand at a preset temperature. Lighter colors absorb less heat, reducing cooling costs in warm climates. Now, solar roofing products- cement siding is termite- and water-resistant and warrantied to last 50 years. Increasing the amount

  19. Surface effects of cement-based solidified waste forms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlonnis, George

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed in order to determine-nine if the surface characteristics of cement-based waste forms were different than those of the bulk material. This was done as a prelude to the potential development of an accelerated leach test...

  20. Automated Assessment of Polyethylene Wear in Cemented Acetabular Components using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulidowski, Irek

    Automated Assessment of Polyethylene Wear in Cemented Acetabular Components using Anteroposterior, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, DD1 9SY, UK Abstract Polyethylene wear in the acetabular components of hip to the polyethylene acetabular component of a prosthesis so that both it and the metal femoral head component can

  1. Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Backe, Knut

    the permeability on the other hand is low, and entry pressure is, in general, inversely proportional is still low. The pressure difference between the formation gas and the hydro- static pressure of cement slurries in oil wells is very com- plex. Many parameters contribute to the final result

  2. Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

  3. Making a Cement Upper Molding Surface for Compression Molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    . Pipe 4. Glue or barge cement 5. Threaded rods or long bolts with washers and nuts 1 2 3 4 5 #12 clay between the stacked materials and the mandrel support plastic pieces as shown. #12;20 Cut a piece support plastic pieces. #12;21 Put clay along the seams of these three pieces of plastic. #12;22 Scrape

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    S. , 1990. Energy Outlook in West Germany’s Cement Industry.Energy, Emissions, Savings Potential and Policy Actions, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems Technology and Innovation, Karlsruhe, Germany.Germany) and Mitsui Mining (Japan). Several companies in China also provide optimized information technology for energy

  5. Experimental study of the relationship between formation factor, porosity, and cementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harig, M.D.; Chaney, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    Cemented granular soils are classified based on the size and distribution of the individual grains and qualitatively on the basis of cementation. To uniquely classify these types of soils, information about the fabric (pore geometry and/or level of cementation) of the specimen needs to be quantified. Electrical resistivity, or its reciprocal, conductivity, methods have been extensively used both in situ and in the laboratory to provide a means for determining a variety of soil index, structural, erosional, and cyclic properties. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between formation factor (F), porosity (n), and cementation factor (m) of remolded sand-cement specimens. This relationship is shown to provide a mechanism for estimating the level of cementation in undisturbed specimens. The formation factor is the ratio of the electrical resistivity of the sand-water-cement mixture to that of the interstitial water.

  6. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Commercial Garage Lights In the Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-11

    This U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Demonstration project studied the applicability of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires for commercial parking garage applications. High-pressure sodium (HPS) area luminaires were replaced with new LED area luminaires. The project was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid State Lighting Program. Other participants in the demonstration project included Providence Portland Medical Center in Portland, Oregon, the Energy Trust of Oregon, and Lighting Sciences Group (LSG) Inc. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the measurements and analysis of the results. PNNL manages GATEWAY demonstrations for DOE and represents their perspective in the conduct of the work. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light and electrical power were taken at the site for both HPS and LED light sources. Economic costs were estimated and garage users’ responses to the new light sources were gauged with a survey. Six LED luminaires were installed in the below-ground parking level A, replacing six existing 150W HPS lamps spread out over two rows of parking spaces. Illuminance measurements were taken at floor level approximately every 4 ft on a 60-ft x 40-ft grid to measure light output of these LED luminaires which were termed the “Version 1” luminaires. PNNL conducted power measurements of the circuit in the garage to which the 6 luminaires were connected and determined that they drew an average of 82 W per lamp. An improved LED luminaire, Version 2, was installed in Level B of the parking garage. Illuminance measurements were not made of this second luminaire on site due to higher traffic conditions, but photometric measurements of this lamp and Version 1 were made in an independent testing laboratory and power usage for Version 2 was also measured. Version 1 was found to produce 3600 lumens and Version 2 was found to produce 4700 lumens of light and to consume 78 Watts. Maximum and minimum light levels were measured for the HPS and LED Version 1 luminaires and projected for the Version 2 luminaires. Maximum light levels were 23.51 foot candles, 20.54 fc, and 26.7 fc respectively and minimum light levels were 1.49 fc, 1.45 fc, and 1.88 fc. These results indicate very similar or even slightly higher light levels produced by the LED lamps, despite the higher lumen output of the HPS lamp. The LED lamps provide higher luminaire efficacy because all of the light is directed down and out. None of it is “lost” in the fixture. Also the HPS luminaire had poorly designed optics and a plastic covering that tended to get dirty and cracked, further decreasing the realized light output.[is this an accurate way to say this?] Consumer perceptions of the Version 2 LED were collected via a written survey form given to maintenance and security personnel. More than half felt the LED luminaires provided more light than the HPS lamps and a majority expressed a preference for the new lamps when viewing the relamped area through a security camera. Respondents commented that the LED luminaires were less glary, created less shadows, had a positive impact on visibility, and improved the overall appearance of the area. PNNL conducted an economic analysis and found that the Version 1 lamp produced annual energy savings of 955 kWh and energy cost savings of $76.39 per lamp at electricity rates of 6.5 cents per kWh and $105.03 at 11 cents per kWh. PNNL found that the Version 2 lamp produced annual energy savings of 991 kWh and energy cost savings of $79.26 per lamp at electricity rates of 6.5 cents per kWh and $108.98 at 11 cents per kWh. PNNL also calculated simple payback and found that Version 1 showed paybacks of 5.4 yrs at 6.5c/kWh and 4.1 yrs at 11c/kWh while Version 2 showed paybacks of 5.2 yrs at 6.5c/kWh and 3.9 yrs at 11c/kWh.

  7. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  8. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Deep Energy Retrofit of 1910 House, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    This case study lists project information, cost and energy efficiency performance data, energy efficiency measures and lessons learned for a 100-year-old home in Portland, Oregon, audited by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a deep energy retrofit. New HVAC and extensive insulation upgrades including rigid XPS and new siding over the old lead painted siding, and EPS on the basement walls and in cathedral ceiling helped bring HERS down to 68.

  9. Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,anEnergy Company Weatherizes,Portland,

  10. Electrical conductivity is a parameter that can be used to monitor the entire hardening process of oilwell cement slurries. The theo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Backe, Knut

    process of oilwell cement slurries. The theo- retical relationship among conductivity, porosity, cement and that rapid hydration will reduce the risk of gas migration. Introduction The main purposes of oilwell cements hardening process of oilwell cement slurries is important for successful cementing operations. Several

  11. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 42 (2), 404-409, 2012. Influence of Particle Size Distributions on Yield Stress and Viscosity of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    on Yield Stress and Viscosity of Cement-Fly Ash Pastes Dale P. Bentz Chiara F. Ferraris Michael A. Galler of three variables (cement particle size distribution (PSD), fly ash PSD, and ratio of fly ash to cement of either total (cement + fly ash) particle surface area or total particle density. Keywords: Cement; fly

  12. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John [School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-07

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating 'smart' electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported.

  13. Hard x-ray nanotomography of amorphous aluminosilicate cements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provis, J. L.; Rose, V.; Winarski, R. P.; van Deventer, J. S. J.

    2011-08-01

    Nanotomographic reconstruction of a sample of low-CO{sub 2} 'geopolymer' cement provides the first three-dimensional view of the pore structure of the aluminosilicate geopolymer gel, as well as evidence for direct binding of geopolymer gel onto unreacted fly ash precursor particles. This is central to understanding and optimizing the durability of concretes made using this new class of binder, and demonstrates the value of nanotomography in providing a three-dimensional view of nanoporous inorganic materials.

  14. 2015 Middle School Team Photos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cedar Park Middle School I, Portland, Ore. Cedar Park Middle School II, Portland, Ore. Galaxy Science Club, Bellevue, Wash. George Middle School , Portland, Ore. Harrison Park...

  15. Liquid-Solid Phase Transition Alloy as Reversible and Rapid Molding Bone Cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Liting; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Bone cement has been demonstrated as an essential restorative material in the orthopedic surgery. However current materials often imply unavoidable drawbacks, such as tissue-cement reaction induced thermal injuries and troublesome revision procedure. Here we proposed an injectable alloy cement to address such problems through its liquid-solid phase transition mechanism. The cement is made of a unique alloy BiInSnZn with a specifically designed low melting point 57.5{\\deg}C. This property enables its rapid molding into various shapes with high plasticity. Some fundamental characteristics including mechanical strength behaviors and phase transition-induced thermal features have been measured to demonstrate the competence of alloy as unconventional cement with favorable merits. Further biocompatible tests showed that this material could be safely employed in vivo. In addition, experiments also found the alloy cement capability as an excellent contrast agent for radiation imaging. Particularly, the proposed alloy...

  16. Cactus, Pixies, 04 Sept 09 Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    Cactus, Pixies, 04 Sept 09 Em Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor G Em just wishin' that I had that dress when you di-yi-yi-yi-yine Em Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor G Em just wishin' that I had it to me Em Sittin' here wishin' on a cement floor G Em just wishin' that I had something you wore #12;

  17. Proceedings of the TOUGH Symposium 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finsterle, S.

    2014-01-01

    and performance of oil well cement with 30 years of CO2Portland cement cores of a 55-year-old oil well exposed to

  18. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    L. 2000. “Potentials for Energy Efficiency Improvement inthe U.S. Cement Industry,” Energy, 25, 1189-1214. Worrell,Benefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures,” Energy

  19. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Toolbut that used best practice energy-efficiency technologiesof the plant compared to best practice energy use, which is

  20. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Toolfor product i = best practice energy intensity for product ibut that used best practice energy-efficiency technologies

  1. Estimation of CO2 Emissions from China's Cement Production: Methodologies and Uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2014-01-01

    emissions from electricity consumption. This paper examinesmainly from electricity consumption for cement production,CO 2 emissions from electricity consumption are usually

  2. Cementing operations on Fenton Hill during FY1987, 1 October 1986-September 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cocks, G.G.; Dreesen, D.S.; Gill, P.J.; Root, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    As part of repairing and sidetracking EE-2 geothermal well, a number of cementing operations were successfully carried out. These included; plugging back of EE-2 below the proposed side track site, cement behind casing at 10220-24 ft, cement behind casing at 9800-04 ft, whipstock plug, and the cementing through perforations of the 9-5/8 in. casing from 6500 ft to the surface. Specific data on each of these operations is given, and the results discussed. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  3. Estimation of CO2 Emissions from China's Cement Production: Methodologies and Uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2014-01-01

    statistics and energy intensity analysis of the NSP process and VSK cement production (CCA, 2011; QEASCBM, 2011; Zhou, 2007), we separately estimated the energy consumption

  4. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Banerjee, R. , 2005. Energy Efficiency and Demand SideKiln Systems,” Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry (Ed.for Improving Energy Efficiency, Reducing Pollution and

  5. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Banerjee, R. , 2005. Energy Efficiency and Demand SideKiln Systems,” Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry (Ed.of Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures,” Proceedings of

  6. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    experience reviewing energy consumption data reported bybe noted that energy consumption data are not directlythe cement sector energy consumption data published by the

  7. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Blended cement (Additives: fly ash, pozzolans, and blastcan include such materials as fly ash from electric poweradditives (GGBS, pozzolana, fly ash, or limestone), made up

  8. Alteration of Sediments by Hyperalkaline KRich Cement Leachate: Implications for Strontium Adsorption and Incorporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    Alteration of Sediments by Hyperalkaline KRich Cement Leachate: Implications for Strontium pH cementitious leachate, there is significantly enhanced Sr retention in sediments due to changes

  9. Supercement for Annular Seal and Long-Term Integrity in Deep, Hot Wells "DeepTrek"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CSI Technologies

    2007-08-31

    The purpose of this project is to formulate a 'Supercement' designed for improving the long-term sealing integrity in HPHT wells. Phase I concentrated on chemistry studies and screening tests to design and evaluate Portland-based, hybrid Portland, and non-Portland-based cement systems suitable for further scale-up testing. Phase II work concentrated on additional lab and field testing to reduce the candidate materials list to two systems, as well as scaleup activities aimed at verifying performance at the field scale. Phase II was extended thorough a proposal to develop additional testing capabilities aimed at quantifying cementing material properties and performance that were previously not possible. Phase III focused on bringing the material(s) developed in previous Phases to commercialization, through Field Trials, Cost/Benefit Analysis, and Technology Transfer. Extensive development and testing work throughout the project led to Phase III commercialization of two very different materials: (1) Highly-expansive cement (Portland-based), patent pending as 'PRESTRESSED CEMENT'; and (2) Epoxy Resin (non-Portland-based), patent pending. Trade name is Ultra Seal-R. In Phase III, work concentrated on application of the Supercement materials in various increasingly-challenging wells. Previous testing revealed that PRESTRESSED CEMENT, when applied in weak or unconsolidated formations, tends to expand away from the central pipe, restricting the applicability of this material to competent formations. Tests were devised to quantify this effect so the material could be applied in appropriate wells. Additionally, the testing was needed because of industry resistance to expansive cements, due to previous marketing attempts with other materials that were less than successful. Field trials with the Epoxy Resin currently numbers in the hundreds of jobs at up to 295 deg F, with a large percentage being completely successful. Both the PRESTRESSED CEMENT as well as the Ultra Seal-R represent materials fulfilling the objectives of the DeepTrek project.

