Thermodynamics of Ideal Gas in Cosmology
Ying-Qiu Gu
2009-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
The equation of state and the state functions for the gravitational source are necessary conditions for solving cosmological model and stellar structure. The usual treatments are directly based on the laws of thermodynamics, and the physical meanings of some concepts are obscure. This letter show that, we can actually derive all explicit fundamental state functions for the ideal gas in the context of cosmology via rigorous dynamical and statistical calculation. These relations have clear physical meanings, and are valid in both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic cases. Some features of the equation of state are important for a stable structure of a star with huge mass.
Ideal Gas Carnot Engines and Efficiency Chemistry 223
Ronis, David M.
Ideal Gas Carnot Engines and Efficiency Chemistry 223 Fig. 1. The Carnot Cycle The Carnot engine is a useful construction for relating the mathematical (S 0 for a spontaneous process in an isolated system parts of the Carnot cycle for an ideal gas. 1. Energy in an Ideal Gas: Joule's Experiment In his study
Generalized Ideal Gas Equations for Structureful Universe
Shahid N. Afridi; Khalid Khan
2006-09-04T23:59:59.000Z
We have derived generalized ideal gas equations for a structureful universe consisting of all forms of matters. We have assumed a universe that contains superclusters. Superclusters are then made of clusters. Each cluster can be further divided into smaller ones and so on. We have derived an expression for the entropy of such a universe. Our model is rather independent of the geometry of the intermediate clusters. Our calculations are valid for a non-interacting universe within non-relativistic limits. We suggest that structure formation can reduce the expansion rate of the universe.
College of Law LLM in Oil and Gas Law
Martin, Ralph R.
College of Law LLM in Oil and Gas Law New LLM in Oil and Gas Law launched to complement our other internationally acclaimed LLM degrees NEW Holman Fenwick Willan is proud to sponsor the LLM Prize in Oil and Gas impressive range of courses on maritime and commercial law, the new LLM in Oil and Gas Law will allow
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This law authorizes the establishment of rules and regulations covering the design, fabrication, installation, inspection, testing and safety standards for installation, operation and maintenance...
Ideal-Gas Like Markets An Exact Solution
Mohanty, P K
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We provide an exact solution to the ideal gas like models studied in econophysics to understand the microscopic origin of Pareto-law. In these class of models the key ingredient necessary for having a self organized scale free steady state distribution is the trading/collision rule where agents/particles save a definite fraction of their wealth/energy and invests the rest for trading. Using Gibbs ensemble approach we could obtain the exact distribution of wealth in this model. Moreover we show that in this model (a) good savers are always rich and (b) every agent poor or rich invests the same amount for trading. Non-linear trading rules could alter the generic scenario observed here.
Arik, Metin; Kholmetskii, Alexander L
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Previously, we established a connection between the macroscopic classical laws of gases and the quantum mechanical description of molecules of an ideal gas (T. Yarman et al. arXiv:0805.4494). In such a gas, the motion of each molecule can be considered independently on all other molecules, and thus the macroscopic parameters of the ideal gas, like pressure P and temperature T, can be introduced as a result of simple averaging over all individual motions of the molecules. It was shown that for an ideal gas enclosed in a macroscopic cubic box of volume V, the constant, arising along with the classical law of adiabatic expansion, i.e. PV5/3=constant, can be explicitly derived based on quantum mechanics, so that the constant comes to be proportional to h^2/m; here h is the Planck Constant, and m is the relativistic mass of the molecule the gas is made of. In this article we show that the same holds for a photon gas, although the related setup is quite different than the previous ideal gas setup. At any rate, we c...
LLM Oil, Gas and Mining Law Module Information: Oil, Gas & Mining Environmental Law I and
Evans, Paul
LLM Oil, Gas and Mining Law Module Information: Oil, Gas & Mining Environmental Law I and Oil, Gas of the area of Oil, Gas &, Mining Environmental Law; 2. communicate complex legal concepts that apply within the area of Oil, Gas & Mining & Environmental Law to a high level of competence; and 3. deploy a highly
OBTAINING LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR IDEAL GASES USING ELASTIC COLLISIONS
Montgomery-Smith, Stephen
momenta. In [3], this work was used to simulate the Carnot cycle. This paper gives a slightly different Newtonian. For example, the motion is reversible, thus demonstrating that the second law of thermodynamics
Generic features of the wealth distribution in ideal-gas-like markets
P. K. Mohanty
2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
We provide an exact solution to the ideal-gas-like models studied in econophysics to understand the microscopic origin of Pareto-law. In these class of models the key ingredient necessary for having a self-organized scale-free steady-state distribution is the trading or collision rule where agents or particles save a definite fraction of their wealth or energy and invests the rest for trading. Using a Gibbs ensemble approach we could obtain the exact distribution of wealth in this model. Moreover we show that in this model (a) good savers are always rich and (b) every agent poor or rich invests the same amount for trading. Nonlinear trading rules could alter the generic scenario observed here.
Empirical Math Model: Ideal Gas Law | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativePerformanceDecember2013: Federal Register Notice Volume1-20, 2006Empirical Math Model:
Reynolds and Favre-averaged rapid distortion theory for compressible, ideal-gas turbulence
Lavin, Tucker Alan
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
Compressible ideal-gas turbulence subjected to homogeneous shear is investigated at the rapid distortion limit. Specific issues addressed are (i) the interaction between kinetic and internal energies and role of ...
Dixon, Juan
About OGEL OGEL (Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence): Focussing on recent developments in the area of oil-gas-energy law, regulation, treaties, judicial and arbitral cases, voluntary guidelines, tax and contracting, including the oil-gas- energy geopolitics. For full Terms & Conditions and subscription rates
A nine-electrode probe for simultaneous measurement of all terms in the ideal radial Ohm's law
Si, Jiahe; Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
A Nine-Electrode Probe (NEP) has been developed for simultaneous measurement of all terms in the ideal Ohm's law E+UxB=0 in the radial (r) direction in cylindrical geometry, where E is the electric field, U is the plasma flow velocity, and B is the magnetic field. The probe consists of two pairs of directional Langmuir probes ('Mach' probes) to measure the axial (z) and azimuthal ({theta}) plasma flows, two pairs of floating Langmuir probes at different radial positions to measure the radial electric field, and two B-dot coils to measure the axial and azimuthal magnetic field. The measurement is performed in the Flowing Magnetized Plasma (FMP) experiment. Two flow patterns are identified in the FMP experiment by the NEP. The peak-to-peak values of radial electric field fluctuation is 1.5-4 times of the mean values. Comparisons of UxBvertical bar{sub r} and E{sub r} show that E{sub r}+ UxBvertical bar{sub r} is not zero within some periods of discharge. This deviation suggests non-ideal effects in Ohm's law can not be neglected.
LLM Oil, Gas and Mining Law Module Information: Oil, Gas and Mining Investment Law I and
Evans, Paul
Redgwell, `International Energy Law', in Energy Law in Europe: National, EU and International Regulation within the petroleum and mining industry, as well as other major energy infrastructure projects The general policy and legal issues related to the international regulation of such investment are addressed
Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds:
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Smith, N.K.
1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic and organosilicon substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (d.s.c.) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of ({plus minus})-butan-2-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, hexan-1,6-diol, methacrylamide, benzoyl formic acid, naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, and tetraethylsilane are reported. A crystalline-phase enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K was determined for naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, which decomposed at 695 K before melting. The combustion calorimetry of tetraethylsilane used the proven fluorine-additivity methodology. Critical temperature and critical density were determined for tetraethylsilane with differential scanning calorimeter and the critical pressure was derived. Group-additivity parameters useful in the application of group- contribution correlations are derived. 112 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.
Carnot Engines, Efficiency, and The Second Law Chemistry 213
Ronis, David M.
Carnot Engines, Efficiency, and The Second Law Chemistry 213 Fig. 1. The Carnot Cycle The Carnot in an isolated system) and the physical statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics (heat spontaneously flows in the isothermal and adiabatic parts of the Carnot cycle for an ideal gas. 1. Energy in an Ideal Gas: Joule
Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles
Sašo Grozdanov; Janos Polonyi
2015-09-03T23:59:59.000Z
We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, {\\it composite sound} waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition between the hydrodynamical regime of an ideal gas, defined in this work, and the hydrodynamical regime in phenomenological hydrodynamics, which is normally used for the description of interacting gases.
Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles
Sašo Grozdanov; Janos Polonyi
2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z
We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition between the hydrodynamical regime of an ideal gas, defined in this work, and the hydrodynamical regime in phenomenological hydrodynamics, which is normally used for the description of interacting gases.
Ronis, David M.
CHEMISTRY 223: Introductory Physical Chemistry I. Kinetics 1: Gas laws, kinetic theory or are taking CHEM 203 or CHEM 204. Note: Chemistry Honours and Majors must take CHEM 223 and CHEM 253 edition (Pearson Education, Inc., 2013). J.R. Barrante, Applied Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, 3rd
Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles
Grozdanov, Sašo
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition betwee...
Ideal quantum gas in expanding cavity: nature of non-adiabatic force
K. Nakamura; S. K. Avazbaev; Z. A. Sobirov; D. U. Matrasulov; T. Monnai
2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a quantum gas of non-interacting particles confined in the expanding cavity, and investigate the nature of the non-adiabatic force which is generated from the gas and acts on the cavity wall. Firstly, with use of the time-dependent canonical transformation which transforms the expanding cavity to the non-expanding one, we can define the force operator. Secondly, applying the perturbative theory which works when the cavity wall begins to move at time origin, we find that the non-adiabatic force is quadratic in the wall velocity and thereby does not break the time-reversal symmetry, in contrast with the general belief. Finally, using an assembly of the transitionless quantum states, we obtain the nonadiabatic force exactly. The exact result justifies the validity of both the definition of force operator and the issue of the perturbative theory. The mysterious mechanism of nonadiabatic transition with use of transitionless quantum states is also explained. The study is done on both cases of the hard-wall and soft-wall confinement with the time-dependent confining length.
Thermodynamics and kinetics of binary nucleation in ideal-gas mixtures
Alekseechkin, Nikolay V
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The nonisothermal single-component theory of droplet nucleation (Alekseechkin, 2014) is extended to binary case; the droplet volume V, composition x, and temperature T are the variables of the theory. An approach based on macroscopic kinetics (in contrast to the standard microscopic model of nucleation operating with the probabilities of monomer attachment and detachment) is developed for the droplet evolution and results in the derived droplet motion equations in the space (V,x,T) - equations for V_dot, x_dot, and T_dot. The work W(V,x,T) of the droplet formation is calculated; it is obtained in the vicinity of the saddle point as a quadratic form with diagonal matrix. Also the problem of generalizing the single-component Kelvin equation for the equilibrium vapor pressure to binary case is solved; it is presented here as a problem of integrability of a Pfaffian equation. The equation for is shown to be the first law of thermodynamics for the droplet, which is a consequence of Onsagers reciprocal relations an...
Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Laws and Incentives
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DiggFilling CNGNatural Gas Printable Version Share this
P. Fielitz; G. Borchardt
2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z
Information theory provides shortcuts which allow one to deal with complex systems. The basic idea one uses for this purpose is the maximum entropy principle developed by Jaynes. However, an extension of this maximum entropy principle to systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium or even to non-physical systems is problematic because it requires an adequate choice of constraints. In this paper we discuss a general concept of natural information equilibrium which does not require any choice of adequate constraints. It is, therefore, directly applicable to systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium and to non-physical systems/processes (e.g. biological processes and economical processes). We demonstrate the validity and the applicability of the concept by three well understood physical processes. As an interesting astronomical application we will show that the concept of natural information equilibrium allows one to rationalize and to quantify the K-Trumpler effect.
Dettmann, Carl
? Explain. 2. Give a rough estimate of the amount of molten salt required to store 10MWh of heat energy from
Sudden Expansion of a One-Dimensional Bose Gas from Power-Law Traps
A. S. Campbell; D. M. Gangardt; K. V. Kheruntsyan
2015-03-27T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze free expansion of a trapped one-dimensional Bose gas after a sudden release from the confining trap potential. By using the stationary phase and local density approximations, we show that the long-time asymptotic density profile and the momentum distribution of the gas are determined by the initial distribution of Bethe rapidities (quasimomenta) and hence can be obtained from the solutions to the Lieb-Liniger equations in the thermodynamic limit. For expansion from a harmonic trap, and in the limits of very weak and very strong interactions, we recover the self-similar scaling solutions known from the hydrodynamic approach. For all other power-law traps and arbitrary interaction strengths, the expansion is not self-similar and shows strong dependence of the density profile evolution on the trap anharmonicity. We also characterize dynamical fermionization of the expanding cloud in terms of correlation functions describing phase and density fluctuations.
develops a macroscopic occupation. This behavior shows general features of Bose-Einstein conden- sation. It should be possible to verify these predictions using present-day atom traps. The two- step behavior can of the ideal Bose gas. Most textbooks, e.g., [2], calculate the behavior of the ideal Bose gas in a three
A. A. Kirillov; E. P. Savelova
2015-05-16T23:59:59.000Z
We suggest a new scenario in which the Universe starts its evolution with a fractal topological structure. This structure is described by a gas of wormholes. It is shown that the polarization of such a gas in external fields possesses a spatial dispersion, which results in a modification of the Newton's law. The dependence on scales is determined by the distribution of distances between throat ends. The observed in galaxies logarithmic correction confirms that the distribution has fractal properties. We also discus the possibility of restoring such a distribution from observations.
Bio390 Problem: Gas Laws thanks to Dr. J.F. Anderson,
Prestwich, Ken
. Gas % Composition Partial Pressure Oxygen 70 CO2 3 Nitrogen 18 Argon 9 N2 + Ar = Total - O2 - CO2 (%) For all Partial pressures, simply mulitply the fraction for each gas (%/100) times the total pressure
On a Link between Classical Phenomenological Laws of Gases and Quantum Mechanics
Yarman, Tolga; Korfali, Onder
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we find a connection between the macroscopic classical laws of gases and the quantum mechanical description of molecules, composing an ideal gas. In such a gas, the motion of each individual molecule can be considered independently on all other molecules, and thus the macroscopic parameters of ideal gas, like pressure P and temperature T, can be introduced as a result of simple averaging over all individual motions of molecules. It is shown that for an ideal gas enclosed in a macroscopic cubic box of volume V, the constant, in the classical law of adiabatic expansion, i.e.PV^5/3=const, can be derived, based on quantum mechanics. Physical implications of the result we disclose are discussed. In any case, our finding proves, seemingly for the first time, a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum mechanical behavior, and this in relation to classical thermodynamics.
On a Link between Classical Phenomenological Laws of Gases and Quantum Mechanics
Tolga Yarman; Alexander Kholmetskii; Onder Korfali
2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we find a connection between the macroscopic classical laws of gases and the quantum mechanical description of molecules, composing an ideal gas. In such a gas, the motion of each individual molecule can be considered independently on all other molecules, and thus the macroscopic parameters of ideal gas, like pressure P and temperature T, can be introduced as a result of simple averaging over all individual motions of molecules. It is shown that for an ideal gas enclosed in a macroscopic cubic box of volume V, the constant, in the classical law of adiabatic expansion, i.e.PV^5/3=const, can be derived, based on quantum mechanics. Physical implications of the result we disclose are discussed. In any case, our finding proves, seemingly for the first time, a macroscopic manifestation of a quantum mechanical behavior, and this in relation to classical thermodynamics.
Zevenhoven, Ron
PET 424304 2015 Exercises 3+4 of 4 10 Feb + 13 Feb 2015 1. ideal gas: s = s2- s1 = cp·ln(T2/T1) - R· ln(p2/p1) (T 1 (20 1 bar, h2 h1) = 1 kg/s / 0,032 kg/mol = 31,25 mol/s s = - R· ln(1/20) = 24,9 J/(molK) x = ·T°· s = 31,25·293·24,9 = 228,1 kW 2. 1 kg Al
Luis Carlos Garcia del Molino; Khashayar Pakdaman; Jonathan Touboul
2014-10-26T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce and analyze $d$ dimensional Coulomb gases with random charge distribution and general external confining potential. We show that these gases satisfy a large deviations principle. The analysis of the minima of the rate function (which is the leading term of the energy) reveals that at equilibrium, the particle distribution is a generalized circular law (i.e. with spherical support but non-necessarily uniform distribution). In the classical electrostatic external potential, there are infinitely many minimizers of the rate function. The most likely macroscopic configuration is a disordered distribution in which particles are uniformly distributed (for $d=2$, the circular law), and charges are independent of the positions of the particles. General charge-dependent confining potentials unfold this degenerate situation: in contrast, the particle density is not uniform, and particles spontaneously organize according to their charge. In that picture the classical electrostatic potential appears as a transition at which order is lost. Sub-leading terms of the energy are derived: we show that these are related to an operator, generalizing the Coulomb renormalized energy, which incorporates the heterogeneous nature of the charges. This heterogeneous renormalized energy informs us about the microscopic arrangements of the particles, which are non-standard, strongly depending on the charges, and include progressive and irregular lattices.
