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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Revolutionary systems for catalytic combustion and diesel catalytic particulate traps.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a summary of an LDRD project completed for the development of materials and structures conducive to advancing the state of the art for catalyst supports and diesel particulate traps. An ancillary development for bio-medical bone scaffolding was also realized. Traditionally, a low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic honeycomb monolith, is used for catalytic reactions that require high flow rates of gases at high-temperatures. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. ''Robocasting'' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low-pressure drops. These alternative 3-dimensional geometries may also provide a foundation for the development of self-regenerating supports capable of trapping and combusting soot particles from a diesel engine exhaust stream. This report describes the structures developed and characterizes the improved catalytic performance that can result. The results show that, relative to honeycomb monolith supports, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application. Practical applications include the combustion of natural gas for power generation, production of syngas, and hydrogen reforming reactions. The robocast lattice structures also show practicality for diesel particulate trapping. Preliminary results for trapping efficiency are reported as well as the development of electrically resistive lattices that can regenerate the structure by combusting the trapped soot. During this project an ancillary bio-medical application was discovered for lattices of hydroxyapatite. These structures show promise as bone scaffolds for the reparation of damaged bone. A case study depicting the manufacture of a customized device that fits into a damaged mandible is described.

Stuecker, John Nicholas; Witze, Peter O.; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Catalytic fabric filtration for simultaneous NO{sub x} and particulate control. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project proposed was to evaluate the catalyst-coated fabric filter concept for effective control of NO{sub 2} and particulate emissions simultaneously. General goals included demonstrating high removal efficiency of NO{sub x} and particulate matter, acceptable bag and catalyst life, and that process economics show a significant cost savings in comparison to a commercial SCR process and conventional particulate control. Specific goals included the following: reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 60 ppM or less; demonstrate particulate removal efficiency of >99.5%; demonstrate a bag/catalyst life of >1 year; Control ammonia slip to <25 ppM; show that catalytic fabric filtration can achieve a 50% cost savings over conventional fabric filtration and SCR control technology; determine compatibility with S0{sub 2} removal systems; and show that the concept results in a nonhazardous waste product.

Weber, G.F.; Dunham, G.E.; Laudal, D.L.; Ness, S.R.; Schelkoph, G.L.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II  

SciTech Connect

In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

DEMONSTRATION OF POTENTIAL FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project addresses the potential for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) devices (using urea as reductant) together with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) and low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to achieve future stringent emissions standards for heavy-duty engines powering Class 8 vehicles. Two emission control systems consisting of the three technologies (EGR, SCR, and DPF) were calibrated on a Caterpillar C-12 heavy-duty diesel engine. Results of these calibrations showed good promise in meeting the 2010 heavy-duty emission standards as set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These two emission control systems were developed to evaluate a series of fuels that have similar formulations except for their sulfur content. Additionally, one fuel, code-named BP15, was also evaluated. This fuel was prepared by processing straight-run distillate stocks through a commercial, single stage hydrotreater employing high activity catalyst at maximum severity. An additional goal of this program is to provide data for an on-going EPA technology review that evaluates progress toward meeting 2007/2010 emission standards. These emissions levels were to be achieved not only on the transient test cycles but in other modes of operation such as the steady-state Euro-III style emission test known as the OICA (Organisation Internationale des Compagnies d'Automobiles) or the ESC (European Stationary Cycle). Additionally, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions standards are to be met.

McGILL,R; KHAIR, M; SHARP, C

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

5

Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Heinz, Robert (Ludwigshafen, DE)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

6

Particulate Composites II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlling the distribution and contiguity of the different phases can lead to ... matrix, spectral peaks reveal load transfer behavior under varying volume fractions of ... results in dense anodes and has a direct impact on the electrical resistivity.

7

Catalytic Reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Don Little's Catalytic Reforming deals exclusively with reforming. With the increasing need for unleaded gasoline, the importance of this volume has escalated since it combines various related aspects of reforming technology into a single publication. For those with no practical knowledge of catalytic reforming, the chemical reactions, flow schemes and how the cat reformer fits into the overall refinery process will be of interest. Contents include: Catalytic reforming in refinery processing: How catalytic reformers work - chemical reactions; Process design; The catalyst, process variables and unit operation; Commercial processes; BTX operation; Feed preparation; naphtha hydrotreating and catalytic reforming; Index.

Little, D.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Catalytic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been patented by Chemical Research & Licensing Co., Houston, Texas, and developed in a joint venture with Neochem Corp., Houston, Texas, and the Department of Energy. The catalytic distillation packing has been commercially demonstrated successfully with nearly three years continuous service for an acid catalyzed reaction in a carbon steel distillation tower.

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound. The process consists of contacting the feedstock under suitable reforming conditions with a catalyst composition selected from the group consisting of a catalyst. The catalyst essentially consists of zinc oxide and a spinel structure alumina. Another catalyst consists essentially of a physical mixture of zinc titanate and a spinel structure alumina in the presence of sufficient added hydrogen to substantially prevent the formation of coke. Insufficient zinc is present in the catalyst composition for the formation of a bulk zinc aluminate.

Aldag, A.W. Jr.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

10

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine  

SciTech Connect

This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of the catalytic bed.

Tom Barton

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

12

VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine  

SciTech Connect

This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of the catalytic bed.

Tom Barton

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

13

Catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

14

Particulate Matter Standards (Ohio)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency sets the standards for particulate emissions from a variety of sources, including facilities that generate power. ...

15

Airborne particulate discriminator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

Creek, Kathryn Louise (San Diego, CA); Castro, Alonso (Santa Fe, NM); Gray, Perry Clayton (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

16

Raney nickel catalytic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic device for use in a conventional coal gasification process which includes a tubular substrate having secured to its inside surface by expansion a catalytic material. The catalytic device is made by inserting a tubular catalytic element, such as a tubular element of a nickel-aluminum alloy, into a tubular substrate and heat-treating the resulting composite to cause the tubular catalytic element to irreversibly expand against the inside surface of the substrate.

O' Hare, Stephen A. (Vienna, VA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

Seth, Manu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Process for catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved catalytic reforming process is disclosed wherein hydrogen and light hydrocarbons generated in the catalytic reaction zone are passed to a hydrogen production/purification zone and and reacted and processed therein to produce substantially pure hydrogen. A portion of the hydrogen is then admixed with the charge stock to the catalytic reforming zone to provide the hydrogen requirements of the catalytic reforming reaction zone.

James, R. B. Jr.

1984-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

20

II  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

II II c )3 c F r c L LI L rr c - r I P- c OAK RlDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY h U W -l\ &?ir;; ITi' m . 8 ORNL/RASA-92/l Results of the Radiological Survey at the Former Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company, Indian Orchard, Massachusetts (cIooo1) R. D. Foley M . S. Uziel MANAGED BY MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. FOR THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORNLJRASA-92/l /- HEALTH AND SAFETY RESEARCH DIVISION Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Non-Defense Programs (Activity No. EX 20 20 01 0; ADS317OOOO) Results of the Radiological Survey at the Former Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company, Indian Orchard, Massachusetts (cIooo1) R. D. Foley and M. S. Uziel Date Issued - July 1992 Investigation learn R. E. Swaja - Measurement Applications and Development Manager

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

II  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

: " + ; . .Z + II . ? 8 . " ~. . . . a a' .; ,. ?> , . ' . : . ., ! , Environmental i r .,' : % , ~ ~ 9 . / ; i.3. -\ ,- I - 'I ' , 2 " .r: 1; . . , ~ . ,&- c . . a , ,, .,I;< . .' , , ? $ ; 1- !'I' . '...~ - .. :, , .I Closure Report for CAU No. 416 1: ' . Project Shoal Area I:' c!';,: .. 7. .. , . ~ 1 I' ,. Controlled Copy No. UNCONTROLLED { -* .. 4'. . 1 " . .. *. *" '.. . . , , ,I +' , ,.f.' I , I" I ', ', ctk;' . , I , '. :C, , I: : , . p . ? .,; . s . " . , k - ,

22

Fluidizing device for solid particulates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Golden, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Fluidizing device for solid particulates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

24

Rich catalytic injection  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

25

Multizone catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbon feed in two sequential catalyst zones. It comprises: a first catalyst zone contains a first catalytic composite consisting essentially of a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, and a halogen component; and a second catalyst zone contains a second catalytic composite comprising a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, a halogen component, and catalytically effective amounts of a metal promoter selected from rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium, cobalt, nickel, and iridium, and mixtures thereof.

Moser, M.C.; Lawson, R.J.; Antos, G.J.; Wang, L.; Parulekar, V.N.

1990-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

26

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming process is disclosed in which substantially all of the heat requirements of the product stabilizer column is supplied by multiple indirect heat exchange.

Peters, K.D.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

27

Catalytic conversion of biomass.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Catalytic processes for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels have gained an increasing attention in sustainable energy production. The biomass can be converted to… (more)

Calleja Aguado, Raquel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Void/particulate detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

1983-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

30

Rigid particulate matter sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

31

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Catalytic cracking process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Regenerable particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

Stuecker, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, James E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

34

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

An Introduction to Particulate Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Fiscal Year 2014. Title An Introduction to Particulate Matter Publication Type Book Chapter Year of Publication 2009 Authors Prisco, Joe, Rich Hill, Pam Lembke, D. Moore,...

36

Guidelines for Particulate Control for Advanced SO2 Control Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To assist utilities in complying with Phase II of the Clean Air Act Amendments, this report delineates the effects of advanced SO2 control technologies on particulate control systems. This guide can prove invaluable to environmental engineers and planners who must select compatible systems and identify sound operating strategies for these technologies.

1994-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

RETORT WATER PARTICULATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effluents from In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Proceedings ofDecomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II, Carbonate Minerals.1 Presented at the Oil Shale Sampling, Analysis and Quality

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

39

Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 – Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Multizone catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbon feed in two sequential catalyst zones. It comprises: an initial catalyst zone which is a fixed-bed system and contains an initial catalytic composite comprising a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, and a halogen component; and a terminal catalyst zone which is a moving-bed system with associated continuous catalyst regeneration and contains a terminal catalytic composite having the essential absence of germanium and comprising a platinum component, a refractory inorganic oxide, a halogen component, and catalytically effective amounts of a metal promoter selected from one or more of the rhenium, tin, indium, rhodium, ruthenium, cobalt, nickel, and iridium.

Moser, M.; Lawson, R.J.; Wang, L.; Parulekar, V.; Peer, R.L.; Hamlin, C.R.

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

43

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

44

Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

Morgan Jones

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

Lyons, J.E.

1992-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

46

Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

RETORT WATER PARTICULATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effluents from In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Proceedings ofDecomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II, Carbonate Minerals.Suspension of Spent Shale Fines and Oil~ Oil shale becomes

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

RETORT WATER PARTICULATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effluents from In Situ Oil Shale Processing. Proceedings ofDecomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II, Carbonate Minerals.LBL-8829(1 Presented at the Oil Shale Sampling, Analysis and

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Catalytic hydrotreating process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbonaceous liquids boiling above about 300.degree. C such as tars, petroleum residuals, shale oils and coal-derived liquids are catalytically hydrotreated by introducing the carbonaceous liquid into a reaction zone at a temperature in the range of 300.degree. to 450.degree. C and a pressure in the range of 300 to 4000 psig for effecting contact between the carbonaceous liquid and a catalytic transition metal sulfide in the reaction zone as a layer on a hydrogen permeable transition metal substrate and then introducing hydrogen into the reaction zone by diffusing the hydrogen through the substrate to effect the hydrogenation of the carbonaceous liquid in the presence of the catalytic sulfide layer.

Karr, Jr., Clarence (Morgantown, WV); McCaskill, Kenneth B. (Morgantown, WV)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Catalytic Coal Gasification Process for the Production of Methane-Rich Syngas Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Production of Methane-Rich Syngas from Fuels Using Multi-functional Catalyst/Capture Agent." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Reducing pollution emitted by coal and waste power plants in an economically viable manner and building power plants that co-generate fuels and chemicals during times of low electricity demand are pressing goals for the energy industry. One way to achieve these goals in an economically viable manner is through the use of a catalytic gasifier that

51

Catalytic Solutions Inc CSI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Developer of the breakthrough catalytic coating technology and the Mixed Phase Catalyst (MPCTM), and also manufacturer of catalytic converters. References Catalytic...

52

Steam reformer with catalytic combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

53

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

55

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming process is disclosed wherein the reboiler heat requirements of the stabilizer column are supplied by means of indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases in the reforming reactants fired heater convection heating section. Heat in excess of the reboiler requirements is passed to the stabilizer column with control being effected by removal of excess heat from the column.

James, R.B. Jr.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

56

Catalytic skeletal isomerization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains a derivative of cyclopentane or which contains organic compounds which are convertible to a derivative of cyclopentane is carried out in the presence of a hydrogrel of zinc titanate and a suitable acidic material. Also, the attrition resistance of zinc titanate is improved by incorporating the zinc titanate into a hydrogel structure.

Aldag, A.W.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Catalytic conversion of LPG  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters Home Standards DOE Workshops Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference Proceedings Qualified Filter List News Items Related Sites HEPA Related Lessons Learned Contact Us HSS Logo High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters The HEPA Filter web site provides a forum for informing and reporting department-wide activities related to filtration and ventilation issues with special reference to the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters' use, inspection, and testing. This site contains essentials of DOE HEPA filter test program, procedures, requirements and quality assurance aspects applicable to HEPA filters used in DOE facilities. This site contains information about the DOE-accepted Filter Test Facility and its management, operation and quality assuranceprogram.

59

Just the Basics: Particulate Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is Particulate is Particulate Matter? One of the major components of air pollution is particulate matter, or PM. PM refers to airborne particles that include dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. These particles can range in size from microscopic to large enough to be seen. PM is characterized by its size, with fine particles of less than 2.5 micrometers in size designated as PM 2.5 and coarser particles between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in size designated as PM 10 . PM arises from many sources, including combustion occurring in factories, power plants, cars, trucks, buses, trains, or wood fires; or through simple agitation of existing particulates by tilling of land, quarrying and stone-crushing, and off- road vehicular movement. Of particular interest is PM generated during diesel

60

Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration  

SciTech Connect

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Catalytic thermal barrier coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

62

Concentric catalytic combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic combustor (28) includes a tubular pressure boundary element (90) having a longitudinal flow axis (e.g., 56) separating a first portion (94) of a first fluid flow (e.g., 24) from a second portion (95) of the first fluid flow. The pressure boundary element includes a wall (96) having a plurality of separate longitudinally oriented flow paths (98) annularly disposed within the wall and conducting respective portions (100, 101) of a second fluid flow (e.g., 26) therethrough. A catalytic material (32) is disposed on a surface (e.g., 102, 103) of the pressure boundary element exposed to at least one of the first and second portions of the first fluid flow.

Bruck, Gerald J. (Oviedo, FL); Laster, Walter R. (Oviedo, FL)

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

63

CSD: Research: Catalytic Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Science Catalytic Science The DOE Chemical Energy program supports basic research in the area of chemical transformations or conversions which are fundamental to new or existing concepts of energy production and storage. A further goal of the program is to identify and develop environmentally benign approaches to the synthesis of chemicals via routes requiring a minimal consumption of energy. These objectives lead naturally to an emphasis on catalysis. Novel homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are constantly being sought to enable the synthesis of desired products from nontraditional reactants, often with the aim of minimizing the production of toxic intermediates or byproducts, or to enable the more efficient production of products via existing reaction pathways. To this end, efforts are undertaken to

64

Catalytic reforming catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

65

Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Brown, David B. (Brighton, MI)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

66

Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Catalytic distillation : design and application of a catalytic distillation column.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation (CD) is a hybrid technology that utilizes the dynamics of si- multaneous reaction and separation in a single process unit to achieve a… (more)

Nieuwoudt, Josias Jakobus (Jako)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a catalytic reforming process which comprises contacting a naphtha range feed with a low acidity extrudate comprising an intermediate and/or a large pore acidic zeolite bound with a low acidity refractory oxide under reforming conditions to provide a reaction product of increased aromatic content, the extrudate having been prepared with at least an extrusion-facilitating amount of a low acidity refractory oxide in colloidal form and containing at least one metal species selected from the platinum group metals.

Absil, R.P.; Huss, A. Jr.; McHale, W.D.; Partridge, R.D.

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

69

Catalytic reforming methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

70

Catalytic dewaxing of middle distillates  

SciTech Connect

The fractionation and stripping equipment of a middle distillate catalytic dewaxing unit may be eliminated by integrating the catalytic dewaxing unit with a catalytic cracking unit. The light cycle oil sidestream from the cat cracker fractionator, bypasses the sidestream stripper and serves as the feed to the catalytic dewaxing unit. The dewaxed product is separated into a gasoline fraction which is recycled for fractionation in the cat cracker fractionator and a fuel oil fraction which is recycled to the cat cracker sidestream stripper for removal of light materials to produce a low pour fuel oil meeting product specifications.

Antal, M.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Process for particulate removal from coal liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

Rappe, Gerald C. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

Stuart Nemser, PhD

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons  

ORNL 2011-G00219/jcn UT-B ID 201002414 08.2011 Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons Technology Summary A method for catalytically ...

74

Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons  

ORNL 2011-G00219/jcn UT-B ID 201002414 08.2011 Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons Technology Summary A method for catalytically converting an alcohol ...

75

Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

76

Catalytic reforming optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have previously examined correlations between catalytic reforming parameters for an L-35-6 unit at the Gor'knefteorgsintez Industrial Association. Experimental design was used to derive polynomial equations describing the correlations for each reactor. Further research on optimizing the reforming has been based on these results. They adopted the following strategy to define the best working parameters: they define a temperature that would provide the maximum target-product yield while maintaining a given working life. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons are formed by the naphthene dehydrogenation, which is endothermic, so the greater the temperature drop over the height, the more rapid the process. The temperature difference thus indicates the current catalyst activity. To increase the target-product yield, one must raise the inlet temperature and ensure the largest drop across the catalyst. They examined an algorithm with fixed inlet conditions as regards flow rate and raw material composition. This algorithm provides the basis of software for the automatic control of the L-35-6 reactor unit at the Gor'knefteorgsintez Industrial Association. The system has been checked out and put into experimental operation.

Mazina, S.G.; Rybtsov, V.V.; Priss-Titarenko, T.A.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

77

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

78

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

79

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

80

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Methods of separating particulate residue streams  

SciTech Connect

A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Christopher T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

83

Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

86

Combustor for fine particulate coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

87

Microsoft Word - 41891_SWPC_Catalytic Combustor_Factsheet_Rev01_04-24.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

891_SWPC_CATALYTIC COMBUSTOR_FACTSHEET_REV01_04-24.DOC 891_SWPC_CATALYTIC COMBUSTOR_FACTSHEET_REV01_04-24.DOC Facts Sheet: Catalytic Combustor for Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine (DE-FC26-03NT41891) I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS A. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation B. Caterpillar/Solar Turbine C. Penn State University D. Southern Company Services II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objective: To develop and demonstrate a cost effective, fuel flexible (syngas/natural gas) catalytic combustor that will achieve ultra low NOx emissions (2ppm) at the exit of the gas turbine and without the use of backend cleanup in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) application. B. Background/Relevancy 1. Background: Catalytic combustion has been shown to achieve lowest emissions in conventional gas turbine application (natural gas only). Available technical data indicate that it can be effective

88

Non-thermal Aftertreatment of Particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Modern diesel passenger vehicles employing common rail, high speed direct injection engines are capable of matching the drivability of gasoline powered vehicles with the additional benefit of providing high torque at low engine speed [1]. The diesel engine also offers considerable fuel economy and CO2 emissions advantages. However, future emissions standards [2,3] present a significant challenge for the diesel engine, as its lean exhaust precludes the use of aftertreatment strategies employing 3- way catalytic converters, which operate under stoichiometric conditions. In recent years significant developments by diesel engine manufacturers have greatly reduced emissions of both particulates (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [4,5]. However to achieve compliance with future legislative limits it has been suggested that an integrated approach involving a combination of engine modifications and aftertreatment technology [1] will be required. A relatively new approach to exhaust aftertreatment is the application of non-thermal plasma (NTP) or plasma catalyst hybrid systems. These have the potential for treatment of both NOx and PM emissions [6- 8]. The primary focus of recent plasma aftertreatment studies [9-12] has concentrated on the removal of NOx. It has been shown that by combining plasmas with catalysts it is possible to chemically reduce NOx. The most common approach is to use a 2- stage system relying upon the plasma oxidation of hydrocarbons to promote NO to NO2 conversion as a precursor to NO2 reduction over a catalyst. However, relatively little work has yet been published on the oxidation of PM by plasma [ 8,13]. Previous investigations [8] have reported that a suitably designed NTP reactor containing a packing material designed to filter and retain PM can effect the oxidation of PM in diesel exhausts at low temperatures. It has been suggested that the retained PM competes with hydrocarbons for O, and possibly OH, radicals. This is an important consideration in plasma - catalyst hybrid schemes for the removal of NOx employing an NO2 selective catalyst, as the oxidation of PM may deplete the key radicals necessary for NO to NO2 conversion. It was also suggested that where simultaneous NOx and PM removal are required, alternative catalyst formulations may be needed which may be selective to NO rather than NO2.

Thomas, S.E.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

89

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

91

Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

Miller, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, ND); Zhuang, Ye (Grand Forks, ND); Almlie, Jay C. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

92

High severity catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-severity catalytic reforming process is described comprising: (a) passing a mixture comprising a catalytic reforming feed stream and a recycle stream into a catalytic reforming reaction zone which is maintained at high-severity reforming conditions; (b) cooling an effluent stream comprising hydrogen and hydrocarbonaceous catalytic reforming reaction products which is withdrawn from the reaction zone; (c) passing the cooled effluent stream into a vapor-liquid separation zone and recovering therefrom a liquid stream comprising hydrocarbons and a hydrogen-rich gas stream; (d) passing the hydrogen-rich gas stream through an adsorption zone wherein the gas is contacted with a treating material which removes polycyclic aromatic compounds from the gas stream, the compounds remaining in the adsorption zone; (e) mixing a portion of the hydrogen-rich gas stream, which is the recycle stream, with the feed stream to form the charge stock mixture and withdrawing the balance of the hydrogen-rich gas stream, which is denoted as net hydrogen, from the catalytic reforming area, all of the hydrogen-rich gas stream being substantially free of polycyclic aromatic compounds; and (f) fractionating the liquid stream and recovering an overhead product comprising light hydrocarbons and a bottoms product comprising reformate.

Bennett, R.W.; Cottrell, P.R.; Gilsdorf, N.L.; Winfield, M.D.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

93

Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

94

Engines - 3-D Animation Shows Complex Geometry of Diesel Particulates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3-D Animation Shows Complex Geometry of Diesel Particulates Diesel particulate matter has a very complex geometry Most studies have observed these three-dimensional structures in...

95

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 3 - Particulate Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 - Particulate Emissions from Industrial Processes (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 3 - Particulate Emissions from Industrial Processes (Rhode Island)...

96

Radiant zone heated particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

97

Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.

MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

98

High temperature catalytic membrane reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current state-of-the-art inorganic oxide membranes offer the potential of being modified to yield catalytic properties. The resulting modules may be configured to simultaneously induce catalytic reactions with product concentration and separation in a single processing step. Processes utilizing such catalytically active membrane reactors have the potential for dramatically increasing yield reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity. Examples of commercial interest include hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, partial and selective oxidation, hydrations, hydrocarbon cracking, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, and olefin polymerization. A large portion of the most significant reactions fall into the category of high temperature, gas phase chemical and petrochemical processes. Microporous oxide membranes are well suited for these applications. A program is proposed to investigate selected model reactions of commercial interest (i.e. dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene) using a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor. Membranes will be developed, reaction dynamics characterized, and production processes developed, culminating in laboratory-scale demonstration of technical and economic feasibility. As a result, the anticipated increased yield per reactor pass economic incentives are envisioned. First, a large decrease in the temperature required to obtain high yield should be possible because of the reduced driving force requirement. Significantly higher conversion per pass implies a reduced recycle ratio, as well as reduced reactor size. Both factors result in reduced capital costs, as well as savings in cost of reactants and energy.

Not Available

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

100

Superconducting Cuprates on Catalytic Substrates - Energy ...  

Electricity Transmission Superconducting Cuprates on Catalytic Substrates Brookhaven National Laboratory. Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Design of Catalytic Materials for Plasma Assisted Catalysis System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In recent years, the Plasma Assisted Catalysis (PAC) approach for controlling NOx and/or particulate emissions from mobile diesel engines has received a significant amount of attention from researchers. Substantial work has been performed by various researchers to develop an understanding of the reaction mechanisms in a plasma reactor in conjunction with conventional lean-NOx catalyst materials. However, less effort has been devoted to systematically investigating new catalyst materials specifically designed for application in the PAC system. Since it is believed that plasma produces a unique environment for a catalyst bed (i.e. oxidation of NO to NO2 and partial oxidation/reforming of hydrocarbon reductants in the exhaust), new catalytic materials that take advantage of the plasma reactor conditions need to be studied. Optimum catalyst materials will be required in order to develop a PAC system that achieves maximum deNOx performance over the wide range of operating conditions in which the system will be required to operate for application on heavy duty diesel engines. This presentation discusses the issues involved in designing catalytic materials for achieving high NOx conversion in a laboratory test PAC system, and what is required to improve the catalyst materials further for application in an on-engine environment.