  10. An investigation of the creep phenomena exhibited by Solenhofen limestone, halite, and cement under medium confining pressures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kendall, Halcombe Augustus

    1958-01-01

    SHORT-T II" 1' - T IN F I GURE 5. CONF INED SHORT-T IME T'- ' T IN vROGR. 8 26 F IGURE 6 F IGURE 7 CREEP TESTS IN PROG+' b~, SH' ~tNG AUXILIARY LOADING DEViCi FA I LURE OF SOLENHOF t N L I I'tc STONc SPECIMENS 2'7 JO FIGURE 8. FAILURE OF CEMENT... IN 19/7 ON ROCK SALT& AND BY 12 LAYS LIBRARY A BIB COLLEGE OF TEXAS IN 19/6~ GR I GGS DEFORMED L I MESTONE UNDER CONF I N ING 1 PRESSURES UP TO 13 F000 ATMOSPHERES ~ HE SHOWED THAT WHEN THE SPECIMENS WERE JACKETED' SO THAT THE KEROSENE (USED...

  11. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    James Barber

    2010-09-01

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  12. CP Tech Center I Iowa State University I 2711 S. Loop Dr. Suite 4700,Ames, IA 50010-8664 I 515-294-5798 FOR MORE INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --the project mixture design calls for 423 lb of portland cement and 141 lb of fly ash. Total cementitious materials = 564 lb Portland cement = 423 lb (75%) Fly ash = 141 lb (25%) Materials required for the test + water Portland cement = 375 g (500 g · 75%) Fly ash = 125 g (500 g · 25%) Water = 200g Total materials

  13. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, J.

    2011-01-01

    M. , 1990. “Waste Gas Heat Recovery in Cement Plants” EnergyAdvanced Concepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants”process Optimize heat recovery of Wet Increased product

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    M. , 1990. “Waste Gas Heat Recovery in Cement Plants” EnergyAdvanced Concepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants”grate cooler Refractories Heat recovery for power generation

  15. Commerical-Scale CO2 Capture and Sequestration for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adolfo Garza

    2010-07-28

    On June 8, 2009, DOE issued Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number DE-FOA-000015 seeking proposals to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from industrial sources. This FOA called for what was essentially a two-tier selection process. A number of projects would receive awards to conduct front-end engineering and design (FEED) studies as Phase I. Those project sponsors selected would be required to apply for Phase II, which would be the full design, construction, and operation of their proposed technology. Over forty proposals were received, and ten were awarded Phase I Cooperative Agreements. One of those proposers was CEMEX. CEMEX proposed to capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from one of their existing cement plants and either sequester the CO2 in a geologic formation or use it for enhanced oil recovery. The project consisted of evaluating their plants to identify the plant best suited for the demonstration, identify the best available capture technology, and prepare a design basis. The project also included evaluation of the storage or sequestration options in the vicinity of the selected plant.

  16. Housing and Residence Life 1977 SW 6th Ave Suite 210 Portland, OR, 97201 Phone: (503) 725-4375 Fax: (503) 725-4394 E-mail: Housing@pdx.edu www.pdx.edu/Housing PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY HOUSING PROPOSED CONTRACT TERMS & CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elzanowski, Marek

    Housing and Residence Life 1977 SW 6th Ave Suite 210 Portland, OR, 97201 Phone: (503) 725-4375 Fax: (503) 725-4394 E-mail: Housing@pdx.edu www.pdx.edu/Housing 2015-2016 PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY HOUSING PROPOSED CONTRACT TERMS & CONDITIONS 1) Term of Contract: This Contract is binding upon signature

  17. Hanson's Cement Plant 0.02 0 Lower Guadalupe River 0.03 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson's Cement Plant 0.02 0 Lower Guadalupe River 0.03 0 Mills Creek 0.06 0 Lower Coyote Creek 0PabloCk SanFelipeCk LowerWalkerCk MuddyHollow LagunitasCk MillsCk SimasCk LowerCoyoteCk LowerGuadalupeR Hanson'sCement

  18. Relationship Between Engineering Properties, Mineralogy, and Microstructure in Cement-Based Hydroceramic Materials Cured at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    . I. Introduction CEMENT is universally used in the construction of oil and geothermal wells. Cement-based materials used to seal geothermal or deep oil wells are exposed to severe conditions. Optimizing engineering for geothermal and deep, hot oil wells. These formulations contain minerals that occur in nature and hence have

  19. Flow of Fiber-Reinforced Cement Slurries at Elevated Temperatures Y. Wang and C. Meyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Christian

    . Keywords: Non-Newtonian fluids; Fiber suspensions; Oil well cement slurries; Rheology 1. Problem Statement are used for the construction of oil wells as deep as 30,000 ft (9,000 m). The severe performanceFlow of Fiber-Reinforced Cement Slurries at Elevated Temperatures Y. Wang and C. Meyer Dept

  20. Rigless multizone recompletion using a cement packer placed with coiled tubing: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, T.W.; Patout, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    Cement packers have been used for some time when reserve estimates have not justified the cost of major rig remedial work. They typically provide a means of zonal isolation of the last reserves in an existing wellbore. The success of these operations has historically been low. This is predominantly because of poor cement bonding in the annulus between the tubing and production casing. Because of the minimal amount of equipment on location and lack of upfront design work involved, most cement packers are doomed to failure before they are even placed. Cement packers have been placed using a large number of methods. In the Ship Shoal 181 field, Well B-4 would not economically justify a major rig workover, even though there were several uphole gas sands capable of producing in this well. With proper upfront planning and design, it would be economical; however, all these reserves could be produced in a through-tubing process using a cement packer. This case history presents a refined look at existing technology involving placement of a cement packer and reviews problems common to cement-packer completions, including a case history. Solutions are also discussed for successfully completing and recovering reserves from not one but several remaining gas intervals. This paper reviews the design considerations and precautions, along with the production results and economics, for placing what is believed to be the largest cement packer placed through coiled tubing.

  1. Improved cement quality and grinding efficiency by means of closed mill circuit modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejeoumov, Gleb Gennadievich

    2009-05-15

    Grinding of clinker is the last and most energy-consuming stage of the cement manufacturing process, drawing on average 40% of the total energy required to produce one ton of cement. During this stage, the clinker particles are substantially reduced...

  2. Measurement of Water Transport from Saturated Pumice Aggregates to Hardening Cement Paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    ) to hydrating cement paste [water/cement (w/c) ratio 0.3] took place in the first days after casting and covered-age self-desiccation shrinkage. INTRODUCTlON High strength cementitious materials are characterized~tigated the effects on the reduction of autogenous shrinkage of the replacement level of normal weight coarse

  3. Non-Linear Drying Diffusion and Viscoelastic Drying Shrinkage Modeling in Hardened Cement Pastes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Chin K.

    2010-07-14

    The present research seeks to study the decrease in diffusivity rate as relative humidity (RH) decreases and modeling drying shrinkage of hardened cement paste as a poroviscoelastic respose. Thin cement paste strips of 0.4 and 0.5 w/c at age 3 and 7...

  4. The Effect of Cement Mechanical Properties and Reservoir Compaction on HPHT Well Integrity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Zhaoguang

    2012-11-15

    the principal parameters for mechanical structural calculations. The experiment was also set up to simulate conditions under which cement low-cycle fatigue failure could occur. Zero-based cyclic pressure was applied to the casing in the cement low-cycle fatigue...

  5. Impact of Hydrated Cement Paste Quality and Entrained Air-Void

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of Hydrated Cement Paste Quality and Entrained Air-Void System on the Durability of Concrete the characteristics of the entrained air-void system #12;Objectives · Review the current accepted relationship between is affected by the quality of the hydrated cement paste (HCP) and the presence of a properly entrained air

  6. Auxiliary Information for "Wind-blown sandstones cemented by sulfate and clay minerals in Gale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Woodward

    Auxiliary Information for "Wind-blown sandstones cemented by sulfate and clay minerals in Gale. Sharp exhibit features consistent with eolian sandstones that may be cemented by sulfates. As described to features observed in terrestrial eolian sandstones such as the Navajo sandstone in the southwestern U

  7. New subsea wiper plugs hold down deepwater cementing costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringer, R.; Sonnefeld, A.; Minge, J.

    1997-02-01

    British Petroleum Exploration (BPX) achieved top-quality cementing performance at significantly lower costs in a deepwater area 45 miles offshore Louisiana by using a new method of launching subsea wiper plugs. The method is based on a newly designed subsea casing wiper plug release system, which uses up to three solid wiper plugs loaded in a basket and released by individual darts launched from a surface tool. This design has eliminated the problems sometimes associated with the latching, unlatching and sealing of conventional subsea casing wiper plugs.

  8. BEST-Cement for China | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex AAustria Geothermal RegionAvraPáginasSolarBB HobbsBEST-Cement

  9. DOE and Northwest Partners Host Three-Day Market Introduction Workshop in Portland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 270 attendees gathered in Portland, OR to participate in the "Voices for SSL Efficiency" Solid-State Lighting Workshop on July 9-11, 2008. The workshop, hosted by DOE, Bonneville Power Administration, Energy Trust of Oregon, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, and Puget Sound Energy, was the third DOE meeting to explore how Federal, State, and private-sector organizations can work together to guide market introduction of high-performance SSL products. The workshop brought together a diverse gathering of participants – energy efficiency organizations, utilities, government, and industry – to share insights, ideas, and updates on the rapidly evolving SSL market.

  10. Portland, Oregon Summary of Reported Data From July 1, 2010 - September 30, 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,anEnergy Company Weatherizes,Portland, Oregon,

  11. 502 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 4, JULY 1999 Multivariable Nonlinear Predictive Control of Cement Mills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bastin, Georges

    Nonlinear Predictive Control of Cement Mills Lalo Magni, Georges Bastin, and Vincent Wertz Abstract--A new multivariable controller for cement milling circuits is presented, which is based on a nonlinear model: a change of hardness of the raw material. Index Terms--Cement industry, multivariable control systems

  12. Cement-based materials for stress sensing by dielectric measurement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Cement-based materials for stress sensing by dielectric measurement Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung-sensing of stress by measurement of the relative dielectric constant (k) has been shown in cement pastes containing. Inferior sensing performance was observed in cement paste with carbon fibers of 15 mm diameter, although

  13. SENSITIVITY OF THE BOND STRENGTH TO THE STRUCTURE OF THE INTERFACE BETWEEN REINFORCEMENT AND CEMENT, AND THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    SENSITIVITY OF THE BOND STRENGTH TO THE STRUCTURE OF THE INTERFACE BETWEEN REINFORCEMENT AND CEMENT strength to this variation were studied for each of the interfaces between carbon fiber and cement paste, between stainless steel fiber and cement paste, and between steel rebar and concrete. The interfacial

  14. 618 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 46, NO. 4, APRIL 2001 Robust Stabilization of a Nonlinear Cement Mill Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bastin, Georges

    of a Nonlinear Cement Mill Model F. Grognard, F. Jadot, L. Magni, G. Bastin, R. Sepulchre, and V. Wertz Abstract--Plugging is well known to be a major cause of instability in in- dustrial cement mills. A simple nonlinear model- troller can be designed in order to fully prevent the mill from plugging. Index Terms--Cement mill

  15. Apparatus and method for measuring the expansion properties of a cement composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spangle, Lloyd B. (Claremore, OK)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed which is useful for measuring the expansion properties of semi-solid materials which expand to a solid phase, upon curing, such as cement compositions. The apparatus includes a sleeve, preferably cylindrical, which has a vertical slit on one side, to allow the sleeve to expand. Mounted on the outside of the sleeve are several sets of pins, consisting of two pins each. The two pins in each set are located on opposite sides of the slit. In the test procedure, the sleeve is filled with wet cement, which is then cured to a solid. As the cement cures it causes the sleeve to expand. The actual expansion of the sleeve represents an expansion factor for the cement. This factor is calculated by measuring the distance across the pins of each set, when the sleeve is empty, and again after the cured cement expands the sleeve.

  16. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-14

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  17. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Pyatina, T.

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  18. Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties under Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunet, Jean-Patrick Leopold; Li, Li; Karpyn, Zuleima T.; Strazisar, Brian; Bromhal Grant

    2013-08-01

    Assessing the possibility of CO{sub 2} leakage is one of the major challenges for geological carbon sequestration. Injected CO{sub 2} can react with wellbore cement, which can potentially change cement composition and transport properties. In this work, we develop a reactive transport model based on experimental observations to understand and predict the property evolution of cement in direct contact with CO{sub 2}-saturated brine under diffusion-controlled conditions. The model reproduced the observed zones of portlandite depletion and calcite formation. Cement alteration is initially fast and slows down at later times. This work also quantified the role of initial cement properties, in particular the ratio of the initial portlandite content to porosity (defined here as ?), in determining the evolution of cement properties. Portlandite-rich cement with large ? values results in a localized “sharp” reactive diffusive front characterized by calcite precipitation, leading to significant porosity reduction, which eventually clogs the pore space and prevents further acid penetration. Severe degradation occurs at the cement–brine interface with large ? values. This alteration increases effective permeability by orders of magnitude for fluids that preferentially flow through the degraded zone. The significant porosity decrease in the calcite zone also leads to orders of magnitude decrease in effective permeability, where fluids flow through the low-permeability calcite zone. The developed reactive transport model provides a valuable tool to link cement–CO{sub 2} reactions with the evolution of porosity and permeability. It can be used to quantify and predict long-term wellbore cement behavior and can facilitate the risk assessment associated with geological CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  19. Evaluation of cement kiln laboratories testing hazardous waste derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    Cement kiln operators wishing to burn hazardous waste derived fuels in their kilns must submit applications for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. One component of each permit application is a site-specific Waste Analysis Plan. These Plans describe the facilities` sampling and analysis procedures for hazardous waste derived fuels prior to receipt and burn. The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted on-site evaluations of several cement kiln facilities that were under consideration for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. The purpose of these evaluations was to determine if the on-site sampling and laboratory operations at each facility complied with their site-specific Waste Analysis Plans. These evaluations covered sampling, laboratory, and recordkeeping procedures. Although all the evaluated facilities were generally competent, the results of those evaluations revealed opportunities for improvement at each facility. Many findings were noted for more than one facility. This paper will discuss these findings, particularly those shared by several facilities (specific facilities will not be identified). Among the findings to be discussed are the ways that oxygen bombs were scrubbed and rinsed, the analytical quality control used, Burn Tank sampling, and the analysis of pH in hazardous waste derived fuels.