S. Albeverio; O. S. Rozanova; V. M. Shelkovich
2011-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce integral identities to define delta-shock wave type solutions for the multidimensional zero-pressure gas dynamics Using these integral identities, the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for delta-shocks are obtained. We derive the balance laws describing mass, momentum, and energy transport from the area outside the delta-shock wave front onto this front. These processes are going on in such a way that the total mass, momentum, and energy are conserved and at the same time mass and energy of the moving delta-shock wave front are increasing quantities. In addition, the total kinetic energy transfers into the total internal energy. The process of propagation of delta-shock waves is also described. These results can be used in modeling of mediums which can be treated as a {pressureless continuum} (dusty gases, two-phase flows with solid particles or droplets, granular gases).
Chinese Business Law Postgraduate
Einmahl, Uwe
· Contracts for supply and use of electricity, water, gas or heating · Contracts for donation · Contracts for construction projects · Contracts for transportation · Contracts for technology · Contracts for storage · Financial law · Foreign exchange regulation · Government procurement law · Price fixing regulations Courses
Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
Pullin, D. I. [Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V. [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Samtaney, R. [Mechanical Engineering, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=?(?{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 ?) where I is the current, ?{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ? R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then slows the shock Mach number growth producing a maximum followed by monotonic reduction towards magnetosonic conditions, even as the shock accelerates toward the axis. A parameter space of initial shock Mach number at a given radius is explored and the implications of the present results for inertial confinement fusion are discussed.
2/2015 ideal gas 1/8 IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES
Gustafsson, Torgny
molecule, b 1 2 No 4 3 2r 3 , (3) where No is Avogadro's number, the number of molecules in a mole calculations remember that R is = 8314 J/(kmol).K. Avogadro's number is 6.02 x 1023 molecules per mole
Modules over principal ideal rings
Vieaux, Jules Bellin
1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
examples of principal 1deals. LENNA 1, 1, In the ring C of integers every 1deal is a principal ideal. Proof. Let A be an ideal. If A = (0) ~ the ideal is principal. If A contains an integer c P 0, it also contains - o, snd one of these integers..., Since r & a, r must be equal to 0; for a was the least posi- tive integer in A. Hence b = qa; that is, all integers of the ideal A are multiples of a. Thus A ~ (a) and A is a principal ideal, LEMNA le 2 ' If P is a field, every ideal in the poly...
First Law of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics
Winokur, Michael
First Law of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics Eth =W +Q Thermal energy Eth : Microscopic. #12;First Law of Thermodynamics Work W done on a gas is (area under the pV curve) W = - pdV = Vi Vf - tools First Law of Thermodynamics An adiabatic process is one for which Q = 0. Fast process but still
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million CubicRefiners Switch toDepartmentquestionnairesU.S. EnergyLightingResistive-ideal
Temperature Power Law of Equilibrium Heavy Particle Density
Sh. Matsumoto; M. Yoshimura
1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
A standard calculation of the energy density of heavy stable particles that may pair-annihilate into light particles making up thermal medium is performed to second order of coupling, using the technique of thermal field theory. At very low temperatures a power law of temperature is derived for the energy density of the heavy particle. This is in sharp contrast to the exponentially suppressed contribution estimated from the ideal gas distribution function. The result supports a previous dynamical calculation based on the Hartree approximation, and implies that the relic abundance of dark matter particles is enhanced compared to that based on the Boltzmann equation.
Thermal photons in QGP and non-ideal effects
Bhatt, Jitesh R; Sreekanth, V
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the thermal photon production-rates using one dimensional boost-invariant second order relativistic hydrodynamics to find proper time evolution of the energy density and the temperature. The effect of bulk-viscosity and non-ideal equation of state are taken into account in a manner consistent with recent lattice QCD estimates. It is shown that the \\textit{non-ideal} gas equation of state i.e $\\epsilon-3\\,P\\,\
Thermal photons in QGP and non-ideal effects
Jitesh R. Bhatt; Hiranmaya Mishra; V. Sreekanth
2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the thermal photon production-rates using one dimensional boost-invariant second order relativistic hydrodynamics to find proper time evolution of the energy density and the temperature. The effect of bulk-viscosity and non-ideal equation of state are taken into account in a manner consistent with recent lattice QCD estimates. It is shown that the \\textit{non-ideal} gas equation of state i.e $\\epsilon-3\\,P\\,\
Thermal photons in QGP and non-ideal effects
Bhatt, Jitesh R; Sreekanth, V
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the thermal photon production-rates using one dimensional boost-invariant second order relativistic hydrodynamics to find proper time evolution of the energy density and the temperature. The effect of bulk-viscosity and non-ideal equation of state are taken into account in a manner consistent with recent lattice QCD estimates. It is shown that the \\textit{non-ideal} gas equation of state i.e $\\epsilon-3 P \
Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect
Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect Technology for Next- Generation ICs Hong Li, Chuan Xu-generation ICs. In this research, carbon nanomaterials, with their many attractive properties, are emerging-a`-vis optical and RF interconnects, and we illustrate why carbon nanomaterials constitute the ideal intercon
Oil and Gas Program (Tennessee)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Oil and Gas section of the Tennessee Code, found in Title 60, covers all regulations, licenses, permits, and laws related to the production of natural gas. The laws create the Oil and Gas...
Haesen, S; Haesen, Stefan; Verstraelen, Leopold
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Due to the growing interest in embeddings of space-time in higher-dimensional spaces we consider a specific type of embedding. After proving an inequality between intrinsically defined curvature invariants and the squared mean curvature, we extend the notion of ideal embeddings from Riemannian geometry to the indefinite case. Ideal embeddings are such that the embedded manifold receives the least amount of tension from the surrounding space. Then it is shown that the de Sitter spaces, a Robertson-Walker space-time and some anisotropic perfect fluid metrics can be ideally embedded in a five-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space.
Stefan Haesen; Leopold Verstraelen
2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Due to the growing interest in embeddings of space-time in higher-dimensional spaces we consider a specific type of embedding. After proving an inequality between intrinsically defined curvature invariants and the squared mean curvature, we extend the notion of ideal embeddings from Riemannian geometry to the indefinite case. Ideal embeddings are such that the embedded manifold receives the least amount of tension from the surrounding space. Then it is shown that the de Sitter spaces, a Robertson-Walker space-time and some anisotropic perfect fluid metrics can be ideally embedded in a five-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space.
De Bruyn, W.J.; Swartz, E.; Hu, J.H. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)] [and others] [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); and others
1995-04-20T23:59:59.000Z
Biogenically produced reduced sulfur compounds, including dimethylsulfide (DMS, CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are a major source of sulfur in the marine atmosphere. This source is estimated to contribute 25-40% of global sulfur emissions. These species and their oxidation products, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}), and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), dominate the production of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the clean marine atmosphere. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion-produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. Using a newly developed bubble column apparatus, a series of aqueous phase uptake studies have been completed for the reduced sulfur species DMS, H{sub 2}S, CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}SH, and OCS. Aqueous phase uptake has been studied as a function of temperature (278-298 K), pH (1-14), H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration (0-1 M), NaCl concentration (0-5 M), and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration (0-4 M). The Henry`s law coefficients for CH{sub 3}SH and CS{sub 2} were determined for the first time, as were the Setchenow coefficients for all the species studied. 33 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Multi-Symplectic Lagrangian, One-Dimensional Gas Dynamics
G. M. Webb
2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
The equations of Lagrangian, ideal, one-dimensional (1D), compressible gas dynamics are written in a multi-symplectic form using the Lagrangian mass coordinate $m$ and time $t$ as independent variables, and in which the Eulerian position of the fluid element $x=x(m,t)$ is one of the dependent variables. This approach differs from the Eulerian, multi-symplectic approach using Clebsch variables. Lagrangian constraints are used to specify equations for $x_m$, $x_t$ and $S_t$ consistent with the Lagrangian map, where $S$ is the entropy of the gas. We require $S_t=0$ corresponding to advection of the entropy $S$ with the flow. We show that the Lagrangian Hamiltonian equations are related to the de Donder-Weyl multi-momentum formulation. The pullback conservation laws and the symplecticity conservation laws are discussed. The pullback conservation laws correspond to invariance of the action with respect to translations in time (energy conservation) and translations in $m$ in Noether's theorem. The conservation law due to $m$-translation invariance gives rise to a novel nonlocal conservation law involving the Clebsch variable $r$ used to impose $\\partial S(m,t)/\\partial t=0$. Translation invariance with respect to $x$ in Noether's theorem is associated with momentum conservation. We obtain the Cartan-Poincar\\'e form for the system, and use it to obtain a closed ideal of two-forms representing the equation system.
Chemical Potential in the First Law for Holographic Entanglement Entropy
David Kastor; Sourya Ray; Jennie Traschen
2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z
Entanglement entropy in conformal field theories is known to satisfy a first law. For spherical entangling surfaces, this has been shown to follow via the AdS/CFT correspondence and the holographic prescription for entanglement entropy from the bulk first law for Killing horizons. The bulk first law can be extended to include variations in the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$, which we established in earlier work. Here we show that this implies an extension of the boundary first law to include varying the number of degrees of freedom of the boundary CFT. The thermodynamic potential conjugate to $\\Lambda$ in the bulk is called the thermodynamic volume and has a simple geometric formula. In the boundary first law it plays the role of a chemical potential. For the bulk minimal surface $\\Sigma$ corresponding to a boundary sphere, the thermodynamic volume is found to be proportional to the area of $\\Sigma$, in agreement with the variation of the known result for entanglement entropy of spheres. The dependence of the CFT chemical potential on the entanglement entropy and number of degrees of freedom is similar to how the thermodynamic chemical potential of an ideal gas depends on entropy and particle number.
Effective medium theory of permeation through ideal polymer networks
Yong Wu
2007-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
The diffusion process through an ideal polymer network is studied by applying the effective medium theory (EMT) to a lattice-gas model. Polymers are modeled by random walks on the lattice bonds, across which molecules can hop with a certain probability. The steady state current of the system is calculated using the EMT and the results are compared to the simulations.
On the Structure of the Fusion Ideal
Douglas, Christopher L.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of the fusion ideal. Theorem 4.3. For G a compact, simple,of the fusion ideal follows. Theorem 1.3. For G a compact,
Primary Components of Binomial Ideals
Eser, Zekiye
2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z
. This implies b1 P pI : gn?1q ? pI : gnq and so h P I. Theorem 1.6. (Hilbert Basis Theorem) If R is a commutative Noetherian ring with unity, then so is Rrx1, ..., xns. Proof. See Theorem 4.9 in [19]. 3 Corollary 1.7. Let k be a field, then S ? krx1, x2.... Matusevich Committee Members, Frank Sottile J. Maurice Rojas John Keyser Head of Department, Emil Straube August 2014 Major Subject: Mathematics Copyright 2014 Zekiye Eser ABSTRACT Binomials are polynomials with at most two terms. A binomial ideal is an ideal...
Elementary gas kinetic theory. Today we will give kinetic theory definitions to main macroscopic
Alexeenko, Alina
proportional to mean kinetic energy of thermal motion. p= nmv- v0 2 3 = nm v 2 3 . #12;7 Derivation of Avogadro . #12;8 Avogadro's Law Number of molecules in a volume of gas is a quantity of particles in a given of C12 =6.022x1023 atoms. NA =6.022x1023 Avogadro number. The volume V0 occupied by a mole of ideal
Law, Technology and the Environment in natural resource management
Law, Technology and the Environment in natural resource management: Forestry and illegal logging* May 2003 *E.P. Toyne. (in press). Law, Technology and the Environment in natural resource management;INTRODUCTION In an ideal world there would be the combined application of law and technology leading
Modules over principal ideal rings
Vieaux, Jules Bellin
1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
need to note, however, , the difference between the two types of "union" of a set of submodules N 1 of a module N, The first is the "set-theoretic union" con- sisting of representatives of all the distinct elements to be found in the Ni... ideal R, which cons1sts of the elements of the ring. Consider the subset B of R of all elements of the form ra + na, where r and a are ring ele- ments and n is an integer. If rla + nla, r2a + n2a s B, then la + nla 2 2a la r2a + la 2 = (rl - r2)a...
TERMINATION OF IDEAL COS m phi WINDING
Laslett, L.J.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
6 III . Termination of the cos A. B. Analysis ExamplesTERMINATION OF IDEAL COS m~ WINDING L.J. Laslett, S. Caspi,MAG-77 TERMINATION OF IDEAL COS WINDING L. J . Las1ett, S.
Unique irredundant intersections of completely irreducible ideals
2005-02-25T23:59:59.000Z
Feb 25, 2005 ... Let R denote throughout a commutative ring with 1. An ideal of R ..... M = mR, then P ? mR, so that P = mA for some proper ideal A of R. Since P.
KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL
2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z
The operational requirements for the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) melter systems, together with the feed constituents, impose a number of challenges to the off-gas treatment system. The system must be robust from the standpoints of operational reliability and minimization of maintenance. The system must effectively control and remove a wide range of solid particulate matter, acid mists and gases, and organic constituents (including those arising from products of incomplete combustion of sugar and organics in the feed) to concentration levels below those imposed by regulatory requirements. The baseline design for the RPP-WTP LAW primary off-gas system includes a submerged bed scrubber (SBS), a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed (AC-S), a thermal catalytic oxidizer (TCO), a single-stage selective catalytic reduction NOx treatment system (SCR), and a packed-bed caustic scrubber (PBS). The baseline design for the RPP-WTP HLW primary off-gas system includes an SBS, a WESP, a high efficiency mist eliminator (HEME), and a HEPA filter. The HLW secondary off-gas system includes a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed, a silver mordenite bed, a TCO, and a single-stage SCR. The one-third scale HLW DM1200 Pilot Melter installed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was equipped with a prototypical off-gas train to meet the needs for testing and confirmation of the performance of the baseline off-gas system design. Various modifications have been made to the DM1200 system as the details of the WTP design have evolved, including the installation of a silver mordenite column and an AC-S column for testing on a slipstream of the off-gas flow; the installation of a full-flow AC-S bed for the present tests was completed prior to initiation of testing. The DM1200 system was reconfigured to enable testing of the baseline HLW or LAW off-gas trains to perform off-gas emissions testing with both LAW and HLW simulants in the present work. During 2002 and 2003, many of these off-gas components were tested individually and in an integrated manner with the DM1200 Pilot Melter. Data from these tests are being used to support engineering design confirmation and to provide data to support air permitting activities. In fiscal year 2004, the WTP Project was directed by the Office of River Protection (ORP) to comply with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements for organics. This requires that the combined melter and off-gas system have destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of >99.99% for principal organic dangerous constituents (PODCs). In order to provide confidence that the melter and off-gas system are able to achieve the required DRE, testing has been directed with both LAW and HLW feeds. The tests included both 'normal' and 'challenge' WTP melter conditions in order to obtain data for the potential range of operating conditions for the WTP melters and off-gas components. The WTP Project, Washington State Department of Ecology, and ORP have agreed that naphthalene will be used for testing to represent semi-volatile organics and allyl alcohol will be used to represent volatile organics. Testing was also performed to determine emissions of halides, metals, products of incomplete combustion (PICs), dioxins, furans, coplanar PCBs, total hydrocarbons, and COX and NOX, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD) of particulate matter discharged at the end of the off-gas train. A description of the melter test requirements and analytical methods used is provided in the Test Plan for this work. Test Exceptions were subsequently issued which changed the TCO catalyst, added total organic emissions (TOE) to exhaust sampling schedule, and allowing modification of the test conditions in response to attainable plenum temperatures as well as temperature increases in the sulfur impr
Shyani, Rajeshkumar Ghanshyambhai
2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system has been widely used to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission, improve fuel economy and suppress knock by using the characteristics of charge dilution. However, previous studies ...
Unique Irredundant Intersections of Completely Irreducible Ideals
As we record in Question irreducible question, the classification of rings of positive ...... \\begin{document} \\baselineskip 17 pt \\title[\\ci\\ ideals]{Unique Irredundant ...
Commutative ideal theory without finiteness conditions: irreducibility ...
LS W. J. Lewis and T. S. Shores, Serial modules and endomorphism rings, Duke ...... %\\bibitem{LM} M. Larsen and P. McCarthy, Multiplicative Theory of Ideals, ...
On the Structure of the Fusion Ideal
Douglas, Christopher L.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
On the Structure of the Fusion Ideal 4. Bouwknegt, P. ,of Wess-Zumino-Witten fusion rings. Rev. Math. Phys.A conjectural presentation of fusion algebras. Preprint,
Sum rules for inhomogeneous Coulomb fluids, and ideal conductor boundary conditions
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
of particles interacting through Coulomb's law plus some short-range interaction (a hard core repulsion389 Sum rules for inhomogeneous Coulomb fluids, and ideal conductor boundary conditions B of an inhomogeneous Coulomb fluid is shown to obey a sum rule involving electrical multipole moments of arbitrary
Table A1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties
Kostic, Milivoje M.
of carbon dioxide, CO2 Table A21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO Table A22 Ideal Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude Table A17 Ideal-gas properties of air Table A18 Ideal-point properties Molar mass, constant, Temperature, Pressure, Volume, Substance Formula M kg/kmol R kJ/kg·K* K MPa
The Ideal Transformer Description and Circuit Symbol
King, Roger
The Ideal Transformer Description and Circuit Symbol As with all the other circuit elements, there is a physical transformer commonly used in circuits whose behavior can be discussed in great detail. However, in many cases the practical transformer can be adequately approximated by the "ideal transformer," which
BETTI NUMBERS OF PIECEWISELEX IDEALS 1. Introduction ...