Park, Paul W.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

102

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

103

An improved visualization of diesel particulate filter/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The prevalence of diesel particulate filters (DPF) is increasing as emissions standards worldwide evolve to match current technologies. Since the first application of DPFs in the 1980's, PM trapping effectiveness has ...

Boehm, Kevin (Kevin W.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

New ESP additive controls particulates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

NETL: Control Technology: Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Under DOE-NETL sponsorship, the University of North Dakota, Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) has developed a new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Otter Tail Power Company. The AHPC utilizes both electrostatic collection and filtration in a unique geometric configuration that achieves ultrahigh particle collection with much less collection area than conventional particulate control devices. The primary technologies for state-of-the-art particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A major limitation of ESPs is that the fractional penetration of 0.1- to 1.0-µm particles is typically at least an order of magnitude greater than for 10-µm particles, so a situation exists where the particles that are of greatest health concern are collected with the lowest efficiency. Fabric filters are currently considered to be the best available control technology for fine particles, but emissions are dependent on ash properties and typically increase if the air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio is increased. In addition, many fabrics cannot withstand the rigors of high-SO2 flue gases, which are typical for bituminous fuels. Fabric filters may also have problems with bag cleanability and high pressure drop, which has resulted in conservatively designed, large, costly baghouses.

106

Catalytic Device International LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Catalytic Device International LLC Catalytic Device International LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Catalytic Device International LLC Place Pleasanton, California Product California-based, firm focused on portable, heat-on-demand products. References Catalytic Device International LLC[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Catalytic Device International LLC is a company located in Pleasanton, California . References ↑ "Catalytic Device International LLC" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Catalytic_Device_International_LLC&oldid=343285" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages

107

Endothermic photo-catalytic reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this report is to present the results of an investigation to provide guidelines for future experimental work, on solar energy driven endothermic photo-catalytic reactions, and primarily to select candidate synthesis reactions which lead to high $-value products. An intensive literature search was conducted to find properties, market demand, and prices of pertinent chemicals; meeting four criteria: (1) the reaction must be endothermic and favorable; (2) the reaction must be catalytic; (3) the product must be produced from low cost feedstocks; and (4) the product must have a sales price >$1.00/lb. Initial examination of low cost feedstocks to high value products lead to consideration of n-paraffins to aromatics and substituted aromatics. Fifteen candidate endothermic synthesis reactions, meeting the above criteria, are suggested. The ratio of product price by reactant cost indicates {approximately}5--8 for the best possibilities; all can be visualized as starting with low cost paraffin and methanol feedstocks.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Wentworth, W.E.; Polonczyk, K.C.; Saghafi, M.; Wilking, J.A.; Kramer, K.S. (Houston Univ., TX (United States))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

Miller, S.J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

5-Year Research Plan on Fine Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Technology Laboratory Five Year Research Plan on Fine Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere FY2001-FY2005 NETL PM Research Program Ambient Sampling & Analysis Control Technology R&D Source Characterization Predictive Modeling -iii- TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 A. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. Outlook for PM and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 II. OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 A. Program Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B. Current Program Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1. The Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

110

Method of improving catalytic activity and catalytics produced thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for dissociating H{sub 2}S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material is disclosed in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275C with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 manometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1--100 nm range. This invention may have application to vehicle emissions control (three-way catalysts).

Beck, D.D.; Siegel, R.W.

1993-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

111

Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

Blainey, A.

1959-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

113

Catalytic steam gasification of carbon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Unsupported carbide powders with high specific surface area, namely {alpha}-WC (35 m{sup 2}/g, hexagonal), {beta}-WC{sub 0.61} (100 m{sup 2}/g, cubic face centered) and {beta}-WC{sub 0.5} (15 m{sup 2}/g, hexagonal) have been prepared. The key element in this preparation is the successful removal of surface polymeric carbon by careful gasification to methane by means of dihydrogen. These tungsten carbide powders have been used in catalytic reactions of oxidation of H{sub 2} and hydrogenolysis of alkanes, such as butane, hexane, and neopentane.

Boudart, M.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Catalytic membranes for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

115

An update on catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The UOP Platforming process is a catalytic reforming process in widespread use throughout the petroleum and petrochemical industries. Since the first unit went onstream in 1949, the process has become a standard feature in refineries worldwide. Over the years, significant improvements have been made in process catalysts and process design. The most recent improvement is the combination of a catalyst called R-72 with a new patented flow scheme, R-72 staged loading, which gives significantly higher yields and provides increased catalyst stability. In this article, the authors describe two types of Platforming processes and the new R-72 staged loading scheme.

Wei, D.H.; Moser, M.D.; Haizmann, R.S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Lean (RCL TM ) technology, Figure 1, is being developed as an ultra low NOx gas turbine combustor for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). In this concept,...

117

Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

118

Particulate matter sensor with a heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

119

Pemex opts for catalytic dehydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

In the gas-rich areas such as the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Canada, and Mexico, low-cost ethane is the feed of choice for ethylene production. Coproduct production is minimal. Continued growth in demand for propylene, isobutylene, normal butone-1, and butadiene requires that alternate sources of these normally coproduct olefins be developed. Catalytic dehydrogenation, with its high selectivity to the desired olefin, is the logical and economic choice. Mexico is a case in point. It's ethylene production is based on ethane. Demand is rising for propylene and butadiene derivatives, and a potential demand exists for isobutylene to produce octane enhancers to implement an announced lead phase down. Only modest amounts of by-product monoolefin will be available from refining operations. Pemex, the Mexican refining and petrochemical giant, recognized this and started up its first Houdry Catadene /SUP TM/ plant in 1975 at Ciudad Madero to produce 55,000 metric ton/year of butadiene from normal butane. Pemex recently committed to a large (350,000 metric ton/year) propylene-from-propane plant at Morelos based on the Houdry Catofin /SUP TM/ catalytic dehydrogenation process. The plant will supply propylene to a long list of derivative plants (Table 1).

Craig, R.G.; Penny, S.J.; Schwartz, W.A.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Particulate Fouling of HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey Alexander Siegel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particulate Fouling of HVAC Heat Exchangers by Jeffrey Alexander Siegel B.S. (Swarthmore College.......................................................................................xv CHAPTER 1: PARTICULATE FOULING OF HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS ....1 1.1 Introduction.......................................................................11 CHAPTER 2: MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS

Siegel, Jeffrey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Tier II Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to their excellent fuel efficiency, reliability, and durability, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines have been used extensively to power almost all highway trucks, urban buses, off-road vehicles, marine carriers, and industrial equipment. CIDI engines burn 35 to 50% less fuel than gasoline engines of comparable size, and they emit far less greenhouse gases (Carbon Dioxides), which have been implicated in global warming. Although the emissions of CIDI engines have been reduced significantly over the last decade, there remains concern with the Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM) emission levels. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulations. Meeting the Tier II standards requires NOX and PM emissions to be reduced dramatically. Achieving such low emissions while minimizing fuel economy penalty cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOX and PM aftertreatment control devices. A joint effort was made between Cummins Inc. and the Department of Energy to develop the generic aftertreatment subsystem technologies applicable for Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) and Light-Duty Truck (LDT) engines. This paper provides an update on the progress of this joint development program. Three NOX reduction technologies including plasmaassisted catalytic NOX reduction (PACR), active lean NOX catalyst (LNC), and adsorber catalyst (AC) technology using intermittent rich conditions for NOX reduction were investigated in parallel in an attempt to select the best NOX control approach for light-duty aftertreatment subsystem integration and development. Investigations included system design and analysis, critical lab/engine experiments, and ranking then selection of NOX control technologies against reliability, up-front cost, fuel economy, service interval/serviceability, and size/weight. The results of the investigations indicate that the best NOX control approach for LDV and LDT applications is a NOX adsorber system. A greater than 83% NOX reduction efficiency is required to achieve 0.07g/mile NOX Tier II vehicle-out emissions. Both active lean NOX and PACR technology are currently not capable of achieving the high conversion efficiency required for Tier II, Bin 5 emissions standards. In this paper, the NOX technology assessment and selection is first reviewed and discussed. Development of the selected NOX technology (NOX adsorber) and PM control are then discussed in more detail. Discussion includes exhaust sulfur management, further adsorber formulation development, reductant screening, diesel particulate filter development & active regeneration, and preliminary test results on the selected integrated SOX trap, NOX adsorber, and diesel particulate filter system over an FTP-75 emissions cycle, and its impact on fuel economy. Finally, the direction of future work for continued advanced aftertreatment technology development is discussed. (SAE Paper SAE-2002-01-1867 © 2002 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Yu, R. C.; Cole, A. S., Stroia, B. J.; Huang, S. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Howden, Kenneth C.; Chalk, Steven (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Microscopy investigations of ash and particulate matter accumulation in diesel particulate filter surface pores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been increased focus on the environmental impact of automobile emissions in recent years. These environmental concerns have resulted in the creation of more stringent particulate matter emissions regulations in ...

Beauboeuf, Daniel P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems  

SciTech Connect

A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

124

Development of Metal Substrate for Denox Catalysts and Particulate Trap  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop advanced metallic catalyst substrate materials and designs for use in off-highway applications. The new materials and designs will be used as catalyst substrates and diesel particulate traps. They will increase durability, reduce flow resistance, decrease time to light-off, and reduce cost relative to cordierite substrates. Metallic catalyst substrates are used extensively for diesel oxidation catalysts and have the potential to be used in other catalytic systems for diesel engines. Metallic substrates have many advantages over ceramic materials including improved durability and resistance to thermal shock and vibration. However, the cost is generally higher than cordierite. The most common foil material used for metallic substrates is FeCr Alloy, which is expensive and has temperature capabilities beyond what is necessary for diesel applications. The first task in the project was Identification and Testing of New Materials. In this task, several materials were analyzed to determine if a low cost substitute for FeCr Alloy was available or could be developed. Two materials were identified as having lower cost while showing no decrease in mechanical properties or oxidation resistance at the application temperatures. Also, the ability to fabricate these materials into a finished substrate was not compromised, and the ability to washcoat these materials was satisfactory. Therefore, both candidate materials were recommended for cost savings depending on which would be less expensive in production quantities. The second task dealt with the use of novel flow designs to improve the converter efficiency while possibly decreasing the size of the converter to reduce cost even more. A non-linear flow path was simulated to determine if there would be an increase in efficiency. From there, small samples were produced for bench testing. Bench tests showed that the use of non-linear channels significantly reduced the light-off temperature for diesel oxidation catalytic converters. Finally, the third task was to implement these materials and designs into a full-size converter. Hot shake testing of 13-inch diameter straight channel substrates showed no significant difference in durability between the current material and the two proposed materials. At the time that this program ended, preparations were being made for full-scale emissions testing of the new design converter for comparison to a traditional straight channel with equal catalyst loading.

Pollard, Michael; Habeger, Craig; Frary, Megan; Haines, Scott; Fluharty, Amy; Dakhoul, Youssef; Carr, Michael; Park, Paul; Stefanick, Matthew; DaCosta, Herbert; Balmer-Millar, M Lou; Readey, Michael; McCluskey, Philip

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method of fabricating a catalytic structure  

SciTech Connect

A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

126

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

127

Catalytic reactor with improved burner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

Faitani, Joseph J. (Hartford, CT); Austin, George W. (Glastonbury, CT); Chase, Terry J. (Somers, CT); Suljak, George T. (Vernon, CT); Misage, Robert J. (Manchester,all of, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

Busey, H.M.

1958-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

129

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on the larger reactors were also combined into a single manifold and returned to the host boiler draft system at the existing host APH outlet. All particulate matter removed from...

130

TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels and Biobased Products TCS 2014 Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels and Biobased Products...

131

Catalytic Properties of Ni-Al Intermetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to pursue high catalytic performance of Ni-Al intermetallic ... very high catalytic activity for methanol decomposition and methane steam reforming.

132

Microsoft Word - 41890_PW_Catalytic Combustion_Factsheet_Rev01_12-03.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion DE-FC26-03NT41890 I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS A. Prime: United Technologies Corporation through its Pratt and Whitney Division B. Sub-award: Precision Combustion, Incorporated II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objectives: Create an Implementation Plan and Integration Study for rich catalytic combustion as applied to industrial gas turbines fired on both natural gas and coal derived synthesis gas. The overall goal is a combustion system that will be capable of NOx less than 2 ppmvd. at 15% oxygen in an F-class gas turbine without exhaust gas after-treatment. B. Background/relevancy: The objective of the Turbines (HEET) program is to create the necessary technology base leading to Vision 21 (V21) goals. V21

133

NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER  

SciTech Connect

A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Spatial and temporal distributions of particulate matter and particulate organic carbon, Northeast Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distribution of particulate matter (PM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) was determined during the Northeast Gulf of Mexico Chemical Oceanography and Hydro-graphy program (NEGOM). The hydrography and physical forcing functions were examined to explain particulate matter distribution. PM and POC were determined for discrete samples, and PM was also compared with in situ beam attenuation measure-ments in order to make estimations of continuous particle concentration profiles. Measurements were made three times per year for three years, during 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000, but only the first two years' worth of results are reported here. PM distributions vary seasonally and interannually. General patterns tend to be fairly consistent spatially and temporally during fall and spring, but intensity changes accord-ing to season. Differences present at the surface appear to be due mainly to riverine input of nutrients and particles from the several major rivers that flow into the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Wind-forced circulation appears to be a minor influence on surface particulate distribution. Secondary eddies can have an effect upon distribution, as seen with an anticyclonic feature over the upper slope during Summer 1998 which entrained less saline, high particulate river water offshore. A similar effect was noted during Summer 1999, but to a lesser degree. A shelf edge current associated with anticyclonic flow seems to be a mechanism responsible for the appearance of nepheloid layers on the outer shelf.

Bernal, Christina Estefana

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Low cost catalysts for regeneration of diesel particulate filters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A range of perovskites including the substituted and promoted perovskite type catalytic materials have been designed and synthesized using various techniques. In this work we have studied the catalytic activities of a praseodymium substituted La0.8Pr0.2MnO3 ... Keywords: catalytic regeneration of DPF, perovskite, praseodymium substituted lanthanum-magnates perovskite

Manju Dhakad; S. S. Rayalu; Rakesh Kumar; D. Fino; N. Russo; Nitin Labhsetwar

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Glycoside hydrolases: Catalytic base/nucleophile diversity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glycoside Glycoside Hydrolases: Catalytic Base/Nucleophile Diversity Thu V. Vuong, David B. Wilson Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, 458 Biotechnology Building, Ithaca, New York 14850; telephone: 607-255-5706; fax: 607-255-2428; e-mail: dbw3@cornell.edu Received 1 April 2010; revision received 27 May 2010; accepted 2 June 2010 Published online 15 June 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22838 ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that a number of glycoside hydrolase families do not follow the classical catalytic mechanisms, as they lack a typical catalytic base/ nucleophile. A variety of mechanisms are used to replace this function, including substrate-assisted catalysis, a network of several residues, and the use of non-carboxylate residues or exogenous nucleophiles. Removal of the catalytic base/ nucleophile

139

Optimal control of fluid catalytic cracking processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investigation was made of the applicability of optimal control theory to the design of control systems for non-linear, multivariable chemical processes. A hypothetical fluid catalytic cracking process was selected as a typical representative of such ...

L. A. Gould; L. B. Evans; H. Kurihara

1970-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Argonne TTRDC - Engines - Emissions Control - Advanced Diesel Particulate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations require that on-highway diesel vehicles have filtration systems to reduce tail-pipe soot emissions, known as particulate matter (PM). Diesel particulate filtration (DPF) systems are currently the most efficient at directly controlling PM. Argonne researchers, working with Corning, Inc., and Caterpillar, Inc., through a cooperative research and development agreement, are exploiting previously unavailable technology and research results on diesel PM filtration and regeneration processes, aiming to the technology transfer of advanced PM emission control to industry. Argonne's Research In operation of DPF systems, the filtration and regeneration of particulate emissions are the key processes to be controlled for high efficiency. Due to difficulties in accessing the micro-scaled structures of DPF membranes and monitoring particulate filtration and high-temperature thermal processes, however, research has been limited to macroscopic observation for the product.

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141

X-Ray Absorption Characterization of Diesel Exhaust Particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have characterized particulates from a 1993 11.1 Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine with electronic unit injectors operated using fuels with and without methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and overbased calcium sulfonate added. X-ray photoabsorption (XAS) spectroscopy was used to characterize the diesel particulates. Results reveal a mixture of primarily Mn-phosphate with some Mn-oxide, and Ca-sulfate on the surface of the filtered particulates from the diesel engine.

Nelson, A J; Ferreira, J L; Reynolds, J G; Roos, J W

1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

142

Particulate Controls for Near-Zero Emissions Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses the ability of current and developing particulate control technologies to meet extremely low, continuous, particulate emission limits. Interest in this topic is due to concerns about the environmental impact of coal-fired power plants and the trend towards lower and lower particulate emission limits proposed by regulators and environmental groups. The report characterizes the capabilities of existing electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and fabric filters (FFs) and identifies several ...

2008-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

143

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13 - Particulate Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13 - Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13...

144

TransForum v3n4 - Diesel Particulates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ZEROING IN ON DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS Thick clouds of soot particles no longer billow from new bus and truck exhaust pipes, thanks to today's advanced diesel engines, which...

145

Particulate Measurements and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Fuel Vehicle Exhaust  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to measure and characterize particulate emissions from light-duty alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and equivalent gasoline-fueled vehicles. The project included emission testing of a fleet of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel vehicles. Particulate measurements were obtained over Federal Test Procedure and US06 cycles. Chemical characterization of the exhaust particulate was also performed. Overall, the particulate emissions from modern technology compressed natural gas and methanol vehicles were low, but were still comparable to those of similar technology gasoline vehicles.

Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.; Norbeck, J. M. (Center for Environmental Research and Technology College of Engineering, University of California - Riverside, California)

1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

146

Performance evaluation of diesel particulate filters on heavy duty vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Diesel particulate filters, or DPFs, are exhaust aftertreatment devices used to reduce exhaust emissions from diesel powered vehicles. Typical designs have a wall flow filter… (more)

Rosepiler, Stephen G.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Transpiration Purging Access Probe for Particulate Laden or  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

need for sensors that tolerate dirty environments, research is currently active on the patent-pending technology "Transpiration Purging Access Probe for Particulate Laden or...

148

Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V.

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

150

Discrete-element modeling of particulate aerosol flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-time step computational approach is presented for efficient discrete-element modeling of aerosol flows containing adhesive solid particles. Adhesive aerosol particulates are found in numerous dust and smoke contamination problems, including ... Keywords: Aerosols, Aggregation, Particle adhesion, Particulate flow

J. S. Marshall

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

Postma, Arlin K. (Benton City, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

Carl, D.E.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

153

Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Docket No. EO-05-01: TRC Environmental Corporation (TRC) of Lowell, Massachusetts was retained by Mirant Potomac River, LLC (Mirant) to provide sampling and analytical support in completing a Particulate Emission Test of Unit 1 of the Potomac River generating facility. The Test Program at the Potomac facility involved the completion of two series of emissions tests for particulate matter (PM), the first during normal unit operation and the second with the injection of TRONA upstream of hot side ESP fields. All tests were completed while Unit 1 was operating at 90% of full load (84MW)

154

Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Richland, WA); Hirth, John P. (Viola, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

156

Fundamental kinetic modeling of the catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, a fundamental kinetic model for the catalytic reforming process has been developed. The complex network of elementary steps and molecular reactions occurring in catalytic reforming has been generated through a computer algorithm characterizing ...

Rogelio Sotelo-Boyas / Gilbert F. Froment; Rayford G. Anthony

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Fuzzy modeling of fluidized catalytic cracking unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper deals with the fuzzy system identification of reactor-regenerator-stripper-fractionator's (RRSF) section of a fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU). The fuzzy system identification based on the data collected from an operating refinery of ... Keywords: Dynamic fuzzy model, FCCU models, Fuzzy clustering, Fuzzy inference systems, Fuzzy models, Hybrid learning, Mountain clustering, Supervised learning, Unsupervised learning

Mohammad Fazle Azeem; Nesar Ahmad; M. Hanmandlu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

Richard S. Tuthill

2004-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

Annual Operation of Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2009, many coal-fired generating units equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for nitrogen oxide (NOX) control will convert from seasonal to annual SCR operation. This report provides guidelines on how to prepare for annual operation. It focuses on existing experience with annual operation, catalyst management strategy, equipment reliability, cold weather issues, low load and cycling operation, and risk assessment.

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

2001 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 100,000 megawatts of coal-fired capacity in the United States will employ selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for the control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions by 2004. The 2001 Workshop on SCR, held in Baltimore, Maryland, provided a forum for discussion of current SCR issues.

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

162

Purification of reformer streams by catalytic hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic Reforming is one of the most important processes to produce high grade motor gasolines. Feedstocks are mainly gasoline and naphtha streams from the crude oil distillation boiling in the range of 212 F to 350 F. By catalytic reforming the octane number of these gasoline components is increased from 40--60 RON to 95--100 RON. Besides isomerization and dehydrocyclization reactions mainly formation of aromatics by dehydrogenation of naphthenes occur. Thus, catalytic reformers within refineries are an important source of BTX--aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes). Frequently, high purity aromatics are recovered from these streams using modern extractive distillation or liquid extraction processes, e.g. the Krupp-Koppers MORPHYLANE{reg_sign} process. Aromatics product specifications, notably bromine index and acid wash color, have obligated producers to utilize clay treatment to remove trace impurities of diolefins and/or olefins. The conventional clay treatment is a multiple vessel batch process which periodically requires disposal of the spent clay in a suitable environmental manner. BASF, in close cooperation with Krupp-Koppers, has developed a continuous Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation Process (SCHP) as an alternative to clay treatment which is very efficient, cost effective and environmentally compatible. In the following the main process aspects including the process scheme catalyst and operating conditions is described.

Polanek, P.J. [BASF Corp., Geismar, LA (United States); Hooper, H.M. [Krupp Wilputte Corp., Bridgeville, PA (United States); Mueller, J.; Walter, M. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Emmrich, G. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Colorado Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Other/Residual Fuel Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Colorado Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Other/Residual Fuel Oil Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

164

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Kerosene/Jet Fuel ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Kerosene/Jet Fuel Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

165

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Hydrocracking, Gas Oil Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Hydrocracking, Gas Oil Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

166

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

167

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

168

U.S. Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Heavy Gas Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Catalytic Hydrotreating, Heavy Gas Oil Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

169

Development of hollow fiber catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technology employed in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) permits burning coals with a wide range of sulfur concentrations. Emissions from the process should be reduced by an order of magnitude below stringent federal air quality regulations for coal-fired plants. The maximum thermal efficiency of this type of process can be achieved by removing sulfur and particulates from the high temperature gas. The objective of this project was to develop economically and technically viable catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature, high pressure gaseous contaminant control in IGCC systems. These catalytic membrane reactors were used to decompose H{sub 2}S and separate the reaction products. The reactors were designed to operate in the hostile process environment of the IGCC systems, and at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1,000. Feasibility of the membrane reactor process for decomposition of hydrogen sulfide was demonstrated; permeability and selectivity of molecular-sieve and Vycor glass membranes were studied at temperatures up to 1,000 C; experimental study of hydrogen sulfide in the membrane reactor was completed; and a generalized mathematical model was developed for the simulation of the high temperature membrane reactor.

Ma, Y.H.; Moser, W.R.; Pien, S.; Shelekhin, A.B.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

Perry, Dale L. (Hercules, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA); Mao, Xianglei (Berkeley, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional flame combustion, and realizes the combustion of ultra-natural gas/air mixture under the flammable limits. Its combustion efficiency is higher, which improves the ratio of energy utilization. Applying the catalytic combustion to gas boilers could solve the gas boilers' lower combustion efficiency, and achieve energy savings. On the basis of the catalytic combustion burner, the catalytic combustion burner was designed according to the catalytic combustion and water heaters. In this paper, we analyzed the heat loss and thermal efficiency of the catalytic combustion burner, and compared it to that of flame combustion boilers. The results showed that catalytic combustion burner ?'s heat loss is not so high as originally considered, and its pollutant emissions are lower.

Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Catalytic Activity of Supported Metal Particles for Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Reaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production of hydrogen by splitting water in thermochemical water-splitting cycles, such as the sulfur-based group that employs the catalytic decomposition of sulfuric acid into SO2 and O2 is of considerable interest. Most of these processes occur at high temperatures (T = 1,000 K) and exposes catalysts to the extreme conditions such as steam, oxygen, and acid vapor that severely damage these catalysts within a short time. To develop an understanding of the factors that cause catalyst deactivation, we performed density-functional-theory (DFT)-based first-principles calculations and computer simulations for transition metal (TM) particles positioned on the two types of substrate (?-alumina and TiO2-rutile). The catalytic activity of the considered systems is defined by several factors, namely: (i) The efficiency of detaching oxygen atoms from the sulfur-containing species SOn (n = 1,2,3). The breaking of the S-O bonds may occur at both the substrate and the transition metal cluster. However, the bond-breaking at the substrate is endothermic (and takes about 1.5 eV per bond) while at low-coordinated metal atom of a cluster it is exothermic (with energy gain of about 0.5 eV per bond). This explains why the presence of transition metal clusters is necessary for catalytic activity; (ii) The ability of the cluster to “clean” itself, i.e., to eliminate oxygen from its surface, in order to regain the catalytically active sites and to continue the process. We found that the clusters of Pd and Pt with the size = 2-3 nm are more efficient in this process (at T = 1,000 K) than the clusters of other TM’s considered (Rh, Ir, Ru, and Os); (iii) The ability of the cluster to keep its size to avoid sintering (that reduces the number of low-coordinated catalytically active sites at the surface of the cluster). We found that the sintering of Rh, Ir, Ru, and Os clusters is significantly suppressed in comparison with the sintering of Pd and Pt clusters of the same size (the individual atoms at the surface of Rh and Ir clusters have a tendency to have higher coordination number, i.e., the detachment of individual atoms from the surface is less likely). Therefore, the activity of TM nanoparticles is mainly defined by the competing factors (ii) and (iii). At the present, we try to find (experimentally and theoretically) the most optimal combination of the structure, size, and composition of TM nanoparticles, for which the catalytic activity of sulfuric acid decomposition will be the highest.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Daniel M. Ginosar; Lucia M. Petkovic; Helen H. Farrell

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Mechanical Properties of Particulate Reinforced Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the mechanical properties of Titanium Carbide (TiC) particulate reinforced aluminium-silicon alloy matrix composite. TiC particulate reinforced LM6 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by carbon dioxide sand molding process with different particulate weight fraction. Tensile strength, hardness and microstructure studies were conducted to determine the maximum load, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and fracture surface analysis have been performed to characterize the morphological aspects of the test samples after tensile testing. Hardness values are measured for the TiC reinforced LM6 alloy composites and it has been found that it gradually increases with increased addition of the reinforcement phase. The tensile strength of the composites increased with the increase percentage of TiC particulate.

Sayuti, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Malikussaleh University of Lhokseumawe, 24300 Aceh (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sulaiman, S.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Arifin, M. K. A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Suraya, S.; Vijayaram, T. R.

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

174

JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

Stanley Miller

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Plasma Aftertreatment for Simultaneous Control of NOx and Particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plasma reactors can be operated as a particulate trap or as a NO{sub x} converter. The soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the trapped particulates can be utilized for the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The NO{sub 2} can then be used to non-thermally oxidize the carbon fraction of the particulates. This paper examines the energy density required for oxidation of the SOF hydrocarbons and the fate of NO{sub 2} during the oxidation of the particulate carbon. The energy density required for complete oxidation of the SOF hydrocarbons is shown to be unacceptably large. The reaction of NO{sub 2} with carbon is shown to lead mainly to backconversion of NO{sub 2} to NO. These results suggest that the use of a catalyst in combination with the plasma will be required to efficiently reduce the NO{sub x} and oxidize the SOF hydrocarbons.

Penetrante, B.M.; Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Pitz, W.J.; Vogtlin, G.E.

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ris-R-1053(EN) Particulate Air Pollution with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

particulate matter in inner city air. The particle size distribution shows that 92 % of the mass of airborne91 F Main reaction pathways in non sulphur vulcanisation 94 G Flame atomic absorption spectrometer

177

A process for off-gas particulate removal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This paper describes an off-gas system for the removal of radioactive particulates from a melter for the vitrification of radioactive wastes to form glass waste forms. A diagram is provided.

Carl, D.E.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Endothermic photo-catalytic reactions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this report is to present the results of an investigation to provide guidelines for future experimental work, on solar energy driven endothermic photo-catalytic reactions, and primarily to select candidate synthesis reactions which lead to high $-value products. An intensive literature search was conducted to find properties, market demand, and prices of pertinent chemicals; meeting four criteria: (1) the reaction must be endothermic and favorable; (2) the reaction must be catalytic; (3) the product must be produced from low cost feedstocks; and (4) the product must have a sales price >$1.00/lb. Initial examination of low cost feedstocks to high value products lead to consideration of n-paraffins to aromatics and substituted aromatics. Fifteen candidate endothermic synthesis reactions, meeting the above criteria, are suggested. The ratio of product price by reactant cost indicates {approximately}5--8 for the best possibilities; all can be visualized as starting with low cost paraffin and methanol feedstocks.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Wentworth, W.E.; Polonczyk, K.C.; Saghafi, M.; Wilking, J.A.; Kramer, K.S. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

State emissions limitations for boilers: particulate matter  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes regulations applicable to boilers as reflected in current state and local air regulations. Not all of these regulations are officially part of Federally-approved State Implementation Plans (SIPs). Several regulations have only recently been adopted by the State and are now undergoing EPA review for incorporation into the SIP. Each summary also contains local regulations more stringent than the State rules. Most local regulations in this handbook are included in the State Implementation Plan. Site-specific emission limits (variances from State limits or limits more stringent than State limits) are not included in these summaries. Appendix A contains maps showing the location of Air Quality Control Regions or other districts by which several States regulate emissions. Appendix B contains a summary of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, which States are required to meet as a minimum. Appendix C contains a description and summary of Federal New Source Performance Standards. Appendix D contains formulas for conversion of emmissions limits expressed in one set of units to the most common units - No. PM/MMBtu. Appendix E contains Figure 2 of ASME APS-1, used for determining particulate emissions limits in some States.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Database - Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Deactivation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst deactivation is a critical parameter controlling to a large extent achievable catalyst life, as well as overall SCR system performance. Accurate assessment and prediction of catalyst deactivation is required to adequately manage reactor potential. EPRI has on-going efforts underway aimed at better understanding the factors that affect catalyst deactivation, especially as a function of fuel, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions, in hopes of ...

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

2006 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI held the 2006 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) on October 31 November 2, 2006 at the Dearborn Inn in Dearborn, Michigan and at DTE Energy's Monroe Station. Post-Combustion NOX Control Program members, invited speakers, and EPRI staff participated in this two and a half day event. The workshop agenda was comprised of twenty-seven presentations, two panel discussions, and a plant tour. Operating experience reports on SCR systems at Baldwin, Bowen, Bull Run, Crist, Cumberland, Gaston, Go...

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

182

Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

183

Preconversion catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The deoxygenation of phenols is a conceptually simple, but unusually difficult chemical transformation to achieve. Aryl carbon-oxygen bond cleavage is a chemical transformation of importance in coal liquefaction and the upgrading of coal liquids as well as in the synthesis of natural products. This proposed research offers the possibility of effecting the selective catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups using CO. A program of research for the catalytic deoxygenation of phenols, via a low energy mechanistic pathway that is based on the use of the CO/CO{sub 2} couple to remove phenolic oxygen atoms, is underway. We are focusing on systems which have significant promise as catalysts: Ir(triphos)OPh, (Pt(triphos)OPh){sup +} and Rh(triphos)OPh. Our studies of phenol deoxygenation focus on monitoring the reactions for the elementary processes upon which catalytic activity will depend: CO insertion into M-OPh bonds, CO{sub 2} elimination from aryloxy carbonyls {l brace}M-C(O)-O-Ph{r brace}, followed by formation of a coordinated benzyne intermediate.

Kubiak, C.P.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A revolution in micropower : the catalytic nanodiode.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our ability to field useful, nano-enabled microsystems that capitalize on recent advances in sensor technology is severely limited by the energy density of available power sources. The catalytic nanodiode (reported by Somorjai's group at Berkeley in 2005) was potentially an alternative revolutionary source of micropower. Their first reports claimed that a sizable fraction of the chemical energy may be harvested via hot electrons (a 'chemicurrent') that are created by the catalytic chemical reaction. We fabricated and tested Pt/GaN nanodiodes, which eventually produced currents up to several microamps. Our best reaction yields (electrons/CO{sub 2}) were on the order of 10{sup -3}; well below the 75% values first reported by Somorjai (we note they have also been unable to reproduce their early results). Over the course of this Project we have determined that the whole concept of 'chemicurrent', in fact, may be an illusion. Our results conclusively demonstrate that the current measured from our nanodiodes is derived from a thermoelectric voltage; we have found no credible evidence for true chemicurrent. Unfortunately this means that the catalytic nanodiode has no future as a micropower source.

Cross, Karen Charlene; Heller, Edwin J.; Figiel, Jeffrey James; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Creighton, James Randall; Koleske, Daniel David; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Baucom, Kevin C.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

IFP solutions for revamping catalytic reforming units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The decision-making process for the refiner considering a revamp of a catalytic reforming unit comprises many factors. These may be grouped in two broad areas: technical and economic. This paper presents the results of a study performed by IFP that illustrates catalytic reforming unit revamp options. Three IFP processes are described and operating conditions, expected yields, and economic data are presented. The following options are discussed: base case Conventional, fixed-bed, semi-regenerative catalytic reformer; Case 1--revamp using IFP Dualforming technology; Case 2--revamp using IFP Dualforming Plus technology; and Case 3--revamp to IFP Octanizing technology. The study illustrates various options for the refiner to balance unit performance improvements with equipment, site, and economic constraints. The study was performed assuming design feedrate of 98.2 tons/hour (20,000 BPSD) in all cases. Because of the increased need for octane in many refineries, the study assumed that operating severity was set at a design value of 100 research octane number clear (RON). In all of the cases in this study, it was assumed that the existing recycle compressor was reused. Operating pressure differences between the cases is discussed separately. Also, in all cases, a booster compressor was included in order to return export hydrogen pressure to that of the conventional unit.

Gendler, J.L. [HRI, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Domergue, B.; Mank, L. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

NETL: Ambient Monitoring - Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project (SRI) Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project (SRI) Southern Research Institute (SRI), Birmingham, AL, is operating a research station in North Birmingham for monitoring fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that exists in that part of the Deep South. The station will be a core PM2.5 mass monitoring and chemical speciation station in the nationwide EPA PM2.5 network. As such, it will be a complement and supplement to DOE-NETL's other ongoing projects for monitoring fine particulate matter in the upper Ohio River valley. Locating additional monitoring equipment in the Deep South will fill an important gap in the national particulate monitoring effort. The region's topography, weather patterns, and variety of emission sources may affect the chemical make-up and airborne transport of fine particles in ways that are different than in other parts of the country. The project's results will support DOE's comprehensive program to evaluate ambient fine particulate matter through better understanding of the chemical and physical properties of these materials.

187

Energy and waste reduction in the wood fiber and fuel industry utilizing a long wave length catalytic infrared drying system. Progress report Number 3  

SciTech Connect

Following the testing of the Cat-Tec handling system, detail design work commenced both at the Catalytic Industrial Systems (CIS) Kansas facility and at the Cat-Tec offices in Minneapolis for the mating of the heating and handling system elements of the catalytic infrared particulate dryer. A used equipment looped handling system designed to feed and recirculate the test material was procured and shipped to CIS in anticipation of the on-site testing. Evaluation of the findings of the test results led the joint CIS-Cat-Tec design team to conclude that the unit to be provided to Lignetics for testing needed to have approximately 120 square feet of agitation bed and approximately 100 feet of infrared generation surfaces. The overall size was thus increased approximately 50% from the initial test unit.

Davis, R.

1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration by electrical heating of resistive coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is integrally formed in an upstream end of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

Williamson, Weldon S. (Malibu, CA); Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

189

Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2001-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

190

Year/PAD District Cokers Catalytic Crackers Hydrocrackers Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Cokers Catalytic Crackers Hydrocrackers Capacity Inputs Capacity Inputs Capacity Inputs Table 8. Capacity and Fresh Feed Input to Selected Downstream Units at U.S. Refineries, 2011 - 2013 (Barrels per Calendar Day) Reformers Capacity Inputs 2011 2,396,787 5,794,214 1,687,745 2,093,849 4,952,455 1,466,627 2,570,970 3,346,457 93,700 673,300 41,500 37,932 490,729 18,030 PADD I 188,389 266,950 373,897 1,176,972 254,000 350,063 1,017,616 223,751 PADD II 664,852 812,244 1,318,440 2,933,842 841,285 1,183,318 2,570,348 744,638 PADD III 1,243,427 1,629,967 80,350 185,800 28,200 63,362 158,192 18,214 PADD IV 96,649 120,190 530,400 824,300 522,760 459,175 715,570 461,995 PADD V 377,652 517,106 2012 2,499,293 5,611,191 1,706,540 2,173,336 4,901,284 1,528,708 2,614,571 3,246,874 74,900 489,300 20,000

191

Angiotensin II receptor binding sites in brain microvessels  

SciTech Connect

The authors assessed the specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled angiotensin II (/sup 125/I-Ang II) to particulate fractions of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum and to microvessels obtained by bulk isolation from these two brain regions in the dog. /sup 125/I-Ang II binds to cerebral and cerebellar microvessels in a specific, saturable, and reversible manner and with high affinity (dissociation constant about 1 nM). Maximal binding of /sup 125/I-Ang II to brain microvessels was about 2-fold higher than the maximal binding to particulate fractions of the cerebellum and more than 15-fold higher than that of the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, finding that analogues of Ang II displace specific /sup 125/I-Ang II binding to brain microvessels in a rank order that correlates with their pharmacological activities confers biological relevance on the ligand-binding studies. These results strongly suggest that specific Ang II receptor binding sites are present in brain microvessels. Such Ang II receptors may have an important role in regulating the microcirculation of the brain.

Speth, R.C.; Harik, S.I.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

PARS II  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

too rapidly to see): a. Loading -PARS II is loading the report definition and data query. b. Downloading (generating report) c. Opening Excel d. Formatting report Report...

193

IIS5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1) enabled/disabled, (1) Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager GUI: Right Click on Server > Properties > Home Directory tab > Read, Chapter 2 ...

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

194

2003 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 105,000 MW of coal-fired generating capacity in the United States will be equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to meet the nitrogen oxide (NOx) limits of the state implementation plan (SIP). Power producers placed approximately 40,000 MW of capacity into operation in 2003. Combined with early SCR adopters from prior years, about 65 percent of the planned inventory is presently operable. Since 1999, EPRI has organized and held annual SCR workshops to discuss key issues a...

2004-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

195

2002 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 100,000 MW of coal-fired generating capacity in the United States will be equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to meet the nitrogen oxides (NOx) limits of the state implementation plan (SIP) call. Approximately 20,000 MW of capacity was expected to go into operation in 2002. Added to early SCR adopters in prior years, about 25 percent of the planned inventory is presently operable. Since 1999, EPRI has organized annual SCR workshops to discuss key issues and development...

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Transport in a Microfluidic Catalytic Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the heat and mass transfer, flow, and thermodynamics of the reacting flow in a catalytic microreactor is presented. Methanol reforming is utilized in the fuel processing system driving a micro-scale proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Understanding the flow and thermal transport phenomena as well as the reaction mechanisms is essential for improving the efficiency of the reforming process as well as the quality of the processed fuel. Numerical studies have been carried out to characterize the transport in a silicon microfabricated reactor system. On the basis of these results, optimized conditions for fuel processing are determined.

Park, H G; Chung, J; Grigoropoulos, C P; Greif, R; Havstad, M; Morse, J D

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

Noble metal alkaline zeolites for catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a method for producing a noble-metal containing zeolite suitable for catalytic reforming contacting a zeolite selected from alkaline faujasites and L zeolites and zeolites and zeolites isostructural thereto, with a noble-metal compound selected from Pt(acetylacetonate){sub 2} and Pd(acetylacetonate){sub 2} for a effective amount of time to incorporate Pt and/or Pd into the pore surface regions of the zeolite, but not to disperse the Pt and/or Pd throughout the entire zeolite; and calcining the so treated zeolite at a temperature from about 250 {degrees} C, to about 600 {degrees} C for an effective amount of time.

Schweizer, A.E.

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

198

Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. has conducted a series of eleven catalytic, multi-stage, liquefaction (CMSL) bench scale runs between February, 1991, and September, 1995. The purpose of these runs was to investigate novel approaches to liquefaction relating to feedstocks, hydrogen source, improved catalysts as well as processing variables, all of which are designed to lower the cost of producing coal-derived liquid products. This report summarizes the technical assessment of these runs, and in particular the evaluation of the economic impact of the results.

Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Fluid and Particulate systems 424514 /2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or depletion of a certain component) in1,m m out1,m dt dm m produced 1 ,1 dm m 2 out,produced,in, i i ii m dt ( )zgmd Potential energy g Fluid&Pa 4245 luid&Par �A424 2 in2 1 wm 2 out2 1 wm um i um t ( ) dt zgmd inQ outQ P P ( ) dt wmd 2 2 1 Thermal energy El t i l januari 2012 �bo Akademi University - Värme

Zevenhoven, Ron

200

NETL: News Release - Projects Selected to Study Coal Plant Particulate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5, 2004 5, 2004 Projects Selected to Study Coal Plant Particulate Matter, Human Health PITTSBURGH, PA - The Department of Energy has selected three projects to help determine whether fine particulates emitted from coal-fired power plants affect human health, and which components of the particulates may be most problematic. Past studies have established that particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter from all sources does affect human health, but there is scant information to provide a link between PM2.5 emitted specifically from coal plants and cardiac or respiratory health problems in humans. PM2.5 refers to particles-invisible to the eye-no more than 1/30th of the width of a human hair Coal plants emit only small quantities of "primary" PM2.5 (e.g., fly ash) because all plants have high-efficiency particulate-collection devices. However, coal plants are responsible for a great deal of "secondary" PM2.5, which forms in the atmosphere from emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Data collected in the new studies will be used to help design standards reviews and to devise strategies for controlling power plant emissions of PM2.5, SO2, and NOx.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Ceramic filters for removal of particulates from hot gas streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal is to demonstrate the performance of a new ceramic filter in removing particulate matter from hot gas streams produced in advanced coal conversion processes. The specific objectives are threefold: (1) Development of full size ceramic filters suitable for hot gas filtration; (2) Demonstration of ceramic filters in long term (ca. 1000 hrs) field trials; and (3) Development of full-scale hot gas filter system designs and costs. To date, field tests of the ceramic filter for particulate removal have been conducted at seven sites on a variety of gas streams and under a variety of test conditions. In general, the following performance characteristics have been observed: 1. Filtration face velocity (equivalent to an ``air to cloth ratio``) for flue gas tests is comparable to that for pulse jet bags operating at the same pressure drop. In hot gas tests, flow-pressure drop characteristics have been observed to be comparable to those for other ceramic filters. 2. Complete regeneration by a simple backpulse technique is achieved; i.e., no increase in clean filter resistance over repetitive cycles is observed. 3. No plugging of the filter passageways by badly caking particulates is observed. 4. Essentially complete particulate removal, including submicron particulate matter, is achieved.

Goldsmith, R.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Ceramic filters for removal of particulates from hot gas streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal is to demonstrate the performance of a new ceramic filter in removing particulate matter from hot gas streams produced in advanced coal conversion processes. The specific objectives are threefold: (1) Development of full size ceramic filters suitable for hot gas filtration; (2) Demonstration of ceramic filters in long term (ca. 1000 hrs) field trials; and (3) Development of full-scale hot gas filter system designs and costs. To date, field tests of the ceramic filter for particulate removal have been conducted at seven sites on a variety of gas streams and under a variety of test conditions. In general, the following performance characteristics have been observed: 1. Filtration face velocity (equivalent to an air to cloth ratio'') for flue gas tests is comparable to that for pulse jet bags operating at the same pressure drop. In hot gas tests, flow-pressure drop characteristics have been observed to be comparable to those for other ceramic filters. 2. Complete regeneration by a simple backpulse technique is achieved; i.e., no increase in clean filter resistance over repetitive cycles is observed. 3. No plugging of the filter passageways by badly caking particulates is observed. 4. Essentially complete particulate removal, including submicron particulate matter, is achieved.

Goldsmith, R.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Friedman, S. ,"Conversion of Anthraxylon - Kinetics ofiv- LBL 116807 CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COALand Mechanisms of Coal Conversion to Clean Fuel,iI pre-

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels ...  

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

205

Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

Newburry, Donald Maurice (Orlando, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Qing-Tao [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Catalytic Acceleration of Carbon Capture via Bio-processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, transformation of the biomass into fuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel or functional chemicals by means of catalytic and enzymatic conversion has ...

208

Multi-step catalytic hydroprocessing to produce hydrocarbon fuels ...  

Multi-step catalytic hydroprocessing to produce hydrocarbon fuels from biomass pyrolysis bio-oil (PNNL IPID 16665) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

209

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Revealing the rapid isothermal growth of graphene on catalytic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Synthesis from Atoms to Systems Revealing the rapid isothermal growth of graphene on catalytic substrates July 01, 2013 Optical reflectivity tracks the rapid growth of...

211

Catalytic reforming and hydrocracking of organic compounds employing promoted zinc titanate as the catalytic agent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound or the hydrocracking of a feedstock which contains at least one hydrocrackable organic compound is carried out in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising zinc, titanium and rhenium.

Drehman, L.E.; Farha, F.E.

1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

212

Catalytic reforming and hydrocracking of organic compounds employing zinc titanate as the catalytic agent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound or the hydrocracking of a feedstock which contains at least one hydrocrackable organic compound is carried out in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising zinc and titanium.

Drehman, L.E.; Farha, F.E.; Walker, D.W.

1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

213

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Title Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., and Tracy L. Thatcher Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 12 Pagination 6067-6072 Abstract A spectroscopic analysis of 115 wintertime partic- ulate matter samples collected in rural California shows that wood smoke absorbs solar radiation with a strong spectral se- lectivity. This is consistent with prior work that has demon- strated that organic carbon (OC), in addition to black car- bon (BC), appreciably absorbs solar radiation in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. We apportion light absorp-

214

Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material and product thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Relationship between acid content of particulates and rainfall in Bangkok  

SciTech Connect

Rainfall at nine stations in Bangkok, Thailand, varied from pH 5.57 to 6.32, low values compared with cities in North America and Europe. Particulate acid content ranged from 5.38 to 10.15 micrograms per cu meter. Analysis for several ions showed that the concentration of sulfate was the controlling factor in acidity of rain. pH was reduced by 1 unit for each 9.09 micrograms per cu meter acid content of particulates according to a relationship derived in the study: pH = 6.87 - 0.11 (acidity of particulates in micrograms per cu meter). 13 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Khan, S.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

ISLSCP II Project Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ISLSCP II The International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project, Initiative II (ISLSCP II) Overview ISLSCP II Logo The International Satellite Land Surface Climatology...

217

Fluidizing a mixture of particulate coal and char  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

Green, Norman W. (Pomona, CA)

1979-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

218

Research priorities for airborne particulates matter in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Despite substantial progress in reducing air pollution over the past 30 years, particulates remain a poorly understood health concern that requires further study. The article provides a brief overview of the work of an independent National Research Council (NRC) Committee on particulate matter (PM). It highlights the committee's process for developing during its deliberations. It reflects on the committee as a potential model to provide guidance on a broad research area in which findings may have significant policy implications. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Samet, J.; Wassle, R.; Holmes, K.J.; Abt, E.; Bakshi, K. [John Hopkins University (US). Bloomberg School of Public Health

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

PARS II  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Peck 1.1 5102010 Exercise 6 -Monthly Status screen updated to PARS II 4152010 Version 30-31 Replaced screens and changed text. J. Peck 1.1 5102010 Ex 8 and 9 36-38...

220

Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Catalytic carbon membranes for hydrogen production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commercial carbon composite microfiltration membranes may be modified for gas separation applications by providing a gas separation layer with pores in the 1- to 10-nm range. Several organic polymeric precursors and techniques for depositing a suitable layer were investigated in this project. The in situ polymerization technique was found to be the most promising, and pure component permeation tests with membrane samples prepared with this technique indicated Knudsen diffusion behavior. The gas separation factors obtained by mixed-gas permeation tests were found to depend strongly on gas temperature and pressure indicating significant viscous flow at high-pressure conditions. The modified membranes were used to carry out simultaneous water gas shift reaction and product hydrogen separation. These tests indicated increasing CO conversions with increasing hydrogen separation. A simple process model was developed to simulate a catalytic membrane reactor. A number of simulations were carried out to identify operating conditions leading to product hydrogen concentrations over 90 percent. (VC)

Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

Galloway, T.R.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

223

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

225

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

227

Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Electrically heated particulate matter filter with recessed inlet end plugs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A particulate matter (PM) filter includes filter walls having inlet ends and outlet ends. First adjacent pairs of the filter walls define inlet channels. Second adjacent pairs of the filter walls define outlet channels. Outlet end plugs are arranged in the inlet channels adjacent to the output ends. Inlet end plugs arranged in the outlet channels spaced from the inlet ends.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Ament, Frank (Troy, MI)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

229

Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

230

Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

231

Economic Evaluation of Particulate Control Technologies: Volume 1: New Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baghouses (reverse-gas, shake-deflate, and pulse-jet) and electrostatic precipitators are the principal options for controlling particulate emissions at coal-fired power plants. This report provides the latest cost information and cost models for determining the capital and O&M costs of the two technologies for various design conditions in new units.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Investigations of ash layer characteristics and ash distribution in a diesel particulate filter using novel lubricant additive tracers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are currently widely used in various applications as a means of collecting particulate matter in order to meet increasingly stringent particle… (more)

Morrow, Ryan (Ryan Michael)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

234

Corrosion and degradation of ceramic particulate filters in direct coal-fired turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature ceramic filters show considerable promise for efficient particulate removal from coal combustion systems. Advanced coal utilization processes such as direct coal-fired turbines require particulate-free gas for successful operation. This paper describes the various ceramic particulate filters under development and reviews the degradation mechanisms expected when operated in coal combustion systems.