  20. Characterisation of Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Hussain, Oday H.; Apperley, David C.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Provis, John L.

    2014-12-15

    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3}, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, and a hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxide. This reaction product assemblage indicates that Ba(OH){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as alkaline activators and control the reaction of the slag in addition to forming insoluble BaSO{sub 4}, and this restricts sulfate availability for further reaction as long as sufficient Ba(OH){sub 2} is added. An increased content of Ba(OH){sub 2} promotes a higher degree of reaction, and the formation of a highly cross-linked C–A–S–H gel. These Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composite binders could be effective in the immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes.

  1. Micro-Geomechanics Across Multiple Strain Scales Matthew R. Kuhn, University of Portland, U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, Matthew R.

    Micro-Geomechanics Across Multiple Strain Scales Matthew R. Kuhn, University of Portland, U deformation · Sensitive to particle shapes Micro-Geomechanics Across Multiple Strain Scales ­ Cambridge compression of 4000 ovals. Cluster dilations. = 0 = 0.03% = 0.3% = 4% = 55% Micro-Geomechanics Across

  2. Portland State University Graduate School of Education Research unit Technology for Early Childhood Braille Literacy (TEC-BL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portland State University Graduate School of Education Research unit Technology for Early Childhood Braille Literacy (TEC-BL) US Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative will investigate the efficacy of the new electronic note takers and Braille displays in early literacy instruction

  3. 1977 SW 6TH AVE, SUITE 210 PORTLAND, OR 97201 PHONE: (503) 725-4375 EMAIL: HOUSING@PDX.EDU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elzanowski, Marek

    1977 SW 6TH AVE, SUITE 210 PORTLAND, OR 97201 PHONE: (503) 725-4375 EMAIL: HOUSING@PDX.EDU 2015-2016 HOUSING RATES FAMILY BILLING INFORMATION If you are approved to live with a spouse or domestic partner may live in the unit at no additional cost. All Housing charges will be applied to the PSU student

  4. 1977 SW 6TH AVE, SUITE 210 PORTLAND, OR 97201 PHONE: (503) 725-4375 EMAIL: HOUSING@PDX.EDU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elzanowski, Marek

    1977 SW 6TH AVE, SUITE 210 PORTLAND, OR 97201 PHONE: (503) 725-4375 EMAIL: HOUSING@PDX.EDU 2014 a separate rate. Children and dependent minors may live in the unit at no additional charge. All Housing students they must each submit a Housing contract and will be billed separately Family member paperwork

  5. Portland Area Book Binding Resources This is the binder that has provided services in the past to the library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    .E. Belmont St., Portland. (503) 233-2248 Copyman (http://www.copymanportland.com/), 1242 S.W. 11th Ave://www.fedex.com/us/office/binding-finishing-laminating.html) multiple locations GISI Marketing, (http://www.gisimarketing.com/), 17300 S.W. Upper Boones Ferry Road #130

  6. Reply to discussion by Peter J. Tumidajski of the paper ``Colloidal graphite as an admixture in cement and as a coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    as an admixture in cement and as a coating on cement for electromagnetic interference shielding''$ J. Cao, D is the dominant mechanism of shielding. For example, cement paste containing 0.1 Am diameter carbon filament exhibits much lower conductivity but much higher shielding effectiveness than cement paste containing 15 Am

  7. To appear in International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics (2010). Critical Observations for the Evaluation of Cement Hydration Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    (2010). Critical Observations for the Evaluation of Cement Hydration Models Dale P. Bentz Engineering of computer models for cement hydration and microstructure development, with an explicit consideration of experimental observations concerning the influence of water-to-cement ratio, cement particle size distribution

  8. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    change and environmental pollution. Comments also call for the plan to cut carbon as much as possible on the draft plan are being held in Kalispell, Missoula, Spokane, Tri-Cities, Seattle, Boise, Portland

  9. *Department of Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA Department of Molecular Biosciences, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    blood flow, modulation of neuronal pain processing in the brainstem, control of neurohormone release*Department of Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA acid that critically influence neuronal and vascu- lar function and disease, primarily via potent

  10. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corp Portland General Electric Puget Sound Energy #12;5 9 4.82006California ISO 3.22008PJM 8.32007New England ISO 5.9 firm, 6.5 expected2009New York ISO 4.12012Portland General Elecrtric 7.72013Idaho Power 5 is a possible alternative to building peaking generation. When coupled with further smart grid development

  11. Analysis of C-S-H gel and cement paste by small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Andrew J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)]. E-mail: andrew.allen@nist.gov; Thomas, Jeffrey J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)]. E-mail: jthomas@northwestern.edu

    2007-03-15

    The role of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) in the characterization of cement is briefly reviewed. The unique information obtainable from SANS analysis of C-S-H gel in hydrating cement is compared with that obtainable by other neutron methods. Implications for the nature of C-S-H gel, as detected by SANS, are considered in relation to current models. Finally, the application of the SANS method to cement paste is demonstrated by analyzing the effects of calcium chloride acceleration and sucrose retardation on the resulting hydrated microstructure.

  12. Characterization and modeling of the cemented sediment surrounding the Iulia Felix glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Silvestri, Alberta

    2014-02-28

    About 1800 years ago a Roman Corbita sunk off the coast of Italy carrying a barrel of glass cullet to the floor of the Adriatic Sea. Samples of glass cullet and the cemented surrounding sediment have been characterized and the reaction between the glass and the sea water saturated with respect to calcite and dolomite has been modeled. Results from characterization and modeling show that the cement phase surrounding the sediment grains is a high-Mg calcite. The origin of the cement phase is likely the reaction between the glass and the sea water to from a Mg-silicate, here modeled as sepiolite.

  13. Improved method and composition for immobilization of waste in cement-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, O.K.; Dodson, K.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    A composition and method for fixation or immobilization of aqueous hazardous waste material in cement-based materials (grout) is disclosed. The amount of drainable water in the cured grout is reduced by the addition of an ionic aluminum compound to either the waste material or the mixture of waste material and dry-solid cement- based material. This reduction in drainable water in the cured grout obviates the need for large, expensive amounts of gelling clays in grout materials and also results in improved consistency and properties of these cement-based waste disposal materials.

  14. A constitutive model for unsaturated cemented soils under cyclic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, C; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Huang, M S

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of plastic bounding surface model, the damage theory for structured soils and unsaturated soil mechanics, an elastoplastic model for unsaturated loessic soils under cyclic loading has been elaborated. Firstly, the description of bond degradation in a damage framework is given, linking the damage of soil's structure to the accumulated strain. The Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) was considered for the suction effects. The elastoplastic model is then integrated into a bounding surface plasticity framework in order to model strain accumulation along cyclic loading, even under small stress levels. The validation of the proposed model is conducted by comparing its predictions with the experimental results from multi-level cyclic triaxial tests performed on a natural loess sampled beside the Northern French railway for high speed train and about 140 km far from Paris. The comparisons show the capabilities of the model to describe the behaviour of unsaturated cemented soils under cyclic loading.

  15. Carbon dioxide capture from a cement manufacturing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blount, Gerald C. (North Augusta, SC); Falta, Ronald W. (Seneca, SC); Siddall, Alvin A. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-07-12

    A process of manufacturing cement clinker is provided in which a clean supply of CO.sub.2 gas may be captured. The process also involves using an open loop conversion of CaO/MgO from a calciner to capture CO.sub.2 from combustion flue gases thereby forming CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2. The CaCO.sub.3/CaMg(CO.sub.3).sub.2 is then returned to the calciner where CO.sub.2 gas is evolved. The evolved CO.sub.2 gas, along with other evolved CO.sub.2 gases from the calciner are removed from the calciner. The reactants (CaO/MgO) are feed to a high temperature calciner for control of the clinker production composition.

  16. Effect of spatial variability on the bearing capacity of cement-treated ground

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasama, Kiyonobu

    This paper presents a reliability assessment for the undrained bearing capacity of a surface strip foundation based on the results of a probabilistic study in which the shear strength and unit weight of cement-treated ...

  17. Micromechanics analysis of thermal expansion and thermal pressurization of a hardened cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghabezloo, Siavash

    2011-01-01

    The results of a macro-scale experimental study of the effect of heating on a fluid-saturated hardened cement paste are analysed using a multi-scale homogenization model. The analysis of the experimental results revealed that the thermal expansion coefficient of the cement paste pore fluid is anomalously higher than the one of pure bulk water. The micromechanics model is calibrated using the results of drained and undrained heating tests and permits the extrapolation of the experimentally evaluated thermal expansion and thermal pressurization parameters to cement pastes with different water-to-cement ratios. It permits also to calculate the pore volume thermal expansion coefficient f a which is difficult to evaluate experimentally. The anomalous pore fluid thermal expansion is also analysed using the micromechanics model.

  18. Hysteresis from Multiscale Porosity: Modeling Water Sorption and Shrinkage in Cement Paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinson, Matthew B.

    Cement paste has a complex distribution of pores and molecular-scale spaces. This distribution controls the hysteresis of water sorption isotherms and associated bulk dimensional changes (shrinkage). We focus on two locations ...

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of High Temperature Cement-Based Hydroceramic Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyritsis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Cement-based materials are of importance in the construction of geothermal wells and high-temperature oil and gas wells. These materials fill the annulus between the well casing and the rock forming a protective layer, ...

  20. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-2-2014_Addendum 1 to Foamed Cement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Langlinais, J. C.; Griffith, J. E. Foamed cement job successful in deep HTHP offshore well. Oil and Gas Journal 1996, 94, 58-63. Kutchko, B.; Crandall, D.; Gill, M.; McIntyre,...

  1. The effect of undrained heating on a fluid-saturated hardened cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghabezloo, Siavash; Saint-Marc, Jérémie

    2008-01-01

    The effect of undrained heating on volume change and induced pore pressure increase is an important point to properly understand the behaviour and evaluate the integrity of an oil well cement sheath submitted to rapid temperature changes. This thermal pressurization of the pore fluid is due to the discrepancy between the thermal expansion coefficients of the pore fluid and of the solid matrix. The equations governing the undrained thermo-hydro-mechanical response of a porous material are presented and the effect of undrained heating is studied experimentally for a saturated hardened cement paste. The measured value of the thermal pressurization coefficient is equal to 0.6MPa/'C. The drained and undrained thermal expansion coefficients of the hardened cement paste are also measured in the heating tests. The anomalous thermal behaviour of cement pore fluid is back analysed from the results of the undrained heating test.

  2. Effect of Elevated Curing Temperature on Early Hydration and Microstructure of Composite Cements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    , such as portlandite formed from the hydration of alite. Under optimum conditions, which include effective blending of the components, these composite cements can have excellent properties, including high ultimate strength, low heat

  3. Evaluation of Life-Cycle Assessment Studies of Chinese Cement Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2010-01-01

    10. Wang, H. , 2008. “LCI/LCA Management in China: summaryof life-cycle assessment (LCA) to understand the embodiedThis paper reviews recent LCA studies in the cement industry

  4. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Hilger, J. 2003. Combined Utilization of Oil Shale Energyand Oil Shale Minerals within the Production of Cement andOther Hydraulic Minerals. Oil Shale, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp.

  5. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    electric (MWe) natural gas power plant (Calera 2012). Other2 in the flue gas of cement plants over power plants, thusgas purity requirements, and a combined heat and power plant

  6. Trends in characteristics of hazardous waste-derived fuel burned for energy recovery in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, M.G.; Campbell, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) is a national trade association representing virtually all the U.S. cement companies involved in the use of waste-derived fuel in the cement manufacturing process as well as those companies involved in the collection, processing, managing, and marketing of such fuel. CKRC, in conjunction with the National Association of Chemical Recyclers (NACR), completed several data collection activities over the past two years to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other interested parties with industry-wide trend analyses. The analyses evaluated the content of specific metals in waste fuels utilized by cement kilns, average Btu value of substitute fuels used by kilns, and provides insight into the trends of these properties. With the exception of the data collected by NACR, the study did not evaluate materials sent to hazardous waste incinerators or materials that are combusted at {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} facilities.

  7. Investigation of the Affects of Bentonite in Cement-Bentonite Grouts used for Monitor Well Completion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haney, Stephen

    2015-04-27

    Bentonite is one of the most common additives to cement to form grouts for completion of monitor wells. Recent studies have indicated that these grouts may not be the most appropriate method for completing monitor wells, because of fractures...

  8. Modeling of the Aging Viscoelastic Properties of Cement Paste Using Computational Methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaodan

    2012-07-16

    Modeling of the time-dependent behavior of cement paste has always been a difficulty. In the past, viscoelastic behavior of cementitious materials has been primarily attributed to the viscoelastic properties of C-S-H ...