2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
I be the ideal of A generated by all the minimal generators of I except for beb ... If beb is not a minimal generator of I, then I = I and T is the {a, b}-compression of I.
What's an ideal energy efficiency project?
Dazeley, J.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
What?s an ideal energy efficiency project? 1 The Supermarket Industry 2 Supermarket Industry ? The?Project ? The?Challenges ? The?Benefits 3 How it started 4 The Project ? Supermarkets?? built?to?waste ?No...
The Wendell Berry ideal: harmony and wholeness
Kutach, Douglas Neil
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
THE WENDELL BERRY IDEAL: HARMONY AND WHOLENESS A Thesis by DOUGLAS NEIL KUTACH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS August 1992 Major... Subject: Philosophy THE WENDELL BERRY IDEAL: HARMONY AND WHOLENESS A Thesis by DOUGLAS NEIL KUTACH Approved as to style and content by: Paul B. Thompson (Chair of Committee) Paul Theobald (Member) John McDermott (Member) Herman Sa kamp (Head...
Guiding center equations for ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes
White, R. B. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Guiding center simulations are routinely used for the discovery of mode-particle resonances in tokamaks, for both resistive and ideal instabilities and to find modifications of particle distributions caused by a given spectrum of modes, including large scale avalanches during events with a number of large amplitude modes. One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through {delta}B-vector={nabla} Multiplication-Sign ({xi}-vector Multiplication-Sign B-vector), however, perturbs the magnetic topology, introducing extraneous magnetic islands in the field. A proper treatment of an ideal perturbation involves a full Lagrangian displacement of the field due to the perturbation and conserves magnetic topology as it should. In order to examine the effect of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes on particle trajectories, the guiding center equations should include a correct Lagrangian treatment. Guiding center equations for an ideal displacement {xi}-vector are derived which preserve the magnetic topology and are used to examine mode particle resonances in toroidal confinement devices. These simulations are compared to others which are identical in all respects except that they use the linear representation for the field. Unlike the case for the magnetic field, the use of the linear field perturbation in the guiding center equations does not result in extraneous mode particle resonances.
Guiding Center Equations for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Modes
Roscoe B. White
2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
Guiding center simulations are routinely used for the discovery of mode-particle resonances in tokamaks, for both resistive and ideal instabilities and to find modifications of particle distributions caused by a given spectrum of modes, including large scale avalanches during events with a number of large amplitude modes. One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through ?~B = ? X (? X B) however perturbs the magnetic topology, introducing extraneous magnetic islands in the field. A proper treatment of an ideal perturbation involves a full Lagrangian displacement of the field due to the perturbation and conserves magnetic topology as it should. In order to examine the effect of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes on particle trajectories the guiding center equations should include a correct Lagrangian treatment. Guiding center equations for an ideal displacement ? are derived which perserve the magnetic topology and are used to examine mode particle resonances in toroidal confinement devices. These simulations are compared to others which are identical in all respects except that they use the linear representation for the field. Unlike the case for the magnetic field, the use of the linear field perturbation in the guiding center equations does not result in extraneous mode particle resonances.
Quantum Refrigerator and the III-law of Thermodynamics
Amikam Levy; Robert Alicki; Ronnie Kosloff
2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
The rate of temperature decrease of a cooled quantum bath is studied as its temperature is reduced to the absolute zero. The III-law of thermodynamics is then quantified dynamically by evaluating the characteristic exponent {\\zeta} of the cooling process dT(t)/dt \\sim -T^{\\zeta} when approaching the absolute zero, T \\rightarrow 0. A continuous model of a quantum refrigerator is employed consisting of a working medium composed either by two coupled harmonic oscillators or two coupled 2-level systems. The refrigerator is a nonlinear device merging three currents from three heat baths: a cold bath to be cooled, a hot bath as an entropy sink, and a driving bath which is the source of cooling power. A heat driven refrigerator (absorption refrigerator) is compared to a power driven refrigerator. When optimized both cases lead to the same exponent {\\zeta}, showing a lack of dependence on the form of the working medium and the characteristics of the drivers. The characteristic exponent is therefore determined by the properties of the cold reservoir and its interaction with the system. Two generic heat baths models are considered, a bath composed of harmonic oscillators and a bath composed from ideal Bose/Fermi gas. The restrictions on the interaction Hamiltonian imposed by the III-law are discussed. In the appendix the theory of periodicaly driven open systems and its implication to thermodynamics is outlined.
Petroleum Products and Alternative Fuels Tax Law (Tennessee)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Petroleum Products and Alternative Fuels Tax Law is relevant to all natural gas and/or biofuel projects. Compressed Natural Gas CNG, petroleum product and/or alternative dealers must apply for...
Computer Algebra for Computer Ideal-Variety Correspondence and Ideals in k[x
Kalla, Priyank
I and h R then f Â· h I Definition 2 Let f1, f2, . . . , fs k[x1, . . . , xn]. Let f1, f2 . . . , fs = { s i=1 fihi : h1, . . . hs k[x1, . . . , xn]} (1) I = f1, f2 . . . , fs is an ideal generated by f1, . . . , fs and the polynomials are called the generators. Â p.2/11 #12;Ideals A given ideal may
A. Paglietti
2009-04-26T23:59:59.000Z
The standard theory of ideal gases ignores the interaction of the gas particles with the thermal radiation (photon gas) that fills the otherwise vacuum space between them. This is an unphysical feature of the theory since every material in this universe, and hence also the particles of a gas, absorbs and radiates thermal energy. The interaction with the thermal radiation that is contained within the volume of the body may be important in gases since the latter, unlike solids and liquids, are capable of undergoing conspicuous volume changes. Taking this interaction into account makes the behaviour of the ideal gases more realistic and removes Gibbs' paradox.
Exact map through ideal bends (again?)
Michelotti, L.
1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
There are three logically independent facets to calculating the transfer map through a bend magnet: physics, geometry, and representation. We will derive the exact map for transit through ideal bends while separating these three, esp., isolating the geometry problem from the other two.
Idealized Test Cases for Dynamical Core Experiments
Jablonowski, Christiane
Idealized Test Cases for Dynamical Core Experiments Christiane Jablonowski (University of Michigan-13/2006 #12;Motivation Â· Test cases for 3D dynamical cores on the sphere Â are hard to find in the literature groups Â lack standardized & easy-to-use analysis techniques Â· Idea: Establish a collection of test cases
Initial Ideals in the Exterior Dominic Searles
Slinko, Arkadii
, and initial ideals in the exterior algebra over a vector space of dimension n. We review properties of term in the exterior algebra over a vector space of dimension n 6, and we give some illustrative examples. i #12;ii in the exterior algebra over a vector space of dimension n. For the purposes of this thesis, we will denote
Idealized Test Cases for Dynamical Core Experiments
Jablonowski, Christiane
Idealized Test Cases for Dynamical Core Experiments Christiane Jablonowski (University of Michigan-13/2006 #12;Motivation · Test cases for 3D dynamical cores on the sphere are hard to find in the literature groups lack standardized & easy-to-use analysis techniques · Idea: Establish a collection of test cases
Dark energy from cosmological fluids obeying a Shan-Chen non-ideal equation of state
Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi
2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with a fluid source obeying a non-ideal equation of state with "asymptotic freedom," namely ideal gas behavior (pressure changes directly proportional to density changes) both at low and high density regimes, following a fluid dynamical model due to Shan and Chen. It is shown that, starting from an ordinary energy density component, such fluids naturally evolve towards a universe with a substantial "dark energy" component at the present time, with no need of invoking any cosmological constant. Moreover, we introduce a quantitative indicator of darkness abundance, which provides a consistent picture of the actual matter-energy content of the universe.
Ideals, Varieties and Symbolic Computation Priyank Kalla
Kalla, Priyank
of Polynomials: Let f1, f2, . . . , fs R = F[x1, . . . , xd ]. Let J = f1, f2 . . . , fs = {f1h1 + f2h2 + Â· Â· Â· + fshs : h1, . . . , hs R} J = f1, f2 . . . , fs is an ideal generated by f1, . . . , fs of Polynomials: Let f1, f2, . . . , fs R = F[x1, . . . , xd ]. Let J = f1, f2 . . . , fs = {f1h1 + f2h2
Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction
Peter Zalupski
2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.
A Note on Fitting ideals Jonathan A. Huang
Yorke, James
by H. Fitting; the canonical reference is D. G. Northcott's textbook Finite Free Resolutions ideal F , created from Gauss sums, is contained in the annihilator ideal of ClF ; a more general
Ideal Social Secret Sharing Using Birkhoff Interpolation Method
Ideal Social Secret Sharing Using Birkhoff Interpolation Method Nasrollah Pakniat a , Ziba Eslami a Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA Abstract The concept of social secret sharing (SSS-cooperative parties. As our contribution, we propose an ideal social secret sharing (Ideal-SSS) in which the size
Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics
Bryan M. Johnson
2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z
In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material component with a large number of internal degrees of freedom and an internal energy greater than that of the radiation, the sound speed increases as the fluid is rarefied. These solutions are an excellent test for radiation hydrodynamic codes operating in the dynamic diffusion regime. The general approach may be useful in the development of Godunov numerical schemes for radiation hydrodynamics.
An ideal sealed source life-cycle
Tompkins, Joseph Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the last 40 years, barriers to compliant and timely disposition of radioactive sealed sources have become apparent. The story starts with the explosive growth of nuclear gauging technologies in the 1960s. Dozens of companies in the US manufactured sources and many more created nuclear solutions to industrial gauging problems. Today they do not yet know how many Cat 1, 2, or 3 sources there are in the US. There are, at minimum, tens of thousands of sources, perhaps hundreds of thousands of sources. Affordable transportation solutions to consolidate all of these sources and disposition pathways for these sources do not exist. The root problem seems to be a lack of necessary regulatory framework that has allowed all of these problems to accumulate with no national plan for solving the problem. In the 1960s, Pu-238 displaced Pu-239 for most neutron and alpha source applications. In the 1970s, the availability of inexpensive Am-241 resulted in a proliferation of low energy gamma sources used in nuclear gauging, well logging, pacemakers, and X-ray fluorescence applications for example. In the 1980s, rapid expansion of worldwide petroleum exploration resulted in the expansion of Am-241 sources into international locations. Improvements of technology and regulation resulted in a change in isotopic distribution as Am-241 made Pu-239 and Pu-238 obsolete. Many early nuclear gauge technologies have been made obsolete as they were replaced by non-nuclear technoogies. With uncertainties in source end of life disposition and increased requirements for sealed source security, nuclear gauging technology is the last choice for modern process engineering gauging solutions. Over the same period, much was learned about licensing LLW disposition facilities as evident by the closure of early disposition facilities like Maxey Flats. The current difficulties in sealed source disposition start with adoption of the NLLW policy act of 1985, which created the state LLW compact system they we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Gompper, Gerhard
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Janus colloids propelled by light, e.g., thermophoretic particles, offer promising prospects as artificial microswimmers. However, their swimming behavior and its dependence on fluid properties and fluid-colloid interactions remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the behavior of a thermophoretic Janus colloid in its own temperature gradient using numerical simulations. The dissipative particle dynamics method with energy conservation is used to investigate the behavior in non-ideal and ideal-gas like fluids for different fluid-colloid interactions, boundary conditions, and temperature-controlling strategies. The fluid-colloid interactions appear to have a strong effect on the colloid behavior, since they directly affect heat exchange between the colloid surface and the fluid. The simulation results show that a reduction of the heat exchange at the fluid-colloid interface leads to an enhancement of colloid's thermophoretic mobility. The colloid behavior is found to be different in non-ideal and ideal f...
Ideal scaling up of BETHSY experimental results
Petelin, S.; Mavko, B.; Ravnikar, I. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia)
1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The transient scenario of ISP-27 (International System Problem) was applied in the analysis for real NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). The scenario involves a diameter 5.1 cm (2 inches) cold leg break without available HPSI (High Pressure Safety Injection) and hypothetical operator procedure for secondary system depressurization. The objective was to evaluate the ideal scaling up of BETHSY (Boucle d`Etudes Thermohydraulique Systeme) facility proposed accident management procedure for real NPP and to compare the physical phenomena known from experimental background with the phenomena predicted by RELAP5 simulations of real plant transient. Also, special attention was concentrated on those parts of RELAP5 model where possible multidimensional phenomena may occur.
Matching Law Visualization Tool
Reed, Derek D.
2015-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Herrnstein’s quantitative law of effect describes relative allocation of behavior as a function of relative rates of reinforcement. This robust relation has since been termed the “matching law” and is expressed in either a linear regression function...
Wien's Displacement Law in Rindler Space
De, Sanchari; Ghosh, Sutapa; Chakrabarty, Somenath
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this article we have developed a formalism to obtained the modified form of Wien's displacement law when the wall of the enclosure containing a photon gas is expanding adiabatically with a uniform acceleration. We have also studied the gravitational redshift of photons inside the enclosure using the prescription of extended relativistic dynamics with an upper limit of acceleration.
Kostic, Milivoje M.
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: STATUS AND CHALLENGES San Diego, California, USA 14 15 June 2011 The First Law of energy conservation was even known (Joule 1843) and long before Thermodynamic concepts were, including this one. The Laws of Thermodynamics have much wider, including philosophical significance
The Law of Hazardous Waste: CERCLA, RCRA, & Common Law Claims
Kammen, Daniel M.
Law 273.4 The Law of Hazardous Waste: CERCLA, RCRA, & Common Law Claims (Fall 2008) Units: 3 CCN (2, The Law of Hazardous Waste Disposal and Remediation (2d ed. 2005) Syllabus Class 1 August 19 Claims on Federal Law: 1. Miller & Johnston The Law of Hazardous Waste Disposal and Remediation 2. Ch. III, Intro
MULTI-IDEAL-ADIC COMPLETIONS OF NOETHERIAN RINGS 1 ...
2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z
Mar 8, 2012 ... and examine the completions associated to these filtrations. ... the relationship between this completion and certain ideal-adic completions are.
Ideal Configuration For Nanoscale Solar Cells - Energy Innovation...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Ideal Configuration For Nanoscale Solar Cells Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThe standard design of excitonic...
Narasimhan, T.N.
2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z
In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.
Miall, Chris
Efficient Heat Engines and Heat Pumps (10 credits) The aim of the module is to introduce the various ideal thermodynamic cycles that form the basis for power generation, heat pumping and IC Engines performance. Syllabus Heat Engines and Heat Pumps · Second Law of Thermodynamics, Concept
Hutchinson, John W.
SIMULATIONS OF DUCTILE FRACTURE IN AN IDEALIZED SHIP GROUNDING SCENARIO USING PHENOMENOLOGICAL DAMAGE methodologies for ductile fracture in large sheet metal components are presented and evaluated in this paper-separation law is employed to simulate the same ductile fracture problems accounting for significant variation
Statistical laws in linguistics
Altmann, Eduardo G
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...
M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Assignment 4 1 Assignment #4 (Gas-turbine)
Bahrami, Majid
T T rRT rRT q q in out Braytonstagen which is the Carnot cycle thermal efficiency. In fact the T: Tuesday Feb. 08, 2011 Due date: Tuesday Feb. 15, 2011 Problem 1: An ideal gas-turbine cycle with ideal-stage ideal Brayton cycle which operates at the same pressure ratio and works between the same min and max
Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy
Visser, Matt
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.
Sadi Carnot's Ingenious Reasoning of Ideal Heat Engine Reversible Cycles
Kostic, Milivoje M.
Sadi Carnot's Ingenious Reasoning of Ideal Heat Engine Reversible Cycles MILIVOJE M. KOSTIC and speculations flourished. Carnot's reasoning of reversible cycles is in many ways equal if not more significant was not noticed at his time, when his ingenious reasoning of ideal heat engine reversible cycles is not fully
THE FIRST MAYR-MEYER IDEAL IRENA SWANSON
Swanson, Irena
THE FIRST MAYR-MEYER IDEAL IRENA SWANSON New Mexico State University - Department of Mathematical a complete primary decomposition of the first, that is, the smallest, Mayr-Meyer ideal, its radical, and the inter- section of its minimal components. The particular membership problem which makes the Mayr-Meyer
Integral closures of ideals and rings Irena Swanson
Swanson, Irena
Integral closures of ideals and rings Irena Swanson ICTP, Trieste School on Local Rings and Local Theorem, completions). In the first lecture I will present the basics of integral closure with very few material. Table of contents: Section 1: Integral closure of rings and ideals 1 Section 2: Integral closure
Gr\\"obner bases of ideals cogenerated by Pfaffians
De Negri, Emanuela
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We characterise the class of one-cogenerated Pfaffian ideals whose natural generators form a Gr\\"obner basis with respect to any anti-diagonal term-order. We describe their initial ideals as well as the associated simplicial complexes, which turn out to be shellable and thus Cohen-Macaulay. We also provide a formula for computing their multiplicity.