Sawyer, J. (Acurex Corp., Mountain View, CA (US)); Vass, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Brown, J.J. (Center for Advanced Ceramic Materials, CIT TDC, Virginai Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Direct-energy-regenerated particulate trap technology. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this CRADA between Lockheed Martin and Cummins Engine Company was to develop fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC) composite materials for use as diesel engine particulate traps. Chemical vapor deposition techniques were used to partially densify and rigidize a thin fibrous substrate and produce the porous SiC- based filter. Microwave energy was used to directly couple to the deposited SiC to uniformly heat the filter and oxidize the collected carbon particulates. For commercial usage particulate traps must: (1) filter carbon particulates from a high temperature diesel exhaust at an acceptably low backpressure, (2) survive thousands of thermal transients due to regeneration or cleaning of the filter by oxidizing the collected carbon, (3) be durable and reliable over the expected life of the filter (300,000 miles or 10,000 hours), and (4) provide a low overall operating cost which is competitive with other filtering techniques. The development efforts performed as part of this CRADA have resulted in a very promising new technology for Cummins Engine Company. Ceramic fiber based filter papers were developed at Fleetguard, Inc., (a Cummins Subsidiary) and used to produce the spiral wound, corrugated filter cartridges. Optimized SiC coatings were developed at Lockheed Martin which couple with 2.45 GHz microwaves. Prototype particulate filter cartridges fabricated at Fleetguard and rigidized at Lockheed Martin performed well in single cylinder engine tests at Cummins. These prototype filters obtained filtering efficiencies greater than 80% at acceptably low backpressures and could be successfully headed and regenerated using a conventional in-home microwave oven.

Stinton, D.P.; Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yonushonis, T.M.; McDonald, A.C.; Wiczynski, P.D. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C. [Fleetguard, Inc. (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Crystal Structure and Characterization of Particulate Methane Monooxygenase from Methylocystis species Strain M  

SciTech Connect

Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is an integral membrane metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. Previous biochemical and structural studies of pMMO have focused on preparations from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. A pMMO from a third organism, Methylocystis species strain M, has been isolated and characterized. Both membrane-bound and solubilized Methylocystis sp. strain M pMMO contain {approx}2 copper ions per 100 kDa protomer and exhibit copper-dependent propylene epoxidation activity. Spectroscopic data indicate that Methylocystis sp. strain M pMMO contains a mixture of Cu{sup I} and Cu{sup II}, of which the latter exhibits two distinct type 2 Cu{sup II} electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data are best fit with a mixture of Cu-O/N and Cu-Cu ligand environments with a Cu-Cu interaction at 2.52-2.64 {angstrom}. The crystal structure of Methylocystis sp. strain M pMMO was determined to 2.68 {angstrom} resolution and is the best quality pMMO structure obtained to date. It provides a revised model for the pmoA and pmoC subunits and has led to an improved model of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO. In these new structures, the intramembrane zinc/copper binding site has a different coordination environment from that in previous models.

Smith, Stephen M.; Rawat, Swati; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (WSU-MED); (NWU)

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

237

Synergize fuel and petrochemical processing plans with catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Depending on the market, refiner`s plans to produce clean fuels and higher value petrochemicals will weigh heavily on the catalytic reformer`s flexibility. It seems that as soon as a timely article related to catalytic reforming operations is published, a new {open_quotes}boutique{close_quotes} gasoline fuel specification is slapped on to existing fuel standards, affecting reformer operations and processing objectives. Just as importantly, the petrochemical market (such as aromatics) that refiners are targeting, can be very fickle. That`s why process engineers have endeavored to maintain an awareness of the flexibility that technology suppliers are building into modern catalytic reformers.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

239

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a direct-injection spark-ignited (DISI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded. These varied parameters include load, air-to-fuel ratio (A/F), spark timing, injection timing, fuel rail pressure, and oil and coolant temperatures. Most conditions resulted with uni-modal type distributions usually with an increase in magnitude of particles in comparison to the baseline, with the exception of lean operation with retarded ignition timing. Further investigation revealed high sensitivity of the particle number and size distribution to changes in the engine control parameters. There was also a high sensitivity of the particle size distributions to small variations in A/F, ignition timing, and EOI. Investigations revealed the possibility of emissions oxidation in the exhaust and engine combustion instability at later EOI timings which therefore ruled out late EOI as the benchmark condition. Attempts to develop this benchmark revealed engine sensitivity to A/F and ignition timing, especially at later EOI operation

Farron, Carrie; Matthias, Nick; Foster, David E.; Andrie, Mike; Krieger, Roger; Najt, Paul; Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Solomon, Arun; Zelenyuk, Alla

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

240

Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Development of high temperature catalytic membrane reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant progress was made in 1991 on the development of ceramic membranes as catalytic reactors. Efforts were focused on the design, construction and startup of a reactor system capable of duplicating relevant commercial operating conditions. With this system, yield enhancement was demonstrated for the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in a membrane reactor compared to the standard packed bed configuration. This enhancement came with no loss in styrene selectivity. During operation, coke deposition on the membrane was observed, but this deposition was mitigated by the presence of steam in the reaction mixture and a steady state permeability was achieved for run times in excess of 200 hours. Work began on optimizing the membrane reactor by exploring several parameters including the effect of N{sub 2} diluent in the reaction feed and the effect of a N{sub 2} purge on the permeate side of the membrane. This report details the experimental progress made in 1991. Interactions with the University of Wisconsin on this project are also summarized. Finally, current status of the project and next steps are outlined.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

243

Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of liquid fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidative pyrolysis of n-heptane was investigated with metal oxides Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MnO/sub 2/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO, Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, and CuO supported on alumina. Metallic content of the catalyst weight varied from 0.1 to 2.0% with catalytic activity reaching a maximum when the metal content was 1%. The most active catalysts were Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, MnO/sub 2/, and NiO. Pyrolysis of cyclohexane and toluene was also studied with Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as catalyst. Hydrocarbon stability and coke formation increase with increase of hydrocarbon condensation in the series paraffin < naphthalene < aromatic hydrocarbons. Pyrolysis of the various hydrocarbons at 800/sup 0/C yielded a gas that has an octane number of 90 to 93, and the process was shown to be adaptable to pyrolysis of various commercial fractions such as benzines A-72 and A-76, petroleum fractions, and liquid paraffins to produce gas of about the same octane. (BLM)

Antonova, V.M.; Gorlov, E.G.; Paushkin, Ya.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Catalytic Preparation of Pyrrolidones from Renewable Resources  

SciTech Connect

Use of renewable resources for production of valuable chemical commodities is becoming a topic of great national interest and importance. This objective fits well with the USDOE’s objective of promoting the industrial bio-refinery concept in which a wide array of valuable chemical, fuel, food, nutraceuticals and animal feed products all result from the integrated processing of grains, oil seeds and other bio-mass materials. The bio-refinery thus serves to enhance the overall utility and profitability of the agriculture industry as well as helping to reduce the dependence on petroleum. Pyrrolidones fit well with the bio-refinery concept since they may be produced in a scheme beginning with the fermentation of a portion of the bio-refinery’s sugar product into succinate. Pyrrolidones are a class of industrially important chemicals with a variety of uses including as polymer intermediates, cleaners, and “green solvents” which can replace hazardous chlorinated compounds. Battelle has developed an efficient process for the thermo – catalytic conversion of succinate into pyrrolidones, especially n-methylpyrrolidone. The process uses both novel Rh based catalysts and novel aqueous process conditions and results in high selectivities and yields of pyrrolidone compounds. The process also includes novel methodology for enhancing yields by recycling and converting non-useful side products of the catalysis into additional pyrrolidone. The process has been demonstrated in both batch and continuous reactors. Additionally, stability of the unique Rh-based catalyst has been demonstrated.

Frye, John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Catalytic Preparation of Pyrrolidones from Renewable Resources  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Use of renewable resources for production of valuable chemical commodities is becoming a topic of great national interest and importance. This objective fits well with the U.S. DOE’s objective of promoting the industrial bio-refinery concept in which a wide array of valuable chemical, fuel, food, nutraceuticals, and animal feed products all result from the integrated processing of grains, oil seeds, and other bio-mass materials. The bio-refinery thus serves to enhance the overall utility and profitability of the agriculture industry as well as helping to reduce the USA’s dependence on petroleum. Pyrrolidones fit well into the bio-refinery concept since they may be produced in a scheme beginning with the fermentation of a portion of the bio-refinery’s sugar product into succinate. Pyrrolidones are a class of industrially important chemicals with a variety of uses including polymer intermediates, cleaners, and “green solvents” which can replace hazardous chlorinated compounds. Battelle has developed an efficient process for the thermo-catalytic conversion of succinate into pyrrolidones, especially n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. The process uses both novel Rh based catalysts and novel aqueous process conditions and results in high selectivities and yields of pyrrolidone compounds. The process also includes novel methodology for enhancing yields by recycling and converting non-useful side products of the catalysis into additional pyrrolidone. The process has been demonstrated in both batch and continuous reactors. Additionally, stability of the unique Rh-based catalyst has been demonstrated.

Frye, John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Catalytic partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbon fuels.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is the primary candidate as the power source for light-duty transportation systems. On-board conversion of fuels (reforming) to supply the required hydrogen has the potential to provide the driving range that is typical of today's automobiles. Petroleum-derived fuels, gasoline or some distillate similar to it, are attractive because of their existing production, distribution, and retailing infrastructure. The fuel may be either petroleum-derived or other alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol, natural gas, etc. [1]. The ability to use a variety of fuels is also attractive for stationary distributed power generation [2], such as in buildings, or for portable power in remote locations. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a catalytic reactor based on partial oxidation reforming that is suitable for use in light-duty vehicles powered by fuel cells. The reactor has shown the ability to convert a wide variety of fuels to a hydrogen-rich gas at less than 800 C, temperatures that are several hundreds of degrees lower than alternative noncatalytic processes. The fuel may be methanol, ethanol, natural gas, or petroleum-derived fuels that are blends of various hydrocarbons such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, etc., as in gasoline. This paper will discuss the results obtained from a bench-scale (3-kWe) reactor., where the reforming of gasoline and natural gas generated a product gas that contained 38% and 42% hydrogen on a dry basis at the reformer exit, respectively.

Ahmed, S.

1998-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

247

Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

248

Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

249

In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Qingying...

250

Engines - Particulate Studies - Revealing the True Nature of Diesel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engine Nanoparticle Research: Revealing the True Nature of Diesel Particulates Engine Nanoparticle Research: Revealing the True Nature of Diesel Particulates Thermophoretic sampling device Argonne's test engine with the thermophoretic sampling device attached. Nanostructure of graphitic diesel soot under high engine load A transmission electron microscope reveals the nanostructures of graphitic diesel soot sampled under high engine loads. Morphology of particles collected from diesel combustion with iso-paraffin-enriched fuel. Morphology of particles collected from diesel combution with iso-paraffin-enriched fuel. Amorphous soot particle collected from biodiesel combustion undera low-temperature condition. Amorphous soot particle collected from biodiesel combustion under low temperature conditions. Researchers have many ideas about how to reduce the soot produced by diesel

251

Particulate Contamination Within Fusion Devices and Complex (Dusty) Plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade, dust particulate contamination has increasingly become an area of concern within the fusion research community. In a burning plasma machine design like the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), dust contamination presents problems for diagnostic integration and may contribute to tritium safety issues. Additionally due to ITER design, such dust contamination problems are projected to become of even greater concern due to dust/wall interactions and possible instabilities created within the plasma by such particulates. Since the dynamics of such dust can in general be explained employing a combination of the ion drag, Coulomb force, and ion pre-sheath drifts, recent research in complex (dusty) plasma physics often offers unique insights for this research area. This paper will discuss the possibility of how experimental observations of the dust and plasma parameters within a GEC rf Reference Cell might be employed to diagnose conditions within fusion reactors, hopefully pr...

Creel, J; Kong, J; Hyde, Truell W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Transformation of Waste Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable Products Background Many industrial processes contribute large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to the earth's atmosphere. In an effort to reduce the amount of CO 2 released to the atmosphere, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding efforts to develop CO 2 capture and storage technologies. In addition to permanent storage of CO 2 in underground reservoirs, some

253

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is the 2009 update to Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001. The landscape of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has significantly changed since then and promises to continue to change in the coming years. Specifically, the number of SCR applications on coal-fired units has increased considerably beyond the 15 units operating in mid 2001. Approximately 120 GW of capacity are expected to utilize SCR for NOx co...

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

254

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Timely and proper execution of operation and maintenance (O&M) activities may be a key factor in ensuring the successful function of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. This report serves as the 2012 update of EPRI’s Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001 and updated annually. New and revised content this year includes: 1) recent developments in in situ NOx analyzers, including a ...

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

256

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the 2011 update of Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001 and updated annually. New and revised content this year includes: (1) an analysis of the performance of the U.S. fleet of selective catalytic reduction (SCR)equipped generating units in 2009, 2010, and 2011; (2) a discussion of experience in mitigating the role of arsenic in catalyst deactivation, including the addition of alkali material to the coal; (3) an updat...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

257

Development of A Microwave Assisted Particulate Filter Regeneration System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The need for active regeneration of diesel particulate filters and the advantages of microwave assisted regeneration are discussed. The current study has multiple objectives, which include developing a microwave assisted particulate filter regeneration system for future generation light-duty diesel applications, including PNGV type applications. A variable power 2.0 kW microwave system and a tuned waveguide were employed. Cavity geometry is being optimized with the aid of computational modeling and temperature measurements during microwave heating. A wall-flow ceramic-fiber filter with superior thermal shock resistance, high filtration efficiency, and high soot capacity was used. The microwave assisted particulate filter regeneration system has operated for more than 100 hours in an engine test-cell with a 5.9-liter diesel engine with automated split exhaust flow and by-pass flow capabilities. Filter regeneration was demonstrated using soot loads up to 10 g/liter and engine exhaust at idling flow rates as the oxygen source. A parametric study to determine the optimal combination of soot loading, oxidant flow rate, microwave power and heating time is underway. Preliminary experimental results are reported.

Popuri, Sriram

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

258

Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Process Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 2,563 2,667 2,739 2,807 2,705 2,609 2010-2013 PADD 1 176 178 180 173 156 167 2010-2013 East Coast 166 164 163 161 140 153 2010-2013 Appalachian No. 1 9 14 16 12 15 14 2010-2013 PADD 2 642 638 668 695 677 615 2010-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 426 411 426 460 450 399 2010-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 67 62 70 72 72 57 2010-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo.

259

Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis of fats  

SciTech Connect

Hydrolysis of fats and oils produces fatty acid and glycerol. The catalyzed, liquid phase Colgate-Emry process, state-of-the-art, produces impure products that require extensive energy investment for their purification to commercial grade. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis may produce products more easily purified. A bench-scale hydrolyzer was designed and constructed to contact descending liquid fat or oil with rising superheated steam. Each of the five stages in the reactor was designed similar to a distillation column stage to promote intimate liquid-gas contact. Degree of hydrolysis achieved in continuous tests using tallow feed were 15% at 280C and 35% at 300C at a tallow-to-steam mass feed ratio of 4.2. At a feed ratio of 9.2, the degree of hydrolysis was 21% at 300C. Decomposition was strongly evident at 325C but not at lower temperatures. Soybean oil rapidly polymerized under reaction conditions. Batch tests at 320C produced degrees of hydrolyses of between 44% and 63% using tallow and palm oil feeds. Over 95% fatty acids were present in a clean, readily separated organic portion of the overhead product from most tests. The test reactor had serious hydraulic resistance to liquid down-flow which limited operation to very long liquid residence times. These times are in excess of those that tallow and palm oil are stable at the reaction temperature. Little glycerol and extensive light organics were produced indicating that unexplained competing reactions to hydrolysis occurred in the experimental system. Further tests using an improved reactor will be required.

Deibert, M.C.

1992-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

260

Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and Organic Species as Tracers Title Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter using Inorganic and Organic Species as Tracers Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Wang, Yungang, Philip K. Hopke, X. Xia, Oliver V. Rattigan, David C. Chalupa, and M. J. Source Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 55 Start Page 525 Pagination 525-532 Date Published 01/2012 Keywords source apportionment positive matrix factorization (pmf) particulate matter (pm) molecular markers (mm) aethalometer delta-c Abstract Source apportionment is typically performed on chemical composition data derived from particulate matter (PM) samples. However, many common sources no longer emit significant amounts of characteristic trace elements requiring the use of more comprehensive chemical characterization in order to fully resolve the PM sources. Positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF, version 4.1) was used to analyze 24-hr integrated molecular marker (MM), secondary inorganic ions, trace elements, carbonaceous species and light absorption data to investigate sources of PM2.5 in Rochester, New York between October 2009 and October 2010 to explore the role of specific MMs. An eight-factor solutionwas found for which the factors were identified as isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA), airborne soil, other SOA, diesel emissions, secondary sulfate, wood combustion, gasoline vehicle, and secondary nitrate contributing 6.9%, 12.8%, 3.7%, 7.8%, 45.5%, 9.1%, 7.9%, and 6.3% to the average PM2.5 concentration, respectively Concentrations of pentacosane, hexacosane, heptacosane, and octacosane in the gasoline vehicles factor were larger compared to diesel emissions. Aethalometer Delta-C was strongly associated with wood combustion. The compounds, n-heptacosanoic acid and n-octacosanoic acid, occasionally used in the past as tracers for road dust, were found to largely associate with SOA in this study. In comparison with a standard PMF analyses without MM, inclusion of themwas necessary to resolve SOA and wood combustion factors in urban areas.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

Lyons, J.E.

1992-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

262

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes: Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between January 1. 1992 and March 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products which can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient porphryinic macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE III).

Biscardi, J.; Bowden, P.T.; Durante, V.A.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Gray, H.B.; Gorbey, R.G.; Hayes, R.C.; Hodge, J.; Hughes, M.; Langdale, W.A.; Lyons, J.E.; Marcus, B.; Messick, D.; Merrill, R.A.; Moore, F.A.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Seitzer, W.H.; Shaikh, S.N.; Tsao, W.H.; Wagner, R.W.; Warren, R.W.; Wijesekera, T.P.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reported herein are the details and the results of laboratory and bench scale experiments that were conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92147 during the period of October 1, 1992, to December 31, 1995. The program results described herein build on the previous technology base and investigating additional methods to improve the economics of producing transportation fuels from coal. This included purely physical parameters, coal treatment and variation in solvent to coal ratio, the use of syngas to replace part of the hydrogen as the reducing gas, the use of dispersed catalyst in addition to and replacing the supported catalyst, and the co-processing of coal with plastic waste material. The overall objective of this program is to produce liquid fuels from direct coal liquefaction at a cost that is competitive with conventional fuels. The report includes the results of an economic assessment of the various process strategies that were evaluated during this program. A summary of the technical/economic evaluations is given in Volume I, Section II of this report. The experimental details of the eleven run of the program are given in Volume I, Section III and Volume II of this report. The details of the technical evaluations are given in the Volume III of the report.

Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.H.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

265

97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the bio-oil and catalyze the water gas shift reaction without catalyzing methanation or oxidation of CO and H{sub 2}, thus attaining equilibrium levels of H{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} at the exit of the catalyst bed. Experimental Bio-oil (mixed with varied amounts of methanol to reduce the viscosity and homogenize the bio-oil) or selected bio-oil components are introduced at a measured flow rate through the top of a vertical quartz reactor which is heated using a five zone furnace. The ultrasonic nozzle used to feed the reactants allows the bio-oil to flow down the center of the reactor at a low, steady flow rate. Additionally, the fine mist created by the nozzle allows for intimate mixing with oxygen and efficient heat transfer, providing optimal conditions to achieve high conversion at relatively low temperatures in the non-catalytic step thus reducing the required catalyst loading. Generation of the fine mist is especially important for providing good contact between non-volatile bio-oil components and oxygen. Oxygen and helium are also delivered at the top of the reactor via mass flow meters with the amount of oxygen being varied to maximize the yields of H{sub 2} and CO and the amount of helium being adjusted such that the gas phase residence time in the hot zone is {approx}0.3 and {approx}0.45 s for bio-oil and methanol experiments, respectively. A catalyst bed can be located at the bottom of the reactor tube. To date, catalyst screening experiments have used Engelhard noble metal catalysts. The catalysts used for these experiments were 0.5 % rhodium, ruthenium, platinum, and palladium (all supported on alumina). Experiments were performed using pure alumina as well. Both the catalyst type and the effect of oxygen and steam on the residual hydrocarbons and accumulated carbon containing particulates were investigated. The residence time before the catalyst is varied to determine the importance of the non-catalytic step and its potential effect on the required catalyst loading. Non-catalytic experiments (primarily homogeneous cracking) use a bed of quartz p

Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Nanosecond and femtosecond laser ablation of brass: Particulate and ICPMS measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Brass: Particulate and ICPMScompared for ablating brass alloys. All operating parametersby resolidi- fication of molten brass. Melting and splashing

Liu, C.; Mao, X.L.; Mao, S.; Zeng, X.; Greif, R.; Russo, R.E.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and PM2.5: A case study of benzo(a)pyrene in California metropolitan regions Title Exploring relationships between outdoor air particulate-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and PM2.5: A case study of benzo(a)pyrene in California metropolitan regions Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-514E Year of Publication 2008 Authors Lobscheid, Agnes B., Thomas E. McKone, and D. A. Valleroc Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 41 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5659-5672 Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter (PM) are co-pollutants emitted as by-products of combustion processes. Convincing evidence exists for PAHs as a primary toxic component of fine PM (PM2.5). Because PM2.5 is listed by the US EPA as a "Criteria Pollutant," it is monitored regularly at sites nationwide. In contrast, very limited data is available on measured ambient air concentrations of PAHs. However, between 1999-2001, ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are available for California locations. We use multivariate linear regression models (MLRMs) to predict ambient air levels of BaP in four air basins based on reported PM2.5 concentrations and spatial, temporal and meteorological variables as variates. We obtain an R2 ranging from 0.57-0.72 among these basins. Significant variables (p<0.05) include the average daily PM2.5 concentration, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity, and the coastal distance as well as season, and holiday or weekend. Combining the data from all sites and using only these variables to estimate ambient BaP levels, we obtain an R2 of 0.55. These R2-values, combined with analysis of the residual error and cross validation using the PRESS-statistic, demonstrate the potential of our method to estimate reported outdoor air PAH exposure levels in metropolitan regions. These MLRMs provide a first step towards relating outdoor ambient PM2.5 and PAH concentrations for epidemiological studies when PAH measurements are unavailable, or limited in spatial coverage, based on publicly available meteorological and PM2.5 data

268

Mercuty Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

270

Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI); Bhatia, Garima (Bangalore, IN)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

272

Modeling of Particulate Matter Emissions from Agricultural Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State Air Pollution Regulation Agencies (SAPRAs) issue and enforce permits that limit particulate matter emissions from all sources including layer and broiler facilities, cattle feedyards, dairies, cotton gins, and grain elevators. In this research, a process was developed to determine distances from emitting sources to where the estimated concentrations were less than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). These distances are a function of emission rates and meteorological conditions. Different protocols were used to develop emission factors for cattle feedyards and layer houses. Dispersion modeling with American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) was conducted to determine the emissions of particulate matter. These data were used to determine the distances from the sources to where the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) would be less than the NAAQS. The current air-permitting process requires that concentrations from a source do not exceed the NAAQS at the property line and beyond for the facility to be in compliance with its permit conditions. Emission factors for particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM10) were developed for cattle feedyards using a reverse modeling protocol and Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) sampler data. Corrections were applied to the TEOM measurements to account for TEOM vs. filter-based low-volume (FBLV) sampler bias and over-sampling of PM10 pre-collectors. Invalid concentrations and dust peaks larger than mean ± 3 times the standard deviation were excluded from this study. AERMOD predictions of downwind concentrations at cotton gins were observed for compliance with 24-hour PM10 and PM2.5 NAAQS at property lines. The emissions from three cotton gins were analyzed at 50 m and 100 m distances. TEOM and FBLV samplers were used to collect 24-hour PM10 measurements inside a laying hen house. The distances to the property lines at which the emissions of PM10 were below the 24-hour average PM10 standards were estimated using AERMOD. The results suggested that the special use of the NAAQS for as the property-line concentration not to be exceeded, could be problematic to agriculture. Emission factors that were comparable of published emission factors were obtained in this study. Large distances to property lines were required when minimum flow rate recommendations were not considered. Emission factors that are representative of the emissions in a particular facility are essential; else facilities could be inappropriately regulated.

Bairy, Jnana 1988-

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control  

SciTech Connect

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

274

Novel Concepts for Particulate Matter Control: 2013 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The latest regulatory challenge for U.S. utilities and the air pollution control industry is the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS). For existing coal-fired generating units, a maximum particulate matter (PM) emissions rate of 0.030 lb/mmBtu (filterable component only) must be met in conjunction with HCl emissions standards (0.002 lb/mmBtu) and mercury emissions standards (1.2 lb/mmBtu for non-low-rank virgin coals). MATS standards are ...

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

275

MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ADVANCED HYBRID{trademark} Filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

ENGINEERED PARTICULATES FOR CO-FIRING OF DIVERSE FEEDSTOCKS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop a novel methodology for the formation of engineered particulates of energy-relevant material. Specifically, we aim to control interparticle cohesion in such a way as to generate macro-particles or agglomerates of several differing types of primary particles in specific proportions such that they would be of utility for co-firing applications. In Phase I of this project, we used a combination of experimentation and simulation to validate theoretically derived mixing/segregation rules for cohesive granular materials in static systems, flowing systems, and gas-solid systems.