  9. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Applications of 100 Percent Fly Ash Concrete. 2005 World ofTowards sustainable solutions for fly ash through mechanicalVerification of Self- Cementing Fly Ash Binders for “Green”

  10. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    What is the ratio of fly ash and slag? g. Energy EfficiencyBlended cement (Additives: fly ash, pozzolans, and blastcan include such materials as fly ash from electric power

  11. Grinding of cement clinkers : linking multi-scale fracture properties to system chemistry, mineralogy and microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, William, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Growing environmental concerns encourage the cement industry to improve its environmental performance, which in turn renews the interest in clinker grinding efficiency. Current knowledge on clinker grinding was built over ...

  12. Supporting Information for: Alteration of Sediments by Hyperalkaline K-Rich Cement Leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    S1 Supporting Information for: Alteration of Sediments by Hyperalkaline K-Rich Cement Leachate radiolabeled sediments[5]. Fraction Target Phase Leachate Composition Leach Time Porewater Soluble Sr 2

  13. Alteration of Sediments by Hyperalkaline K-Rich Cement Leachate: Implications for Strontium Adsorption and Incorporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    1 Alteration of Sediments by Hyperalkaline K-Rich Cement Leachate: Implications for Strontium that in high pH cementitious leachate there is significantly enhanced Sr retention in sediments due to changes

  14. Fan System Optimization Improves Production and Saves Energy at Ash Grove Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-05-01

    This case study describes an optimization project implemented on a fan system at Ash Grove Cement Company, which led to annual energy and maintenance savings of $16,000 and 175,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh).

  15. New technologies address the problem areas of coiled-tubing cementing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, R.B. )

    1992-05-01

    Coiled-tubing cementing has been practiced successfully on the Alaskan North Slope for several years. This paper discusses the special problems faced when this technology was applied to offshore U.S. gulf coast operations. The innovative solutions and procedures developed to improve the economic and technical success of coiled-tubing cementing are also discussed. Comparative laboratory and computer studies, as well as field case histories, will be presented to show the economic merit of this technology.

  16. Improved coiled-tubing squeeze-cementing techniques at Prudhoe Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornbrook, P.R.; Mason, C.M. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper presents major changes in coiled-tubing squeeze-cementing techniques used in the Prudhoe Bay Unit Western Operating Area (PBUWOA). Changes include introduction of a polymer diluent to replace borax contamination, increased differential pressures placed on squeeze and coil, reduced cement volumes, and incorporation of an inflow test and resqueeze procedure. These changes resulted in increased squeeze effectiveness by reducing equipment and engineering time requirements and by shortening well shut-in time after the workover.

  17. Percutaneous Extraction of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty Under CT and Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoretti, Nicolas Huwart, Laurent

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: We report a new minimally invasive technique of extraction of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in adults. Methods: Seven adult patients (five women, two men; mean age: 81 years) treated for vertebral compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty had cement leakage into perivertebral soft tissues along the needle route. Immediately after vertebroplasty, the procedure of extraction was performed under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance: a Chiba needle was first inserted using the same route as the vertebroplasty until contact was obtained with the cement fragment. This needle was then used as a guide for an 11-gauge Trocar t'am (Thiebaud, France). After needle withdrawal, a 13-gauge endoscopy clamp was inserted through the cannula to extract the cement fragments. The whole procedure was performed under local anesthesia. Results: In each patient, all cement fragments were withdrawn within 10 min, without complication. Conclusions: This report suggests that this CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous technique of extraction could reduce the rate of cement leakage-related complications.

  18. Association of macroscopic laboratory testing and micromechanics modelling for the evaluation of the poroelastic parameters of a hardened cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghabezloo, Siavash

    2010-01-01

    The results of a macro-scale experimental study performed on a hardened class G cement paste [Ghabezloo et al. (2008) Cem. Con. Res. (38) 1424-1437] are used in association with the micromechanics modelling and homogenization technique for evaluation of the complete set of poroelastic parameters of the material. The experimental study consisted in drained, undrained and unjacketed isotropic compression tests. Analysis of the experimental results revealed that the active porosity of the studied cement paste is smaller than its total porosity. A multi-scale homogenization model, calibrated on the experimental results, is used to extrapolate the poroelastic parameters to cement pastes prepared with different water-to-cement ratio. The notion of cement paste active porosity is discussed and the poroelastic parameters of hardened cement paste for an ideal, perfectly drained condition are evaluated using the homogenization model.

  19. Association of macroscopic laboratory testing and micromechanics modelling for the evaluation of the poroelastic parameters of a hardened cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siavash Ghabezloo

    2010-06-25

    The results of a macro-scale experimental study performed on a hardened class G cement paste [Ghabezloo et al. (2008) Cem. Con. Res. (38) 1424-1437] are used in association with the micromechanics modelling and homogenization technique for evaluation of the complete set of poroelastic parameters of the material. The experimental study consisted in drained, undrained and unjacketed isotropic compression tests. Analysis of the experimental results revealed that the active porosity of the studied cement paste is smaller than its total porosity. A multi-scale homogenization model, calibrated on the experimental results, is used to extrapolate the poroelastic parameters to cement pastes prepared with different water-to-cement ratio. The notion of cement paste active porosity is discussed and the poroelastic parameters of hardened cement paste for an ideal, perfectly drained condition are evaluated using the homogenization model.

  20. Bone-cement interface micromechanical model under cyclic loading J.A. Sanz-Herrera1, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariza Moreno, Pilar

    Bone-cement interface micromechanical model under cyclic loading J.A. Sanz-Herrera1, a , H descubrimientos s/n 41092 Seville (Spain) a jsanz@us.es, b helgaem@gmail.com, c mpariza@us.es Keywords: Bone-cement of the last XX century. Normally, implant is fixed to bone by means of a polymer material known as bone cement

  1. Influence of Magnetic Field on Properties of Cement Compound on the Base of Boron-Containing LRW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varlakov, A. P.; Gorbunova, O. A.; Barinov, A. S.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Fedora, O. V.

    2003-02-25

    At present boron-containing LRW cementation is an actual objective. At traditional cementing the grout on the base of boron containing LRW does not only harden, but also even does not stiffen. To obtain a cement compound with satisfactory regulated properties, a number of additives, for example, alkali (to correct pH), hydroxide or calcium salts, alkali metal hydrosilicates are applied, which complicates technology and requires LRW chemical continuous composition control.

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    18 6.2 Raw MaterialsThe most common raw materials used for cement production areThe major component of the raw materials, the limestone or

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Birch, E. , 1990. “Energy Savings in Cement Kiln Systems”Engineering and Energy Savings” Energy Efficiency in theGomes, A. S. , 1990. “Energy Saving and Environmental Impact

  4. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, J.

    2011-01-01

    one or more additives (fly ash, pozzolans, granulated blastblending materials are fly ash and granulated blast furnaceslag. Not all slag and fly ash is suitable for cement

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu as setting time regulator for portland cement production. In this paper a source of clean coal ash (CCA

  6. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: •A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. •The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. •Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. •The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  7. Advanced high-temperature lightweight foamed cements for geothermal well completions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Galen, B.G.

    1986-04-01

    Foamed cement slurries that were prepared by mixing a cementitious material having a Class H cement-to-silica flour ratio of 1.0 in conjunction with a alpha-olefin sulfate foam surfactant and a coconut diethanolamide foam stabilizer were exposed in an autoclave at a temperature of 300/sup 0/C and a hydrostatic pressure of 2000 psi (13.79 MPa). One lightweight slurry having a density of 9.61 lb/gal (1.15 g/cc) yielded a cellular cement having a compressive strength at 24 hr of >1000 psi (6.9 MPa) and a water permeability of approx.10/sup -3/ darcys. The factors responsible for the attainment of these mechanical and physical properties were identified to be well-crystallized truscottite phases and a uniform distribution of discrete fine bubbles. The addition of graphite fiber reinforcement for the cement matrix significantly suppressed any segregation of foam caused by thermal expansion of the air bubbles and further improved the mechanical characteristics of the cured cements.

  8. Technical assessment of three layered cement-bonded boards produced from wastepaper and sawdust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuwape, Joseph Adeola [Department of Forestry and Wood Tech, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704 Akure (Nigeria); Fabiyi, James Sunday [Department of Forest Products, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1132 (United States)], E-mail: jamesreb2004@yahoo.com; Osuntuyi, Edward Olusola [Department of Wood Units, School of Vocational Studies, College of Education, Ikere Ekiti (Nigeria)

    2007-07-01

    The technical properties of three layered cement-bonded boards (CBBs) made from wastepaper and sawdust were investigated. The CBBs were produced at three density levels of 1000, 1200 and 1300 kg/m{sup 3} and at four cement/particle ratios of 2.0:1, 2.5:1, 3.0:1 and 3.5:1 on a weight to weight basis. The technical properties evaluated were modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS). The MOR values ranged from 4.85 to 11.69 MPa and MOE values ranged from 2.80 to 5.57 GPa. The mean values of WA and TS after 24 h of water soaking of the CBBs ranged from 18.18% to 40.49% and 3.55% to 12.13%, respectively. MOR and MOE of the CBBs increased with increase in board density, but MOR decreased with the increase in cement/particle ratio. On the other hand, WA and TS decreased with increase in board density and cement/particle ratio. CBBs produced from wastepaper and sawdust at cement/particle ratios of 3.0:1 and 3.5:1 are suitable for building construction such as paneling, ceiling and partitioning.

  9. Artificial Photosynthesis II -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II - Artificial Photosynthesis II - Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) Simulations NathanLewis.png Schematic of a photoelectrochemical cell being designed to harness...

  10. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: NE Cully Boulevard Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Tuenge, Jason R.

    2012-06-29

    A new roadway lighting demonstration project was initiated in late 2010, which was planned in conjunction with other upgrades to NE Cully Boulevard, a residential collector road in the northeast area of Portland, OR. With the NE Cully Boulevard project, the Portland Bureau of Transportation hoped to demonstrate different light source technologies and different luminaires side-by-side. This report documents the initial performance of six different newly installed luminaires, including three LED products, one induction product, one ceramic metal halide product, and one high-pressure sodium (HPS) product that represented the baseline solution. It includes reported, calculated, and measured performance; evaluates the economic feasibility of each of the alternative luminaires; and documents user feedback collected from a group of local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) members that toured the site. This report does not contain any long-term performance evaluations or laboratory measurements of luminaire performance. Although not all of the installed products performed equally, the alternative luminaires generally offered higher efficacy, more appropriate luminous intensity distributions, and favorable color quality when compared to the baseline HPS luminaire. However, some products did not provide sufficient illumination to all areas—vehicular drive lanes, bicycle lanes, and sidewalks—or would likely fail to meet design criteria over the life of the installation due to expected depreciation in lumen output. While the overall performance of the alternative luminaires was generally better than the baseline HPS luminaire, cost remains a significant barrier to widespread adoption. Based on the cost of the small quantity of luminaires purchased for this demonstration, the shortest calculated payback period for one of the alternative luminaire types was 17.3 years. The luminaire prices were notably higher than typical prices for currently available luminaires purchased in larger quantities. At prices that are more typical, the payback would be less than 10 years. In addition to the demonstration luminaires, a networked control system was installed for additional evaluation and demonstration purposes. The capability of control system to measure luminaire input power was explored in this study. A more exhaustive demonstration and evaluation of the control system will be the subject of future GATEWAY report(s).

  11. The necessity for a practical approach to address organic emissions from cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonley, C.; Schreiber, B.; Kellerman, S.; Kellett, C.

    1998-12-31

    There is an inherent difficulty in monitoring organic emissions from hazardous waste combustion in the cement process. Data gathered by the EPA and the industry indicate that organic emissions at the main stack of cement kilns are principally from process characteristics and/or the desorption of organic constituents contained in the raw materials. Organic emissions are primarily based on the facility design and origin of the raw materials. One would generally conclude that organic emissions from fuels are essentially non-existent. To understand alternatives for monitoring organic emissions, this paper reviews some of the historical background behind the issue and reviews trends of characteristic organic emissions data. Based on this discussion and review, some approaches are presented to address organic emissions testing and monitoring when utilizing hazardous waste fuel in a cement kiln.

  12. NCC -April 22nd, 2015 Slides Prepared by W. Jason Weiss, wjweiss@purdue.edu Slide 1 of 38 Changes in Cement Fineness and How

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changes in Cement Fineness and How This Has Affected Concrete Properties Jason Weiss, wjweiss@purdue.edu, Purdue University Changes in Cement ­ Implications for Performance and How We Move Ahead #12;NCC - April on Fineness Review of an Early Paper Shrinkage Paste Volume Joint Damage Amount of C3S New Cements Optimize

  13. CSER 00-001 Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for Cementation Operations at the PFP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-04-18

    Glovebox HA-20MB is located in Room 235B of the 234-5Z Building at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. This enclosure contains mixers, mixer bowls, a crusher unit, an isolated inoperable conveyor unit, plutonium residue feed cans, cemented cans, and a feedwater container. Plutonium residue, not conducive to other forms of stabilization, is prepared for storage and ultimate disposal by cementation. The feed residue material cans can have plutonium contents of only a few grams or up to 200 grams. This evaluation accommodates this wide range of container fissile concentrations.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

    2008-09-30

    This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria.