Partial Understanding Idealization and the Aims of Science
Machery, Edouard
describe nearly any actual systems. Cartwright gives as an example Newton's law of universal gravitation generalization achieved by the human mind" (1967, p.14). Yet the law of universal gravitation ignores laws, understood as exceptionless regularities that are universal in scope. One influential critic
Technical Note Methane gas migration through geomembranes
and Fick's law. This chart can be used by landfill designers to evaluate the methane gas transmission rate for a selected geomembrane type and thickness and expected methane gas pressure in the landfill. KEYWORDS landfill usually consists, from bottom to top, of: graded landfill surface; a gas-venting layer; a low
R. Bass; A. Del Popolo
2004-07-23T23:59:59.000Z
In a planetary or satellite system, idealized as n small bodies in initially coplanar, concentric orbits around a large central body, obeying Newtonian point-particle mechanics, resonant perturbations will cause dynamical evolution of the orbital radii except under highly specific mutual relationships, here derived analytically.
Dresden, Gregory
. Bentley Professor of Law Scott E. Sundby, J.D. Sydney and Frances Lewis Professor of Law Sarah Kirsten Zanolli Natkin, J.D. Clinical Professor of Law Clifford R. Larsen, M.A., J.D. Professor of Law Ronald J.M. Professor of Law and Director, Frances Lewis Law Center Darryl K. Brown, M.A., J.D. Class of 1958 Alumni
Solar Easements and Rights Laws
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Washington's solar easement laws are similar to those in many other states. The law does not create an automatic right to sunlight. Rather, the law allows parties to enter into solar easement...
Reports and Publications (EIA)
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.
Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics
Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based on the two case studies and evaluation of the seven assessments, the security ideals demonstrated their value in guiding security thinking. Further, the final set of core technical metrics has been demonstrated to be both usable in the control system environment and provide significant coverage of standard security issues.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This law authorizes the Land Reclamation Commission of the Department of Natural Resources to adopt and promulgate rules and regulations pertaining to strip mining of coal and reclamation, review...
Motomura, Hiroshi
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Local Immigration Laws, 61 SMU L. Rev. 47, 53 (2008) (notingWhat Is a “Sanctuary”? , 61 SMU L. Rev. 133, 151–54 (2008) (Improve Income Distribution, 61 SMU L. Rev. 23, 25 (2008) (
Reviving Telecommunications Surveillance Law
Schwartz, Paul M.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
attorney general to report to Congress). File: 12 Schwartzin obtaining the official reports to Congress for 1999–2003Chicago Law Review reports to Congress on the FBI’s use of
Oil and Gas Commission General Rules and Regulations (Arkansas)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Oil and Gas Commission General Rules and Regulations are the body of rules and regulations that relate to natural gas production in Arkansas. The statutory law is found Arkansas Code Annotated...
Robot task planning in a non-ideal blocks world
Rangadass, Vasudev
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ROBOT TASK PLANNING IN A NON-IDEAL BLOCKS WORLD A Thesis by VASUDEV RANGADASS Submitted to the Graduate College Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject...: Computer Science ROBOT TASK PLANNING IN A NON-IDEAL BLOCKS WORLD A Thesis by VASUDEV RANGADASS Approved as to style and content by: Amitabha Mu ee (Chairman of Committee) Glen Williams (Member) Arun Sen (Member) Glen Williams (Head...
Carbonara, Emanuela; Parisi, Francesco; Wangenheim, Georg von
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Unjust Laws and Illegal Norms ? Emanuela Carbonara 1 -imposing a fine for a given illegal activity, the law raisesto peer technology for illegal music downloading. identifies
Nottingham Law School Topics in Environmental Law
Evans, Paul
: Environmental Regulation & the Oil, Gas & Mining Industries Environmental issues/aspects of International will be funded across the University in 2014. Full details of the projects and the competition are available. Award The studentships will pay UK/EU fees and provide a maintenance stipend linked to the RCUK rate
The Law of Hazardous Waste: CERCLA, RCRA, & Common Law Claims
Kammen, Daniel M.
Law 273.4 The Law of Hazardous Waste: CERCLA, RCRA, & Common Law Claims (Fall 2006) Units: 3 CCN (2 of Hazardous Waste Disposal and Remediation (2d ed. 2005) Syllabus Class 1 August 22 Claims Based on Common: 1. Miller & Johnston The Law of Hazardous Waste Disposal and Remediation 2. Ch. III, Intro to RCRA
Absolute conservation law for black holes
D. Grumiller; W. Kummer
1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z
In all 2d theories of gravity a conservation law connects the (space-time dependent) mass aspect function at all times and all radii with an integral of the matter fields. It depends on an arbitrary constant which may be interpreted as determining the initial value together with the initial values for the matter field. We discuss this for spherically reduced Einstein-gravity in a diagonal metric and in a Bondi-Sachs metric using the first order formulation of spherically reduced gravity, which allows easy and direct fixations of any type of gauge. The relation of our conserved quantity to the ADM and Bondi mass is investigated. Further possible applications (ideal fluid, black holes in higher dimensions or AdS spacetimes etc.) are straightforward generalizations.
Undergraduate Handbook School of Law
Hickman, Mark
Undergraduate Handbook School of Law Critique. LLB and BCJ 2015LAW #12;#12;Contents 5 Welcome has been taken to ensure the information contained in this School of Law Undergraduate Handbook of Canterbury Calendar is definitive. School of Law Undergraduate Handbook published March 2015. 10 LLB
Brayton Cycles: From the ...rst law, the maximum transfers for component SSSF control volumes are
. For the simple reversible Brayton cycle of given pressure ratio rp $ (p2=p1) = (p3=p4) [compare Example 9.4, pp is higher than 1 r (2=7) . For the ideal regenerator, the thermal e˘ ciency approaches the Carnot-cycle eBrayton Cycles: From the ...rst law, the maximum transfers for component SSSF control volumes are w
The Copernican Model and Kepler's Laws
Howard, Don
and Kepler's Laws Galileo on Motion Newton's Principia Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Some Old
Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Furnaces
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential gas furnaces, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.
Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.
An experimental test of noncontextuality without unwarranted idealizations
Michael D. Mazurek; Matthew F. Pusey; Ravi Kunjwal; Kevin J. Resch; Robert W. Spekkens
2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
To make precise the sense in which nature fails to respect classical physics, one requires a formal notion of classicality. Ideally, such a notion should be defined operationally, so that it can be subjected to a direct experimental test, and it should be applicable in a wide variety of experimental scenarios, so that it can cover the breadth of phenomena that are thought to defy classical understanding. Bell's notion of local causality fulfills the first criterion but not the second. The notion of noncontextuality fulfills the second criterion, but it is a long-standing question whether it can be made to fulfill the first. Previous attempts to experimentally test noncontextuality have all presumed certain idealizations that do not hold in real experiments, namely, noiseless measurements and exact operational equivalences. We here show how to devise tests that are free of these idealizations. We also perform a photonic implementation of one such test that rules out noncontextual models with high confidence.
Thermal transport through non-ideal Andreev quantum dots
Pedro Vidal
2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the scenario of thermal transport through two types of Andreev quantum dots which are coupled to two leads, belonging to the Class D and Class C symmetry classes. Using the random matrix description we derive the joint probability density function (j.p.d.f.) in term of Hypergeometric Function of Matrix Arguments when we consider one lead to be attached ideally and one lead non ideally. For the class C ensemble we derive a more explicit representation of the j.p.d.f. which results in a new type of random matrix model.
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) Table A1 Molar mass, gas constant, and
Kostic, Milivoje M.
Table A20 Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 Table A21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon.1355 n-Butane C4H10 58.124 0.1430 425.2 3.80 0.2547 Carbon dioxide CO2 44.01 0.1889 304.2 7.39 0Appendix 1 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) Table A1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical
Dmitry A. Fedosov; Ankush Sengupta; Gerhard Gompper
2015-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
Janus colloids propelled by light, e.g., thermophoretic particles, offer promising prospects as artificial microswimmers. However, their swimming behavior and its dependence on fluid properties and fluid-colloid interactions remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the behavior of a thermophoretic Janus colloid in its own temperature gradient using numerical simulations. The dissipative particle dynamics method with energy conservation is used to investigate the behavior in non-ideal and ideal-gas like fluids for different fluid-colloid interactions, boundary conditions, and temperature-controlling strategies. The fluid-colloid interactions appear to have a strong effect on the colloid behavior, since they directly affect heat exchange between the colloid surface and the fluid. The simulation results show that a reduction of the heat exchange at the fluid-colloid interface leads to an enhancement of colloid's thermophoretic mobility. The colloid behavior is found to be different in non-ideal and ideal fluids, suggesting that fluid compressibility plays a significant role. The flow field around the colloid surface is found to be dominated by a source-dipole, in agreement with the recent theoretical and simulation predictions. Finally, different temperature-control strategies do not appear to have a strong effect on the colloid's swimming velocity.
Gas hydrate cool storage system
Ternes, Mark P. (Knoxville, TN); Kedl, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.
Ideal Observers for Detecting Human Motion: Correspondence Noise.
Yuille, Alan L.
purpose, models of motion. We perform more psychophysical experiments which are consistent with humansIdeal Observers for Detecting Human Motion: Correspondence Noise. HongJing Lo Department obtain Barlow and Tripathy's classic model as an approximation. Our psychophysical experiments show
Characterizing Ideal Weighted Threshold Secret Amos Beimel1
Beimel, Amos
Characterizing Ideal Weighted Threshold Secret Sharing Amos Beimel1 , Tamir Tassa1,2 , and Enav Science, The Open University, Ra'anana, Israel. Abstract. Weighted threshold secret sharing was introduced by Shamir in his seminal work on secret sharing. In such settings, there is a set of users where each user
Ideal Secret Sharing Schemes: Yet Another Combinatorial Characterization, Certain Access
Fuji-Hara, Ryoh
Ideal Secret Sharing Schemes: Yet Another Combinatorial Characterization, Certain Access Structures secret sharing scheme is a method of sharing a secret key in some key space among a finite set of participants in such a way that only the authorized subsets of participants can reconstruct the secret key from
Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation
Skogestad, Sigurd
Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Trondheim-NTH, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Simple distillation and compositions in the column. Introduction Multiple steady states (multiplicity) in distillation columns have
Sadi Carnot's Ingenious Reasoning of Ideal Heat Engine Reversible Cycles
Kostic, Milivoje M.
Sadi Carnot's Ingenious Reasoning of Ideal Heat Engine Reversible Cycles MILIVOJE M. KOSTIC and speculations flourished. Carnot's reasoning of reversible cycles is in many ways equal if not more significant@niu.edu; http://www.kostic.niu.edu Abstract: - Sadi Carnot, at age 28, published in 1824, now famous "Réflexions
An ideal independent source as an equivalent 1-port
Emanuel Gluskin; Anatoly Patlakh
2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a 1-port, not necessarily linear, with a dependent source, appearing at the port. The control of the source is entirely internal for the 1-port. If this source is a parallel voltage source, then the equivalent circuit is an ideal independent voltage source, and if it is a series current source, then the equivalent circuit is an ideal independent current source. (As usual, "ideal" source is defined as a source whose proposed function is independent of the load.) In the simple LTI case, these results can be obtained, respectively, by either taking RTh zero in the Thevenin equivalent, or taking RN infinite in the Norton equivalent; however the very fact that the final circuits do not include any linear elements indicates the possibility of generalization to nonlinear 1-ports. Some limitations on the circuit's structure (functional dependencies in it) are required, and the clearness of these limitations, i.e. clearness of the conditions for the 1-port to be an ideal source for any load, is the aesthetical point.
On the embedded primes of the Mayr-Meyer ideals Irena Swanson
Swanson, Irena
On the embedded primes of the Mayr-Meyer ideals Irena Swanson Table of contents: Section 1 investigates the doubly exponential ideal membership property of the Mayr-Meyer ideals. These ideals were first defined by Mayr and Meyer in [MM], where their doubly exponential behavior was first observed
Ideal Free Distribution Theory Bioscene 27 Habitat Quality and the Distribution of Fish
Antonovics, Janis
Ideal Free Distribution Theory Bioscene 27 Habitat Quality and the Distribution of Fish: Are Fish of the ideal free distribution theory. In this laboratory exercise, students will expose a group of fish to two: fish foraging, ideal free distribution theory, patchy resources, habitat quality Introduction The ideal
FACULTY OF LAW Centre for Commercial Law Studies
Tan, Chew Lim
FACULTY OF LAW Centre for Commercial Law Studies SEMINAR ON FINANCIAL REGULATORY REFORM Obama recently signed into law a package of financial regulatory reforms unparalleled in scope and depth since the 1930s. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act is intended
Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics
Klein, R I; Li, P S; McKee, C F; Fisher, R
2008-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256{sup 3} and 512{sup 3} simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li et al. (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectra compared to the ideal MHD case. Changes in the density PDF, total magnetic energy, and ionization fraction are determined as a function of the AD Reynolds number. The power spectra for the neutral gas properties of a strongly magnetized medium with a low AD Reynolds number are similar to those for a weakly magnetized medium; in particular, the power spectrum of the neutral velocity is close to that for Burgers turbulence.
Solar Easements and Rights Laws
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Maryland has a long-standing law protecting the rights of solar energy system owners. The original law prohibited restrictive land use covenants that imposed unreasonable limitations on the...
Environmental Laws and Regulations | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankShale_Gas.pdfServiceDepartment ofEnergyPlus Overcomes2 DOEDepartmentThird AnnualJusticeEnvironmental Laws
Stabilization of a purely dipolar quantum gas against collapse
Loss, Daniel
2008; doi:10.1038/nphys887 Although the phenomenon of BoseEinstein condensation1 is a purely statistical effect that also appears in an ideal gas, the physics of BoseEinstein condensates (BECs, stabilizing a purely dipolar quantum gas. In the case of a homogeneous BoseEinstein condensate (BEC
Specific heat and entropy of tachyon Fermi gas
Ernst Trojan
2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider an ideal Fermi gas of tachyons and derive a low temperature expansion of its thermodynamical functions. The tachyonic specific heat is linear dependent on temperature $C_V=\\epsilon_Fk_FT$ and formally coincides with the specific heat of electron gas if the tachyon Fermi energy is defined as $\\epsilon_F=\\sqrt{k_F-m^2}$.
UPDATED: 8/29/2013 THE DICKINSON SCHOOL OF LAW
Lee, Dongwon
space · 3 bedrooms + bonus room on third floor · 1& ˝ remodeled bathrooms · gas heating, central air, Carlisle Quiet 2nd floor apartment. One bedroom. $395 includes heat/water/sewer. Four blocks from law COMPLEXES APARTMENTS/HOUSES - CARLISLE 3 E. HIGH STREET, Apt. # 2, Carlisle - 2nd Floor apartment, available
Mesoscopic Effects in Bose-Einstein Condensate Fluctuations of an Ideal Gas in a Box
Dorfman, Konstantin Evgenievich
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
of bosons due to Beliaev [7, 8, 22]. This leads to a generalized Green?s function formalism which builds in the crucial role of the Bose condensate, and allows one to determine the general characteristics of the system, such as the excitation spectrum... calculated via the FFT technique in ac- cord with the Eq. (3.2) - (solid line) compared with the Gaussian distribution function in Eq. (3.10) - (dashed line). . . . . . . . . . . . 62 22 Noncondensate particle number distribution function for N = 10000 atoms...
Mesoscopic Effects in Bose-Einstein Condensate Fluctuations of an Ideal Gas in a Box
Dorfman, Konstantin Evgenievich
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
of bosons due to Beliaev [7, 8, 22]. This leads to a generalized Green?s function formalism which builds in the crucial role of the Bose condensate, and allows one to determine the general characteristics of the system, such as the excitation spectrum... calculated via the FFT technique in ac- cord with the Eq. (3.2) - (solid line) compared with the Gaussian distribution function in Eq. (3.10) - (dashed line). . . . . . . . . . . . 62 22 Noncondensate particle number distribution function for N = 10000 atoms...
Reynolds and Favre-averaged rapid distortion theory for compressible, ideal-gas turbulence
Lavin, Tucker Alan
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
accurate to second order in fluctuations. Next, the mean of the equations are subtracted from Eq. 2.2 to obtain the fluctuating flow equations. Subtracting Eq. (2.4a) from Eq. (2.2a) gives: 8 ?? ? ?t + Uk ?? ? ?xk =? u ? k ?? ?xk ? u ? k... conditions. Plotted for a range of gradient Mach numbers Mg: ?: 0.01; +: 0.29; ?: 0.72; ?:1.00; triangle: 1.44; ?: 2.88; square: 5.76; ?: 14.4; trianglesolid: 28.8; diamondsolid: 288; squaresolid: 2880. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23...
Gas Centrifuges and Nuclear Proliferation
Albright, David
2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Gas centrifuges have been an ideal enrichment method for a wide variety of countries. Many countries have built gas centrifuges to make enriched uranium for peaceful nuclear purposes. Other countries have secretly sought centrifuges to make highly enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. In more recent times, several countries have secretly sought or built gas centrifuges in regions of tension. The main countries that have been of interest in the last two decades have been Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. Currently, most attention is focused on Iran, Pakistan, and North Korea. These states did not have the indigenous abilities to make gas centrifuges, focusing instead on illicit and questionable foreign procurement. The presentation covered the following main sections: Spread of centrifuges through illicit procurement; Role of export controls in stopping proliferation; Increasing the transparency of gas centrifuge programs in non-nuclear weapon states; and, Verified dismantlement of gas centrifuge programs. Gas centrifuges are important providers of low enriched uranium for civil nuclear power reactors. They also pose special nuclear proliferation risks. We all have special responsibilities to prevent the spread of gas centrifuges into regions of tension and to mitigate the consequences of their spread into the Middle East, South Asia, and North Asia.