Joseph J. McCarthy; Kunal Jain; Hongming Li; Deliang Shi

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

279

Apparatus for removal of particulate matter from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for the removal of particulate matter from the gaseous product stream of an entrained flow coal gasifier which apparatus includes an initial screen, an intermediate screen which is aligned with the direction of flow of the gaseous product stream and a final screen transversely disposed to the flow of gaseous product and which apparatus is capable of withstanding at least a pressure differential of about 10 psi (68.95 kPa) or greater at the temperatures of the gaseous product stream.

Smith, Peyton L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Morse, John C. (Baton Rouge, LA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Catalytic Co - PA 40  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Co - PA 40 Catalytic Co - PA 40 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Catalytic Co. (PA.40 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Philadelphia , Pennsylvania PA.40-1 Evaluation Year: 1991 PA.40-1 Site Operations: Prime contractor for construction of the Fernald facility. Records indicate one time shipment of a very small quantity (4 lbs) of uranium metal to this site. PA.40-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Construction contractor - Potential for residual contamination from the very small quantity of uranium shipped to this site is considered remote PA.40-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: None - as a construction contractor Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium Metal - Believed to be a Souvenier. PA.40-1

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

282

Catalytic Cracking of Gaseous Heavy Hydrocarbons by Ceramic Filters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of syngas from waste or biomass gasification to generate electricity is a way which is attracting increasing attention especially with regard to the demands of regenerable energy consumption and to the reduction of waste disposal. In order to feed the syngas to a gas motor or a gas turbine the gas has to be cleaned. In future also the coupling of biomass gasification with a fuel cell will be applied, which needs a very efficient gas cleaning. The decomposition of tars and the removal of particles from the gas are the key issues of gas cleaning. Up to now these two steps are performed in two separate units. Normally, the tars are decomposed in catalytic beds or honeycomb structures. The catalytic decomposition is achieved at temperatures between 750 C and 900 C depending on the catalyst used. Particles are removed by filtration of the hot gas. Filtration at high temperatures and with high efficiencies is possible when using ceramic filter elements. Ceramic hot gas filters are well established in advanced coal gasification, such as the integrated gasification combined cycle process, as well as in waste and biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes. Since the catalytic reaction requires high temperatures the gas has to be reheated after the particles are removed in the filter or the hot unfiltered gas has to flow through the catalytic unit. If the gas is filtered first, reheating of the gas stream is an additional cost factor. Furthermore, pipes downstream of the filter can be plugged, if the temperature of the gas falls below the condensation temperature of the heavy hydrocarbons. Using the second way of hot unfiltered gas flows through the catalytic unit, there is the problem of deactivation of the catalyst by deposition of dust at higher dust concentrations. At worst the catalytic unit can be plugged by dust deposition.

Heidenreich, S.; Nacken, M.; Walch, A.; Chudzinski, S.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

283

Ii1  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

-r -r Ii1 5uitc 79% 955 L%fan~Plu,S.W.. Worhingm. D.C.200242134, 7117-03.87.cdy.43 23 September 1987 Mr. Andrew Wallo, III, NE-23 Division of Facility & Site Decommissioning Projects U.S. Department of Energy Germantown, Maryland 20545 Dear Mr. Wallo: ELIMINATION RECOMMENDATION -- COLLEGES AND UNIVtRSITIES The attached elimination recommendation was prepared in accordance.)l- flL.o* with your suggestion during our meeting on 22 September, The recommendat:on y0.0-02 includes 26 colleges and universities identified.in Enclosure 4 to Aerospace letter subject: Status of Actions - FUSRAP Site List, dated i 27 May 1987; three institutions (Tufts College, University of Virginia, ! and the University of Washington) currently identified on the FUSRAP

284

Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this contract are to discover and evaluate the catalytic properties of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous, or combination catalytic systems for the production of alcohol fuel extenders from syngas, to evaluate analytically and on the bench scale novel reactor concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products, and to develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for conversion of syngas to liquid fuel products. Methanol production and heterogeneous catalysis utilizing transition elements supported on metal oxides with spinel structure are discussed. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

285

New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

1994-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

286

Modifying Char Dustcake Pressure Drop Using Particulate Additives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Coal gasification produces residual particles of coal char, coal ash, and sorbent that are suspended in the fuel gas stream exiting the gasifier. In most cases, these particles (referred to, hereafter, simply as char) must be removed from the stream prior to sending the gas to a turbine, fuel cell, or other downstream device. Currently, the most common approach to cleaning the gas stream at high temperature and pressure is by filtering the particulate with a porous ceramic or metal filter. However, because these dusts frequently have small size distributions, irregular morphology, and high specific surface areas, they can have very high gas flow resistance resulting in hot-gas filter system operating problems. Typical of gasification chars, the hot-gas filter dustcakes produced at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) during recent coal gasification tests have had very high flow resistance (Martin et al, 2002). The filter system has been able to successfully operate, but pressure drops have been high and filter cleaning must occur very frequently. In anticipation of this problem, a study was conducted to investigate ways of reducing dustcake pressure drop. This paper will discuss the efficacy of adding low-flow-resistance particulate matter to the high-flow-resistance char dustcake to reduce dustcake pressure drop. The study had two parts: a laboratory screening study and confirming field measurements at the PSDF.

Landham, C.; Dahlin, R.S.; Martin, R.A.; Guan, X.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

287

Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report describes an off-gas stack for a melter, furnace or reaction vessel comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes prevents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

Wright, G.T.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

288

Distributor means for charging particulate material into receptacles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are receptacles, such as shaft furnaces illustrated by a blast furnace and an upright oil shale retort, embodying rotatable charge distributor means for distributing particulate charge material in the furnace, which charge distributor means can provide a high uniformity of distribution of various sizes of particles and also can provide and maintain a stock line of desired contour and heighth in the receptacle. The distributor means includes a hopper having rigidly fixed to it a plurality of downwardly extending chutes with lower discharge portions that discharge in concentric circular zones at the stock line. The distributor means includes a segmented portion at the juncture of the hopper and the chutes that divides the charge material discharged into the hopper in proportion to the area of the circular zone at the stock line that is fed by the chute. The distributor means embodies means for providing mass flow of the particulate charge material through the chutes to the stock line and for avoiding segregation between larger and smaller particles of charge material deposited at the stock line.

Greaves, Melvin J. (9995 Cliff Drive, Cleveland, OH 44102)

1977-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

289

Shock driven jamming and periodic fracture of particulate rafts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A tenuous monolayer of hydrophobic particles at the air-water interface often forms a scum or raft. When such a monolayer is disturbed by the localized introduction of a surfactant droplet, a radially divergent surfactant shock front emanates from the surfactant origin and packs the particles into a jammed, compact, annular band with a packing fraction that saturates at a peak packing fraction $\\phi^*$. As the resulting two-dimensional, disordered elastic band grows with time and is driven radially outwards by the surfactant, it fractures to form periodic triangular cracks with robust geometrical features. We find the number of cracks $N$ and the compaction band radius $R^*$ at fracture onset vary monotonically with the initial packing fraction ($\\phi_{init}$). However, its width $W^*$ is constant for all $\\phi_{init}$. A simple geometric theory that treats the compaction band as an elastic annulus, and accounts for mass conservation allows us to deduce that $N \\simeq 2\\pi R^*/W^* \\simeq 4\\pi \\phi_{RCP}/\\phi_{init}$, a result we verify both experimentally and numerically. We show the essential ingredients for this phenomenon are an initially low enough particulate packing fraction that allows surfactant driven advection to cause passive jamming and eventual fracture of the hydrophobic particulate interface.

M. M. Bandi; T. Tallinen; L. Mahadevan

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

290

08FFL-0020Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of fuel rail pressure (FRP) and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on particulate matter (PM) formation is investigated in this paper along with notes regarding the NOx and other emissions. Increasing FRP was shown to reduce the overall soot and total PM mass for four operating conditions. These conditions included two high speed conditions (2400 rpm at 540 and 270 Nm of torque) and two moderated speed conditions (1400 rpm at 488 and 325 Nm). The concentrations of CO2 and NOx increased with fuel rail pressure and this is attributed to improved fuel-air mixing. Interestingly, the level of unburned hydrocarbons remained constant (or increased slightly) with increased FRP. PM concentration was measured using an AVL smoke meter and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS); and total PM was collected using standard gravimetric techniques. These results showed that the smoke number and particulate concentrations decrease with increasing FRP. However the decrease becomes more gradual as very high rail pressures. Additionally, the total PM decreased with increasing FRP; however, the soluble organic fraction (SOF) reaches a maximum after which it declines with higher rail pressure. The total PM was collected for the two 1400 rpm conditions downstream of the engine, diesel oxidation catalyst, and a urea-SCR catalyst. The results show that significant PM reduction occurs in the SCR catalyst even during high rates of urea dosage. Analysis of the PM indicates that residual SOF is burned up in the SCR catalyst.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Domingo, Norberto [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Numerical simulation of the impact and deposition of charged particulate droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work addresses the impact and deposition of charged ''cluster-droplets'', comprised of particulates, on electrified surfaces. A direct numerical method is developed, based on an implicit, staggered, time-stepping scheme which separates the impulsive ... Keywords: Charged particulates, Clusters, Impact, Staggering scheme

T. I. Zohdi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Fictitious boundary and moving mesh methods for the numerical simulation of rigid particulate flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the numerical simulation of particulate flows using a new moving mesh method combined with the multigrid fictitious boundary method (FBM) [S. Turek, D.C. Wan, L.S. Rivkind, The fictitious boundary method for the implicit ... Keywords: ALE, FEM, Fictitious boundary, Moving mesh, Multigrid, Particulate flows

Decheng Wan; Stefan Turek

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Determination of Adenosine Triphosphate on Marine Particulates:Synthesis of Methods for Use on OTEC Samples  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.

Jones, Anthony T.; Hartwig, Eric O.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Determination of adenosine triphosphate on marine particulates: synthesis of methods for use on OTEC samples  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.

Jones, A.T.; Hartwig, E.O.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Resistive heater geometry and regeneration method for a diesel particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

One embodiment of the invention includes a diesel particulate filter comprising a first face and a second face; a bottom electrode layer formed over the first face of the diesel particulate filter; a middle resistive layer formed over a portion of the bottom electrode layer; and a top electrode layer formed over a portion of the middle resistive layer.

Phelps, Amanda (Malibu, CA); Kirby, Kevin W. (Calabasas Hills, CA); Gregoir, Daniel J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

296

Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine project, the development of a hydrocarbon-fueled catalytic micro-combustion system is presented. A conventionally-machined catalytic flow reactor was built to simulate the ...

Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Catalytic activation and reforming of methane on supported palladium clusters Aritomo Yamaguchi, Enrique Iglesia *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of pollutants, oxygen generation, and intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, as well as catalytic reforming. Sekine et al.56 investigated four catalytic reactions assisted with an electric field to promote

Iglesia, Enrique

298

Continued investigations of the catalytic reduction of N? to NH? by molybdenum triamidoamine complexes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study of the effects of employing different solvents and the introduction of dihydrogen during the catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia with [HIPTN 3N]Mo complexes was completed. During a catalytic reaction, the ...

Hanna, Brian S. (Brian Stewart)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading to Transportation Fuels by Catalytic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as fast- pyrolysis and catalytic fast-pyrolysis for producing liquid fuels from biomass feedstocks biomass to a fast-pyrolysis reactor (Table 3.4), the greatest mass yield of bio-oil can be attributed............................................................................................- 70 - TABLE 2.18. BIOMASS PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGIES, REACTION CONDITIONS AND PRODUCTS................- 70

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

302

Catalytic Esterification of Model Compounds of Biomass Pyrolysis Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass pyrolysis oil is a complex mixture containing a wide variety of oxygenated compounds, which results in difficulties in bio-oil upgrading. To gain a clearer understanding of the reaction pathways, seven compounds were chosen to represent biomass ... Keywords: pyrolysis oil, model compounds, catalytic esterification

Zuo-gang Guo; Shu-rong Wang; Ying-ying Zhu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenations of complex carbonaceous substrates. [16 references  

SciTech Connect

Results of homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of complex unsaturated substrates including coal and coal-derived materials are reported, with organic soluble molecular complexes as catalysts. Among the substrates used were Hvab coal, solvent-refined coal, and COED pyrolysate. The hydrogenations were carried out in an autoclave. The results are summarized in tables.

Cox, J L; Wilcox, W A; Roberts, G L

1976-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

304

Chemical Imaging of Catalytic Solids with Synchrotron Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heterogeneous catalysis is a term normally used to describe a group of catalytic processes, yet it could equally be employed to describe the catalytic solid itself. A better understanding of the chemical and structural variation within such materials is thus a pre-requisite for the rationalising of structure-function relationships and ultimately to the design of new, more sustainable catalytic processes. The past 20 years has witnessed marked improvements in technologies required for analytical measurements at synchrotron sources, including higher photon brightness, nano-focusing, rapid, high resolution data acquisition and in the handling of large volumes of data. It is now possible to image materials using the entire synchrotron radiative profile, thus heralding a new era of in situ/operando measurements of catalytic solids. In this tutorial review we discuss the recent work in this exciting new research area and finally conclude with a future outlook on what will be possible/challenging to measure in the not-too-distant future.

A Beale; S Jacques; B Weckhuysen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

ULTRA LOW NOx CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FOR IGCC POWER PLANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using PCI's two-stage (catalytic / gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage is a Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{trademark}) catalytic reactor, wherein a fuel-rich mixture contacts the catalyst and reacts while final and excess combustion air cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, wherein the catalyst cooling air mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During the reporting period, PCI successfully achieved NOx = 0.011 lbs/MMBtu at 10 atm pressure (corresponding to 2.0 ppm NOx corrected to 15% O{sub 2} dry) with near-zero CO emissions, surpassing the project goal of baseload conditions corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas).

Lance L. Smith

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Catalytic pyrolysis of xylan-based hemicellulose over zeolites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Xylan was selected as model compound of hemicellulose to investigate its thermal behavior over zeolites by using TG-FTIR. The chemical structure of xylan and characterization of catalysts were first studied. All the three catalysts, HZSM-5, H-? ... Keywords: TG-FTIR, acids, catalytic pyrolysis, furans, hemicellulose, xylan, zeolites

Xiujuan Guo; Shurong Wang; Yan Zhou; Zhongynag Luo

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Gold-Copper Nanoparticles: Nanostructural Evolution and Bifunctional Catalytic Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding of the atomic-scale structure is essential for exploiting the unique catalytic properties of any nanoalloy catalyst. This report describes novel findings of an investigation of the nanoscale alloying of gold-copper (AuCu) nanoparticles and its impact on the surface catalytic functions. Two pathways have been explored for the formation of AuCu nanoparticles of different compositons, including wet chemical synthesis from mixed Au- and Cu-precursor molecules, and nanoscale alloying via an evolution of mixed Au- and Cu-precursor nanoparticles near the nanoscale melting temperatures. For the evolution of mixed precursor nanoparticles, synchrotron x-ray based in-situ real time XRD was used to monitor the structural changes, revealing nanoscale alloying and reshaping towards an fcc-type nanoalloy (particle or cube) via a partial melting–resolidification mechanism. The nanoalloys supported on carbon or silica were characterized by in-situ high-energy XRD/PDFs, revealing an intriguing lattice "expanding-shrinking" phenomenon depending on whether the catalyst is thermochemically processed under oxidative or reductive atmosphere. This type of controllable structural changes is found to play an important role in determining the catalytic activity of the catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation reaction. The tunable catalytic activities of the nanoalloys under thermochemically oxidative and reductive atmospheres are also discussed in terms of the bifunctional sites and the surface oxygenated metal species for carbon monoxide and oxygen activation.

Yin, Jun; Shan, Shiyao; Yang, Lefu; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Petkov, Valeri; Cai, Fan; Ng, Mei; Luo, Jin; Chen, Bing H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

308

Recycling and Disposal of Spent Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has become widespread within the utility industry as a means of controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The technology uses a solid catalyst that deactivates over time; and thus significant volumes of catalyst will need regeneration, recycle, or disposal. This study examined issues related to spent catalyst recycle and disposal.

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

309

Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking processes in fluidized bed systems, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillations, and reformers. Design aspects, modeling, control systems, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 149 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Simulation of Hydrogen Production from Biomass Catalytic Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, biomass catalytic gasification process for producing H2-rich gas was presented. The process consists of mainly two fluidized beds—a gasifier and a CaO regenerator. The objective of this research is to develop a computer model of ... Keywords: biomass gasification, hydrogen production, Aspen Plus

Shan Cheng; Qian Wang; Hengsong Ji

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Final Report of a CRADA Between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Ford Motor Company (CRADA No. PNNL/265): “Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials”  

SciTech Connect

Reducing NOx emissions and particulate matter (PM) are primary concerns for diesel vehicles required to meet current LEV II and future LEV III emission standards which require 90+% NOx conversion. Currently, urea SCR as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) are being used for emission control system components by Ford Motor Company for 2010 and beyond diesel vehicles. Because the use of this technology for vehicle applications is new, the relative lack of experience makes it especially challenging to satisfy durability requirements. Of particular concern is being able to realistically simulate actual field aging of the catalyst systems under laboratory conditions. This is necessary both as a rapid assessment tool for verifying improved performance and certifiability of new catalyst formulations, and to develop a good understanding of deactivation mechanisms that can be used to develop improved catalyst materials. In addition to NOx and PM, the hydrocarbon (HC) emission standards are expected to become much more stringent during the next few years. Meanwhile, the engine-out HC emissions are expected to increase and/or be more difficult to remove. Since HC can be removed only when the catalyst becomes warm enough for its oxidation, three-way catalyst (TWC) and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) formulations often contain proprietary zeolite materials to hold the HC produced during the cold start period until the catalyst reaches its operating temperature (e.g., >200°C). Unfortunately, much of trapped HC tends to be released before the catalyst reaches the operating temperature. Among materials effective for trapping HC during the catalyst warm-up period, siliceous zeolites are commonly used because of their high surface area and high stability under typical operating conditions. However, there has been little research on the physical properties of these materials related to the adsorption and release of various hydrocarbon species found in the engine exhaust. For these reasons, automakers and engine manufacturers have difficulty improving their catalytic converters for meeting the stringent HC emission standards. In this collaborative program, scientists and engineers in the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Ford Motor Company have investigated laboratory- and engine-aged SCR catalysts, containing mainly base metal zeolites. These studies are leading to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of SCR catalysts and improve the correlation between laboratory and engine aging, saving experimental time and cost. We have also studied materials effective for the temporary storage of HC species during the cold-start period. In particular, we have examined the adsorption and desorption of various HC species produced during the combustion with different fuels (e.g., gasoline, E85, diesel) over potential HC adsorber materials, and measured the kinetic parameters to update Ford’s HC adsorption model. Since this CRADA has now been completed, in this final report we will provide brief summaries of most of the work carried out on this CRADA over the last several years.

Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Tran, Diana N.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Cheng, Yisun; Lupescu, Jason; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Lambert, Christine; McCabe, Robert W.

2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

312

Engineering analysis of fugitive particulate matter emissions from cattle feedyards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An engineering analysis of the fugitive particulate matter emissions from a feedyard is not simple. The presence of an evening dust peak in concentration measurements downwind of a feedyard complicates the calculation of an average 24-h emission flux for the feedyard. The evening dust peak is a recurring event that occurs during evening hours when particulate matter concentration measurements increase and decrease dramatically during a short period of time. The concentrations measured during the evening can be up to 8 times the concentrations measured throughout the rest of the day. There is a perception that these concentration increases are due to increases in cattle activity as the temperature decreases during the evening. The purpose of Objective 1 of this research was to quantify the changes in concentrations based on changes in meteorological conditions and/or cattle activity. Using ISCST3, a Gaussian-based EPAapproved dispersion model used to predict concentrations downwind of the feedyard , the results of this work indicate that up to 80% of the increase in concentrations can be attributed to changes in meteorological conditions (wind speed, stability class, and mixing height.)The total fugitive particulate matter emissions on a cattle feedyard are due to two sources: unpaved roads (vehicle traffic) and pen surfaces (cattle activity). Objective 2 of this research was to quantify the mass fraction of the concentration measurements that was due to unpaved road emissions (vehicle traffic). A recent finding by Wanjura et al. (2004) reported that as much as 80% of the concentrations measured after a rain event were due to unpaved road emissions. An engineering analysis of the potential of the unpaved road emissions versus the total feedyard emissions using ISCST3 suggests that it is possible for 70 to 80% of the concentration measurements to be attributed to unpaved road emissions. The purpose of Objective 3 was to demonstrate the science used by ISCST3 to predict concentrations downwind of an area source. Results from this study indicate that the ISCST3 model utilizes a form of the Gaussian line source algorithm to predict concentrations downwind of an area source.

Hamm, Lee Bradford

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

High Performance Catalytic Heat Exchanger for SOFC Systems - FuelCell Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Heat Catalytic Heat Exchanger for SOFC Systems-FuelCell Energy Background In a typical solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation system, hot (~900 °C) effluent gas from a catalytic combustor serves as the heat source within a high-temperature heat exchanger, preheating incoming fresh air for the SOFC's cathode. The catalytic combustor and the cathode air heat exchanger together represent the largest opportunity for cost

314

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Procurement Guideline for Simple- and Combined-Cycle Combustion Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) procurement guideline for simple- and combined-cycle combustion turbines.

2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

315

Plasma Catalytic Conversion of Methane in Ultra Rich Flame using Transient Gliding Arc Combustion Support  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be carried out in a number of ways: steam reforming, thermo-catalytic reforming, partial oxidation, etc. [1

316

Component Development to Accelerate Commercial Implementation of Ultra-Low Emissions Catalytic Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes a 2000-2003 program for the development of components and processes to enhance the commercialization of ultra-low emissions catalytic combustion in industrial gas turbines. The range of project tasks includes: development of more durable, lower-cost catalysts and catalytic combustor components; development and design of a catalytic pre-burner and a catalytic pilot burner for gas turbines, and on-site fuel conversion processing for utilization of liquid fuel.

Jon McCarty, Brian Berry, Kare Lundberg, Orris Anson

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing  

SciTech Connect

PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOEâ??s goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines, Incorporated Saturn engine rig. High pressure single-injector rig and modified engine rig tests demonstrated NOx less than 2 ppm and CO less than 10 ppm over a wide flame temperature operating regime with low combustion noise (<0.15% peak-to-peak). Minimum NOx for the optimized engine retrofit Full RCL® designs was less than 1 ppm with CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Durability testing of the substrate and catalyst material was successfully demonstrated at pressure and temperature showing long term stable performance of the catalytic reactor element. Stable performance of the reactor element was achieved when subjected to durability tests (>5000 hours) at simulated engine conditions (P=15 atm, Tin=400C/750F.). Cyclic tests simulating engine trips was also demonstrated for catalyst reliability. In addition to catalyst tests, substrate oxidation testing was also performed for downselected substrate candidates for over 25,000 hours. At the end of the program, an RCL® catalytic pilot system has been developed and demonstrated to produce NOx emissions of less than 3 ppm (corrected to 15% O2) for 100% and 50% load operation in a production engine operating on natural gas. In addition, a Full RCL® combustor has been designed and demonstrated less than 2 ppm NOx (with potential to achieve 1 ppm) in single injector and modified engine testing. The catalyst/substrate combination has been shown to be stable up to 5500 hrs in simulated engine conditions.

Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

318

Coal conversion wastewater treatment by catalytic oxidation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, the authors examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO{sub 2}, bulk TiO{sub 2}, and CuO supported on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. They used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which they can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO{sub 2} yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that the authors could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, they performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation rates during SCWO. MnO{sub 2} does not affect the selectivity to CO{sub 2}, or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO{sub 2} are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO{sub 2}, which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of phenoxy radicals, which then react in the fluid phase by the same mechanism operative for non-catalytic SCWO of phenol. The rates of phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation are sensitive to the phenol and O{sub 2} concentrations, but independent of the water density. Power-law rate expressions were developed to correlate the catalytic kinetics. The catalytic kinetics were also consistent with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law derived from a dual-site mechanism comprising the following steps: reversible adsorption of phenol on one type of catalytic site, reversible dissociative adsorption of oxygen on a different type of site, and irreversible, rate-determining surface reaction between adsorbed phenol and adsorbed oxygen.