  15. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Lu, Hongyou; Sambeek, Emiel van; Yowargana, Ping; Shuang, Liu; Kejun, Jiang

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  16. Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

  17. A Signal-Inducing Bone Cement for Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Spinal Surgery Based on Hydroxyapatite and Polymethylmethacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichlas, Florian, E-mail: florian.wichlas@charite.de; Seebauer, Christian J.; Schilling, Rene [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Rump, Jens [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Chopra, Sascha S. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Walter, Thula; Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M. [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bail, Hermann J. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a signal-inducing bone cement for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided cementoplasty of the spine. This MRI cement would allow precise and controlled injection of cement into pathologic lesions of the bone. We mixed conventional polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (PMMA; 5 ml methylmethacrylate and 12 g polymethylmethacrylate) with hydroxyapatite (HA) bone substitute (2-4 ml) and a gadolinium-based contrast agent (CA; 0-60 {mu}l). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of different CA doses was measured in an open 1.0-Tesla scanner for fast T1W Turbo-Spin-Echo (TSE) and T1W TSE pulse sequences to determine the highest signal. We simulated MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spines. Compressive strength of the cements was tested. The highest CNR was (1) 87.3 (SD 2.9) in fast T1W TSE for cements with 4 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml) and (2) 60.8 (SD 2.4) in T1W TSE for cements with 1 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml). MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spine was feasible. Compressive strength decreased with increasing amounts of HA from 46.7 MPa (2 ml HA) to 28.0 MPa (4 ml HA). An MRI-compatible cement based on PMMA, HA, and CA is feasible and clearly visible on MRI images. MRI-guided spinal cementoplasty using this cement would permit direct visualization of the cement, the pathologic process, and the anatomical surroundings.

  18. Approved Module Information for EC213C, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Construction Materials Module Code: EC213C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    and permeability. Types of Portland cement, blended cements and non-Portland cements. Aggregates for concrete understand the nature of concrete and the role of the microstructure in controlling the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. A similar approach will also be applied to the study of timber products when used

  19. Prediction of Cement Physical Properties by Virtual Testing D.P. Bentza

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    testing to assess the quality of their product, resulting in large costs for both materials (and, heat of hydration, chemical shrinkage, setting times, compressive strength development, and pore high quality long lasting concrete structures, cements of a high and consistent quality must

  20. Prediction of cement physical properties by virtual testing C.J. Haecker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    industry performs extensive physical testing to assess the quality9f their product, resulting in large, compressive strength development, and pore solution concentrations. When the starting materials high quality long lasting concrete structures, cements of a high and consistent quality must

  1. Recovery Act Production of Algal BioCrude Oil from Cement Plant Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Weber; Norman Whitton

    2010-09-30

    The consortium, led by Sunrise Ridge Algae Inc, completed financial, legal, siting, engineering and environmental permitting preparations for a proposed demonstration project that would capture stack gas from an operating cement plant and convert the carbon dioxide to beneficial use as a liquid crude petroleum substitute and a coal substitute, using algae grown in a closed system, then harvested and converted using catalyzed pyrolysis.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Carbonate cements in Miller field of the UK North Sea: a natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    mineral trapping is both incomplete and slow. Keywords Carbon dioxide capture and storage Á Mineral A reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere is considered an essential step toward mitigationORIGINAL ARTICLE Carbonate cements in Miller field of the UK North Sea: a natural analog

  3. The Impact of Mathematical Modeling on the Production of Special Purpose Cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    to a sufficiently high temperature. These processes cause the reactions that transform the raw materials in the production industry? Our partnership with Almatis B.V., a special purpose cement manufacturer, resulted in the complete elimination of unscheduled plant shut-downs. Almatis now reports a much more stable manufacturing

  4. Effects of oil charge on illite dates and stopping quartz cement: calibration of basin models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Abstract Effects of oil charge on illite dates and stopping quartz cement: calibration of basin Oil can fill pores in reservoir sandstones at any burial depth by long or short distance migration. There has been a debate since 1920 concerning the effect of oil charge. We have made detailed local

  5. Optimization of cement and fly ash particle sizes to produce sustainable concretes Dale P. Bentz a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Optimization of cement and fly ash particle sizes to produce sustainable concretes Dale P. Bentz a of experiment Fly ash Hydration Particle size distribution Strength Sustainability a b s t r a c t In the drive. High volume fly ash concretes have been proposed as one potential approach for achieving substantial

  6. Use of Performance Cements in Colorado and Utah: Laboratory Durability Testing and Case Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cement classification #12;Verifying Durability Strength and set ­ Requirements are met through concrete mitigation of mix through ASTM C1567 #12;Verifying Durability Permeability ­ Rapid chloride permeability Equal Equal Equal Salt Scaling Equal Equal Equal Equal Shrinkage Equal Equal Equal Equal Permeability

  7. Low temperature quartz cementation of the Upper Cretaceous white sandstone of Lochaline, Argyll, Scotland.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    resolution used (~500) the interefence of 28 Si+H2 and 29 Si+H are not resolved and will a enhance the 30 Si with independent fluid inclusion analyses, show that the quartz cements grew at temperatures below 60o C from

  8. Cyclic Loading of Fiber-Containing Cement Sheaths in HPHT Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johns, Andrew Wesley

    2014-09-05

    loading. This experimental setup facilitated the cyclic loading of the cement sheath by maintaining a constant confining pressure while the casing pressure was cycled. The fatigue endurance limit was found for 1,000 psi and 2,000 psi cyclic pressure...

  9. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01

    energy efficiency measures in heavy industry in China, India, Brazil,and energy (including electricity) in 2003-2004 were about 0.65 t CO 2 /t of cement in Brazil,Brazil, 78% in Italy, 80% in Spain, 74% in China, and 91% in the United This article was originally published in “Energy

  10. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  11. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Division Bonneville Power Administration P.O. Box 3621 Portland, Oregon 97208 Dear Mr. Maslen: The purpose the following entities: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE of this letter is to advise you of the Council's decisions and recommendations to Bonneville in response

  12. ION GNSS 2010, Session F1, Portland, Oregon, 21-24 September 2010 Page 1 of 9 Assessment of Indoor Magnetic Field Anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    ION GNSS 2010, Session F1, Portland, Oregon, 21-24 September 2010 Page 1 of 9 Assessment of Indoor Lachapelle Position Location and Navigation (PLAN) Group Department of Geomatics Engineering, University Engineering. He received his B.E. degree in Computer Systems Engineering from NED University of Engineering

  13. Chap. II : Les structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poinsot, Laurent

    Chap. II : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot Chap. II : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot 12 f´evrier 2009 #12;Chap. II : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot Les objets structur´es Pour de types "structur´es". #12;Chap. II : Les objets structur´es Laurent Poinsot Les objets structur´es

  14. Quantifying the Micromechanical Effects of Variable Cement in Granular Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, Laurel B.; Boutt David F.

    2010-02-18

    The mechanical and hydrologic behavior of clastic rocks and sediments is fundamentally controlled by variables such as grain size and shape, sorting, grain and cement mineralogy, porosity, and %cement - parameters that are not used directly in field-scale models of coupled flow and deformation. To improve our understanding of the relationship between these micromechanical properties and bulk behavior we focused on (1) relating detailed, quantitative characterization of the grain-pore systems to both hydrologic and mechanical properties of a suite of variably quartz-cemented quartz arenite samples and (2) the use of a combination of discrete element method (DEM) and poroelastic models parameterized by data from the natural samples to isolate and compare the influence of changes in the mechanical and hydrologic properties of granular porous media due to changes in degree of cementation. Quartz overgrowths, the most common form of authigenic cements in sandstones, are responsible for significant porosity and permeability reduction. The distribution of quartz overgrowths is controlled by available pore space and the crystallographic orientations of individual quartz grains. Study of the St. Peter Sandstone allowed evaluation of the relative effects of quartz cementation and compaction on final grain and pore morphology, showing that progressive quartz cementation modifies the grain framework in consistent, predictable ways. Detailed microstructural characterization and multiple regression analyses show that with progressive diagenesis, the number and length of grain contacts increases as the number of pores increases, the number of large, well-connected pores decreases, and pores become rounder. These changes cause a decrease in pore size variability that leads to a decrease in bulk permeability and both stiffening and strengthening of the grain framework. The consistent nature of these changes allows us to predict variations in hydrologic and mechanical properties with progressive diagenesis, and explore the impact of these changes on aquifer behavior. Several examples of this predictive capability are offered. In one application, data from natural sandstones are used to calibrate the proportionality constant of the Kozeny-Carman relationship, improving the ability to predict permeability in quartz-cemented quartz arenites. In another, the bond-to-grain ratio (BGR) is used to parameterize a discrete element model with data acquired from sandstone samples. The DEM results provide input to poroelastic models used to explore the hydrologic, mechanical, and coupled hydrologic and mechanical response of the sandstone to pumping stresses. This modeling exercise shows that at the macro-scale, changes in mechanical and hydrologic properties directly influence the magnitude and area of aquifer deformation. The significant difference in sensitivity of the system to the mechanical properties alone versus its sensitivity to coupled mechanical and hydrologic properties demonstrates the importance of including hydrologic properties that are adjusted for changes in cementation in fluid storage and deformation studies. The large magnitude of radial deformation compared to vertical deformation in these models emphasizes the importance of considering three dimensional deformation in fluid flow and deformation studies.

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    1997 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry.American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy,Park, NC. Birch, E. , 1990. “Energy Savings in Cement Kiln

  16. Effects of aluminosilicate minerals in clay soil fractions on pore water hydroxide ion concentrations in soil/cement matrices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Evan Russell

    1998-01-01

    between clay minerals and calcium hydroxide. Pozzolanic reactions between aluminosilicate minerals in soils and portiandite or calcium silicate hydrate, generated by cement hydration, may significantly reduce the hydroxide ion concentration in soi...

  17. Techno-economic study of the calcium looping process for CO2 capture from cement and biomass power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozcan, Dursun Can

    2014-11-27

    The first detailed systematic investigation of a cement plant with various carbon capture technologies has been performed. The calcium looping (Ca-looping) process has emerged as a leading option for this purpose, since ...

  18. Field testing of a pulse combustor in a cement plant. Final report, April 1, 1993-November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plavnik, Z.Z.; Daniel, B.R.; Zinn, B.T.; Shekhter, M.Y.; Geskin, O.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes work performed under GRI Contract No. 5091-236-2251 during the period April 1, 1993, to November 30, 1995. This project was entitled `Field Testing of a Pulse Combustor in a Cement Plant.` The main objective of this program was to determine the effect of pulsations excited by a tunable pulse combustor upon the performance of a cement calciner located in a Holnam Cement plant in La Porte, Colorado. A 12.5 MMbtu/hr tunable pulse combustor was retrofitted to a cement calciner and number of tests were conducted under similar operating conditions with the pulse combustor on and off and the calciner`s performance in these tests was compared. Comparisons of the calciner`s performance with the PCRS on and off showed that the pulsations increased the calcination rate by 2.2 - 3.7 percent.

  19. Rate of H2S and CO2 attack on pozzolan-amended Class H well cement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rate of H2S and CO2 attack on pozzolan-amended Class H well cement under geologic sequestration conditions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rate of H2S and CO2 attack on...

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Outlook in West Germany’s Cement Industry” Energy EfficiencyGermany) and Mitsui Mining (Japan). All report typical energyGermany. Dumas, J. , 1990. “Engineering and Energy Savings”

  1. Effect of WC/TiC grain size ratio on microstructure and mechanical properties of WCTiCCo cemented carbides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    of TiC powder as 1 lm. The microstructures of sintered WC­TiC­10 wt%Co cemented carbides were than that expected by modified Hall­Petch type equation. Transverse rupture strength of WC­20TiC­10 wt for decades [1]. Generally, cemented carbides are based on the WC­Co and some cubic carbide such as TiC, Ta

  2. Novel Chemically-Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealants (Ceramicretes) for Arctic Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirish Patil; Godwin A. Chukwu; Gang Chen; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic borehole sealant, i.e. Ceramicrete, has many advantages over conventionally used permafrost cement at Alaska North Slope (ANS). However, in normal field practices when Ceramicrete is mixed with water in blenders, it has a chance of being contaminated with leftover Portland cement. In order to identify the effect of Portland cement contamination, recent tests have been conducted at BJ services in Tomball, TX as well as at the University of Alaska Fairbanks with Ceramicrete formulations proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The tests conducted at BJ Services with proposed Ceramicrete formulations and Portland cement contamination have shown significant drawbacks which has caused these formulations to be rejected. However, the newly developed Ceramicrete formulation at the University of Alaska Fairbanks has shown positive results with Portland cement contamination as well as without Portland cement contamination for its effective use in oil well cementing operations at ANS.

  3. Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Carlsbad

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water reactive substances are reacted prior to being placed in the wasteshipped. Lime in Portland cement is most common water reactive substance expected in the waste....

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santero, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    in Mitigating Urban Heat Island Effects. Portland CementA.H. , Paving Materials for Heat Island Mitigation. LawrencePaving Materials for the Heat Island Mitigation. Proceedings

  5. Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12.3.2. Environmentally friendly modern concretes already include volcanic ash or fly ash from coal-burning power plants as partial substitutes for Portland cement, with...

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santero, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Impacts of Leachate from Portland Cement52   Table 16. PAH leachate test results and guidance54   Table 17. Metal leachate test results and drinking

  7. Optimization and operation of a cementation plant in the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schifferdecker, H. [Kraftanlagen Energie- und Industrieanlagen Heidelberg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The quality of conditioned radioactive waste must constantly be improved to keep pace with technical progress. To meet these ever-increasing demands it is necessary to modernize existing plants for the treatment of radioactive waste. The Atucha I NPP has been in operation since 1974 and the cementation plant no longer conformed with today`s requirements regarding safe operation and product quality. The optimization of the plant mainly involved the execution of the following points: Dismantling of existing plant sections to enable the installation of new and supplementary components; Installation of new and supplementary plant sections (components); Integration of the new system into the existing plant; and Commissioning of the new plant and operation of the plant using the optimized process for the duration of 60 calendar days. 200 barrels were to be cemented during this period.