Combined Ideal and Kinetic Effects on Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes
N.N. Gorelenkov, G.J. Kramer, and R. Nazikian
2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z
A theory of Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAEs) is developed for reversed magnetic field shear plasmas when the safety factor minimum, qmin, is at or above a rational value. The modes we study are known sometimes as either the bottom of the frequency sweep or the down sweeping RSAEs. We show that the ideal MHD theory is not compatible with the eigenmode solution in the reversed shear plasma with qmin above integer values. Corrected by special analytic FLR condition MHD dispersion of these modes nevertheless can be developed. Large radial scale part of the analytic RSAE solution can be obtained from ideal MHD and expressed in terms of the Legendre functions. The kinetic equation with FLR effects for the eigenmode is solved numerically and agrees with the analytic solutions. Properties of RSAEs and their potential implications for plasma diagnostics are discussed.
A study on boundary separation in an idealized ocean model
Düben, Peter D
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In numerical ocean models coast lines change the direction from one grid cell to its neighbor and the value for viscosity is set to be as small as possible. Therefore, model simulations are not converged with resolution and boundary separation points differ in essential properties from flow separation in continuous flow fields. In this paper, we investigate the quality of the representation of boundary separation points in global ocean models. To this end, we apply well established criteria for boundary separation within an idealized ocean model setup. We investigate an eddy-resolving as well as a steady test case with idealized and unstructured coast lines in a shallow water model that is based on a finite element discretization method. The results show that well established criteria for separation fail to detect boundary separation points due to an insufficient representation of ocean flows along free-slip boundaries. Along no-slip boundaries, most separation criteria provide adequate results. However, a ve...
Vorticity and magnetic field production in relativistic ideal fluids
Jian-Hua Gao; Bin Qi; Shou-Yu Wang
2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z
In the framework of relativistic ideal hydrodynamics, we study the production mechanism for vorticity and magnetic field in relativistic ideal fluids. It is demonstrated that in the uncharged fluids the thermal vorticity will always satisfy the Kelvin's theorem and the circulation must be conserved. However, in the charged fluids, the vorticity and magnetic field can be produced by the interaction between the entropy gradients and the fluid velocity gradients. Especially, in the multiple charged fluids, the vorticity and magnetic field can be produced by the interaction between the inhomogenous charge density ratio and the fluid velocity gradients even if the entropy distribution is homogeneous, which provides another mechanism for the production of vorticity and magnetic field in relativistic plasmas or in the early universe.
Symmetry group analysis of an ideal plastic flow
Vincent Lamothe
2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we study the Lie point symmetry group of a system describing an ideal plastic plane flow in two dimensions in order to find analytical solutions. The infinitesimal generators that span the Lie algebra for this system are obtained. We completely classify the subalgebras of up to codimension two in conjugacy classes under the action of the symmetry group. Based on invariant forms, we use Ansatzes to compute symmetry reductions in such a way that the obtained solutions cover simultaneously many invariant and partially invariant solutions. We calculate solutions of the algebraic, trigonometric, inverse trigonometric and elliptic type. Some solutions depending on one or two arbitrary functions of one variable have also been found. In some cases, the shape of a potentially feasible extrusion die corresponding to the solution is deduced. These tools could be used to thin, curve, undulate or shape a ring in an ideal plastic material.
Viscosity of an ideal relativistic quantum fluid: A perturbative study
Giorgio Torrieri
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
We show that a quantized ideal fluid will generally exhibit a small but non-zero viscosity due to the backreaction of quantum soundwaves on the background. We use an effective field theory expansion to estimate this viscosity to first order in perturbation theory. We discuss our results, and whether this estimate can be used to obtain a more model-independent estimate of the "quantum bound" on the viscosity of physical systems
Natural Gas Supply SBIR Program
Shoemaker, H.D.; Gwilliam, W.J.
1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was created in 1982 by Public Law 97-219 and reauthorized in 1992 until the year 2000 by Public Law 102-564. The purposes of the new law are to (1) expand and improve the SBIR program, 2) emphasize the program`s goal of increasing private sector commercialization of technology developed through Federal R&D, (3) increase small business participation in Federal R&D, and (4) improve the Federal Government`s dissemination of information concerning the SBIR program. DOE`s SBIR pro-ram has two features that are unique. In the 1995 DOE SBIR solicitation, the DOE Fossil Energy topics were: environmental technology for natural gas, oil, and coal; advanced recovery of oil; natural gas supply; natural gas utilization; advanced coal-based power systems; and advanced fossil fuels research. The subtopics for this solicitation`s Natural Gas Supply topic are (1) drilling, completion, and stimulation; (2) low-permeability Formations; (3) delivery and storage; and (4) natural gas upgrading.
The ideal strength and mechanical hardness of solids
Krenn, Christopher
2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Relationships between intrinsic mechanical hardness and atomic-scale properties are reviewed, Hardness scales closely and linearly with shear modulus for a given class of material (covalent, ionic or metallic). A two-parameter fit and a Peierls-stress model produce a more universal scaling relationship, but no model can explain differences in hardness between the transition metal carbides and nitrides. Calculations of ''ideal strength'' (defined by the limit of elastic stability of a perfect crystal) are proposed. The ideal shear strengths of fcc aluminum and copper are calculated using ab initio techniques and allowing for structural relaxation of all five strain components other than the imposed strain. The strengths of Al and Cu are similar (8-9% of the shear modulus), but the geometry of the relaxations in Al and Cu is very different. The relaxations are consistent with experimentally measured third-order elastic constants. The general thermodynamic conditions of elastic stability that set the upper limits of mechanical strength are derived. The conditions of stability are shown for cubic (hydrostatic), tetragonal (tensile) and monoclinic (shear) distortions of a cubic crystal. The implications of this stability analysis to first-principles calculations of ideal strength are discussed, and a method to detect instabilities orthogonal to the direction of the applied stress is identified. The relaxed ideal shear and tensile strengths of bcc tungsten are also calculated using ab initio techniques and are favorably compared to recent nano-indentation measurements. The {l_brace}100{r_brace} tensile strength (29.5 GPa) is governed by the Bain instability. The shear strengths in the weak directions on {l_brace}110{r_brace}, {l_brace}112{r_brace}, and {l_brace}123{r_brace} planes are very nearly equal ({approx} 18 GPa) and occur at approximately the same strain (17-18%). This isotropy is a function of the linear elastic isotropy for shear in directions containing {l_angle}111{r_angle} in bcc and of the atomic configurations of energetic saddle points reached during shear. This isotropy may also explain the prevalence of the pencil glide of dislocations in bcc metals. A final chapter presents some recent ideal strength calculations of TiC and TiN and discusses future directions for research.
Compressed natural gas measurement issues
Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Freeman, P.M.
1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement of compressed natural gas when sold as a motor vehicle fuel. This paper briefly discusses the activities of the MMTG and its interaction with NIST. The paper also discusses the Institute of Gas Technology`s (IGT) support of the MMTG in the area of natural gas composition, their impact on metering technology applicable to high pressure fueling stations as well as conversion factors for the establishment of ``gallon gasoline equivalent`` of natural gas. The final portion of this paper discusses IGT`s meter research activities and its meter test facility.
Term statistics Zipf's law text statistics
Lu, Jianguo
Term statistics Zipf's law text statistics October 20, 2014 text statistics 1 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Overview 1 Term statistics 2 Zipf's law text statistics 2 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Outline 1 Term statistics 2 Zipf's law text statistics 3 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Model
Lecture notes on thermodynamics of ideal string gases and its application in cosmology
Lihui Liu
2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z
In these lecture notes I give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamics of ideal string gases. The computation of thermodynamic quantities in the canonical ensemble formalism will be shown in detail with explicit examples. Attention will be given mainly to the thermodynamical consequences of string degrees of freedom, where I will especially address i) the Hagedorn temperature, a critical temperature above which the canonical ensemble description breaks down, which can be the onset point of some instability of the string gas; ii) the phase structure arising from compactification, embodied in the moduli-dependence of the Helmholtz free energy, which corrects the tree-level vacuum and can provide mechanism for moduli stabilization. Then I will briefly explain the implementation of string gas thermodynamics in cosmology, showing a simple example which gives rise to a radiation-dominated early universe. Further phenomenological issues and open questions will be discussed qualitatively with references indicated, including the Hagedorn instability in the resolution of the initial singularity, moduli stabilization, generation of hierarchy, radiative symmetry breaking and primordial cosmological fluctuations.
Solar Easements and Rights Laws
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Indiana state law includes both covenant restrictions and solar easement provisions. The state's covenant restrictions prevent planning and zoning authorities from prohibiting or unreasonably...
Solar Easements and Rights Laws
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Solar access provisions in the General Laws of Massachusetts allow for the creation of voluntary solar easements to protect solar exposure and authorizes zoning rules that prohibit unreasonable...
Suspended graphene films and their Casimir interaction with ideal conductor
I. V. Fialkovsky
2009-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
We adopt the Dirac model for graphene and calculate the Casimir interaction energy between a plane suspended graphene sample and a parallel plane ideal conductor. We employ both the Quantum Field Theory (QFT) approach, and the Lifshitz formula generalizations. The first approach turns out to be the leading order in the coupling constant of the second one. The Casimir interaction for this system appears to be rather weak but experimentally measurable. It exhibits a strong dependence on the mass of the quasi-particles in graphene.
Stanford, Frank S.
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
The role, basis for, and function of idealism in religion and religiosity are examined as both an individual and social phenomenon. Religion is divided into two manifestations of idealism that are described as conventional ...
Unknown
2011-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
The gas industry fostered more efficient energy utilization long before the idea of energy conservation became fashionable. It became apparent in the late '60's that misguided Federal Legislation was discouraging necessary search for new gas...
Eddy-current interaction with an ideal crack. I. The forward problem J. R. Bowler
Bowler, John R.
Eddy-current interaction with an ideal crack. I. The forward problem J. R. Bowler The University February 1994) The impedance of an eddy-current probe changes when the current it induces in an electrical to introduce idealizations about the nature of the flaw. Eddy-current interaction is considered with an ideal
Spreading of the Free Boundary of an Ideal Fluid in a Vacuum
Bigelow, Stephen
Spreading of the Free Boundary of an Ideal Fluid in a Vacuum Thomas C. Sideris Department by an ideal fluid surrounded by vacuum will be shown to grow linearly in time provided the pressure an ideal fluid occupying a bounded region in space surrounded by vacuum. The boundary of this region
A New Polyethylene Scattering Law Determined Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering
Lavelle, Christopher M [ORNL; Liu, C [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stone, Matthew B [ORNL
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S (Q, E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for T =300 K, and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 300 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We describe the experimental methods, review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, and compare computations using these models to the measured S (Q, E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the 1 phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work.
POSTGRADUATE GUIDE SCHOOL OF LAW
Levi, Ran
for the oil industry, Aberdeen's influence stretches far beyond the local region. Leading oil companies Over 500 years of teaching and research excellence A top UK Law School Dedicated Law Library containing,000 and a large international community of students drawn from 120 different countries. Ranked in the top 1
Say's Law and modern macroeconomics
Van Allen, Laurel Cameron
2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z
Many economists have debated the interpretation of what is known as "Say's Law of markets"; it has been the subject of controversy for two centuries. Jean Baptiste Say describes Say's Law by noting that the "success of one branch of commerce...
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Federal Bar Association is hosting the 40th Annual Indian Law Conference. This two-day conference focuses on the significant changes that have occurred in the relationship between Tribal Nations and the United States in the last four decades. The conference will cover several topics, including climate change, Indian Law, tribal courts, and more.
Philadelphia University Faculty of law-
sources of knowledge to benefit from information 5. enable students to become team players and respond for companies in civil law, and then moves to corporate law to study the sources and characteristics conciliation and its formal and objective terms, and its legal provisions are included in the study Course
Research Report faculty of law
Tobar, Michael
Research student profile | 07 Crime Research Centre | 09 The Centre for Mining, Energy and Natural as contribute to inter-disciplinary projects and debates. The outputs of the Law School's research include entities: the Centre for Mining, Energy and Natural Resources Law, the Consumer Research Unit and the Crime
Rebollo-Neira, Laura
, Natural Gas History, Natural Gas Origin and Composition, Gas Sources, Gas Laws, Temperature measurement and transmission 2. Analysis of gas flow in single and multiphase flow transmission 3. Ability to examine natural and calculate the solutions of problems associated with Natural Gas flow and transmission Learn properties
Development of 275kV gas cooled type gas-insulated power transformer
Kudo, A.; Nishitani, T.; Yoshikawa, T. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Ako (Japan)); Wan, C.T. (Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd. (Hong Kong))
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A world's first 275kV gas cooled type gas insulated power transformer with a low sound level ideal for urban area, which depends on SF6 gas alone for both insulation and cooling, was developed and has been put into commercial service since 1990 in Hong Kong. This paper presents the design philosophy, the principal technical items, the rating and the feature of 275kV 30MVA transformer, the performance test results, and the long term energization test result of the transformer.
Contracting Out of National Law: An Empirical Look at the New Law Merchant
Drahozal, Christopher R.
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
law,” the “lex mercatoria,” the “new law merchant,” “transnational commercial law,” or the like. An extensive scholarly literature explores the theory of transnational commercial law and seeks to derive its governing principles from international...
Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.
Gollan, A.Z.
1990-12-25T23:59:59.000Z
Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.
ALBERTA LAW REFORM INSTITUTE EDMONTON, ALBERTA
MacMillan, Andrew
ALBERTA LAW REFORM INSTITUTE EDMONTON, ALBERTA CONTRACTS FOR THE SALE AND PURCHASE OF LAND;#12;Table of Contents ALBERTA LAW REFORM INSTITUTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHAPTER 2. COMPARISON OF THE PRESENT AND PREVIOUS LAW OF ALBERTA
Law School Event Composting Guide
Wolfe, Patrick J.
Law School Event Composting Guide HLS SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM JANUARY 2011 Thank you for your interest in event composting! Separating materials for composting is easy, and organic materials comprise a significant portion of event waste. Composting instead
Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...
Technetium Retention During LAW Vitrification
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Product Melt Pool Bubbling Unagitated JHCM (West Valley, DWPF prior to October 2010, Germany, Japan) Agitated JHCM (M-Area, WTP LAW, WTP HLW, DWPF after October 2010) * WTP HLW...
Surface Coal Mining Law (Missouri)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This law aims to provide for the regulation of coal mining in order to minimize or prevent its adverse effects, protect the environment to the extent possible, protect landowner rights, and...
Missouri Air Conservation Law (Missouri)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This law's purpose is to maintain the purity of the air resources of the state to protect the health, general welfare and physical property of the people, maximum employment and the full industrial...
Solar and Wind Permitting Laws
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
New Jersey has enacted three separate laws addressing local permitting practices for solar and wind energy facilities. The first deals with solar and wind facilities located in industrial-zoned...
Clean Water Partnership Law (Minnesota)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The main purpose of the Clean Water Partnership Law is to provide financial and technical assistance to local governments for the protection, enhancement, and restoration of surface waters. However...
Georgia Waste Control Law (Georgia)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Waste Control Law makes it unlawful to dump waste in any lakes, streams or surfaces waters of the State or on any private property without consent of the property owner. Waste is very broadly...
Louisiana Hazardous Waste Control Law (Louisiana)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality is responsible for administering the Louisiana Hazardous Waste Control Law and the regulations created under that law.
Securities Law Issues Relating to Community Solar Projects
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The law firm Stoel Rives has analyzed the issues related to Securities Law and Community Solar both in the context of Washington state law and federal law.
Revision of the Coulomb logarithm in the ideal plasma
P. Mulser; G. Alber; M. Murakami
2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z
The standard picture of the Coulomb logarithm in the ideal plasma is controversial, the arguments for the lower cut off need revision. The two cases of far subthermal and of far superthermal electron drift motions are accessible to a rigorous analytical treatment. We show that the lower cut off $b_{\\min}$ is a function of symmetry and shape of the shielding cloud, it is not universal. In the subthermal case shielding is spherical and $b_{\\min}$ is to be identified with the de Broglie wavelength; at superthermal drift the shielding cloud exhibits cylindrical (axial) symmetry and $b_{\\min}$ is the classical parameter of perpendicular deflection. In both situations the cut offs are determined by the electron-ion encounters at large collision parameters. This is in net contrast to the governing standard meaning that attributes $b_{\\min}$ to the Coulomb singularity at vanishing collision parameters $b$ and, consequently, assigns it universal validity. The origin of the contradictions in the traditional picture is analyzed.
Revision of the Coulomb logarithm in the ideal plasma
Mulser, P; Murakami, M
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The standard picture of the Coulomb logarithm in the ideal plasma is controversial, the arguments for the lower cut off need revision. The two cases of far subthermal and of far superthermal electron drift motions are accessible to a rigorous analytical treatment. We show that the lower cut off $b_{\\min}$ is a function of symmetry and shape of the shielding cloud, it is not universal. In the subthermal case shielding is spherical and $b_{\\min}$ is to be identified with the de Broglie wavelength; at superthermal drift the shielding cloud exhibits cylindrical (axial) symmetry and $b_{\\min}$ is the classical parameter of perpendicular deflection. In both situations the cut offs are determined by the electron-ion encounters at large collision parameters. This is in net contrast to the governing standard meaning that attributes $b_{\\min}$ to the Coulomb singularity at vanishing collision parameters $b$ and, consequently, assigns it universal validity. The origin of the contradictions in the traditional picture is ...