Phillip E. Savage

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

319

COAL CONVERSION WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY CATALYTIC OXIDATION IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER  

SciTech Connect

Wastewaters from coal-conversion processes contain phenolic compounds in appreciable concentrations. These compounds need to be removed so that the water can be discharged or re-used. Catalytic oxidation in supercritical water is one potential means of treating coal-conversion wastewaters, and this project examined the reactions of phenol over different heterogeneous oxidation catalysts in supercritical water. More specifically, we examined the oxidation of phenol over a commercial catalyst and over bulk MnO{sub 2}, bulk TiO{sub 2}, and CuO supported on Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}. We used phenol as the model pollutant because it is ubiquitous in coal-conversion wastewaters and there is a large database for non-catalytic supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) with which we can contrast results from catalytic SCWO. The overall objective of this research project is to obtain the reaction engineering information required to evaluate the utility of catalytic supercritical water oxidation for treating wastes arising from coal conversion processes. All four materials were active for catalytic supercritical water oxidation. Indeed, all four materials produced phenol conversions and CO{sub 2} yields in excess of those obtained from purely homogeneous, uncatalyzed oxidation reactions. The commercial catalyst was so active that we could not reliably measure reaction rates that were not limited by pore diffusion. Therefore, we performed experiments with bulk transition metal oxides. The bulk MnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} catalysts enhance both the phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation rates during SCWO. MnO{sub 2} does not affect the selectivity to CO{sub 2}, or to the phenol dimers at a given phenol conversion. However, the selectivities to CO{sub 2} are increased and the selectivities to phenol dimers are decreased in the presence of TiO{sub 2} , which are desirable trends for a catalytic SCWO process. The role of the catalyst appears to be accelerating the rate of formation of phenoxy radicals, which then react in the fluid phase by the same mechanism operative for non-catalytic SCWO of phenol. The rates of phenol disappearance and CO{sub 2} formation are sensitive to the phenol and O{sub 2} concentrations, but independent of the water density. Power-law rate expressions were developed to correlate the catalytic kinetics. The catalytic kinetics were also consistent with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law derived from a dual-site mechanism comprising the following steps: reversible adsorption of phenol on one type of catalytic site, reversible dissociative adsorption of oxygen on a different type of site, and irreversible, rate-determining surface reaction between adsorbed phenol and adsorbed oxygen.

Phillip E. Savage

1999-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

320

Investigations of ash layer characteristics and ash distribution in a diesel particulate filter using novel lubricant additive tracers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are currently widely used in various applications as a means of collecting particulate matter in order to meet increasingly stringent particle emissions regulations. Over time, the DPF ...

Morrow, Ryan (Ryan Michael)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Synergistic effects of lubricant additive chemistry on ash properties impacting diesel particulate filter flow resistance and catalyst performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have seen widespread use in recent years in both on- and offroad applications as an effective means for meeting the increasingly stringent particulate emission regulations. Overtime, ...

Munnis, Sean (Sean Andrew)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Artificial Photosynthesis II -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

II - Artificial Photosynthesis II - Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) Simulations NathanLewis.png Schematic of a photoelectrochemical cell being designed to harness...

323

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the perforated plate configuration on bag protection and AHPC overall performance and to optimize the perforated plate design. Five different perforated plate configurations were evaluated in a coal combustion system. The AHPC performed extremely well even at a low current level (1.5-3.0 mA) and a low pulse trigger pressure of 6.5 in. W.C. (1.62 kPa), resulting in a bag-cleaning interval of over 40 min at an A/C ratio of 12 ft/min (3.7 m/min) for most of the test period. The longest bag-cleaning interval was 594 min, which is the best to date. The residual drag was reduced to the range from 0.25 to 0.35 in. H{sub 2}O/ft/min, showing an excellent bag-cleaning ability under the perforated plate configurations. The K{sub 2}C{sub i} at the current level of 3 mA was as low as 1.0, indicating excellent ESP performance. All the results are the best achieved to date.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Fuel Efficient Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Modeling and Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project described in this report seeks to promote effective diesel particulate filter technology with minimum fuel penalty by enhancing fundamental understanding of filtration mechanisms through targeted experiments and computer simulations. The overall backpressure of a filtration system depends upon complex interactions of particulate matter and ash with the microscopic pores in filter media. Better characterization of these phenomena is essential for exhaust system optimization. The acicular mullite (ACM) diesel particulate filter substrate is under continuing development by Dow Automotive. ACM is made up of long mullite crystals which intersect to form filter wall framework and protrude from the wall surface into the DPF channels. ACM filters have been demonstrated to effectively remove diesel exhaust particles while maintaining relatively low backpressure. Modeling approaches developed for more conventional ceramic filter materials, such as silicon carbide and cordierite, have been difficult to apply to ACM because of properties arising from its unique microstructure. Penetration of soot into the high-porosity region of projecting crystal structures leads to a somewhat extended depth filtration mode, but with less dramatic increases in pressure drop than are normally observed during depth filtration in cordierite or silicon carbide filters. Another consequence is greater contact between the soot and solid surfaces, which may enhance the action of some catalyst coatings in filter regeneration. The projecting crystals appear to provide a two-fold benefit for maintaining low backpressures during filter loading: they help prevent soot from being forced into the throats of pores in the lower porosity region of the filter wall, and they also tend to support the forming filter cake, resulting in lower average cake density and higher permeability. Other simulations suggest that soot deposits may also tend to form at the tips of projecting crystals due to the axial velocity component of exhaust moving down the filter inlet channel. Soot mass collected in this way would have a smaller impact on backpressure than soot forced into the flow restrictions deeper in the porous wall structure. This project has focused on the development of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques that are generally applicable to a wide variety of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. By helping to develop improved fundamental understanding pore-scale phenomena affecting filtration, soot oxidation, and NOX abatement, this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has also assisted Dow Automotive in continuing development and commercialization of the ACM filter substrate. Over the course of this research project, ACM filters were successfully deployed on the Audi R10 TDI racecar which won the 24 Hours of LeMans endurance race in 2006, 2007, and 2008; and the 12 Hours of Sebring endurance race in 2006 and 2007. It would not have been possible for the R10 to compete in these traditionally gasoline-dominated events without reliable and effective exhaust particulate filtration. These successes demonstrated not only the performance of automotive diesel engines, but the efficacy of DPF technology as it was being deployed around the world to meet new emissions standards on consumer vehicles. During the course of this CRADA project, Dow Automotive commercialized their ACM DPF technology under the AERIFYTM DPF brand.

Stewart, Mark L.; Gallant, Thomas R.; Kim, Do Heui; Maupin, Gary D.; Zelenyuk, Alla

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Particulate measurement issues in diesel exhausts using laser induced incandescence  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of studies in the recent past have identified Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) as a versatile technique for in-flame measurement of soot concentrations. Recently, a number of researchers have focused their attention in adapting this technique to measure particulate in diesel exhausts. However the agreement with established physical sampling techniques, such as the EPA recommended filter paper collection method, was found to be less than ideal. This paper reports the efforts to adapt this technique for diesel exhaust characterization. Many of the factors affecting LII signal were identified through computer modeling. Parameters that could not be determined through such a model were determined experimentally following a parametric study. Subsequently, LII measurements were performed in the exhaust of a modified lab burner, with conditions close to that of diesel engine exhausts. Such measurements show excellent agreement with those performed using the standard filter paper collection technique.

Gupta, S. B.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.

2000-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

327

TRANSIENT, REAL-TIME, PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS IN DIESEL ENGINES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper reports our efforts to develop an instrument, TG-1, to measure particulate emissions from diesel engines in real-time. TG-1 while based on laser-induced incandescence allows measurements at 10 Hz on typical engine exhausts. Using such an instrument, measurements were performed in the exhaust of a 1.7L Mercedes Benz engine coupled to a low inertia dynamometer. Comparative measurements performed under engine steady state conditions showed the instrument to agree within {+-}12% of measurements performed with an SMPS. Moreover, the instrument had far better time response and time resolution than a TEOM{reg_sign} 1105. Also, TG-1 appears to surpass the shortcomings of the TEOM instrument, i.e., of yielding negative values under certain engine conditions and, being sensitive to external vibration.

Gupta, S; Shih, J; Hillman, G; sekar, R; Graze, R; Shimpi, S; Martin, W; Pier, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

328

PII S0016-7037(01)00632-9 Preservation of particulate non-lithogenic uranium in marine sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PII S0016-7037(01)00632-9 Preservation of particulate non-lithogenic uranium in marine sediments in revised form March 26, 2001) Abstract--Particulate non-lithogenic uranium (PNU), excess U above detrital). This excess U is referred to as particulate non-lithogenic U (PNU). Uranium concentrations in the supernant

van Geen, Alexander

329

Development of Soft Ionization for Particulate Organic Detection with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

During this DOE SBIR Phase II project, we have successfully developed several soft ionization techniques, i.e., ionization schemes which involve less fragmentation of the ions, for use with the Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS). Vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization was demonstrated in the laboratory and deployed in field campaigns. Vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization allows better identification of organic species in aerosol particles as shown in laboratory experiments on single component particles, and in field measurements on complex multi-component particles. Dissociative electron attachment with lower energy electrons (less than 30 eV) was demonstrated in the measurement of particulate organics in chamber experiments in Switzerland, and is now a routine approach with AMS systems configured for bipolar, negative ion detection. This technique is particularly powerful for detection of acidic and other highly oxygenated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) chemical functionality. Low energy electron ionization (10 to 12 eV) is also a softer ionization approach routinely available to AMS users. Finally, Lithium ion attachment has been shown to be sensitive to more alkyl-like chemical functionality in SOA. Results from Mexico City are particularly exciting in observing changes in SOA molecular composition under different photochemical/meteorological conditions. More recent results detecting biomass burns at the Montana fire lab have demonstrated quantitative and selective detection of levoglucosan. These soft ionization techniques provide the ToF-AMS with better capability for identifying organic species in ambient atmospheric aerosol particles. This, in turn, will allow more detailed study of the sources, transformations and fate of organic-containing aerosol.

Trimborn, A; Williams, L R; Jayne, J T; Worsnop, D R

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

330

Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Selective Dehydrogenation of Propane over Novel Catalytic Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices. 4 Acknowledgment The authors thank United Catalysts, Inc. for stimulating technical discussions and for providing samples of commercial ...

Allen Sault Elaine; Elaine P. Boespflug Anthony Martino; Jeffrey S. Kawola

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2010-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

335

Thermochemical Equilibrium Modeling of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SRC) Catalyst Poisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A previous EPRI publication (1022073) provided a detailed literature review on the propensity of the alkali and alkaline earth metals sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and the Group (V) elements phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As) to deactivate selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts in commercial flue gas cleaning systems. It also listed the conditions under which such deactivation has been reported. This report extends this earlier work to predict the transformation of SCR catalyst ...

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Selective Catalytic Reduction Mercury Oxidation Data to Support Catalyst Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) mercury oxidation can be pivotal for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards compliance, especially for those units that rely on co-benefits as their primary method of mercury control. Much work has been done historically to understand the mercury behavior across SCRs, especially as a function of operating conditions, and in particular, flue gas composition. The present work seeks to integrate the accumulated knowledge into a practical document that will aid utilities in ...

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

337

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is the 2010 version of Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001 and updated annually. New content this year includes: (1) A section on static mixers added in Chapter 3; (2) Substantial expansion of the discussion on inspection of ammonia storage and delivery equipment in Chapter 8; (3) Expanded coverage of unit startup, shutdown, and low-load operation in Chapter 15; (4) a new chapter, Chapter 18, on the means to ensure tha...

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

338

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) Technology Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides a technology overview regarding the application and operation of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) to coal-fired electric utility boilers for the incremental reduction of NOx emissions. The document provides a historical perspective of the SNCR technology development, background regarding the reaction chemistry, and process parameters that impact SNCR NOx reduction performance. In addition, a review of reagent choices along with storage and handling requirements is ...

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

339

Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Predevelopment Program. Final project report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of work conducted on Predevelopment Research for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification Process. The eighteen-month effort (July 1976-December 1977) was a coordinated program which included operation of a continuous fluidized-bed gasifier, parallel bench-scale research, and engineering studies leading to the preparation of a commercial-scale plant study design and economics for producing SNG from Illinois coal.

Kalina, T.; Nahas, N.C.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Recycle and Re-Use Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the widespread implementation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology, there is a great deal of interest in finding viable recycle/re-use routes for spent catalyst as an alternative to landfilling. The current effort has focused on detailed evaluation of several recycle/re-use processes that were identified in previous EPRI studies. These recycle/re-use technologies include mineral filler applications, incorporation into wet-bottom boiler slag, cement kiln co-processing, and use in iron/s...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Simulation of ethylbenzene dehydrogenation in microporous catalytic membrane reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current state-of-the-art inorganic oxide membranes offer the potential of being modified to yield catalytic properties. The resulting modules may be configured to simultaneously induce catalytic reactions with product concentration and separation in a single processing step. Processes utilizing such catalytically active membrane reactors have the potential for dramatically increasing yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity. Examples of systems of commercial interest include hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, partial and selective oxidation, hydrations, hydrocarbon cracking, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, and olefin polymerization. A large portion of the most significant reactions fall into the category of high temperature, gas phase chemical and petrochemical processes. Microporous oxide membranes are well suited for these applications. A program is proposed to investigate selected model reactions of commercial interest (i.e., dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene) using a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor. Membranes will be developed, reaction dynamics characterized, and production processes developed, culminating in laboratory-scale demonstration of technical and economic feasibility. As a result of the anticipated increased yield per reactor pass, large economic incentives are envisioned. First, a large decrease in the temperature required to obtain high yield should be possible because of the reduced driving force requirement. Significantly higher conversion per pass implies a reduced recycle ratio, as well as reduced reactor size. Both factors result in reduced capital costs, as well as savings in cost reactants and energy. The controlled, defined reaction zone (the membrane interface), will facilitate the reactor design process and permit greater control of reactor dynamics.

Not Available

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING PENETRATING RADIATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of hydrogenating an olefinic hydrocarbon by irradiating a substrate catalyst and increasing its catalytic activity is described. Ferric oxide with about 0.005% by weight of at least one oxide of a metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, magnesium, nickel, zirconium, and manganese incorporated therein is irradiated. Then an alkane is placed upon the surface of the catalyst and irradiated in an atmosphere of hydrogen. Any olefin produced from this radiolysis becomes hydrogenated. (AEC)

Caffrey, J.M. Jr.

1961-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Equilibrium Characteristics of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalyst Poisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Power River Basin (PRB) coal applications, phosphorus (P) is known as the primary catalyst poison. Recent utility experience shows that some units burning PRB coal are deactivating the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst more rapidly than others. The exact mechanism is not well understood but could be related to boiler type or combustion modifications leading to increased levels of phosphorus vaporization. With increased levels of phosphorus in flue gas, greater quantities of phosphorus would...

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

344

Emission factors for ammonia and particulate matter from broiler Houses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentrations, ammonia (NH?) concentrations, and ventilation rates were measured in four commercial, tunnel ventilated broiler houses in June through December of 2000 in Brazos County, Texas. Particle size distributions were developed from TSP samplers collected and used to determine the mass fraction of PM?? in the TSP samples collected. Concentrations of TSP and ammonia measured were multiplied by the ventilation rates measured to obtain emission factors for PM?? and ammonia from tunnel ventilated commercial broiler houses. TSP and NH? concentrations ranged from 7,387 to 11,387 []g/mł and 2.02 to 45 ppm, respectively. Ammonia concentration exhibited a correlation with the age of the birds. Mass median diameters (MMD) found using particle size analysis with a Coulter Counter Multisizer were between 24.0 and 26.7 mm aerodynamic equivalent diameter. MMD increased with bird age. The mass fraction of PM?? in the TSP samples was between 2.72% and 8.40% with a mean of 5.94%. Ventilation rates were measured between 0.58 and 89 mł/s. Ammonia emission rates varied from 38 to 2105 g/hr. TSP emission rates and PM?? emission rates ranged from 7.0 to 1673 g/hr 0.58 to 99 g/hr respectively. Emission rates for ammonia and particulate matter increased with the age of the birds. Error and sensitivity analysis was conducted using Monte Carlo simulation for the calculation of emission rates. Error for ammonia emission rates was 99 g/hr during tunnel ventilation and 6 g/hr during sidewall ventilation. Error for TSP emission rates was 79 g/hr and 11 g/hr for tunnel and sidewall ventilation respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that ventilation rate measurements and measurement of ammonia concentration had the most effect on the emission rates. Emission factors of NH? and PM?? estimated for these buildings were 1.32 ± 0.472 g/bird and 22.8 ± 9.28 g/bird, respectively. These emission factors take into account the variation of PM?? and NH? concentrations and ventilation rates with the age of the birds.

Redwine, Jarah Suzanne

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

346

The Relationship between Particulate Chemistry and Air Masses in Southern Indiana  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The particulate characteristics of the surface layer of the atmosphere over a region of southwest Indiana were determined for forty-two 24-hour periods between September 1985 and April 1986. The water-soluble sulfate, chloride and sodium content ...

Richard H. Grant; William W. McFee

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Passive regeneration : long-term effects on ash characteristics and diesel particulate filter performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have seen widespread growth as an effective means for meeting increasingly rigorous particle emissions regulations. There is growing interest to exploit passive regeneration of DPFs to ...

Bahr, Michael J., Nav. E. (Michael James). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

A Triple-Path Denuder Instrument for Ambient Particulate Sampling and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field instrument for sampling sulfate and nitrate particulate matter in a controlled chemical environment has been constructed and field tested. The instrument contains HNO3 and NH3 denuders and an ambient air path, all connected by manifold to ...

Briant L. Davis; L. Ronald Johnson; Bryan J. Johnson; Robert J. Hammer

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Understanding the meteorological drivers of U.S. particulate matter concentrations in a changing climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a serious public health issue for the United States. While there is a growing body of evidence that climate change will partially counter the effectiveness of future precursor emission reductions to reduce ozone (O...

John P. Dawson; Bryan J. Bloomer; Darrell A. Winner; Christopher P. Weaver

350

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 3- Particulate Emissions from Industrial Processes (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations limit particulate emissions into the atmosphere by process weight per hour, where process weight is the total weight of all materials introduced into any specific process which...

351

Simultaneous Removal of NOx and Mercury in Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The results of a 18-month investigation to advance the development of a novel Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR), for the simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and mercury (elemental and oxidized) from flue gases in a single unit operation located downstream of the particulate collectors, are reported. In the proposed LTSCAR, NO{sub x} removal is in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The concomitant capture of mercury in the unit is achieved through the incorporation of a novel chelating adsorbent. As conceptualized, the LTSCAR will be located downstream of the particulate collectors (flue gas temperature 140-160 C) and will be similar in structure to a conventional SCR. That is, it will have 3-4 beds that are loaded with catalyst and adsorbent allowing staged replacement of catalyst and adsorbent as required. Various Mn/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to reduce NO at low temperature using CO as the reductant. It has been shown that with a suitably tailored catalyst more than 65% NO conversion with 100% N{sub 2} selectivity can be achieved, even at a high space velocity (SV) of 50,000 h-1 and in the presence of 2 v% H{sub 2}O. Three adsorbents for oxidized mercury were developed in this project with thermal stability in the required range. Based on detailed evaluations of their characteristics, the mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) adsorbent was found to be most promising for the capture of oxidized mercury. This adsorbent has been shown to be thermally stable to 200 C. Fixed-bed evaluations in the targeted temperature range demonstrated effective removal of oxidized mercury from simulated flue gas at very high capacity ({approx}>58 mg Hg/g adsorbent). Extension of the capability of the adsorbent to elemental mercury capture was pursued with two independent approaches: incorporation of a novel nano-layer on the surface of the chelating mercury adsorbent to achieve in situ oxidation on the adsorbent, and the use of a separate titania-supported manganese oxide catalyst upstream of the oxidized mercury adsorbent. Both approaches met with some success. It was demonstrated that the concept of in situ oxidation on the adsorbent is viable, but the future challenge is to raise the operating capacity beyond the achieved limit of 2.7 mg Hg/g adsorbent. With regard to the manganese dioxide catalyst, elemental mercury was very efficiently oxidized in the absence of sulfur dioxide. Adequate resistance to sulfur dioxide must be incorporated for the approach to be feasible in flue gas. A preliminary benefits analysis of the technology suggests significant potential economic and environmental advantages.

Neville G. Pinto; Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Discrete-element modeling of particulate aerosol flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-time step computational approach is presented for efficient discrete-element modeling of aerosol flows containing adhesive solid particles. Adhesive aerosol particulates are found in numerous dust and smoke contamination problems, including smoke particle transport in the lungs, particle clogging of heat exchangers in construction vehicles, industrial nanoparticle transport and filtration systems, and dust fouling of electronic systems and MEMS components. Dust fouling of equipment is of particular concern for potential human occupation on dusty planets, such as Mars. The discrete-element method presented in this paper can be used for prediction of aggregate structure and breakup, for prediction of the effect of aggregate formation on the bulk fluid flow, and for prediction of the effects of small-scale flow features (e.g., due to surface roughness or MEMS patterning) on the aggregate formation. After presentation of the overall computational structure, the forces and torques acting on the particles resulting from fluid motion, particle-particle collision, and adhesion under van der Waals forces are reviewed. The effect of various parameters of normal collision and adhesion of two particles are examined in detail. The method is then used to examine aggregate formation and particle clogging in pipe and channel flow.

Marshall, J.S. [School of Engineering, University of Vermont, 33 Colchecter Avenue, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)], E-mail: jeffm@cems.uvm.edu

2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

354

Characterization of particulate matter deposited in diesel particulate filters: Visual and analytical approach in macro-, micro- and nano-scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-scale analytical investigations of particulate matter (soot and ash) of two loaded diesel particulate filters (DPF) from (a) a truck (DPF1) and (b) a passenger car (DPF2) reveal the following: in DPF1 (without fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 130-270 {mu}m thick, homogeneous porous cake with pronounced orientation. Soot aggregates consist of 15-30 nm large individual particles exhibiting relatively mature internal nanostructures, however, far from being graphite. Ash aggregates largely accumulate at the outlet part of DPF1, while minor amounts are deposited directly on the channel walls all along the filter length. They consist of crystalline phases with individual particles of sizes down to the nanoscale range. Chemically, the ash consists mainly of Mg, S, Ca, Zn and P, elements encountered in lubricating oil additives. In the passenger car DPF2 (with fuel-borne additives), soot aggregates form an approximately 200-500 {mu}m thick, inhomogeneous porous cake consisting of several superposed layers corresponding to different soot generations. The largest part of the soot cake is composed of unburned, oriented soot aggregates left behind despite repeated regenerations, while a small part constitutes a loose layer with randomly oriented aggregates, which was deposited last and has not seen any regeneration. Fe-oxide particles of micro- to nano-scale sizes, originating from the fuel-borne additive, are often dispersed within the part of the soot cake composed of the unburned soot leftovers. The individual soot nanoparticles in DPF2 are approximately 15-40 nm large and generally less mature than in the truck DPF1. The presence of soot leftovers in DPF2 indicates that the addition of fuel-borne material does not fully compensate for the temperatures needed for complete soot removal. Ash in DPF2 is filling up more than half of the filter volume (at the downstream part) and is dominated by Fe-oxide aggregates, due to the Fe-based fuel-borne additive, but otherwise its chemical composition reflects compounds of lubricating oil additives. (author)

Liati, Anthi; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for I.C. Engines, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Optical backscatter probe for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream  

SciTech Connect

A system for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream is disclosed. The system transmits light into a combustion gas stream, and thereafter detects a portion of the transmitted light as scattered light in an amount corresponding to the amount of particulates in the emissions. Purge gas may be supplied adjacent the light supply and the detector to reduce particles in the emissions from coating or otherwise compromising the transmission of light into the emissions and recovery of scattered light from the emissions.

Parks, James E; Partridge, William P

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

356

PARS II TRAINING  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10 (V1.1) PARS II 102 Monthly Updating and Reporting i 10 (V1.1) PARS II 102 Monthly Updating and Reporting i Project Assessment and Reporting System PARS II 102 Monthly Updating and Reporting Training Workbook (PARS II Release 1.1) Department of Energy September 13, 2010 September 13,, 2010 (V1.1) PARS II 102 Monthly Updating and Reporting ii Table of Contents OVERSIGHT and ASSESSMENT ........................................................................................................ 1 Exercise 1: Find and View a Project ............................................................................................ 1 Sort the Project List ................................................................................................................. 3

357

Microbial Biomineralization and Their Catalytic Activity of Palladium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The initial concentrations of soluble palladium(II) and formate in the precursor solution strongly influenced the particle size of biomass-supported palladium ...

358

Particulate control for coal-fueled diesel engine exhaust  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Core Separator is a cylindrical vessel having one tangential inlet and two outlets at the opposite end of the vessel. It contains an outlet for the clean flow and a second outlet for the recirculating flow. The solids-laden flue gas is introduced through a fan to the inlet of the Core Separator. Due to the swirling motion of the flow, solids move to the periphery as the central jet leaving the system through the central outlet is cleaned of particulates. The peripheral flow with most of the particles is exhausted to the cyclone and then recirculates back to the Core Separator by means of the fan. The processes of separation and solids collection are accomplished separately and in different components. The Core Separator cleans the flow discharged from the system and detains solids within the system If the Core Separator efficiency is high enough, particles cannot leave the system. They recirculate again and again until the cyclone finally collects them for removal. An analytical formula can be derived that defines the system performance. E = E{sub c}E{sub s}/1{minus}E{sub s}(1{minus}E{sub c}), where E, E{sub c}, and E{sub s} are the system, collector, and Core Separator partial separation efficiencies respectively. Examination of this equation shows that the system efficiency remains high even with poor performance in the collector, as long as the efficiency of the Core Separator is high. For example, if E{sub s} is 99% and E{sub c} is 30%, the system efficiency is 96.7%.