  8. Detecting and modeling cement failure in high pressure/ high temperature wells using finite-element method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahri, Mehdi Abbaszadeh

    2006-04-12

    Stability????.?????? 25 5.2 Wellbore Stability in Shale???..??????????.. 26 5.3 Various Instability Risk Criteria?.???????.???. 27 5.4 Borehole Stability Analysis?????????????.. 27 CHAPTER VI..., to the manifold methods of mining ore and aggregate materials, to the stability of petroleum wellbores, and including newer applications such as geothermal energy and radioactive waste disposal. 1.1 Importance of Primary Cementing on Cost Avoiding remedial...

  9. New coiled-tubing cementing techniques at Prudhoe developed to withstand higher differential pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, R.E.; Reem, D.C. )

    1993-11-01

    The successful hydraulic fracturing program at Prudhoe Bay would not have been possible without an effective coiled-tubing-unit (CTU) cement-squeeze program. Many fracture stimulation candidates were wells that have been squeezed previously. Therefore, squeezed perforations were exposed to higher differential pressures during fracturing operations than normally were seen at Prudhoe. At the outset of the fracture stimulation program in 1990, squeeze perforations failed when subjected to fracture job pressures. It quickly became clear that more aggressive CTU squeeze techniques resulting in stronger squeezed perforations would be necessary if the Prudhoe fracture program were to achieve its goals. Arco Alaska Inc. implemented a more aggressive CTU squeeze program in the Eastern Operating Area (EOA) in mid-1990. This paper documents the results of the new squeeze program, in which increased surface coiled-tubing squeeze pressures from 1,500 to 3,500 psi for 1 hour were used. More resilient, acid-resistant latex cement also became the standard in late 1990 for squeeze cementing. Implementation of this program has resulted in a squeeze success rate approaching 90%.

  10. Influence of the composition of cement kiln dust on its interaction with fly ash and slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaunsali, Piyush; Peethamparan, Sulapha

    2013-12-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a by-product of the cement industry, contains significant amounts of alkali, free lime, chloride and sulfate. Wide variation reported in the chemical composition of CKDs limits their potential application as a sustainable binder component in concrete. In the current study, the performance of two different CKDs as components in a novel binder is evaluated. Several binders are developed by blending CKDs with fly ash or slag. Binders with 70% CKD were prepared at a water-to-binder ratio of 0.4, and heat-cured at 75 °C to accelerate the strength development. The hydration progress was monitored using X-ray diffraction, and morphological examination was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ettringite and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) were identified as the main hydration products in the hardened binder system. Strength development of CKD-based binder was found to be significantly influenced by its free lime and sulfate contents. -- Highlights: •Interaction of cement kiln dust with fly ash and slag was explored. •CKD with higher free lime and sulfate content increased the strength of binder. •C-S-H like reaction gel with fibrillar morphology is observed in CKD-based binders.

  11. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at the Lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in the lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) headquarters building in Portland, Oregon. The project involved a simple retrofit of 32 track lights used to illuminate historical black-and-white photos and printed color posters from the 1930s and 1940s. BPA is a federal power marketing agency in the Northwestern United States, and selected this prominent location to demonstrate energy efficient light-emitting diode (LED) retrofit options that not only can reduce the electric bill for their customers but also provide attractive alternatives to conventional products, in this case accent lighting for BPA's historical artwork.

  12. ACRA-II

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003089IBMPC00 ACRA-II: Kernel Integration Code System for Estimation of Radiation Doses Caused by a Hypothetical Reactor Accident   

  13. The marginal leakage of some dental cements in humans: a PIXE-microbeam approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zadro, A.; Passi, P. [Dental School, Department of Dental Materials, University of Padua (Italy); Cavalleri, G. [Dental School, Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Verona (Italy); Galassini, S.; Moschini, G.; Rossi, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)

    1999-06-10

    The marginal leakage and water absorption of dental cements and restorative materials has been investigated by many authors with several techniques, some of which led to valid results. However, no technique could give, by itself, information both on leakage and water absorption, as these measurements usually need different investigations. PIXE micro beam offers the possibility of investigating these two aspects at the same time, since it is possible to map a proper marker element. In the present study, cavities were made on 50 extracted human molars, then filled with five different temporary cements (IRM, Cavit W, Kalsogen, Fermit N, SuperEBA). The filled teeth were placed into a 5% silver nitrate solution, and after three days, one, two, three and four weeks were examined. The samples for microPIXE were prepared after embedding the teeth in epoxy resin, and sectioning and grinding them down to a thickness of about 1 mm. The sections were placed on metal holders, and examined with a scanning proton {mu}beam, in Legnaro (Italy) at the AN2000 LAB of INFN National Laboratories. The beam consisted of 2.4 MeV protons, it had a cross section of 1.5 micron in diameter and typical currents of the order of some {mu}A were used. The maps were obtained by an 'ad hoc' software with a McIntosh personal computer. Mapping of silver allowed to evaluate both the marginal leakage and the water absorption for each cement. The samples filled with Cavit W showed a great infiltration, as the tracing element was found in the cement bulk, along the margins and inside the cavity, while those filled with IRM and Kalsogen presented only a deposition of the tracing solution on the cement surface. SuperEBA showed a poor resistance against microleakage, because the marker element was only detected along the cavity margins. Fermit N showed the best marginal integrity, and on its surface no traces of siver were found. In this case the better resistance may be due to the resin present in the composition of the material.

  14. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    fuel use, significant NOx reduction, lower emissions, lessof cement produced NOx Reduction in all pollutants relatedNOx control, specifically Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (

  15. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    burners ..before adding it to the main burner of a cement kiln. Thiscoarse fuels in the main burner is very high and the

  16. Early Unidentified Photographs - 19 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L.W. Stewart

    2006-01-01

    As known, more than 1600 million tons of Portland cement is produced annually with nearly one ton of CO2 per ton of clinker produced. Due to the environmental impact of cement industries and high energy cost many researchers ...

  17. Characterizing the Nano and Micro Structure of Concrete to Improve its Durability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    N. McN. A small- angle neutron-scattering study of cement20. Wenk HR Edit. Neutron Scattering in Earth Sciences. Vol.R. Application of neutron scattering to Portland cement.

  18. Characterizing the nano and micro structure of concrete to improve its durability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    N. McN. A small- angle neutron-scattering study of cement20. Wenk HR Edit. Neutron Scattering in Earth Sciences. Vol.R. Application of neutron scattering to Portland cement.

  19. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive. ________________________________________ q:\\jf\\ww\\2012\\71012 p4 sw market cm.docx #12;6/28/2012 1 111 Rob Diffely, BPA NW Power-Through-Cooling Regulations on Southwest Market 22 Outline Ò Background Ò Calculating the SW Surplus Ò OTC Clean Water Act

  20. LABORATORY II MECHANICAL OSCILLATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Lab II - 1 LABORATORY II MECHANICAL OSCILLATIONS Most of the laboratory problems so far have was constant. In this set of laboratory problems, the total force acting on an object, and thus its's oscillation frequency. OBJECTIVES: After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to

  1. Cementing at High Pressure Zones in KSA Discovering Mystery behind Pipe Abdulla Faleh Al-Dossary, Abdulaziz Al-Majed, M. Enamul Hossain and Muhammad Kalimur Rahman, King Fahd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, M. Enamul

    - pressurized zone) and B (low-pressure zone) formations occurred due to long term sea water injection, and has-A water on cement, where the cement was exposed to formation-A water under downhole conditions. The tests

  2. Compilation of RCRA closure plan conditions applicable to boilers and industrial furnaces at cement plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, A.N.

    1998-12-31

    A prudent approach to closure plan development will assist preparers of closure plans to ensure that a cement kiln BIF unit and associated Resources conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units are effectively closed in a manner that minimizes potential threats to human health and the environment, as well as facilitating closure in an economical and timely manner. Cement kilns burning hazardous waste-derived-fuel (HWDF) must comply with the general facility standards of Subpart G Closure and Post-Closure requirements of 40 CFR parts 264 or 265 in addition to the RCRA Part b permitting requirements of 40 CFR parts 270.13 and 270.22 (e) and (f). As a result, approved closure plans for BIF facilities (or individual BIF units) will contain general and site-specific permit conditions that will mandate numerous closure activities be conducted to successfully implement the partial or final closure of a permitted or interim status BIF unit or facility. Currently, a scarce amount of published information is available to the cement industry in the form of agency guidance documents that would assist facilities with BIF unit closures. A review of seven approved or implemented closure plans revealed significant differences between plans approved recently versus a few years ago as well as observed differences in acceptable closure criteria between EPA regions and various states agencies. The intent of this paper is to first familiarize readers with general closure plan requirements, followed by a detailed discussion of closure requirements that are pertinent to BIF unit facilities. Comparisons are presented to provide an overview of typical components of BIF unit closure plans.

  3. Preliminary PBFA II design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D. L.; VanDevender, J. P.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The upgrade of Sandia National Laboratories particle beam fusion accelerator, PBFA I, to PBFA II presents several interesting and challenging pulsed power design problems. PBFA II requires increasing the PBFA I output parameters from 2 MV, 30 TW, 1 MJ to 4 MV, 100 TW, 3.5 MJ with the constraint of using much of the same PBFA I hardware. The increased PBFA II output will be obtained by doubling the number of modules (from 36 to 72), increasing the primary energy storage (from 4 MJ to 15 MJ), lowering the pulse forming line (PFL) output impedance, and adding a voltage doubling network.

  4. Relativistic Quaternionic Wave Equation II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Relativistic quaternionic wave equation. II J. Math. Phys.Relativistic quaternionic wave equation. II Charles Schwartzcomponent quaternionic wave equation recently introduced. A

  5. Video observation of Geminids 2010 and Quadrantids 2011 by SVMN and CEMeNt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tóth, Jutaj; Kornoš, Leonard; Piffl, Roman; Koukal, Jakub; Gajdoš, Štefan; Majchrovi?, Ivan; Zigo, Pavol; Zima, Martin; Világi, Jozef; Kalman?ok, Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Since 2009 the double station meteor observation by the all-sky video cameras of the Slovak Video Meteor Network (SVMN) brought hundreds of orbits. Thanks to several amateur wide field video stations of the Central European Meteor Network (CEMeNt) and despite not an ideal weather situation we were able to observe several Geminid and Quadrantid multi-station meteors during its 2010 and 2011 maxima, respectively. The presented meteor orbits derived by the UFOOrbit software account a high precision of the orbital elements and are very similar to those of the SonotaCo video meteor database.

  6. Controlling the set of carbon-fiber embedded cement with electric current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J.

    2004-06-15

    A method for promoting cement or concrete set on demand for concrete that has been chemically retarded by adding carbon fiber to the concrete, which enables it to become electrically conductive, sodium tartrate retardant, and copper sulfate which forms a copper tartrate complex in alkaline concrete mixes. Using electricity, the concrete mix anodically converts the retarding tartrate to an insoluble polyester polymer. The carbon fibers act as a continuous anode surface with a counter electrode wire embedded in the mix. Upon energizing, the retarding effect of tartrate is defeated by formation of the polyester polymer through condensation esterification thereby allowing the normal set to proceed unimpeded.

  7. Cement kiln flue dust as a source of lime and potassium in four East Texas soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, Warren David

    1975-01-01

    (18) a 5. 3 (84) a 4. 8 (76) a 4. 2 (66) a 3. 8 (61) a 5. 2 (82) a 4. 1 (64) a 5. 0 (80) a *Duncan's Multiple Range Test. ? = . 05. Differences in yield due to rate of applied lime material followed by the same letter are not significantly...CEMENT KILN FLUE DUST AS A SOURCE OF LIME AND POTASSIUM IN FOUR EAST TEXAS SOILS A Thesis by WARREN DAVID POOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  8. Sulfur polymer cement as a low-level waste glass matrix encapsulant. Part 1: Thermal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sliva, P.; Peng, Y.B.; Bunnell, L.R.; Peeler, D.K.; Feng, X.; Martin, P.; Turner, P.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a candidate material to encapsulate low-level waste (LLW) glass. Molten SPC will be poured into a LLW glass cullet-filled canister, surrounding the glass to act as an additional barrier to groundwater intrusion. This paper covers the first part of a study performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory concerned with the fundamental aspects of embedding LLW glass in SPC. Part one is a study of the SPC itself. Variations in SPC properties are discussed, especially in relation to long-term stability and controlling crystallization in a cooling canister.

  9. Research on drilling fluids and cement slurries at Standard Oil Production Company: an internship report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flipse, Eugene Charles, 1956-

    2013-03-13

    on Drilling Fluids and Cement Slurries at Standard Oil Production Company An Internship Report by EUGENE CHARLES FLIPSE Dr. K. R. Hall Chairman, Advisory Committee Dr. A Juazis Internship Supervisor )r j. c. He C-, IsCMXDYfJ C Holste Member Dr...). The internship covered the period from June 10, 1985 until June 15, 1986. Dr. Arnis Judzis was the internship supervisor. The chairman of the intern's committee was Dr. K. R. Hall. Mr. Flipse was assigned to the SOPC Drilling Fluids Laboratory during his...

  10. Tensile creep of soil-cement and its relationship to fatigue 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Youngsoo

    1985-01-01

    , D(t) = De + Dz x t . As a result, he was able to exPress the crack velocity explicitly and show the crack growth parameters, A and n in Paris' law, in terms of the creep parameters and material properties. A more detailed review of his theory...TENSILE CREEP OF SOIL-CEMENT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO FATIGUE A Thesis YOUNGSOO KIM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major...