Fractal Potential Flows: An Idealized Model for Fully Developed Turbulence
József Vass
2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z
Fully Developed Turbulence (FDT) is a theoretical asymptotic phenomenon which can only be approximated experimentally or computationally, so its defining characteristics are hypothetical. It is considered to be a chaotic stationary flow field, with self-similar fractalline features. A number of approximate models exist, often exploiting this self-similarity. The idealized mathematical model of Fractal Potential Flows is hereby presented, and linked philosophically to the phenomenon of FDT on a free surface, based on its experimental characteristics. The model hinges on the recursive iteration of a fluid dynamical transfer operator. The existence of its unique attractor - called the invariant flow - is shown in an appropriate function space, which will serve as our suggested model for the FDT flow field. Its sink singularities are shown to form an IFS fractal, explicitly resolving Mandelbrot's Conjecture. Meanwhile an isometric isomorphism is defined between flows and probability measures, hinting at a wealth of future research. The inverse problem of representing turbulent flow fields with this model is discussed in closing, along with explicit practical considerations for experimental verification and visualization.
Ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium in a non-symmetric topological torus
Weitzner, Harold [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)] [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
An alternative representation of an ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is developed. The representation is a variation of one given by A. Salat, Phys. Plasmas 2, 1652 (1995). The system of equations is used to study the possibility of non-symmetric equilibria in a topological torus, here an approximate rectangular parallelopiped, with periodicity in two of the three rectangular coordinates. An expansion is carried out in the deviation of pressure surfaces from planes. Resonances are manifest in the process. Nonetheless, provided the magnetic shear is small, it is shown that it is possible to select the magnetic fields and flux surfaces in such a manner that no singularities appear on resonant surfaces. One boundary surface of the parallelopiped is not arbitrary but is dependent on the equilibrium in question. A comparison of the solution sets of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric equilibria suggests that the latter have a wider class of possible boundary shapes but more restrictive rotational transform profiles. No proof of convergence of the series is given.
Sujit Kumar Sardar; Samit Kumar Majumder; Manasi Mandal
2011-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper some fundamental relationships of a gamma semigroup and its operator semigroups in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy subsets, intuitionistic fuzzy ideals, intuitionistic fuzzy prime(semiprime) ideals, intuitionistic fuzzy ideal extensions are obtained. These are then used to obtain some important characterization theorems of gamma semigroups in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy subsets so as to highlight the role of operator semigroups in the study of gamma semigroups in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy subsets.
IDEAL CYCLE ANALYSIS OF A REGENERATIVE PULSE DETONATION ENGINE FOR POWER PRODUCTION
Texas at Arlington, University of
IDEAL CYCLE ANALYSIS OF A REGENERATIVE PULSE DETONATION ENGINE FOR POWER PRODUCTION by RAFAELA ANALYSIS OF A REGENERATIVE PULSE DETONATION ENGINE FOR POWER PRODUCTION RAFAELA BELLINI, Ph
Super stable garnet ceramics may be ideal for high-energy lithium...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Media Relations (865) 574-7308 Super stable garnet ceramics may be ideal for high-energy lithium batteries ORNL researchers used scanning transmission electron microscopy to take...
Single Molecule Junctions: Probing Contact Chemistry and Fundamental Circuit Laws
Hybertsen M. S.
2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z
By exploiting selective link chemistry, formation of single molecule junctions with reproducible conductance has become established. Systematic studies reveal the structure-conductance relationships for diverse molecules. I will draw on experiments from my collaborators at Columbia University, atomic-scale calculations and theory to describe progress in two areas. First, I will describe a novel route to form single molecule junctions, based on SnMe3 terminated molecules, in which gold directly bonds to carbon in the molecule backbone resulting in near ideal contact resistance [1]. Second, comparison of the conductance of junctions formed with molecular species containing either one backbone or two backbones in parallel allows demonstration of the role of quantum interference in the conductance superposition law at the molecular scale [2].
School of Law Web Policy Introduction
Almor, Amit
School of Law Web Policy Introduction The University of South Carolina School of Law website of Law web resources. It also protects students, faculty and staff from inappropriate use of School of Law web resources. Also, students, faculty, and staff that create, design, update, and publish
Diffusive limit for the random Lorentz gas
Alessia Nota
2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z
We review some recent results concerning the derivation of the diffusion equation and the validation of Fick's law for the microscopic model given by the random Lorentz Gas. These results are achieved by using a linear kinetic equation as an intermediate level of description between our original mechanical system and the diffusion equation.
Astronomy 202: Astrophysical Gas Dynamics LL = Fluid Mechanics by Landau & Lifshitz
Wurtele, Jonathan
Astronomy 202: Astrophysical Gas Dynamics LL = Fluid Mechanics by Landau & Lifshitz PP = Plasma Fluid Dynamics by D. J. Tritton You should start by reading the Feynman Lectures Vol II, Ch 40 & 41 (Shu Ch. 1) 2. Equations of Gas Dynamics: neutral ideal fluids (LL Ch. 1; esp. §1,2,5,6,7,8,10; Shu Ch
Star Formation in Isolated Disk Galaxies. II. Schmidt Laws and Efficiency of Gravitational Collapse
Yuexing Li; Mordecai-Mark Mac Low; Ralf S. Klessen
2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
(Abridged). We model gravitational instability in a wide range of isolated disk galaxies, using GADGET, a three-dimensional, smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The model galaxies include a dark matter halo and a disk of stars and isothermal gas. The global Schmidt law observed in disk galaxies is quantitatively reproduced by our models. We find that the surface density of star formation rate directly correlates with the strength of local gravitational instability. The local Schmidt laws of individual galaxies in our models show clear evidence of star formation thresholds. Our results suggest that the non-linear development of gravitational instability determines the local and global Schmidt laws, and the star formation thresholds.
Direct Discovery Prospects for the Light CP-odd Higgs Boson of NMSSM Ideal Higgs Scenarios
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Direct Discovery Prospects for the Light CP-odd Higgs Boson of NMSSM Ideal Higgs Scenarios Jack on the following papers with R. Dermisek: · New constraints on a light CP-odd Higgs boson and related NMSSM Ideal CP-odd Higgs boson at the Tevatron and LHC. Published in Phys.Rev.D81:055001,2010, arXiv:0911
The minimal components of the Mayr-Meyer ideals Irena Swanson
Swanson, Irena
The minimal components of the Mayr-Meyer ideals Irena Swanson 24 April 2003 Grete Hermann proved such that each ri has degree at most deg f +(kd)(2n ) . Mayr and Meyer in [MM] found (generators) of a family that for these Mayr-Meyer ideals any minimal generating set of syzygies has elements of doubly exponential degree in n
NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF CONTINUOUS SEDIMENTATION IN IDEAL CLARIFIER-THICKENER UNITS
a model of continuous sedimentation of ideal suspensions of small solid particles dispersed in a viscous of Kynch's and related sedimentation models are provided by Bustos et al. (1999) and Burger and WendlandNUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF CONTINUOUS SEDIMENTATION IN IDEAL CLARIFIER-THICKENER UNITS
An ideal multi-secret sharing scheme based on minimal privileged coalitions
An ideal multi-secret sharing scheme based on minimal privileged coalitions Yun Song , Zhihui Li Abstract How to construct an ideal multi-secret sharing scheme for general access structures is difficult if such coalitions exist. Furthermore, in terms of privileged coalitions, we show that most of the existing multi-secret
Nuclear and Trace Ideals in Tensored \\LambdaCategories Samson Abramsky \\Lambda
Blute, Richard
Nuclear and Trace Ideals in Tensored \\LambdaCategories Samson Abramsky \\Lambda Department of his 60th birthday. Abstract We generalize the notion of nuclear maps from functional analysis by defining nuclear ideals in tensored \\Lambdacategories. The motivation for this study came from attempts
Nuclear and Trace Ideals in Tensored \\LambdaCategories Samson Abramsky \\Lambda
Abramsky, Samson
Nuclear and Trace Ideals in Tensored \\LambdaCategories Samson Abramsky \\Lambda Department 60th birthday. Abstract We generalize the notion of nuclear maps from functional analysis by defining nuclear ideals in tensored \\Lambdacategories. The motivation for this study came from attempts
A Survey of Engineering Education Outside the United States: Implications for the Ideal Engineering are surveyed to determine the status of engineering education outside the United States and to analyze the implications for the ideal engineering program of the future here in the United States. The items surveyed
Not Available
1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
There is a definite need for the US government to provide leadership for research in gas hydrates and to coordinate its activities with academia, industry, private groups, federal agencies, and their foreign counterparts. In response to this need, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center implemented a gas hydrates R and D program. Understanding the resource will be achieved through: assessment of current technology; characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering; and development of diagnostic tools and methods. Research to date has focused on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for future detailed investigation. Initial research activities involved the development of the Geologic Analysis System (GAS); which will provide, through approximately 30 software packages, the capability to manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. Preliminary mapping of hydrate prospects for the Alaskan North Slope is underway. Geological research includes physical system characterization which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran, consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice base mixtures, and water base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by METC. More recently, a natural hydrate sample from the Gulf of Mexico was also acquired and testing of this sample is currently underway. In addition to the development of GAS, modeling and systems analysis work focused on the development of conceptual gas hydrate production models. 16 figs., 6 tabs.
Fourier's Law from Closure Equations
Jean Bricmont; Antti Kupiainen
2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
We give a rigorous derivation of Fourier's law from a system of closure equations for a nonequilibrium stationary state of a Hamiltonian system of coupled oscillators subjected to heat baths on the boundary. The local heat flux is proportional to the temperature gradient with a temperature dependent heat conductivity and the stationary temperature exhibits a nonlinear profile.
Second laws under control restrictions
H. Wilming; R. Gallego; J. Eisert
2015-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
The second law of thermodynamics, formulated as an ultimate bound on the maximum extractable work, has been rigorously derived in multiple scenarios. However, the unavoidable limitations that emerge due to the lack of control on small systems are often disregarded when deriving such bounds, which is specifically important in the context of quantum thermodynamics. Here, we study the maximum extractable work with limited control over the working system and its interaction with the heat bath. We derive a general second law when the set of accessible Hamiltonians of the working-system is arbitrarily restricted. We then apply our bound to particular scenarios that are important in realistic implementations: limitations on the maximum energy gap and local control over many-body systems. We hence demonstrate in what precise way the lack of control affects the second law. In particular, contrary to the unrestricted case, we show that the optimal work extraction is not achieved by simple thermal contacts. Our results do not only generalize the second law to scenarios of practical relevance, but also take first steps in the direction of local thermodynamics.
Beyond Unions, Notwithstanding Labor Law
Loudon, Catherine
regime created by the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (NLRA)1--once core elements of the nation, enforcement strategies, and rulemaking abilities.4 The labor law itself has been transformed into a weapon movement is critical to achieving a more egalitarian distribution of wealth. As the NLRA's statement
Wind Access and Permitting Law
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
In July 2009, the Delaware legislature enacted a law ([http://www.legis.delaware.gov/LIS/LIS145.NSF/bfa9b1a8c49c444f852568c0005... HS 1 for H.B. 70]) prohibiting unreasonable public and private...
COLLEGE OF LAW UNDERGRADUATE STUDIES
Martin, Ralph R.
university research centres in the areas of Environmental and Energy Law and Policy, Criminal Justice and staff from over forty countries, including countries in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and North and South America. You will make enduring friendships here and build lasting memories of your time with us
Zhou, Pei
Page 1 Copyright (c) 2009 Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy Spring, 2009 16 Geo. J. Poverty Law & Pol'y 273 SPEECH: The Redefined Hero: Discovering
Gas permeability of carbon aerogels
Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))
1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.
The Mathematical Structure of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Elliott H. Lieb; Jakob Yngvason
2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
The essence of the second law of classical thermodynamics is the `entropy principle' which asserts the existence of an additive and extensive entropy function, S, that is defined for all equilibrium states of thermodynamic systems and whose increase characterizes the possible state changes under adiabatic conditions. It is one of the few really fundamental physical laws (in the sense that no deviation, however tiny, is permitted) and its consequences are far reaching. This principle is independent of models, statistical mechanical or otherwise, and can be understood without recourse to Carnot cycles, ideal gases and other assumptions about such things as `heat', `temperature', `reversible processes', etc., as is usually done. Also the well known formula of statistical mechanics, S = -\\sum p log p, is not needed for the derivation of the entropy principle. This contribution is partly a summary of our joint work (Physics Reports, Vol. 310, 1--96 (1999)) where the existence and uniqueness of S is proved to be a consequence of certain basic properties of the relation of adiabatic accessibility among equilibrium states. We also present some open problems and suggest directions for further study.
PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS,PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS,PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS, & LAW& LAW& LAW
Krylov, Anna I.
of USC. The Unruh Research in Applied Politics Program supports research that addresses political topics of concern to the polity. Study Abroad: Explore the origins of Western philosophy by spending a year -- Nature, origin, and development of international law; basic principles analyzed and illustrated
Efficiency of Carnot Cycle with Arbitrary Gas Equation of State
Tjiang, P C; Tjiang, Paulus C.; Sutanto, Sylvia H.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The derivation of the efficiency of Carnot cycle is usually done by calculating the heats involved in two isothermal processes and making use of the associated adiabatic relation for a given working substance's equation of state, usually the ideal gas. We present a derivation of Carnot efficiency using the same procedure with Redlich-Kwong gas as working substance to answer the calculation difficulties raised by Agrawal and Menon. We also show that using the same procedure, the Carnot efficiency may be derived regardless of the functional form of the gas equation of state.
Efficiency of Carnot Cycle with Arbitrary Gas Equation of State
Paulus C. Tjiang; Sylvia H. Sutanto
2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z
The derivation of the efficiency of Carnot cycle is usually done by calculating the heats involved in two isothermal processes and making use of the associated adiabatic relation for a given working substance's equation of state, usually the ideal gas. We present a derivation of Carnot efficiency using the same procedure with Redlich-Kwong gas as working substance to answer the calculation difficulties raised by Agrawal and Menon. We also show that using the same procedure, the Carnot efficiency may be derived regardless of the functional form of the gas equation of state.
Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan
2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.
Power Law in Hadron Production
Gazdzicki, M; Gazdzicki, Marek; Gorenstein, Mark I.
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In high energy p+p interactions the mean multiplicity of neutral mesons (from eta to Upsilon) and the transverse mass spectra of pions (m_T= 1 - 15 GeV/c^2) reveal a remarkable universal behaviour: they follow, over 10 orders of magnitude, the same power law function: C m_(T)^(-P). This scaling is rather similar to that expected in the statistical description of hadron production: the parameter P plays the role of a temperature and the normalisation constant C is analogous to the system volume. The fundamental difference is, however, in the form of the distribution function. In order to reproduce the experimental results and preserve the basic structure of the statistical approach the Boltzmann factor e^(-E^*/T) appearing in standard statistical mechanics has to be substituted by a power law factor (E^*/\\Lambda)^(-P).
An Economics-Based Second Law Efficiency
Mistry, Karan Hemant
Second Law efficiency is a useful parameter for characterizing the energy requirements of a system in relation to the limits of performance prescribed by the Laws of Thermodynamics. However, since energy costs typically ...
Family Law and the Genomic Revolution
Torrance, Andrew W.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, personalized genomics, and gene therapy, coupled with the flux in the law of gene patents (and patents on related inventions), will ensure the substantial transformation of the legal milieu in which parents make reproductive choices. Family law...
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Rules and Regulations Governing Leasing for Production or Extraction of Oil, Gas and Other Minerals From Onshore State-Owned Lands is applicable to the natural gas sector. This law delegates...
Is the statement of Murphy's Law valid?
Chatterjee, Atanu
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Murphy's Law is $not$ a law in the formal sense yet popular science often compares it with the Second Law of Thermodynamics as both the statements point toward a more disorganized state with time. In this paper, we first construct a mathematically equivalent statement for Murphy's Law and then disprove it using the intuitive idea that energy differences will level off along the paths of steepest descent, or along trajectories of least action.
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells...
Generalized Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system using arbitrary resistors
Vadai, Gergely; Gingl, Zoltan
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system has been introduced as a simple, very low cost and efficient classical physical alternative to quantum key distribution systems. The ideal system uses only a few electronic components - identical resistor pairs, switches and interconnecting wires - to guarantee perfectly protected data transmission. We show that a generalized KLJN system can provide unconditional security even if it is used with significantly less limitations. The more universal conditions ease practical realizations considerably and support more robust protection against attacks. Our theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations.
EXPONENTS FOR B-STABLE IDEALS ERIC SOMMERS AND JULIANNA TYMOCZKO
Sommers, Eric
EXPONENTS FOR B-STABLE IDEALS ERIC SOMMERS AND JULIANNA TYMOCZKO ABSTRACT. Let G be a simple). 1 #12;2 ERIC SOMMERS AND JULIANNA TYMOCZKO characteristic polynomial for the full Coxeter
Monier, Erwan
Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ...
Historical and idealized model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models of
Historical and idealized model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models: an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity M. Eby1, A. J. Weaver1, K. Alexander1, K
Kroon Van Diest, Ashley Michelle
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
A cross-sectional and longitudinal examination of thin-ideal internalization and self-objectification was conducted within the context of an eating disorder prevention program. The sample consisted of 177 undergraduate women enrolled in a sorority...