Smolensky, L.A.; Easom, B.H.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Catalytic hydroprocessing of shale oil to produce distillate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are presented of a Chevron Research Company study sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to demonstrate the feasibility of converting whole shale oil to a synthetic crude resembling a typical petroleum distillate. The synthetic crude thus produced can then be processed, in conventional petroleum-refining facilities, to transportation fuels such as high octane gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The raw shale oil feed used is a typical Colorado shale oil produced in a surface retort in the so-called indirectly heated mode. It is shown that whole shale oil can be catalytically hydrodenitrified to reduce the nitrogen to levels as low as one part per million in a single catalytic stage. However, for economic reasons, it appears preferable to denitrify to about 0.05 wt % nitrogen. The resulting synthetic crude resembles a petroleum distillate that can be fractionated and further processed as necessary in conventional petroleum refining facilities. Shale oil contains about 0.6% sulfur. Sulfur is more easily removed by hydrofining than is nitrogen; therefore, only a few parts per million of sulfur remain at a product nitrogen of 0.05 wt %. Oxygen contained in the shale oil is also reduced to low levels during hydrodenitrification. The shale oil contains appreciable quantities of iron and arsenic which are also potential catalyst poisons. These metals are removed by a guard bed placed upstream from the hydrofining catalyst. Based on correlations, the naphthas from the shale oil hydrofiner can readily be upgraded to high octane gasolines by catalytic reforming. The middle distillate fractions may require some additional hydrofining to produce salable diesel or jet fuel. The technology is available, and pilot plant studies are scheduled to verify diesel hydrofiner performance.

Sullivan, R.F.; Stangeland, B.E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Effect of reformer conditions on catalytic reforming of biomass-gasification tars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parametric tests on catalytic reforming of tars produced in biomass gasification are performed using a bench-scale, fluid-bed catalytic reformer containing a commercial nickel-based catalyst. The product gas composition and yield vary with reformer temperature, space time, and steam: biomass ratio. Under certain catalytic tar reforming conditions, the gas yield increases by 70%; 97% of the tars are cracked into gases; and benzene and naphthalene, the predominant tar species, are virtually eliminated from the product gas.

Kinoshita, C.M.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

Inter-Layer Mixing in Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary parameter for achieving high NOx reduction and low ammonia (NH3) slip in Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems on large coal-fired boilers is a uniform NH3/NOx ratio distribution at the catalyst surface. Large non-uniformities yield local NH3/NOx ratios greater than one, leading directly to NH3 slip. Areas of low NH3/NOx ratios have low NOx reduction. Both of these conditions are undesirable. SCR system designers specify a maximum acceptable NH3/NOx non-uniformity at the catalyst inlet....

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

362

Catalytic H2O2 decomposition on palladium surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The catalytic decomposition of H?O? at smooth single-crystal and polycrystalline palladium surfaces that had been subjected to various surface modifications has been studied. Monolayer and submonolayer coverages of I, Br and Cl adsorbates were used to pretrial the palladium surfaces. The rate of decomposition was found to be dependent upon the coverage and identity of the halogen adsorbate. Experimental measurements were based upon Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron Diffraction (LEED) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the surface adlayers, redox titration for H?O? concentration determinations, and evolved-O? gas volume measurements for the decomposition rates.

Salinas, S. Adriana

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Catalytic reforming of liquid fuels: Deactivation of catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of logistic fuels (e.g., diesel) to provide hydrogen-rich gas for various fuel cells is inevitably accompanied by deactivation. This deactivation can be caused by various mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, sintering, and sulfur poisoning. In general, these mechanisms are, not independent—e.g., carbon deposition may affect sulfur poisoning. However, they are typically studied in separate experiments, with relatively little work reported on their interaction at conditions typical of liquid fuel reforming. Recent work at the U.S. Dept. of Energy/NETL and Louisiana State University has shown progress in understanding the interaction of these deactivation processes, and catalysts designed to minimize them.

Spivey, J.J.; Haynes, D.J.; Berry, D.A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Gardner, T.H.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : atomic layer deposition of active catalytic metals. Activity report : January 1, 2005 - September 30, 2005.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry - specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. The broad goal is to produce diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Originally the goal was to prepare shape-selective catalysts that would limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. We are currently awaiting follow-up experiments to determine the attrition strength of these catalysts. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. This later experimentation will be discussed in the next progress report. Subsequently, we plan to evaluate membranes after the ALD techniques are improved with a careful study to control and quantify the Fe and Ru loadings. The preconditioning of these surfaces will also be further developed. (A number of improvements have been made with particulate supports; they will be discussed in the subsequent report.) In support of the above, there was an opportunity to undertake a short study of cobalt/promoter/support interaction using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne. Five catalysts and a reference cobalt oxide were characterized during a temperature programmed EXAFS/XANES experimental study with the combined effort of Argonne and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) of the University of Kentucky. This project was completed, and it resulted in an extensive understanding of the preconditioning step of reducing Co-containing FT catalysts. A copy of the resulting manuscript has been submitted and accepted for publication. A similar project was undertaken with iron-containing FT catalysts; the data is currently being studied.

Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Catalytic effects of period iv transition metal in the oxidation of biodiesel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??CATALYTIC EFFECTS OF PERIOD IV TRANSITION METALS IN THE OXIDATION OF BIODIESEL BRADLEY R CLARK December 2011 Advisors: Dr. Steve Salley, Dr. Simon Ng, Dr.… (more)

Clark, Bradley

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Microsoft Word - 41890_PW_Catalytic Combustion_Factsheet_Rev01...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plan and Integration Study for rich catalytic combustion as applied to industrial gas turbines fired on both natural gas and coal derived synthesis gas. The overall goal is...

368

Experimental investigation and systems modeling of fractional catalytic pyrolysis of pine .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The fractional catalytic pyrolysis of pine was studied both experimentally and through models. A preliminary stage economic analysis was conducted for a wood chip pyrolysis… (more)

Goteti, Anil Chaitanya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock  

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

370

Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Mauldin, SC); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

371

Intensified Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Process with Microchannel Catalytic Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A microchannel catalytic reactor with improved heat and mass transport has been used for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to produce fuels and chemicals. This type of novel reactor takes advantages of highly active and selective catalysts with increased site density so that the FT synthesis process can be intensified. It was demonstrated that this microchannel reactor based process can be carried out at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) as high as 60,000 hr-1 to achieve greater than 60% of one-pass CO conversion while maintaining low methane selectivity (<10%) and high chain growth probability(>0.9). Such superior FT synthesis performance has not ever been reported in the prior open literatures. The overall productivity to heavy hydrocarbons has been significantly improved over the conventional reactor technology. In this study, performance data were obtained in a wide range of pressure (10atm-35atm) and hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio (1-2.5). The catalytic system was characterized by BET, scanning electron microcopy (SEM), transmission electron microcopy(TEM), and H2 chemisorption. A three dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model were used to simulate temperature profiles in the exothermic reaction system in order to optimize the reactor design and intensify the synthesis process. Intraparticle non-isothermal characteristics are also analyzed for the FT synthesis catalyst.

Cao, Chunshe; Hu, Jianli; Li, Shari; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Wang, Yong

2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

372

An Exploration of Catalytic Chemistry on Au/Ni(111)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project explored the catalytic oxidation chemistry that can be effected on a Au/Ni(111) surface alloy. A Au/Ni(111) surface alloy is a Ni(111) surface on which less than 60% of the Ni atoms are replaced at random positions by Au atoms. The alloy is produced by vapor deposition of a small amount of Au onto Ni single crystals. The Au atoms do not result in an epitaxial Au overlayer or in the condensation of the Au into droplets. Instead, Au atoms displace and then replace Ni atoms on a Ni(111) surface, even though Au is immiscible in bulk Ni. The two dimensional structure of the clean Ni surface is preserved. This alloy is found to stabilize an adsorbed peroxo-like O2 species that is shown to be the critical reactant in the low temperature catalytic oxidation of CO and that is suspected to be the critical reactant in other oxidation reactions. This investigation revealed a new, practically important catalyst for CO oxidation that has since been patented.

Sylvia T. Ceyer

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

373

I IIII1IiI II1Ii  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

* * 'I I IIII1IiI II1Ii 1111 1111 I - I' p. r. * *: * * * .** I I ,e L 'I r - I OFFICIAL PHOTOGRAPH ADEC ?Date ______ Time - Location /oie_ / I C 4'.'-?- 1D& Reason for Photo ' 1 By _________ Ro1 # 7'93 Frame' # ,'9 I *.' ' .- - . *c *\ I '' . *. , * " . ... *l; .; . '' N 1 * ' ' * ' '" ), q . L *" ' r 'I . I ' , * I ", * _; . ':. -* - - ! .) f' '' . . * 'i; . ,- , . F) .* :-- .' *, 'I 1 - . '.. ' t; , çv ' . ,* I i * #' *. '3 "' i * '- *1 '4 *' ,:- - a 4 t ' - * ', % & ; 1 ¶ * :' *.' ,. : -A r ;v ' :" - .r " 'a - -" -; & ' * - * - - ) : S , ,,, --- S *J %I *' * S .. c .* - Z '- .- '- .., ' . -" ' I * . * ' * S- * , * - 4 .- a * , . V . ,. * i .-- 4. * -Y * / -, *. .' *' ,t r A. _-. *, , *' ** l. . * '' .4 "1 j. ' 1. - ' ' * 4 I - . * - - , _% * I-. , 4 .r- ( J -: '- , *, ' v - I 9 , ' , 1 ** , . * -"J * -" I * - c-- . ;- . '--- - A ... * ' ' - * 'A r? -: * '; ' ' - ' .: 1', - '. *, , .. I ,, *,, . * .t 1- ) ' , ** J' * *I :* : - - I j-- - - * I- , -j -. -** :- * * . *' ' _, 9 ;* 3 . . -. . 5 4 - 9. - .** -.* . - *- .c .- * -. :. .- - - - 4, N 9 - * 9 t * - - 4 2

374

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13- Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and wood-fired steam or hot water generating units.

375

Synergistic effects of lubricant additive chemistry on ash properties impacting diesel particulate filter flow resistance and catalyst performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have seen widespread use in recent years in both on- and offroad applications as an effective means for meeting the increasingly… (more)

Munnis, Sean (Sean Andrew)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Feasibility of plasma aftertreatment for simultaneous control of NOx and particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plasma reactors can be operated as a particulate trap or as a NOx converter. Particulate trapping in a plasma reactor can be accomplished by electrostatic precipitation. The soluble organic fraction of the trapped particulates can be utilized for the hydrocarbon-enhanced oxidation of NO to NO2 . The NO2 can then be used to non-thermally oxidize the carbon fraction of the particulates. The oxidation of the carbon fraction by NO2 can lead to reduction of NOx or backconversion of NO2 to NO. This paper examines the hydrocarbon and electrical energy density requirements in a plasma for maximum NOx conversion in both heavy-duty and light-duty diesel engine exhaust. The energy density required for complete oxidation of hydrocarbons is also examined and shown to be much greater than that required for maximum NOx conversion. The reaction of NO2 with carbon is shown to lead mainly to backconversion of NO2 to NO. These results suggest that the combination of the plasma with a catalyst will be required to reduce the NOx and oxidize the hydrocarbons. The plasma reactor can be operated occasionally in the arc mode to thermally oxidize the carbon fraction of the particulates.

Brusasco, R M; Merritt, B T; Penetrante, B; Pitz, W J; Vogtlin, G E

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

378

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I. Solvent Refined Coal II. Catalysts III. Purpose andSondreal, E.A. , "Viscosity of Coal Liquids - The Effect ofAnthraxylon - Kinetics of Coal Hydrogenation," Ind. and Eng.

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Research on Algae Removal by Electro-flotation/Photo-catalytic Oxidization Combined Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lake-type raw water was treated in Photo-catalytic Oxidization reactor. Under the condition of the inflow discharge control in 15L/h, the padding packing compares 2/5, UV lamp 30W, added no chemicals, pH 7.35, use the electro-flotation to treat it ... Keywords: algae, Electro-flotation, photo-catalytic oxidization

Wang Liping; Jiang Weijuan; Gao Naiyun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Havstad, Mark A. (Davis, CA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Ghosh3 , Huei Peng2 Abstract A fuel processor that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed of the hydrogen in the fuel processor is based on catalytic partial oxidation of the methane in the natural gas

Peng, Huei

382

==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor ===== ==== !" = !" = = !" A micro ejector for butane catalytic combustor is investigated. Quasi-1 ejector that the volume flow rate of entrained air can reach 43 times the value of butane when the back

Kasagi, Nobuhide

383

Simulation and Optimization of the Stabilizer Tower Operation at Catalytic Reforming of Esfahan Oil Refining Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production of gasoline with low RVP specifications have made the operators of the catalytic reforming unit of Esfahan Oil refining company in Iran to apply new operating conditions. RVP is an abbreviation for Reid Vapor Pressure which is the vapor pressure ... Keywords: RVP, platformate, initial boiling point, catalytic reforming, distillation curve

Ali Izadyar; Bahram Hashemi Shahraki; Ahmad Shariati

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Catalytic studies of supported Pd-Au catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although Pd-Au high-surface area catalysts are used in industry to improve activity and selectivity, a thorough understanding of the nature of these enhancements is lacking. A molecular-level understanding of catalytic reactions under actual reaction conditions is the ultimate goal. This thesis is mainly focused on the application of Pd-Au supported catalysts for vinyl acetate synthesis and CO oxidation reactions using highsurface area catalysts. We have attempted to improve the conventional Pd-Au based catalyst by synthesizing novel acetate-based and polymer-based catalysts. The corresponding catalytic reactivity and selectivity were measured and compared to conventional Pd-Au based catalyst systems. Subsequent characterization was performed using characterization techniques, such as, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From our bimetallic catalytic studies, it was evident that the addition of Au to Pd leads to increased reactivity and selectivity. This surface modification is an important factor in the altered reaction kinetics for vinyl acetate (VA) synthesis and CO oxidation reactions. Promoted and unpromoted Pd-Au/SiO2/K+ catalyst were used for VA synthesis and the effect of pre-adsorbed O2, acetic acid and the role of oxygen were explored. The VA reaction rate of novel acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 catalyst was 3.5 times higher than conventional Pd-Au catalysts. Also, 100% selectivity was obtained for acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 at 130 oC and the VA formation rate was comparable to that of conventional Pd-Au catalysts. Therefore, the acetate-based Pd-Au/SiO2 catalyst seems very promising and can be explored further. Also, Pd(1):Au(4)/SiO2 catalysts demonstrate 100% CO conversion at much lower temperatures (90 oC) compared with other Pd-Au based catalysts. Furthermore, we were successful in obtaining sufficient CO oxidation activity with increased metal loading (5 wt%) and these catalysts did not deactivate under above-ambient reaction temperature conditions, which make 1:4 Pd- Au/SiO2 catalyst a good candidate for further exploration in CO oxidation reactions.

Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar

385

A Neo-Rumsfeldian Framework for the Thermodynamics of Organic Particulate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Neo-Rumsfeldian Framework for the Thermodynamics of Organic Particulate A Neo-Rumsfeldian Framework for the Thermodynamics of Organic Particulate Matter Formation in the Atmosphere: Successes and Challenges Speaker(s): James F. Pankow Date: March 6, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 James F. Pankow. The thermodynamic principles according to which organic particulate matter (OPM) forms in the atmosphere have become well identified because of research progress made since about the mid 1990s. These are, ahem, known knowns. However, many unknowns exist regarding the concentrations and chemical characteristics of the biogenic and anthropogenic compounds present in the atmosphere that are important in OPM formation. In this context, since we know what we need to know more about, these are, well, known unknowns. Other known important unknowns are

386

Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Flow cytometric analysis of respiratory tract cells exposed to oil shale and silica particulates. [Hamsters  

SciTech Connect

Flow cytometric techniques were used to measure the cytological and biochemical damage to respiratory tract cells in animals exposed to particulates. Hamsters were exposed to raw and spent oil shale particulates and silica by intratracheal instillation. Exfoliated lung cells were obtained by sacrificing the animals and lavaging the respiratory tract posterior to the trachea with saline. Cell samples were fixed in ethanol and stained with mithramycin for fluorescence analysis of DNA content. DNA content distributions from hamsters exposed to spent oil shale and silica particulates showed atypical changes 28 to 35 days later. Cell counts and total numbers of macrophages, leukocytes, and epithelial cells in the lavage fluid also showed marked changes related to time after exposure.

Steinkamp, J.A.; Wilson, J.S.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Apparatus for real-time airborne particulate radionuclide collection and analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus for collecting and analyzing an airborne particulate radionuclide having a filter mounted in a housing, the housing having an air inlet upstream of the filter and an air outlet downstream of the filter, wherein an air stream flows therethrough. The air inlet receives the air stream, the filter collects the airborne particulate radionuclide and permits a filtered air stream to pass through the air outlet. The improvement which permits real time counting is a gamma detecting germanium diode mounted downstream of the filter in the filtered air stream. The gamma detecting germanium diode is spaced apart from a downstream side of the filter a minimum distance for a substantially maximum counting detection while permitting substantially free air flow through the filter and uniform particulate radionuclide deposition on the filter.

Smart, John E. (West Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

PARS II TRAINING  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 Viewing and Reporting 1 Viewing and Reporting Training Workbook V1.0 Department of Energy May 10, 2010 May 10, 2010 PARS II 101 Viewing and Reporting V1.0 ii May 10, 2010 PARS II 101 Viewing and Reporting V1.0 iii Table of Contents OVERSIGHT and ASSESSMENT ........................................................................................................ 1 Exercise 1 Find and View a Project ............................................................................................. 1 Sort the Project List ................................................................................................................. 3 Select a Project ....................................................................................................................... 3

390

NIST STARR II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... on board, a calibrated reference reflector, called a solar diffuser, is ... efficiently coupled to a monochromator, the tunable source power in STARR II ...

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

391

Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

392

Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline , diesel and jet range blendstocks . Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

393

In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline, diesel, and jet range blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

395

Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis for the Production of the Hydrocarbon Biofuels  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising technique for conversion of biomass into hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels. For over 30 years this process has been studied and it has been demonstrated that oils can be produced with high concentrations of hydrocarbons and low levels of oxygen. However, the yields from this type of conversion are typically low and the catalysts, which are often zeolites, are quickly deactivated through coking. In addition, the hydrocarbons produced are primarily aromatic molecules (benzene, toluene, xylene) that not desirable for petroleum refineries and are not well suited for diesel or jet engines. The goals of our research are to develop new multifunction catalysts for the production of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel range molecules and to improve process conditions for higher yields and low coking rates. We are investigating filtration and the use of hydrogen donor molecules to improve catalyst performance.

Nimlos, M. R.; Robichaud, D. J.; Mukaratate, C.; Donohoe, B. S.; Iisa, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Phenol and phenolics from lignocellulosic biomass by catalytic microwave pyrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of biomass using activated carbon was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of phenol and phenolics. The high concentrations of phenol (38.9%) and phenolics (66.9%) were obtained at the temperature of 589 K, catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 3:1 and retention time of 8 min. The increase of phenol and its derivatives compared to pyrolysis without catalysts has a close relationship with the decomposition of lignin under the performance of activated carbon. The concentration of esters was also increased using activated carbon as a catalyst. The high content of phenols obtained in this study can be used either directly as fuel after upgrading or as feedstock of biobased phenols for chemical industry.

Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zhang, Qin; Tang, Juming; Ruan, Roger

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Johanson, Edwin S. (Princeton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Catalytic carbon membranes for hydrogen production. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commercial carbon composite microfiltration membranes may be modified for gas separation applications by providing a gas separation layer with pores in the 1- to 10-nm range. Several organic polymeric precursors and techniques for depositing a suitable layer were investigated in this project. The in situ polymerization technique was found to be the most promising, and pure component permeation tests with membrane samples prepared with this technique indicated Knudsen diffusion behavior. The gas separation factors obtained by mixed-gas permeation tests were found to depend strongly on gas temperature and pressure indicating significant viscous flow at high-pressure conditions. The modified membranes were used to carry out simultaneous water gas shift reaction and product hydrogen separation. These tests indicated increasing CO conversions with increasing hydrogen separation. A simple process model was developed to simulate a catalytic membrane reactor. A number of simulations were carried out to identify operating conditions leading to product hydrogen concentrations over 90 percent. (VC)

Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Removal of sulfur from recycle gas streams in catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes improvement in a process for catalytically reforming a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock boiling in the gasoline range, wherein the reforming is conducted in the presence of hydrogen in a reforming process unit under reforming conditions, the process unit comprised of serially connected reactors, each of the reactors containing a reforming catalyst, and which process unit also includes a regeneration circuit for regenerating the catalyst after it becomes coked, the regeneration comprising treatment with a sulfur containing gas, and which process unit also includes a gas/liquid separator wherein a portion of the gas is recycled and the remaining portion is collected as make-gas. The improvement comprises using a sulfur trap, containing a catalyst comprised of about 10 to about 70 wt. % nickel dispersed on a support, between the gas/liquid separator and the first reactor.

Boyle, J.P.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

400

Producing Clean Syngas via Catalytic Reforming for Fuels Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermochemical biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals can be achieved through gasification to syngas. The biomass derived raw syngas contains the building blocks of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as impurities such as tars, light hydrocarbons, and hydrogen sulfide. These impurities must be removed prior to fuel synthesis. We used catalytic reforming to convert tars and hydrocarbons to additional syngas, which increases biomass carbon utilization. In this work, nickel based, fluidizable tar reforming catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for tar and methane reforming performance with oak and model syngas in two types of pilot scale fluidized reactors (recirculating and recirculating regenerating). Because hydrogen sulfide (present in raw syngas and added to model syngas) reacts with the active nickel surface, regeneration with steam and hydrogen was required. Pre and post catalyst characterization showed changes specific to the syngas type used. Results of this work will be discussed in the context of selecting the best process for pilot scale demonstration.

Magrini, K. A.; Parent, Y.; Jablonski, W.; Yung, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Advances in the chemistry of catalytic reforming of naphtha  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic reforming of naphtha remains the key process for production of high octane gasoline and aromatics (BTX) which are used as petrochemicals feedstocks. The increased demand for these products has led refiners to investigate ways for improving the performance of the reforming process and its catalysts. Moreover, in order to comply with environmental restrictions, the reduction in lead content would require further increase in the reformate octane number. In response to these requirements, refiners and catalyst manufacturers are examining the role of the catalysts in improving the selectivity to aromatics and in octane enhancement. By understanding the chemistry and the mechanism of the reforming process, higher performance catalysts with longer life on stream and lower cost can be developed. This review covers recent developments in reforming catalysts, process reaction chemistry and mechanism. It also highlights prospective areas of research.

Anabtawi, J.A.; Redwan, D.S.; Al-Jarallah, A.M.; Aitani, A.M. (Petroleum and Gas Technology Div., Research Inst., King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (SA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Separation of hydrogen from a catalytic reforming zone effluent stream  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock at reforming conditions including a pressure of from about 50 to about 250 psig. Is disclosed. A portion of the hydrogen-rich vapor phase recovered from the reforming zone effluent at a relatively low pressure is compressed and recycled to the reforming zone without further purification. The balance of said hydrogen-rich vapor phase, or the net hydrogen, is compressed to a relatively high pressure and recontacted with at least a portion of the liquid hydrocarbon phase recovered from said low pressure separation to effect a further purification of said net hydrogen and to maximize the recovery of C/sub 3/-C/sub 6/+ the liquid phase.

Schmelzer, E.; Tagamolila, C.P.

1983-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

403

Applications and benefits of catalytic converter thermal management  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A catalytic converter thermal management system (TMS) using variable-conductance vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage can maintain the converter temperature above its operating temperature for many hours, allowing most trips to begin with minimal ``cold-start`` emissions. The latest converter TMS prototype was tested on a Ford Taurus (3.0 liter flex-fuel engine) at Southwest Research Institute. Following a 24-hour soak, the FTP-75 emissions were 0.031, 0.13, and 0.066 g/mile for NMHC, CO, and NOx, respectively. Tests were also run using 85% ethanol (E85), resulting in values of 0.005, 0.124, and 0.044 g/mile, and 0.005 g/mile NMOG. Compared to the baseline FTP levels, these values represent reductions of 84% to 96% for NMHC, NMOG, and CO.

Burch, S.D.; Keyser, M.A.; Colucci, C.P.; Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Biel, J.P.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

For stricter emissions needs, try custom catalytic reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When O`Brien California Cogen Ltd. was contracted to develop a system to generate steam for an Artesia, Calif., mild producer`s evaporation process, local regulations required NO{sub x} emissions reduced 9 ppm and CO to 10 ppm. Johnson Matthey supplied the solution with a custom system combining an oxidation catalyst to control CSO emissions and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to control NO{sub x}. O`Brien`s cogen operation runs off an aircraft-derivative GE Gas Turbine, model LM2500, with a 22.4-MW output. The catalyst system is installed in the exhaust stream of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) form the Henry Vogt Machine Co.

Chambers, A.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Imbibition dynamics of nano-particulate ink-jet drops on micro-porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Imbibition dynamics of nano-particulate ink-jet drops on micro-porous media Hsiao, W.-K., Hoath, S. D., Martin, G. D., Hutchings, I. M., Chilton, N. B. and Jones, S., Proc Nanotech 2011 Conference, Boston, June 2011. Imbibition dynamics... of nano-particulate ink-jet drops on micro-porous media W.-K. Hsiao*, S. D. Hoath*, G. D. Martin*, I. M. Hutchings*, N. B. Chilton** and S. Jones** *Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge Cambridge CB3 0FS, United Kingdom, wkh26@cam...

Hsiao, W.-K.; Hoath, S.D.; Martin, G.D.; Hutchings, I.M.; Chilton, N.B.; Jones, S.