  11. Cement Creek Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPIDCavallo Energy JumpCeiling Fan JumpCement Bond

  12. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  13. This paper outlines the social, legislative and technical reasons for recycling waste glass, with specific emphasis on its use in concrete as high-value decorative aggregate or cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Christian

    glass, with specific emphasis on its use in concrete as high-value decorative aggregate or cement (Centre for Cement and Concrete, at the University of Sheffield) and the USA (Department of Civil for Cement and Concrete, University of Sheffield. His research interests include binder technology, concrete

  14. _Part II - Contract Clauses

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    M0572 dated 3215 Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 Modification No. M202 Page I - 1 Part II - Contract Clauses Section I TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. FAR 52.202-1 DEFINITIONS (JAN 2012)...

  15. Deformation and mechanical properties of quaternary blended cements containing ground granulated blastfurnace slag, fly ash and magnesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo, Liwu; Liu, Meng; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Deng, Min; Lau, Wai Yuk

    2015-01-28

    O), and magnesia (MgO), was also widely 47 used to compensate for the shrinkage of cement-based materials [6-8]. For decades, delayed 48 expansive cement containing MgO was used in China for compensating the thermal shrinkage of 49 mass dam concrete, in which... % produced in the EPCII mortars. 292 This may attribute to the hydraulic or pozzolanic reaction of slag and fly ash. Increase of slag 293 from 20% to 40% caused ascent in strengths of the mortars whereas increase of fly ash from 20% 294 15 to 35...

  16. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DAYLEY, L.

    2000-06-14

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included in the original project design. That is, that the design and operation of existing Cementation Process equipment and processes allows for the minimization of personnel exposure in its operation, maintenance and decommissioning and that the generation of radioactive waste is kept to a minimum.

  17. CEMEX: Cement Manufacturer Saves 2.1 Million kWh Annually with a Motor Retrofit Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how the CEMEX cement manufacturing plant in Davenport, California, saves 2 million kWh and $168,000 in energy costs annually by replacing 13 worn-out motors with new energy-efficient ones.

  18. Reproductive and developmental health risk from dioxin-like compounds: Insignificant risk from cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, L.C.; Pedelty, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels emit low levels of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and little or no PCB`s. Concern about possible effects on reproduction and development has prompted an evaluation of the research literature especially with regard to the reproductive and developmental effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In sufficient doses, dioxins, furans, and PCB can cause adverse health effects in some animals or humans. Calculated doses of TCDD-EQ (dioxin equivalents) are dependent on many assumptions, but where human effects have been demonstrated, doses were 100--1,000 times higher than the usual background environmental doses. This would include those environmental doses that would be received by the most-exposed individual living near cement kilns burning WDF. There is evidence to suggest that PCB`s have had an adverse impact on some wildlife although there is no evidence that these PCB`s are associated with cement kiln emissions. There is no evidence to suggest that dioxins, at environmental levels or associated with emissions from WDF-burning cement kilns, have caused adverse effects in either wildlife or humans. 63 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

  20. A Review of Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, A.; Price, L.; Lin, E.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO2 emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key...

  1. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  2. Shut-off of a geopressured water channel behind casing via coiled tubing utilizing a dual slurry cement system: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, T.W.; Lange, K.J.; Grant, W.H.; Patout, T.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a case history involving a unique dual cement system to shut off a geopressured water channel behind casing utilizing coiled tubing. The channeling problem was identified and documented using water flow logging techniques. Logging indicated the lower gravel packed selective could produce salt water if perforated without eliminating the suspected water channel. Reserves did not warrant a major rig workover, making a non-rig workover via coiled tubing the only viable option to repair the well. A unique dual cement system tested on a hesitation squeeze schedule pumped through coiled tubing with extremely limited thickening time was necessary to repair the primary cement job.

  3. (MATH 1302) Calculus II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haiying

    (MATH 1302) MATH 1426 Calculus I MATH 2425 Calculus II MATH 2326 Calculus III IE 3312 PHYS 1443 PHYS 1444 IE 3301 EE 2440 Circuits MATH 3319 ENGL 1301 ENGL 1302 (1310) (Intro) 1320 C/C++ 2312 Ass Sw Des Pat *4321 Testing *4322 Sw Mgmt (CHEM 1300) CHEM 1441 Math Placement Test / Advising (MATH

  4. Smog Check II Evaluation Part II: Overview of Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Smog Check II Evaluation Part II: Overview of Vehicle Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . Prepared in Later Sections ____________________ 1 3. Older Vehicles Have Higher Emissions on Average _____________ 3 ___________________________________ 12 7. Emissions of Individual Vehicles Vary from Test to Test ________ 15 8. Total Emissions

  5. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayley, L

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included...

  6. Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copuroglu, O. . E-mail: o.copuroglu@citg.tudelft.nl; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    2006-08-15

    Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack.

  7. Proceedings of the 5th ACL-HLT Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities, pages 4453, Portland, OR, USA, 24 June 2011. c 2011 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciences, and Humanities, pages 44­53, Portland, OR, USA, 24 June 2011. c 2011 Association automatic term recognition and term clustering techniques for knowledge ac- quisition and content the processes and the media which cultural heritage in- stitutions (such as libraries, archives and museums

  8. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Print Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II), the largest known eukaryotic enzyme that breaks down proteins (a protease), is...

  9. 5) Management ii) Mechanical methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods = manually or mechanically damaging plants #12;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods Advantages · Generally much less public opposition #12;5) Management c) Control ii) Mechanical methods Advantages · Generally much less public opposition · Works well

  10. vapor transition of the capillary pore water, as well as that bound in the cement paste component of the concrete. An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    than that of their component cement pastes.10 Simulation stud- ies and experimental evaluation using for this percolation of ITZs in conventional concretes has been provided by Wood's metal intrusion, and subsequent

  11. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    2008. “Utilization of sewage sludge in EU application of oldShao, D.J. Lee. 2007. “Sewage Sludge in China: Challengesimprove CO 2 efficient sewage sludge recovery in cement

  12. Investigation of the benefits of carbonate cementation due to addition of low percentage of hydrated lime in the base courses of pavements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhuiyan, Jasim Uddin

    1994-01-01

    Texas, limestone and caliche soil, were tested extensively to examine the effect of carbonate cementation due to the addition of small percentages of lime. Testing included mineralogical analysis of the two materials, strength analysis in terms of texas...

  13. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  14. Portland State University Portland, OR 97207

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elzanowski, Marek

    ­ The Princeton Review - Guide to 332 Green Colleges 2015 Top Ranking for Affordable Eco-Friendly Colleges ­ Best

  15. Evaluation of pore structures and cracking in cement paste exposed to elevated temperatures by X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kwang Yeom, E-mail: kimky@kict.re.kr [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 283 Goyangdae-ro, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang 411-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Tae Sup, E-mail: taesup@yonsei.ac.kr [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang Pil, E-mail: bamtol97@kict.re.kr [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 283 Goyangdae-ro, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang 411-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    When cement-based materials are exposed to the high temperatures induced by fire, which can rapidly cause temperatures of over 1000 °C, the changes in pore structure and density prevail. In the present study, mortar specimens were subjected to a series of increasing temperatures to explore the temperature-dependent evolution of internal pore structure. High-performance X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe the evolution of temperature-induced discontinuities at the sub-millimeter level. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to investigate the cause of physical changes in the heated mortar specimens. Results exhibit the changes in pore structure caused by elevated temperatures, and thermally induced fractures. We discuss the progressive formation of thermally induced fracture networks, which is a prerequisite for spalling failure of cement-based materials by fire, based on visual observations of the 3D internal structures revealed by X-ray CT.

  16. LL/ILW: Post-Qualification of Old Waste through Non-Destructive Extraction of Barrels from Cement Shields - 13535

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehmigen, Steffen; Ambos, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Currently there is a large number of radioactive waste drums entombed in cement shields at German nuclear power plants. These concrete containers used in the past for the waste are not approved for the final repository. Compliance with current acceptance criteria of the final repository has to be proven by qualification measures on the waste. To meet these criteria, a new declaration and new packing is necessary. A simple non-destructive extraction of about 2000 drums from their concrete shields is not possible. So different methods were tested to find a way of non-destructive extraction of old waste drums from cement shields and therefore reduce the final repository volume and final repository costs by using a container accepted and approved for Konrad. The main objective was to build a mobile system to offer this service to nuclear plant stations. (authors)

  17. Methodological and Practical Considerations for DevelopingMultiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects inCentral America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion,Kristel

    2004-09-02

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) andthe Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas (CSDA) conductedtechnical studies and organized two training workshops to developcapacity in Central America for the evaluation of climate changeprojects. This paper describes the results of two baseline case studiesconducted for these workshops, one for the power sector and one for thecement industry, that were devised to illustrate certain approaches tobaseline setting. Multiproject baseline emission rates (BERs) for themain Guatemalan electricity grid were calculated from 2001 data. Inrecent years, the Guatemalan power sector has experienced rapid growth;thus, a sufficient number of new plants have been built to estimateviable BERs. We found that BERs for baseload plants offsetting additionalbaseload capacity ranged from 0.702 kgCO2/kWh (using a weighted averagestringency) to 0.507 kgCO2/kWh (using a 10th percentile stringency),while the baseline for plants offsetting load-followingcapacity is lowerat 0.567 kgCO2/kWh. For power displaced from existing load-followingplants, the rate is higher, 0.735 kgCO2/kWh, as a result of the age ofsome plants used for meeting peak loads and the infrequency of their use.The approved consolidated methodology for the Clean Development Mechanismyields a single rate of 0.753 kgCO2/kWh. Due to the relatively smallnumber of cement plants in the region and the regional nature of thecement market, all of Central America was chosen as the geographicboundary for setting cement industry BERs. Unfortunately, actualoperations and output data were unobtainable for most of the plants inthe region, and many data were estimated. Cement industry BERs rangedfrom 205 kgCO2 to 225 kgCO2 per metric ton of cement.

  18. An assessment of potential environmental impacts of cement kiln dust produced in kilns co-fired with hazardous waste fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goad, P.T.; Millner, G.C.; Nye, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Keystone Cement Company (Keystone), located in Bath, Pennsylvania, produces cement in two kilns that are co-fired with hazardous waste-derived fuels. Beginning in the late 1970`s Keystone began storing cement kiln dust (CKD) in an aboveground storage pile located on company property adjacent to the cement kilns. Storm water runoff from the CKD pile is channeled into a storm water settling pond which in turn discharges into Monocacy Creek, a stream running along the eastern property boundary. Monocacy Creek sustains a thriving trout fishery and is routinely fished during the open recreational fishing season in pennsylvania. The CKD pile has a surface area of approximately 12 acres, with an average height of approximately 35 feet. The southern edge of the pile is contiguous with an adjacent company-owned field in which field corn is grown for cattle feed. Some of the corn on the edges of the field is actually grown in direct contact with CKD that comprises the edge of the storage pile. The CKD pile is located approximately 150 yards to the west of Monocacy Creek. In 1995--1996 water, sediment and fish (trout) samples were obtained from Monocacy Creek sampling stations upstream and downstream of the point of discharge of storm water runoff from the CKD pile. In addition, corn samples were obtained from the field contiguous with the CKD pile and from a control field located distant to the site. The sediment, water, fish, and corn samples were analyzed for various chemicals previously identified as chemicals of potential concern in CKD. These data indicate that chemical constituents of CKD are not contaminating surface water or sediment in the stream, and that bioaccumulation of organic chemicals and/or metals has not occurred in field corn grown in direct contact with undiluted CKD, or in fish living in the waters that receive CKD pile runoff.

  19. Self-degradable Slag/Class F Fly Ash-Blend Cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Warren, J.; Butcher, T.; Lance Brothers; Bour, D.

    2011-03-01

    Self-degradable slag/Class F fly ash blend pozzolana cements were formulated, assuming that they might serve well as alternative temporary fracture sealers in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells operating at temperatures of {ge} 200 C. Two candidate formulas were screened based upon material criteria including an initial setting time {ge} 60 min at 85 C, compressive strength {ge} 2000 psi for a 200 C autoclaved specimen, and the extent of self-degradation of cement heated at {ge} 200 C for it was contacted with water. The first screened dry mix formula consisted of 76.5 wt% slag-19.0 wt% Class F fly ash-3.8 wt% sodium silicate as alkali activator, and 0.7 wt% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the self-degradation promoting additive, and second formula comprised of 57.3 wt% slag, 38.2 wt% Class F fly ash, 3.8 wt% sodium silicate, and 0.7 wt% CMC. After mixing with water and autoclaving it at 200 C, the aluminum-substituted 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal phase was identified as hydrothermal reaction product responsible for the development of a compressive strength of 5983 psi. The 200 C-autoclaved cement made with the latter formula had the combined phases of tobermorite as its major reaction product and amorphous geopolymer as its minor one providing a compressive strength of 5271 psi. Sodium hydroxide derived from the hydrolysis of sodium silicate activator not only initiated the pozzolanic reaction of slag and fly ash, but also played an important role in generating in-situ exothermic heat that significantly contributed to promoting self-degradation of cementitious sealers. The source of this exothermic heat was the interactions between sodium hydroxide, and gaseous CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}COOH by-products generated from thermal decomposition of CMC at {ge} 200 C in an aqueous medium. Thus, the magnitude of this self-degradation depended on the exothermic temperature evolved in the sealer; a higher temperature led to a sever disintegration of sealer. The exothermic temperature was controlled by the extent of thermal decomposition of CMC, demonstrating that CMC decomposed at higher temperature emitted more gaseous reactants. Hence, such large emission enhanced the evolution of in-situ exothermic heat. In contrast, the excessive formation of geopolymer phase due to more incorporation of Class F fly ash into this cementitious system affected its ability to self-degrade, reflecting that there was no self-degradation. The geopolymer was formed by hydrothermal reactions between sodium hydroxide from sodium silicate and mullite in Class F fly ash. Thus, the major reason why geopolymer-based cementitiuos sealers did not degrade after heated sealers came in contact with water was their lack of free sodium hydroxide.