CCM3 as applied to an idealized all land zonally symmetric planet, Terra Blanda 3
Mahajan, Salil
2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
Community Climate Model 3 (CCM3) is run on an idealized all land zonally symmetric planet (Terra Blanda) with no seasonality, no snow and fixed soil moisture to obtain a stationary time series effectively much longer ...
Cousineau, Eric Andrew
2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z
), which is a simple method to convert ideal torque controllers to PD controllers to implement on hardware. Walking was first achieved using the proven method of the hybrid zero dynamics (HZD) reconstruction, followed by the Input-Output Feedback...
From Ideal to Real: Understanding the Role of Pathogens in the Environment
Marcus, Ian Matthew
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
on the community of microorganisms and pathogen (i.e.of the microorganisms are to the presence of a pathogen.pathogens do not exist in such idealized conditions (2). Microorganisms
Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials
Torquato, Salvatore
Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials of wave vectors; and iii "equi-luminous" materials, which scatter radiation equally intensely
Ohannessian, Mesrob I., 1981-
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis develops a method to simulate and visualize the fields and energy flows in electric circuits, using a simplified physical model based on an idealized geometry. The physical models combine and extend previously ...
Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law
Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law Monica Molina, Columbia College '14 Supervisor Meredith Wilensky, J.D. Introduction The Climate Change Laws of the World Project is an ongoing effort at the Center for Climate Change Law (CCCL) to aggregate existing domestic
Profit Neutrality in Licensing: The Boundary Between Antitrust Law and Patent Law
Sadoulet, Elisabeth
Profit Neutrality in Licensing: The Boundary Between Antitrust Law and Patent Law Stephen M. Maurer a century, courts and commentators have struggled to find principles that reconcile patent and antitrust law, especially as to patent licensing. We interpret case law and commentary to arrive at three unifying
L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. L1 Stability for scalar balance laws.
Mercier, Magali
L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. Control 2010 Magali Mercier (Institut Camille Jordan, Lyon) L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. Parma, 15th February 2010 1 / 30 #12;L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. Introduction. Introduction Scalar balance
Freytag, Johann-Christoph
Humboldt Consumer Law Clinic Die Idee: Durch die Humboldt Consumer Law Clinic wird Studierenden rechtlich zu beraten. Die Humboldt Consumer Law Clinic bietet Ihnen eine hervorragende Möglichkeit Theorie und Praxis zu verbinden! Das Projekt: Wenn Sie sich für ein Jahr Humboldt Consumer Law Clinic
Sherrill, David
1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS
Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing
Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab
2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.
Not Available
1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Misinterpretation of the laws of the marketplace have already brought Nigeria to the brink of a catastrophe in 1978, when the government had built up heavy stocks expecting a substantial increase in price. When it did not materialize and the production had to be dropped to 50% of the previous rate, in a country where crude constitutes 90% of the export revenues, the system was changed. The new plan is intended to reduce the dependence of Nigeria on oil exports. The production rate is set at between 2.2 and 2.5 million bpd. Due to a significant increase in domestic demand, the 2 existing refineries cannot fill the gap; 2 more refineries are planned. There also are substantial gas reserves; the associated gas, now flared, is to be recovered. A gas liquefaction plant also is in operation, with one-half of the output going to Europe and one-half to the US. Some of the oil and gas is earmarked for local petrochemical plants.
NREL Clean Cities
2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.
Power Plays: Geothermal Energy In Oil and Gas Fields
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The SMU Geothermal Lab is hosting their 7th international energy conference and workshop Power Plays: Geothermal Energy in Oil and Gas Fields May 18-20, 2015 on the SMU Campus in Dallas, Texas. The two-day conference brings together leaders from the geothermal, oil and gas communities along with experts in finance, law, technology, and government agencies to discuss generating electricity from oil and gas well fluids, using the flare gas for waste heat applications, and desalinization of the water for project development in Europe, China, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and the US. Other relevant topics include seismicity, thermal maturation, and improved drilling operations.
Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage
Oldenburg, Curtis M.
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy and Fuels, 17(RECOVERY AND NATURAL GAS STORAGE Curtis M. Oldenburg Eartheffective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at
2012 school of law catalog 2013 This publication is for
........................................................................................ 8 Wheat Law Library ................................................................................................................... 8 Library Faculty Members Classification .......................................
Oil and Gas Commission General Rules and Regulations Continued(Arkansas)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The General Rules have been adopted by the Oil and Gas Commission in accordance with applicable state law requirements and are General Rules of state-wide application, applying to the conservation...
Kocharovsky, VV; Scully, Marlan O.; Zhu, S. Y.; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
bosons. II. Nonequilibriu and the laser phase-transitio V. V. Kocharovsky,1,3 Marlan O. Scully,1 1Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies 2Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik 3Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academ 4... by the restriction to N particles. Stated differently, the present approach lends itself to different approximations, yielding, among other things, a simple ~approximate! analytic expression for the ground state density matrix for N trapped bosons.?? ~4a! Herzog...
Burcat, A.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.
2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
The thermochemical database of species involved in combustion processes is and has been available for free use for over 25 years. It was first published in print in 1984, approximately 8 years after it was first assembled, and contained 215 species at the time. This is the 7th printed edition and most likely will be the last one in print in the present format, which involves substantial manual labor. The database currently contains more than 1300 species, specifically organic molecules and radicals, but also inorganic species connected to combustion and air pollution. Since 1991 this database is freely available on the internet, at the Technion-IIT ftp server, and it is continuously expanded and corrected. The database is mirrored daily at an official mirror site, and at random at about a dozen unofficial mirror and 'finger' sites. The present edition contains numerous corrections and many recalculations of data of provisory type by the G3//B3LYP method, a high-accuracy composite ab initio calculation. About 300 species are newly calculated and are not yet published elsewhere. In anticipation of the full coupling, which is under development, the database started incorporating the available (as yet unpublished) values from Active Thermochemical Tables. The electronic version now also contains an XML file of the main database to allow transfer to other formats and ease finding specific information of interest. The database is used by scientists, educators, engineers and students at all levels, dealing primarily with combustion and air pollution, jet engines, rocket propulsion, fireworks, but also by researchers involved in upper atmosphere kinetics, astrophysics, abrasion metallurgy, etc. This introductory article contains explanations of the database and the means to use it, its sources, ways of calculation, and assessments of the accuracy of data.
Kocharovsky, VV; Scully, Marlan O.; Zhu, S. Y.; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
bosons. II. Nonequilibriu and the laser phase-transitio V. V. Kocharovsky,1,3 Marlan O. Scully,1 1Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies 2Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik 3Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academ 4... by the restriction to N particles. Stated differently, the present approach lends itself to different approximations, yielding, among other things, a simple ~approximate! analytic expression for the ground state density matrix for N trapped bosons.?? ~4a! Herzog...
Power Law in Hadron Production
Marek Gazdzicki; Mark I. Gorenstein
2001-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
In high energy p+p(bar) interactions the mean multiplicity and transverse mass spectra of neutral mesons from eta to Upsilon (m = 0.5 - 10 GeV/c^2) and the transverse mass spectra of pions (m_T > 1 GeV/c^2) reveal a remarkable behaviour: they follow, over more than 10 orders of magnitude, the power-law function:The parameters C and P are energy dependent, but similar for all mesons produced at the same collision energy. This scaling resembles that expected in the statistical description of hadron production: the parameter P plays the role of a temperature and the normalisation constant C is analogous to the system volume. The fundamental difference is, however, in the form of the distribution function. In order to reproduce the experimental results and preserve the basic structure of the statistical approach the Boltzmann factor e^(-E/T) appearing in standard statistical mechanics has to be substituted by a power-law factor (E/Lambda)^(-P).
Covered Product Category: Residential Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including whole-home gas tankless water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.
EEHG Performance and Scaling Laws
Penn, Gregory
2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z
This note will calculate the idealized performance of echo-enabled harmonic generation performance (EEHG), explore the parameter settings, and look at constraints determined by incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR) and intrabeam scattering (IBS). Another important effect, time-of-flight variations related to transverse emittance, is included here but without detailed explanation because it has been described previously. The importance of ISR and IBS is that they lead to random energy shifts that lead to temporal shifts after the various beam manipulations required by the EEHG scheme. These effects give competing constraints on the beamline. For chicane magnets which are too compact for a given R56, the magnetic fields will be sufficiently strong that ISR will blur out the complex phase space structure of the echo scheme to the point where the bunching is strongly suppressed. The effect of IBS is more omnipresent, and requires an overall compact beamline. It is particularly challenging for the second pulse in a two-color attosecond beamline, due to the long delay between the first energy modulation and the modulator for the second pulse.
Grzegorz Wilk; Zbigniew W?odarczyk
2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
Quasi-power law ensembles are discussed from the perspective of nonextensive Tsallis distributions characterized by a nonextensive parameter $q$. A number of possible sources of such distributions are presented in more detail. It is further demonstrated that data suggest that nonextensive parameters deduced from Tsallis distributions functions $f\\left(p_T\\right)$, $q_1$, and from multiplicity distributions (connected with Tsallis entropy), $q_2$, are not identical and that they are connected via $q_1 + q_2 = 2$. It is also shown that Tsallis distributions can be obtained directly from Shannon information entropy, provided some special constraints are imposed. They are connected with the type of dynamical processes under consideration (additive or multiplicative). Finally, it is shown how a Tsallis distribution can accommodate the log-oscillating behavior apparently seen in some multiparticle data.
Wilk, Grzegorz
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Quasi-power law ensembles are discussed from the perspective of nonextensive Tsallis distributions characterized by a nonextensive parameter $q$. A number of possible sources of such distributions are presented in more detail. It is further demonstrated that data suggest that nonextensive parameters deduced from Tsallis distributions functions $f\\left(p_T\\right)$, $q_1$, and from multiplicity distributions (connected with Tsallis entropy), $q_2$, are not identical and that they are connected via $q_1 + q_2 = 2$. It is also shown that Tsallis distributions can be obtained directly from Shannon information entropy, provided some special constraints are imposed. They are connected with the type of dynamical processes under consideration (additive or multiplicative). Finally, it is shown how a Tsallis distribution can accommodate the log-oscillating behavior apparently seen in some multiparticle data.
The second laws of quantum thermodynamics
Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Micha? Horodecki; Nelly Huei Ying Ng; Jonathan Oppenheim; Stephanie Wehner
2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
The second law of thermodynamics tells us which state transformations are so statistically unlikely that they are effectively forbidden. Its original formulation, due to Clausius, states that "Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change, connected therewith, occurring at the same time". The second law applies to systems composed of many particles interacting; however, we are seeing that one can make sense of thermodynamics in the regime where we only have a small number of particles interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are cyclic or very close to cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a very di?erent form than it does at the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on what state transformations are possible, but an entire family of constraints. In particular, we find a family of free energies which generalise the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. We further find that there are three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are not only relevant for small systems, but also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions, which only satisfy the ordinary second law on average. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics take on a simple form with the first law defining the class of thermal operations, the zeroeth law emerging as a unique condition ensuring the theory is nontrivial, and the remaining laws being a monotonicity property of our generalised free energies.
Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.
The second law of blackhole dynamics
Koustubh Ajit Kabe
2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, the non-generalized or restricted second law blackhole dynamics as given by Bekenstein in the beginning is restated, with a rigid proof, in a different form akin to the statement of the second law of thermodynamics given by Clausius. The various physical possibilities and implications of this statement are discussed therein. This paper is a mere venture into the restricted second law of blackhole dynamics pertaining to blackholes emitting Hawking radiation. The paper thus considers a didactically interesting reformulation of the second law of blackhole thermodynamics after some revisions.
Modernizing Patent Law's Inequitable Conduct Doctrine
Cotropia, Christopher
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
can either be filed by the inventor herself or by a patentwho is representing the inventor. 20 "Patent prosecution" ispatent law requires the inventor put in the patent's
Fourier's Law for a Granular Fluid
James W. Dufty
2007-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
Newton' viscosity law for the momentum flux and Fourier's law for the heat flux define Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics for a simple, one component fluid. There is ample evidence that a hydrodynamic description applies as well to a mesoscopic granular fluid with the same form for Newton's viscosity law. However, theory predicts a qualitative difference for Fourier's law with an additional contribution from density gradients even at uniform temperature. The reasons for the absence of such terms for normal fluids are indicated, and a related microscopic explanation for their existence in granular fluids is presented.
Modernizing Patent Law's Inequitable Conduct Doctrine
Cotropia, Christopher
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
conduct doctrine, but the patent system in general. Berkeleyof the currently pending patent reform legislation containsUTCLE 12th Annual Advanced Patent Law Institute, http://
Federal Highway Admininstration - Law Enforcement Escort - Best...
Admininstration - Law Enforcement Escort - Best Practices Guidelines Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...
The Snell law for quaternionic potentials
De Leo, Stefano, E-mail: deleo@ime.unicamp.br [Department of Applied Mathematics, State University of Campinas, Săo Paulo (Brazil); Ducati, Gisele C., E-mail: ducati@ufabc.edu.br [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Săo Paulo (Brazil)
2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
By using the analogy between optics and quantum mechanics, we obtain the Snell law for the planar motion of quantum particles in the presence of quaternionic potentials.
Renewable Energy Easements and Rights Laws
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Florida law forbids ordinances, deed restrictions, covenants, declarations or similar binding agreements from prohibiting the use of solar collectors (including clotheslines) or "other energy...
Commercial Law and Development in Kenya
Mutunga, Willy
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
communalism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism and communism.the ruins of British feudalism . The bourgeoisie thereafterof commercial law. While under feudalism it had functioned
Tribal Energy and Environmental Information Clearinghouse - Laws...
search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Tribal Energy and Environmental Information Clearinghouse - Laws and Regulations Applicable to Geothermal Energy...
Solar Easements & Local Option Solar Rights Laws
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Utah's solar easement provisions are similar to easement provisions in many other states. Parties may voluntarily enter into written solar easement contracts that are enforceable by law. An...
Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for string gas thermodynamics
Anosh Joseph; S. G. Rajeev
2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the thermodynamics of a system of strings at high energy densities under the ideal gas approximation has a formulation in terms of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The two parameters of the system, which have dimensions of energy density and number density, respectively, define a family of hypersurfaces of co-dimension one, which can be described by the vanishing of a function F that plays the role of a Hamiltonian.
Damped Oscillating Dark Energy: Ideal Fluid and Scalar-Tensor description
Bostan, Nilay
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we study damped oscillating form of dark energy for explaining dynamics of universe. First of all, we consider universe is filled with an ideal fluid which has damped oscillating dark energy in terms of this case we calculate several physical quantities such as Hubble parameter, acceleration parameter, energy density, pressure and others for dark energy, dark energy-matter coupling and non-coupling cases. Secondly, we consider as universe is filled with scalar field instead of an ideal fluid we obtain these physical quantities in terms of scalar potential and kinetic term for the same cases in scalar-tensor formalism. Finally, we show that ideal fluid description and scalar-tensor description of dark energy give mathematically equivalent results for this EoS parameter, even if they haven't same physical meaning.
Damped Oscillating Dark Energy: Ideal Fluid and Scalar-Tensor description
Nilay Bostan; Ekrem Aydiner
2015-08-12T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we study damped oscillating form of dark energy for explaining dynamics of universe. First of all, we consider universe is filled with an ideal fluid which has damped oscillating dark energy in terms of this case we calculate several physical quantities such as Hubble parameter, acceleration parameter, energy density, pressure and others for dark energy, dark energy-matter coupling and non-coupling cases. Secondly, we consider as universe is filled with scalar field instead of an ideal fluid we obtain these physical quantities in terms of scalar potential and kinetic term for the same cases in scalar-tensor formalism. Finally, we show that ideal fluid description and scalar-tensor description of dark energy give mathematically equivalent results for this EoS parameter, even if they haven't same physical meaning.
Solar and Wind Easements and Rights Laws and Local Option Solar Rights Law
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Oregon has several laws that protect access to solar and wind resources and the use of solar energy systems. Oregon's solar access laws date back to 1979 and state that no person conveying or...
Closed Loop System with Feedback Control MISO control laws SISO control law
Ben-Yakar, Adela
Advanced Power Systems and Controls Laboratory Methodology: · Supervisory switching control based on power to modeling uncertainties and measurement noise Contribution: · Supervisory switching controllerClosed Loop System with Feedback Control MISO control laws SISO control law Switching Control
Energy of eigen-modes in magnetohydrodynamic flows of ideal fluids
I. V. Khalzov; A. I. Smolyakov; V. I. Ilgisonis
2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z
Analytical expression for energy of eigen-modes in magnetohydrodynamic flows of ideal fluids is obtained. It is shown that the energy of unstable modes is zero, while the energy of stable oscillatory modes (waves) can assume both positive and negative values. Negative energy waves always correspond to non-symmetric eigen-modes -- modes that have a component of wave-vector along the equilibrium velocity. These results suggest that all non-symmetric instabilities in ideal MHD systems with flows are associated with coupling of positive and negative energy waves. As an example the energy of eigen-modes is calculated for incompressible conducting fluid rotating in axial magnetic field.