408

Method for the Removal of Ultrafine Particulates from an Aqueous Suspension  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating ultra-fine particulate from an aqueous suspension such as a process stream or a waste stream. The method involves the addition of alkali silicate and an organic gelling agent to a volume of liquid, from the respective process or waste stream, to form a gel. The gel then undergoes syneresis to remove water and soluble salts from the gel-containing the particulate, thus, forming a silica monolith. The silica monolith is then sintered to form a hard, nonporous waste form.

Chaiko, David J.; Kopasz, John P.; Ellison, Adam J.G.

1999-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

409

Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Catalytic gasification studies in a pressurized fluid-bed unit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the project is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from October 1980 to November 1982. In the laboratory scale studis, active catalysts were developed for generation of synthesis gases from wood by steam gasification. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Co-Mo on silica-alumina doped with 2 wt % Na, was found to retain activity indefinitely for generation of a methanol synthesis gas from wood at 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C) and 1 atm (100 kPa) absolute pressure. Catalysts for generation of a methane-rich gas were deactivated rapidly and could not be regenerated as required for economic application. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate were effective as catalysts for conversion of wood to synthesis gases and methane-rich gas and should be economically viable. Catalytic gasification conditions were found to be suitable for processing of alternative feedstocks: bagasse, alfalfa, rice hulls, and almond hulls. The PDU was operated successfully at absolute pressures of up to 10 atm (1000 kPa) and temperatures of up to 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C). Yields of synthesis gases at elevated pressure were greater than those used for previous economic evaluations. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Cu-Mo on silica-alumina, did not display a long life as did the doped trimetallic catalyst used in laboratory studies. A computer program for a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I microcomputer was developed to evaluate rapidly the economics of producing either methane or methanol from wood. The program is based on economic evaluations reported in previous studies. Improved yields from the PDU studies were found to result in a reduction of about 9 cents/gal in methanol cost.

Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Brown, M.D.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

412

Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

413

Prepr. Pap.-Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem. 2004, 49 (2), xxxx NON-THERMAL PLASMA CATALYTIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrocarbons can be carried out in a number of ways: steam reforming, thermo-catalytic reforming, partial

414

The Study of Particulate Emissions of Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel-Diesel Blends Using Thermo-gravimetric Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particulate emissions of engine fuelled different proportions of Pistacia chinensis Bunge seed biodiesel-dieselblends were collected under different fuel supplying advance dangles and different operating conditions. The change of volatile organic fractions ... Keywords: Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis, Biodiesel, Engine, Particulate Emissions

Ma Zhihao; Zhang Xiaoyu; Wang Xin; Xu Bin; Wu Jian

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

GREENHOUSE GAS CATALYTIC REFORMING TO SYNGAS A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GREENHOUSE GAS CATALYTIC REFORMING TO SYNGAS A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment've missed over the past two years. #12;4 TABLE OF CONTENTS GREENHOUSE GAS CATALYTIC REFORMING TO SYNGAS 1.083 moles CH4, 0.083 moles CO2, and 0.834 moles Ar which are the inlet conditions for many of the catalytic

Columbia University

416

PARS II FAQ  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

V1.4.1 (June 25, 2011) 1 V1.4.1 (June 25, 2011) 1 PARS II Project Assessment and Reporting System Frequently Asked Questions (Click on a Question to go to Its Answer) General PARS II Project Information Q: What is the motivation, purpose and expected benefit from the PARS II system? Q: Where can I go to find out information on PARS II? Accessing and Using PARS II Q: Where can I go to access PARS II? Q: How do I obtain a PARS II User ID and Password? Q: PARS II will not allow me to log-in, it just keeps displaying the login window for User ID and Password. What should I do? Q: Upon log-in, I do not see a list of my projects. What should I do? Q: I am a FPD tracking a project and it does not appear on my project list. What should I do? Q: Upon log-in, I receive a white screen. What should I do?

417

Portable Automated Mesonet II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Portable Automated Mesonet II (PAM II) system was developed by NCAR to provide surface mesoscale data for the research needs of the atmospheric science community. The PAM system has 60 remote stations with planned growth to 300. In such a ...

Fred V. Brock; George H. Saum; Steven R. Semmer

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant progress has been made in the past two years in improving the understanding of acid consumption and catalytic hydrogen generation during the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processing of waste sludges in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This report reviews issues listed in prior internal reviews, describes progress with respect to the recommendations made by the December 2006 external review panel, and presents a summary of the current understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, are historically known catalysts for the conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Rh, Ru, and Pd are present in the DWPF SRAT feed as by-products of thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U in the original waste. Rhodium appears to become most active for hydrogen as the nitrite ion concentration becomes low (within a factor of ten of the Rh concentration). Prior to hydrogen generation, Rh is definitely active for nitrite destruction to N{sub 2}O and potentially active for nitrite to NO formation. These reactions are all consistent with the presence of a nitro-Rh complex catalyst, although definite proof for the existence of this complex during Savannah River Site (SRS) waste processing does not exist. Ruthenium does not appear to become active for hydrogen generation until nitrite destruction is nearly complete (perhaps less nitrite than Ru in the system). Catalytic activity of Ru during nitrite destruction is significantly lower than that of either Rh or Pd. Ru appears to start activating as Rh is deactivating from its maximum catalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The slow activation of the Ru, as inferred from the slow rate of increase in hydrogen generation that occurs after initiation, may imply that some species (perhaps Ru itself) has some bound nitrite on it. Ru, rather than Rh, is primarily responsible for the hydrogen generation in the SME cycle when the hydrogen levels are high enough to be noteworthy. Mercury has a role in catalytic hydrogen generation. Two potentially distinct roles have been identified. The most dramatic effect of Hg on hydrogen generation occurs between runs with and without any Hg. When a small amount of Hg is present, it has a major inhibiting effect on Rh-catalyzed H{sub 2} generation. The Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study showed that increasing mercury from 0.5 to 2.5 wt% in the SRAT receipt total solids did not improve the inhibiting effect significantly. The next most readily identified role for Hg is the impact it has on accelerating NO production from nitrite ion. This reaction shifts the time that the ideal concentration of nitrite relative to Rh occurs, and consequently causes the most active nitro-Rh species to form sooner. The potential consequences of this shift in timing are expected to be a function of other factors such as amount of excess acid, Rh concentration, etc. Graphical data from the Rh-Ru-Hg study suggested that Hg might also be responsible for partially inhibiting Ru-catalysis initially, but that the inhibition was not sustained through the SRAT and SME cycles. Continued processing led to a subsequent increase in hydrogen generation that was often abrupt and that frequently more than doubled the hydrogen generation rate. This phenomenon may have been a function of the extent of Hg stripping versus the initial Ru concentration in these tests. Palladium is an active catalyst, and activates during (or prior to) nitrite destruction to promote N{sub 2}O formation followed by a very small amount of hydrogen. Pd then appears to deactivate. Data to date indicate that Pd should not be a species of primary concern relative to Rh and Ru for hydrogen generation. Pd was a very mild catalyst for hydrogen generation compared to Rh and Ru in the simulated waste system. Pd was comparable to Rh in enhancing N{sub 2}O production when present at equal concentration. Pd, however, is almost always present at less than a quarter of the Rh concentration in S

Koopman, D.

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

419

Developments in the Processing and Properties of Particulate Al-Si ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of low to medium density particulates.32,33 A fundamental characteristic of this technique is ..... K.G. Satyanarayana, R.M. Pillai, and B.C. Pai, Handbook of Ceramics and .... Direct questions about this or any other JOM page to jom@tms. org.

420

Sieveless particle size distribution analysis of particulate materials through computer vision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explores the inconsistency of ''length-based separation'' by mechanical sieving of particulate materials with standard sieves, which is the standard method of particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. We observed inconsistencies of length-based ... Keywords: Biomass sieve analysis, Dimension, Image processing, ImageJ plugin, Particle size distribution, Physical property

C. Igathinathane; L. O. Pordesimo; E. P. Columbus; W. D. Batchelor; S. Sokhansanj

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Estimating long term urban exposure to particulate matter and ozone in Europe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OFIS is a robust and efficient model for simulating the formation of photochemical pollutants in an urban plume. In this paper we present applications of the recent further development of OFIS for calculating both particulate matter and ozone concentrations. ... Keywords: Air quality model, Ozone exposure, PM exposure, Urban air pollution

Athanasios Arvanitis; Nicolas Moussiopoulos

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination  

SciTech Connect

New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

2008-01-1748 An Analysis of Methods for Measuring Particulate Matter Mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emission engine and was operated during testing with no exhaust aftertreatment devices. The engine of particulate emissions. This engine was operated under three conditions, with no aftertreatment, with a DPF as Engine 2 with the SCR aftertreatment device, the three mass measurement methods display comparable mass

Wu, Mingshen

424

Daily Simulation of Ozone and Fine Particulates over New York State: Findings and Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the potential utility of the application of a photochemical modeling system in providing simultaneous forecasts of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over New York State. To this end, daily simulations from the ...

C. Hogrefe; W. Hao; K. Civerolo; J.-Y. Ku; G. Sistla; R. S. Gaza; L. Sedefian; K. Schere; A. Gilliland; R. Mathur

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

PARS II Extraction Utility | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Extraction Utility PARS II Extraction Utility PARS II Extraction Utility v8020130510.zip More Documents & Publications PARS II Extraction Utility Release Notes PARS II CPP...

427

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

Merritt, P. M.; Ulmet, V.; McCormick, R. L.; Mitchell, W. E.; Baumgard, K. J.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

,"Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/2010" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_dwns_a_(na)_ydr_mbblpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_dwns_a_(na)_ydr_mbblpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

429

Particulate Emissions from a Pre-Emissions Control Era Spark-Ignition Vehicle: A Historical Benchmark  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study examined the particulate emissions from a pre-emissions control era vehicle operated on both leaded and unleaded fuels for the purpose of establishing a historical benchmark. A pre-control vehicle was located that had been rebuilt with factory original parts to approximate an as-new vehicle prior to 1968. The vehicle had less than 20,000 miles on the rebuilt engine and exhaust. The vehicle underwent repeated FTP-75 tests to determine its regulated emissions, including particulate mass. Additionally, measurements of the particulate size distribution were made, as well as particulate lead concentration. These tests were conducted first with UTG96 certification fuel, followed by UTG96 doped with tetraethyl lead to approximate 1968 levels. Results of these tests, including transmission electron micrographs of individual particles from both the leaded and unleaded case are presented. The FTP composite PM emissions from this vehicle averaged 40.5 mg/mile using unleaded fuel. The results from the leaded fuel tests showed that the FTP composite PM emissions increased to an average of 139.5 mg/mile. Analysis of the particulate size distribution for both cases demonstrated that the mass-based size distribution of particles for this vehicle is heavily skewed towards the nano-particle range. The leaded-fuel tests showed a significant increase in mass concentration at the <0.1 micron size compared with the unleaded-fuel test case. The leaded-fuel tests produced lead emissions of nearly 0.04 g/mi, more than a 4-order-of-magnitude difference compared with unleaded-fuel results. Analysis of the size-fractionated PM samples showed that the lead PM emissions tended to be distributed in the 0.25 micron and smaller size range.

John M.E. Storey; C. Scott Sluder; Douglas A. Blom; Erin Higinbotham

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

430

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Fundamental kinetic modeling of the catalytic reforming process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a fundamental kinetic model for the catalytic reforming process has been developed. The complex network of elementary steps and molecular reactions occurring in catalytic reforming has been generated through a computer algorithm characterizing the various species by vectors and Boolean relation matrices. The algorithm is based on the fundamental chemistry occurring on both acid and metal sites of the catalyst. Rates are expressed for each of the elementary steps involved in the transformation of the intermediates. The Hougen-Watson approach is used to express the rates of the molecular reactions occurring on the metal sites of the catalyst. The single event approach is used to account for the effect of structure of reactant and activated complex on the rate coefficients of the elementary steps occurring on the acid sites. This approach recognizes that even if the number of elementary steps is very large they belong to a very limited number of types, and therefore it is possible to express the kinetics of elementary steps by a reduced number of parameters. In addition, the single event approach leads to rate coefficients that are independent of the feedstock, due to their fundamental chemical nature. The total number of parameters at isothermal conditions is 45. To estimate these parameters, an objective function based upon the sum of squares of the residuals was minimized through the Marquardt algorithm. Intraparticle mass transport limitations and deactivation of the catalyst by coke formation are considered in the model. Both the Wilke and the Stefan-Maxwell approaches were used to calculate the concentration gradients inside of the particle. The heterogeneous kinetic model was applied in the simulation of the process for typical industrial conditions for both axial and radial flow fixed bed reactors. The influence of the main process variables on the octane number and reformate volume was investigated and optimal conditions were obtained. Additional aspects studied with the kinetic model are the reduction of aromatics, mainly benzene. The results from the simulations agree with the typical performance found in the industrial process.

Sotelo-Boyas, Rogelio

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

NSLS-II Project Pages  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NSLS-II Project Pages Project Management Team Project Schedule Integrated Project Team (IPT) Monthly Status Meetings Advisory Committees Project Reviews Documents NSLS-II...

434

Synthesis and catalytic properties of metal and semiconductor nanoclusters  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of metal or semiconductor nanoclusters in microheterogeneous oil-continuous inverse micelle systems is discussed. We focus on synthesis and catalytic properties of palladium, iron, and iron sulfide nanoclusters. Cluster size-control is achieved by changing the micelle size which is determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and chosen to produce cluster in size range of 1-20 nm. Cluster sizes were determined by either transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Cluster structure was determined by either x-ray or electron diffraction. In the case of Fe nanoclusters the crystal structure depended on the chemical nature of the surfactant micelle used in the synthesis, illustrating the important role of the surfactant during the growth process. Results of in-situ pyrene hydrogenation using size-selected Pd clusters show a significant increase in activity/total surface area as the size decreases. These clusters also proved effective as unsupported catalysts for direct coal hydropyrolysis, even at very low metal concentrations. Synthesis and optical features of a new semiconductor cluster material, FeS{sub 2}, is discussed with regard to its use in photocatalysis. Application of FeS{sub 2} in coal hydrogenolysis reactions has improved yields of short chain hydrocarbons significantly compared to conventional FeS{sub 2} powders.

Wilcoxon, J.P.; Martino, T.; Klavetter, E.; Sylwester, A.P.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350 C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system high conversion of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.

Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J.; Phelps, M.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Catalytic gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet biomass (water hyacinth, banana trees, cattails, green algae, kelp, etc.) grows rapidly and abundantly around the world. As a biomass crop, aquatic species are particularly attractive because their cultivation does not compete with land-based agricultural activities designed to produce food for consumption or export. However, wet biomass is not regarded as a promising feed for conventional thermochemical conversion processes because the cost associated with drying it is too high. This research seeks to address this problem by employing water as the gasification medium. Prior work has shown that low concentrations of glucose (a model compound for whole biomass) can be completely gasified in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C and 34.5 Wa after a 30 s reaction time. Higher concentrations of glucose (up to 22% by weight in water) resulted in incomplete conversion under these conditions. The gas contained hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane, propane, and traces of other hydrocarbons. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are easily converted to hydrogen by commercial technology available in most refineries. This prior work utilized capillary tube reactors with no catalyst. A larger reactor system was fabricated and the heterogeneous catalytic gasification of glucose and wet biomass slurry of higher concentration was studied to attain higher conversions.

Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Xu, Xiaodong [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

438

Thermal analysis and testing of a vacuum insulated catalytic converter  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on a recent US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study, about 95% of all trips start after a cold-soak period of 16 hours or less. By preserving the heat in the catalyst between trips, exhaust gases could be processed without warm-up delay and without the usual cold-start emissions. Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been incorporated into a catalytic converter design to enhance its heat-retention time. Laboratory testing of a bench-scale prototype showed that a ``light off`` temperature (above 350 C) could be maintained during a 10-hour cold soak. Design improvements currently being tested should increase this heat-retention time to more than 16 hours. The thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation will be made continuously variable to prevent overheating and excessive thermal cycling. This approach to thermal management may be more durable and less costly than quick-heat methods using electric or fuel-fired preheat catalysts.

Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A; Benson, D K

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Chemical Models for Bio-oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bio-oil (product liquids from fast pyrolysis of biomass) is a complex mixture of oxygenates derived from the thermal breakdown of the bio-polymers in biomass. In the case of lignocellulosic biomass, the structures of three major components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, are well represented by the bio-oil components. In order to study the chemical mechanisms of catalytic hydroprocessing of bio-oil, three model compounds were chosen to represent those components. Guaiacol represents the large number of mono- and di-methoxy phenols found in bio-oil derived from softwood or hardwood, respectively. Furfural represents a major pyrolysis product group from cellulosics. Acetic acid is a major product from biomass pyrolysis, derived from the hemicellulose, which has important impacts on the further processing of the bio-oil because of the acidic character. These three compounds were processed using palladium or ruthenium catalyst over a temperature range from 150?C to 300?C. The batch reactor was sampled during each test over a period of four hours. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with both a mass selective detector and a flame ionization detector. The products were determined and the reaction pathways for their formation are suggested based on these results. Both temperature and catalyst metal have significant effects on the product composition.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

440

Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Quarterly report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this coordinated research program is to obtain the most attractive combinations of acid gas removal, methane separation for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) and the Rockwell/Cities Service Hydrogasification processes. The program is divided into nine subtasks with each subtask studying the effect of variation of a key design parameter on the treatment cost of the SNG produced. Progress reports of 8 subtasks are presented. The following are some of the highlights. Subtask 1 - Heat and material balance and equipment sizing was completed for the cryogenic methane separation. The overall material balance is presented in a table. Subtask 2 - Preliminary designs for MEA and DEA gas removal systems were established. Subtasks 3 to 5 - Economic evaluation is in proress. Subtask 6 - The SNG product compressor train was simulated for the case where sufficient SNG fuel is withdrawn from the product compressors to fire the dryer reactivation heater. Subtask 7 - Acid gas removal and cryogenic separation equipment was resized to accommodate Exxon's request for a two-train plant design. Subtask 8 - The Benfield and Selexol systems will be evaluated for acid gas removal.

Klosek, J.

1981-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ii catalytic particulate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Catalytic reforming process using noble metal alkaline zeolites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes improvement in a process wherein a gasoline boiling range hydrocarbonaceous feedstock is catalytically reformed in the presence of hydrogen in a reforming process unit comprised of serially connected reactors wherein each of the reactors contains a supported noble metal-containing catalyst. The improvement comprises the noble-metal catalyst of at least one reactor being selected from the group consisting of alkaline faujasite zeolite, L zeolite and zeolites isostructural thereto, which catalysts are prepared by a: contacting an alkaline faujasite zeolite, L zeolite, or zeolite isostructural thereto, with a noble metal composition selected from Pt(acetylacetonate){sub 2} or Pd(acetylacetonate){sub 2} for an effective amount of time to form a substantially homogeneous mixture and to incorporate the platinum and/or palladium into the near surface regions of the zeolite, but not to disperse the platinum and/or palladium throughout the entire zeolite; and calcining the so treated zeolite at a temperature from about 250 {degrees} C to about 600 {degrees} C for an effective amount of time.

Schweizer, A.E.

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

442

Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

PARS II User Guide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document serves as a reference manual to assist DOE end-users in performing their respective functions within the PARS II web application. The document provides a description and “How To” for...

444

NSLS II: Authentication Required  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project Pages Login Access to this area of the NSLS-II website requires a valid username and password. Username: Password: Next > Last Modified: April 2, 2013 Please forward all...

445

Geek-Up[3.18.2011]: Catalytically Active Material and BELLA | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8.2011]: Catalytically Active Material and BELLA 8.2011]: Catalytically Active Material and BELLA Geek-Up[3.18.2011]: Catalytically Active Material and BELLA March 18, 2011 - 3:54pm Addthis PNNL scientists Grant Johnson and Julia Laskin | Photo Courtesy of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PNNL scientists Grant Johnson and Julia Laskin | Photo Courtesy of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? PNL researchers produced catalytically active material that may help advance fuel cell and solar energy storage applications. In just one meter a single BELLA stage -- with a "boosted-frame" method -- will accelerate an electron beam to 10 billion electron volts. Thanks to an innovative approach from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

446

Imaging the proton concentration and mapping the spatial distribution of the electric field of catalytic micropumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic engines can use hydrogen peroxide as a chemical fuel in order to drive motion at the microscale. The chemo-mechanical actuation is a complex mechanism based on the interrelation between catalytic reactions and electro-hydrodynamics phenomena. We studied catalytic micropumps using fluorescence confocal microscopy to image the concentration of protons in the liquid. In addition, we measured the motion of particles with different charges in order to map the spatial distributions of the electric field, the electrostatic potential and the fluid flow. The combination of these two techniques allows us to contrast the gradient of the concentration of protons against the spatial variation in the electric field. We present numerical simulations that reproduce the experimental results. Our work sheds light on the interrelation between the different processes at work in the chemo-mechanical actuation of catalytic pumps. Our experimental approach could be used to study other electrochemical systems with heterogeneous electrodes.

A. Afshar Farniya; M. J. Esplandiu; D. Reguera; A. Bachtold

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

447

Thermal catalytic conversion of the used isobutyl isoprene rubber into valuable hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

continuous ?ow reactor for thermal degradation of polymers.Qian J. Studies of the thermal degradation of waste rubber.10.1007/s10973-009-0577-3 Thermal catalytic conversion of

Rasul Jan, M.; Jabeen, Farah; Shah, Jasmin; Mabood, Fazal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Microsoft Word - 41891_SWPC_Catalytic Combustor_Factsheet_Rev01...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COMBUSTORFACTSHEETREV0104-24.DOC Facts Sheet: Catalytic Combustor for Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine (DE-FC26-03NT41891) I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS A. Siemens Westinghouse Power...

449

Calibration and performance of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) bench rig for NOx? emissions control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A laboratory test rig was designed and built to easily test SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. Equipped with three 6 kW heaters, connections for liquid N2 and an assortment of test gases, and a connection with ...

Castro Galnares, Sebastián (Castro Galnares Wright Paz)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Reaction mechanisms for catalytic partial oxidation systems : application to ethylene epoxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the rapid advances in kinetic modeling, building elementary surface mechanisms have become vital to understand the complex chemistry for catalytic partial oxidation systems. Given that there is selected experimental ...

Anantharaman, Bharthwaj

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Multi-stage selection catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in lean burn engine exhaust  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. These studies have prompted the development of schemes that use an oxidation catalyst to convert NO to NO{sub 2}, followed by a reduction catalyst to convert NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}. Multi-stage SCR offers high NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from catalysts that, separately, are not very active for reduction of NO, and alleviates the problem of selectivity between NO reduction and hydrocarbon oxidation. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. This paper compares the multi-stage catalytic scheme with the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme for reduction of NO{sub x} in lean-bum engine exhausts. The advantages of plasma oxidation over catalytic oxidation are presented.

Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.O.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogling, E.

1998-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

452

Role of CeO2 Addition on Catalytic Conversion of Plasma Sprayed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the current work, 316L steel substrate is plasma sprayed with CeO2-Al2O3 to achieve a catalytic surface. Microstructural evaluation of plasma-sprayed ...

453

Catalytic Addition of Simple Alkenes to Carbonyl Compounds by Use of Group 10 Metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent advances using nickel complexes in the activation of unactivated monosubstituted olefins for catalytic intermolecular carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions with carbonyl compounds, such as simple aldehydes, isocyanates, ...

Ho, Chun-Yu

454

Thermal catalytic conversion of the used isobutyl isoprene rubber into valuable hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan MR, Mabood F. Catalytic conversion of waste tyres intoJ, Jan MR, Mabood F. Conversion of waste tires into liquidbest method for maximum conversion into useful product, and

Rasul Jan, M.; Jabeen, Farah; Shah, Jasmin; Mabood, Fazal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Modelling of catalytic aftertreatment of NOx emissions using hydrocarbon as a reductant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) is emerging as one of the most practical methods for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from light-duty-diesel engine exhaust… (more)

Sawatmongkhon, Boonlue

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Catalytic and reactive polypeptides and methods for their preparation and use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic and reactive polypeptides include a binding site specific for a reactant or reactive intermediate involved in a chemical reaction of interest. The polypeptides further include at least one active functionality proximate the bi.

Schultz, Peter (Oakland, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Biomass gasification using a horizontal entrained-flow gasifier and catalytic processing of the product gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A novel study on biomass-air gasification using a horizontal entrained-flow gasifier and catalytic processing of the product gas has been conducted. The study was designed… (more)

Legonda, Isack Amos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Review of the Literature on Catalytic Biomass Tar Destruction: Milestone Completion Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of literature pertaining to catalytic biomass gasification''tar'' destruction, an overview of catalysts studied, and an evaluation of the future potential for this gas cleaning technology.

Dayton, D.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Experimental and Computational Study of Catalytic Combustion of Methane-Air and Syngas-Air Mixtures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic combustion and conversion of methane (CH4) and Syngas (in our case, a gas mixture of H2, CO, CO2 and CH4) is characterized by the… (more)

Pathak, Saurav

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Modelling and Experimental Study of Methane Catalytic Cracking as a Hydrogen Production Technology.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Production of hydrogen is primarily achieved via catalytic steam reforming, partial oxidation,and auto-thermal reforming of natural gas. Although these processes are mature technologies, they are… (more)