  20. PART II - CONTRACT CLAUSES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctoberConsumptionPoweredE Contract No.No. 330 J.2-1 ContractII

  1. PARS II TRAINING

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuilding energy codes have a more than 20-yearPAE EvaluationPARS II13,

  2. Questions about Cori II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton Delivery and RemovalQuantumdefault Sign In About

  3. Engineering properties of miniature cement - fly ash compacts prepared by high pressure compaction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bormann, Jeffrey Ray

    1985-01-01

    RPvT oG(PeB(r au Ei1PRaeT oaBBPvvII? ?e? ??C? ?IiOIvvIe oDeeIrv 9e(8vP8IR (ri vGIaeT 8aruaeB va vGI 8ar8I9v vG(v uae R9I8P(nP?Ii DRIR ( 9aevn(ri 8IBIrv 8ar8eIvI B(vIeP(n ?PvG RveIrtvG (99ea(8GPrt ?????? 9RP B(T OI 9eaiD8Ii OT eIiD8Prt vGI (BaDrv au 9...aeaRPvT 9eIRIrv Pr vGI BP8eaRveD8vDeI au vGI 9(RvI?B(vePd B(vIeP(n? Na (88aB9nPRG vGPR eIiD8vPar Pr 9aeaRPvT? GPtG 9eIRRDeI 8aB9(8vPar (ri Pr8eI(RIi uaeB(vPar au 8IBIrvPvPaDR 9eaiD8vR ueaB ( 9a??an(rP8 eI(8vPar G(1I 9ea1PiIi Id8InnIrv eIRDnvR PriP1...

  4. Determination of thermal and cementation histories from [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar and ion microprobe stable isotope analyses: A San Joaquin Basin example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahon, K.I.; Harrison, T.M.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M. (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the temperature and cementation histories of sedimentary basins is key to appraisal of their liquid hydrocarbon potential. Understanding the thermal history permits assessment of whether source rocks have experienced conditions appropriate for petroleum formation. The mobility of hydrocarbons and their storage capacity in sandstone reservoirs are directly related to porosity changes during diagenesis. Recent advances in [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar dating (stripping of Cl-correlated Ar[sub xs] Multi-Diffusion Domain model) and development of ion micro-probe techniques for precise ([+-]0.6[per thousand]) [mu]m-scale oxygen isotopic analysis provide a basis to quantitatively determine thermal and cementation histories. Arkosic sandstones of the Stevens turbidities, San Joaquin basin, are cemented by carbonates with minor amounts of clay and quartz. Detrital K-spars from depths of 4.12 (A4) and 6.61 km (Al) in the Stevens zone at Elk Hills yield thermal histories via the MDD model. These results indicate a broadly linear temperature rise of 9[+-]3[degrees]C/Ma over the past 10 Ma and predict current peak temperatures that are within error ([+-]25[degrees]C) of the measured values of 200[degrees] (Al) and 150[degrees]C (A4). Previous bulk isotopic analyses of cements from Stevens sands at North Coles Levee indicate that diagenetic pore fluids were modified by the introduction of hydrocarbons and CO[sub 2] from maturing source horizons. In situ O isotopic analyses of 10 [mu]m spots in these cements confirms this heterogeneity. A model cementation history can then be calculated by linking the oxygen isotopic composition of the cements (and temperature-dependent fractionation factor) with the thermal history independently established from thermochronometry.

  5. Determination of thermal and cementation histories from {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar and ion microprobe stable isotope analyses: A San Joaquin Basin example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahon, K.I.; Harrison, T.M.; Grove, M.; Lovera, O.M. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Knowledge of the temperature and cementation histories of sedimentary basins is key to appraisal of their liquid hydrocarbon potential. Understanding the thermal history permits assessment of whether source rocks have experienced conditions appropriate for petroleum formation. The mobility of hydrocarbons and their storage capacity in sandstone reservoirs are directly related to porosity changes during diagenesis. Recent advances in {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating (stripping of Cl-correlated Ar{sub xs} Multi-Diffusion Domain model) and development of ion micro-probe techniques for precise ({+-}0.6{per_thousand}) {mu}m-scale oxygen isotopic analysis provide a basis to quantitatively determine thermal and cementation histories. Arkosic sandstones of the Stevens turbidities, San Joaquin basin, are cemented by carbonates with minor amounts of clay and quartz. Detrital K-spars from depths of 4.12 (A4) and 6.61 km (Al) in the Stevens zone at Elk Hills yield thermal histories via the MDD model. These results indicate a broadly linear temperature rise of 9{+-}3{degrees}C/Ma over the past 10 Ma and predict current peak temperatures that are within error ({+-}25{degrees}C) of the measured values of 200{degrees} (Al) and 150{degrees}C (A4). Previous bulk isotopic analyses of cements from Stevens sands at North Coles Levee indicate that diagenetic pore fluids were modified by the introduction of hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} from maturing source horizons. In situ O isotopic analyses of 10 {mu}m spots in these cements confirms this heterogeneity. A model cementation history can then be calculated by linking the oxygen isotopic composition of the cements (and temperature-dependent fractionation factor) with the thermal history independently established from thermochronometry.

  6. Formulation verification study results for 241-AN-106 waste grout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Morrison, L.C.; Palmer, S.E.; Anderson, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reference formulation and variations around the formulation are adequate for solidifying 241-AN-106 (106-AN) waste into a grout waste form. The reference formulation consists of 21 wt% type I/II Portland cement, 68 wt% fly ash, and 11 wt% attapulgite clay. The mix ratio is 8.4 lb/gal. Variations in dry blend component ratios, mix ratio, and waste concentration were assessed by using a statistically designed experimental matrix consisting of 44 grout compositions. Based on the results of the statistically designed variability study, the 106-AN grout formulations tested met all the formulation criteria except for the heat of hydration.

  7. Supernovae. Part II: The aftermath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trimble, V; Trimble, V

    1983-01-01

    R. Viswanathan, 1980, As- Supernovae. Part II ExperimentalSmith, 1982, Astrophys. Supernovae. Chevalier, R. A. , andC. B. , 1974, Ed. , Supernovae and Supernova Rem- nants,

  8. 8. SQL II 8-1 Part 8: SQL II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brass, Stefan

    8. SQL II 8-1 Part 8: SQL II References: · Elmasri/Navathe:Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, 1999. Chap. 8, "SQL -- The Relational Database Standard" (Sect. 8.2, 8.3.3, part of 8.3.4.) · Silberschatz/Korth/Sudarshan: Database System Concepts, 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1999: Chapter 4: "SQL

  9. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  10. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  11. QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosner, Jonathan L.

    QUANTUM MECHANICS II Physics 342 KPTC 103 9:00 ­ 10:20 a.m. 1 Tues., Thurs. ­ Winter Quarter 2011 quantum mechanics at the graduate level. The text for Quantum Mechanics II will be J. J. Sakurai and Jim Napolitano, Modern Quantum Mechanics, Second Edition (Addison-Wesley, San Francisco, 2011). For supplemental

  12. II JORNADAS "PUBLICAR EN REVISTAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escolano, Francisco

    II JORNADAS "PUBLICAR EN REVISTAS DE IMPACTO" 20 de Septiembre 2011 Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud #12;Taller: "Elaboración de Manuscritos y Proceso Editorial en Revistas Indexadas: el Caso del: Secretaría. Departamento de Psicología de la Salud II JORNADAS "PUBLICAR EN REVISTAS DE IMPACTO" 20 de

  13. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Steve Dierker

    2010-01-08

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  14. Sist. Lin. II Aps Escalonamento

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabral, Marco

    Lineares ­ 2a Parte Paulo Goldfeld Marco Cabral Departamento de Matemática Aplicada Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Álgebra Linear II 2008/2 Prof. Marco Cabral & Prof. Paulo Goldfeld DMA / IM / UFRJ 1 conjunto-solução = { } sistema inconsistente Álgebra Linear II 2008/2 Prof. Marco Cabral & Prof. Paulo

  15. Unit II-5 Interpolation 1 Interpolation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkett, Stephen

    Unit II-5 Interpolation 1 Unit II-5 Interpolation Unit II-5 Interpolation 2 Interpolation outside the range of values of xi use extrapolation Unit II-5 Interpolation 3 Basic ideas · given: n+1 in tabular format Unit II-5 Interpolation 4 Basis functions · n basis functions 1, 2, ... , n can be used

  16. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi , Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of MAT in the US lime industry. This estimate showed that 7.3 TBTU/year could be saved, with reduction of 270 MMlbs of CO2 emissions, and $29 MM/year in economic savings. Taking into account estimates for MAT implementation in the US cement industry, an additional 39 TBTU/year, 3 Blbs of CO2 and $155 MM/year could be saved. One of the main remaining barriers to commercialization of MAT for the lime and cement industries is the sheer size of production. Through this project, it was realized that a production size MAT rotary calciner was not feasible, and a different approach was adapted. The concept of a microwave post heat section located in the upper portion of the cooler was devised and appears to be a more realistic approach for MAT implementation. Commercialization of this technology will require (1) continued pilot scale calcining demonstrations, (2) involvement of lime kiln companies, and (3) involvement of an industrial microwave equipment provider. An initial design concept for a MAT post-heat treatment section was conceived as a retrofit into the cooler sections of existing lime rotary calciners with a 1.4 year payback. Retrofitting will help spur implementation of this technology, as the capital investment will be minimal for enhancing the efficiency of current rotary lime kilns. Retrofits would likely be attractive to lime manufacturers, as the purchase of a new lime kiln is on the order of a $30 million dollar investment, where as a MAT retrofit is estimated on the order of $1 million. The path for commercialization lies in partnering with existing lime kiln companies, who will be able to implement the microwave post heat sections in existing and new build kilns. A microwave equipment provider has been identified, who would make up part of the continued development and commercialization team.

  17. MOBILIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLOIDS GENERATED FROM CEMENT LEACHATES MOVING THROUGH A SRS SANDY SEDIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.

    2011-09-20

    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  18. Approaches to Modeling Coupled Flow and Reaction in a 2-D Cementation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steefel, Carl; Cochepin, B.; Trotignon, L.; Bildstein, O.; Steefel, C.; Lagneau, V.; van der Lee, J.

    2008-04-01

    Porosity evolution at reactive interfaces is a key process that governs the evolution and performances of many engineered systems that have important applications in earth and environmental sciences. This is the case, for example, at the interface between cement structures and clays in deep geological nuclear waste disposals. Although in a different transport regime, similar questions arise for permeable reactive barriers used for biogeochemical remediation in surface environments. The COMEDIE project aims at investigating the coupling between transport, hydrodynamics and chemistry when significant variations of porosity occur. The present work focuses on a numerical benchmark used as a design exercise for the future COMEDIE-2D experiment. The use of reactive transport simulation tools like Hytec and Crunch provides predictions of the physico-chemical evolutions that are expected during the future experiments in laboratory. Focus is given in this paper on the evolution during the simulated experiment of precipitate, permeability and porosity fields. A first case is considered in which the porosity is constant. Results obtained with Crunch and Hytec are in relatively good agreement. Differences are attributable to the models of reactive surface area taken into account for dissolution/precipitation processes. Crunch and Hytec simulations taking into account porosity variations are then presented and compared. Results given by the two codes are in qualitative agreement, with differences attributable in part to the models of reactive surface area for dissolution/precipitation processes. As a consequence, the localization of secondary precipitates predicted by Crunch leads to lower local porosities than for predictions obtained by Hytec and thus to a stronger coupling between flow and chemistry. This benchmark highlights the importance of the surface area model employed to describe systems in which strong porosity variations occur as a result of dissolution/precipitation. The simulation of highly non-linear reactive transport systems is also shown to be partly dependent on specific numerical approaches.

  19. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for sulfoaluminate cement clinker production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Kai; Shi Huisheng; Guo Xiaolu

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The replacement can be taken up to 30% of MSWI fly ash in the raw mix. > The novelty compositional parameters were defined, their optimum values were determined. > Expansive property of SAC is strongly depended on gypsum content. > Three leaching test methods are used to assess the environmental impact. - Abstract: The feasibility of partially substituting raw materials with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) clinker production was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength and free expansion ratio testing. Three different leaching tests were used to assess the environmental impact of the produced material. Experimental results show that the replacement of MSWI fly ash could be taken up to 30% in the raw mixes. The good quality SAC clinkers are obtained by controlling the compositional parameters at alkalinity modulus (C{sub m}) around 1.05, alumina-sulfur ratio (P) around 2.5, alumina-silica ratio (N) around 2.0{approx}3.0 and firing the raw mixes at 1250 deg. C for 2 h. The compressive strengths of SAC are high in early age while that develop slowly in later age. Results also show that the expansive properties of SAC are strongly depended on the gypsum content. Leaching studies of toxic elements in the hydrated SAC-based system reveal that all the investigated elements are well bounded in the clinker minerals or immobilized by the hydration products. Although some limited positive results indicate that the SAC prepared from MSWI fly ash would present no immediate thread to the environment, the long-term toxicity leaching behavior needs to be further studied.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT-STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA; LOCKREM LL

    2009-07-20

    This report documents the effort to sequester technetium by the use of getters, reductants (tin(II) apatite and ferrous sulfate), sorbents (A530E and A532E ion exchange resins), and cementitious waste form. The pertechnetate form of technetium is highly soluble and mobile in aerobic (oxidizing) environments.