CCM3 as applied to an idealized all land zonally symmetric planet, Terra Blanda 3
Mahajan, Salil
2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
CCM3 AS APPLIED TO AN IDEALIZED ALL LAND ZONALLY SYMMETRIC PLANET, TERRA BLANDA 3 A Thesis by SALIL MAHAJAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Atmospheric Sciences CCM3 AS APPLIED TO AN IDEALIZED ALL LAND ZONALLY SYMMETRIC PLANET, TERRA BLANDA 3 A Thesis by SALIL MAHAJAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...
Entanglement preservation for multilevel systems under non-ideal pulse control
Xu, Z Y
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate how to effectively preserve the entanglement between two noninteracting multilevel oscillators coupled to a common reservoir under non-ideal pulse control. A universal characterization using fidelity is developed for the behavior of the system based on Nakajima-Zwanzig projection operator technique. Our analysis includes the validity of the approximation method and the decoherence-suppression by the non-ideal pulse control. The power of our strategy for protecting entanglement is numerically tested, showing potential applications for quantum information processing.
Entanglement preservation for multilevel systems under non-ideal pulse control
Z. Y. Xu; M. Feng
2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate how to effectively preserve the entanglement between two noninteracting multilevel oscillators coupled to a common reservoir under non-ideal pulse control. A universal characterization using fidelity is developed for the behavior of the system based on Nakajima-Zwanzig projection operator technique. Our analysis includes the validity of the approximation method and the decoherence-suppression by the non-ideal pulse control. The power of our strategy for protecting entanglement is numerically tested, showing potential applications for quantum information processing.
Careers in Patent LawCareers in Patent Law Mitchell Jones
Sheridan, Jennifer
Careers in Patent LawCareers in Patent Law Mitchell Jones Partner Medlen & Carroll, LLP #12;Career position Patent law seemed like a good alternative #12;Intellectual PropertyIntellectual Property Patents Trademarks Copyright Trade secrets #12;Patent BasicsPatent Basics New, useful and non-obvious Granted
Chicago-Kent College of Law Chicago-Kent College of Law
Heller, Barbara
.D. program. Business Law Criminal Litigation Environmental and Energy Law Intellectual Property Law, builds software tools, teaches classes, and supports faculty, staff, and student projects on access of risks and benefits. Emphasis is placed on forging a shared understanding of the problems at hand
Export Control Laws and Washingtonand Washington
1 Export Control Laws and Washingtonand Washington University For Washington University Faculty Authors: Cindy White, Research Office Tina Tyson, Office of General Counsel May 2006 What are export of foreign policy and national security. *NOTE: Export control laws apply to all activities -- not just
Impacts of Minnesota's Primary Seat Belt Law
Levinson, David M.
March 2012 Impacts of Minnesota's Primary Seat Belt Law Authors: Frank Douma Nebiyou Tilahun of Minnesota's Primary Seat Belt Law March 2012 6. 7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No. Frank. Abstract (Limit: 250 words) In the spring of 2009, the Minnesota Legislature changed the state's seat belt
Legal Positivism in International Criminal Law
Luckey, Charles
2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper I will argue that, international criminal law constitutes a valid legal system. There is skepticism over the authority of international law; some claim that it is not a genuine legal system, and does not command legal obligation. I...
SCHOOL OF LAW UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA IRVINE
Rose, Michael R.
"There is a demand for new lawyers to be exceptionally responsive to the needs of clients. And the only preparing students for the practice of law at the highest levels of the profession. All students "By every measure we are succeeding in creating a top law school, with a faculty ranked among the best
Status of the Fundamental Laws of Thermodynamics
Walid K. Abou Salem; Juerg Froehlich
2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z
We describe recent progress towards deriving the Fundamental Laws of thermodynamics (the 0th, 1st and 2nd Law) from nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics in simple, yet physically relevant models. Along the way, we clarify some basic thermodynamic notions and discuss various reversible and irreversible thermodynamic processes from the point of view of quantum statistical mechanics.
Supervisory Natural Gas Analyst
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply (FE) is responsible for regulating natural gas imports and exports...
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts *...
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...
Zubairy, Raheel
2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z
Gas kicks occur during drilling when the formation pressure is greater than the wellbore pressure causing influx of gas into the wellbore. Uncontrolled gas kicks could result in blowout of the rig causing major financial loss and possible injury...
Gas Companies Program (Tennessee)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Gas Companies program is a set of rules that encourage the development of the natural gas industry in Tennessee. They empower gas companies to lay piped and extend conductors through the...
EIA - Natural Gas Publications
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves: 2009 National and State estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids in the United States as of...
Thomas D. Cohen
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
SU($N_c$) gauge theories containing matter fields may be invariant under transformations of some subgroup of the $\\mathbb{Z}_{N_c}$ center; the maximum such subgroup is $\\mathbb{Z}_{p}$, with $p$ depending on $N_c$ and the representations of the various matter fields in the theory. Confining SU($N_c$) gauge theories in either 3+1 or 2+1 space-time dimensions and with matter fields in any representation have string tensions for representation $R$ given by $\\sigma_R =\\sigma_f \\, \\, \\frac{p_R (p-p_R) \\, \\, g\\left (p_R (p-p_R) \\right )}{(p-1) \\, \\, g(p -1 )} $ with $p_R={n_R \\, \\rm mod}(p)$, where $\\sigma_f $ is the string tension for the fundamental representation, $g$ is a positive finite function and $n_R$ is the n-ality of $R$. This implies that a necessary condition for a theory in this class to have an area law is invariance of the theory under a nontrivial subgroup of the center. Significantly, these results depend on $p$ regardless of the value of $N_c$.
nmj183-05-ideals_final_rev_2 : 2006/8/17(16:29) E. N. Sommers
Sommers, Eric
nmj183-05-ideals_final_rev_2 : 2006/8/17(16:29) E. N. Sommers Nagoya Math. J. Vol. 183 (2006), 1Â25 EQUIVALENCE CLASSES OF IDEALS IN THE NILRADICAL OF A BOREL SUBALGEBRA ERIC N. SOMMERS Dedicated to George-05-ideals_final_rev_2 : 2006/8/17(16:29) 2 E. N. SOMMERS following sources: Mizuno [13], De
A Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Ideal Two-Fluid Plasma Equations
numerical solutions to the GEM challenge magnetic reconnection problem [2]. The algorithm can be generalized, Electro- magnetic Shock, Magnetic Reconnection 1 Introduction Fusion power promises to be a safe relevant to fusion and spacecraft propulsion remains in the fluid de- scription. Ideal MHD has been
Eddy-current interaction with an ideal crack. II. The inverse problem John FL Bowler
Bowler, John R.
Eddy-current interaction with an ideal crack. II. The inverse problem John FL Bowler The University 1994) Eddy-current inversion is the process whereby the geometry of a flaw in a metal is derived from eddy-current probe impedance measurements. The approach is based on an optimization scheme that seeks
Ventilation of the Miocene Arctic Ocean: An idealized model study Bijoy Thompson,1
Döös, Kristofer
Ventilation of the Miocene Arctic Ocean: An idealized model study Bijoy Thompson,1 Johan Nilsson,2 the early Miocene, a feature presumably related to the opening of the Fram Strait. Here, the ventilation circulation model that includes a passive age tracer. In particular, we investigate how the ventilation
How Ideal Are We? Incorporating Human Limitations into Bayesian Models of Word Segmentation*
Steyvers, Mark
How Ideal Are We? Incorporating Human Limitations into Bayesian Models of Word Segmentation* Lisa, this work was supported by NSF grant BCS-0843896 to LP. #12;model (Oaksford & Chater, 1998). Rational models. In this paper, we investigate how to incorporate human limitations into the Bayesian model of GGJ. In particular
CONTROL OF AN IDEAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT VIA AN ODE-PDE MODEL
Diehl, Stefan
CONTROL OF AN IDEAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT VIA AN ODE-PDE MODEL STEFAN DIEHL AND SEBASTIAN FAR°AS Abstract. The activated sludge process (ASP), found in most wastewater nutrients (substrate) in the incom- ing wastewater by means of activated sludge (microorganisms). The major
1.0. Semiconductor Diodes 1 of 27 1.2 Ideal Diode
Allen, Gale
1.0. Semiconductor Diodes 1 of 27 1.2 Ideal Diode ID VD ID Open Circuit Short Circuit VD + - #12;1.0. Semiconductor Diodes 2 of 27 1.3 Semiconductor Materials Conductor Insulator Semiconductor R = (Resistivity Resistivity of a semiconductor decreases as temperature increases. ure coefficient.Negative temperat #12
6/03/2015 Seminar at Sandia National Laboratory 1 Simulations of Idealized Solid Electrolytes
Holzwarth, Natalie
6/03/2015 Seminar at Sandia National Laboratory 1 Simulations of Idealized Solid Electrolytes 2 Outline Motivation Why solid electrolytes? Computational tools & reality checks Some examples Li;6/03/2015 Seminar at Sandia National Laboratory 3 Motivation Why solid electrolytes? #12;6/03/2015 Seminar
Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column
Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.
Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column distillation columns have been explored in many papers, very few papers have dealt with closed-loop control. Most of these control papers consider reactive distillation columns in which there is only one product
On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal
Skogestad, Sigurd
On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal Binary Columns distillation processes. By considering the e ect of small changes in the operating parameters, e.g., initial-mail: jacobsen@elixir.e.kth.se 1 #12;1 Introduction Batch distillation has become of increasing importance
On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal
Skogestad, Sigurd
On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal Binary Columns sensitivity in batch distillation processes. By considering the effect of small changes in the operating #12; 1 Introduction Batch distillation has become of increasing importance in industry during the last
An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy
Colorado at Boulder, University of
a c t This paper discusses the technology of direct capture of carbon dioxide from the atmo- sphereAn idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy- ture,'' which refers to the direct removal of carbon dioxide from the ambient air. Air capture has
The Ideal Evaluation of a Risk Prediction Model: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Brent, Roger
The Ideal Evaluation of a Risk Prediction Model: A Randomized Clinical Trial Holly Janes Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center 1/25 #12;Context Often a risk prediction model is developed to identify high risk subjects who can benefit from preventative therapy E.g. Framingham risk model to identify
Critically discuss Plato’s Kallipolis (or ideal state) as presented in the Republic.
Wray, Christopher
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this dissertation I analyse and criticise the Republic. I focus particularly on Plato’s political vision – his Kallipolis or ideal state. I take a lead at a number of points from Karl Popper (see bibliography). I try to decipher what Plato...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...
Natural gas dehydration apparatus
Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P
2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z
A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue...
Exact asymptotic expansions for thermodynamics of the hydrogen gas in the Saha regime
Boyer, Edmond
Exact asymptotic expansions for thermodynamics of the hydrogen gas in the Saha regime A. Alastuey and V. Ballenegger Abstract We consider the hydrogen quantum plasma in the Saha regime, where it almost of thermo- dynamical functions beyond Saha theory, which describes an ideal mixture of ionized protons
HERSCHEL EXPLOITATION OF LOCAL GALAXY ANDROMEDA (HELGA). III. THE STAR FORMATION LAW IN M31
Ford, George P.; Gear, Walter K.; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Eales, Steve A.; Gomez, Haley L.; Kirk, Jason [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, Maarten; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Gordon, Karl D.; Verstappen, Joris [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, George J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boquien, Mederic; Boselli, Alessandro [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Cooray, Asantha R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Lebouteiller, Vianney [Service d'Astrophysique, l'Orme des Merisiers, CEA, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); O'Halloran, Brian [Astrophysics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Spinoglio, Luigi [INAF, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Wilson, Christine D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, ABB-241, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)
2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
We present a detailed study of how the star formation rate (SFR) relates to the interstellar medium (ISM) of M31 at {approx}140 pc scales. The SFR is calculated using the far-ultraviolet and 24 {mu}m emission, corrected for the old stellar population in M31. We find a global value for the SFR of 0.25{sup +0.06}{sub -0.04} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and compare this with the SFR found using the total far-infrared luminosity. There is general agreement in regions where young stars dominate the dust heating. Atomic hydrogen (H I) and molecular gas (traced by carbon monoxide, CO) or the dust mass is used to trace the total gas in the ISM. We show that the global surface densities of SFR and gas mass place M31 among a set of low-SFR galaxies in the plot of Kennicutt. The relationship between SFR and gas surface density is tested in six radial annuli across M31, assuming a power law relationship with index, N. The star formation (SF) law using total gas traced by H I and CO gives a global index of N = 2.03 {+-} 0.04, with a significant variation with radius; the highest values are observed in the 10 kpc ring. We suggest that this slope is due to H I turning molecular at {Sigma}{sub Gas} {approx} 10 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}. When looking at H{sub 2} regions, we measure a higher mean SFR suggesting a better spatial correlation between H{sub 2} and SF. We find N {approx} 0.6 with consistent results throughout the disk-this is at the low end of values found in previous work and argues against a superlinear SF law on small scales.
Contemporary Mathematics A Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Gas Flow in
Ewing, Richard E.
and gravitational e#11;ects. Traditionally, the standard Darcy equation provides this relation. In this paper, however, we replace this classical law with the Forchheimer equation to model non-Darcy ow [F, RM, HG]. The Forchheimer equation is believed to be more accurate than the classical Darcy's equation for gas ow with high
Maple Implementation of the Kirchhoff's "Third and Fourth Laws"
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Maple Implementation of the Kirchhoff's "Third and Fourth Laws" NICOLAS RATIER1 , MAYA MARKOVA2 1 an implementation in Maple language of the Kirchhoff's third law and its dual, the socalled Kirchhoff's fourth lawcalled Kirch- hoff's "third and fourth laws" [5]. These laws allows one to express network functions, in a very
Higher conservation laws for the quantum non-linear Schroedinger equation
B. Davies; V. E. Korepin
2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum non-linear SCHROEDINGER equation is equivalent to Lieb-Liniger model. It has non-trivial conservation laws. Recently these conservation laws were used for evaluation of the three-body recombination rate for interacting gas of quantum bosons. These conservations laws were known already in 1989. Submitted text is retyping of the preprint of Centre for Mathematical Analysis of Australian National University CMA-R33-89. It was discussed in Leningrad Branch of the V.A. Steklov Mathematical Institute at that time. A copy of the original preprint can be found in the section Quantum Inverse Scattering Method of the web-page http://insti.physics.sunysb.edu/~korepin/
The noncommutativity of the conservation laws: Mechanism of origination of vorticity and turbulence
L. I. Petrova
2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
From the equations of conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, angular momentum and mass the evolutionary relation in differential forms follows. This relation connects the differential of entropy and the skew-symmetric form, whose coefficients depend on the characteristics of gas-dynamic system and the external actions. The evolutionary relation turns out to be nonidentical that is explained by the noncommutativity of conservation laws. The properties of such nonidentical relation (selfvariation, degenerate transformation) enable one to disclose the mechanism of evolutionary processes in gas-dynamic system that are accompanied by origination of vorticity and turbulence. In this case the intensity of vorticity and turbulence is defined by the commutator on unclosed skew-symmetric form in the nonidentical evolutionary relation.
Flue gas cleanup with hydroxyl radical reactions
Lee, Y.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Markussen, J.M.
1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electric discharge processes have been intensively tested for application to flue gas cleanup. Among the several means of OH- radical generation grouped as electric discharge, E-Beam irradiation is the one that has been most thoroughly studied. Corona glow discharge, especially pulsed corona glow discharge, on the other hand, has attracted attention recently, and several active research projects are being conducted in the United States, Japan, West Germany, and Italy. Other promising approaches for generating OH radicals efficiently are based on thermal or catalytic decomposition of OH-radical precursors. If mixing problems can be overcome to achieve homogeneous distribution of OH radicals in the flue gas stream, these methods may be applicable to flue gas cleanup. Because of their high OH-radical generation rates and potentially low capital costs, the following three approaches are recommended to be tested for their potential capability to remove SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}: (1) H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} combustion in a hydrogen torch, (2) thermal decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and (3) catalytic decomposition of H{sub 2}O. Ideally, the OH radicals will convert SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to sulfuric acid and nitric acid. These acids or acid precursors would easily be removed from the flue gas by conventional technology, such as spray drying and wet limestone scrubbing. 67 refs., 2 tabs.
Giant Planet Migration in Viscous Power-Law Discs
R. G. Edgar
2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z
Many extra-solar planets discovered over the past decade are gas giants in tight orbits around their host stars. Due to the difficulties of forming these `hot Jupiters' in situ, they are generally assumed to have migrated to their present orbits through interactions with their nascent discs. In this paper, we present a systematic study of giant planet migration in power law discs. We find that the planetary migration rate is proportional to the disc surface density. This is inconsistent with the assumption that the migration rate is simply the viscous drift speed of the disc. However, this result can be obtained by balancing the angular momentum of the planet with the viscous torque in the disc. We have verified that this result is not affected by adjusting the resolution of the grid, the smoothing length used, or the time at which the planet is released to migrate.
An Investigation of the Laws of Traversals
Jaskelioff, Mauro; 10.4204/EPTCS.76.5
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Traversals of data structures are ubiquitous in programming. Consequently, it is important to be able to characterise those structures that are traversable and understand their algebraic properties. Traversable functors have been characterised by McBride and Paterson as those equipped with a distributive law over arbitrary applicative functors; however, laws that fully capture the intuition behind traversals are missing. This article is an attempt to remedy this situation by proposing laws for characterising traversals that capture the intuition behind them. To support our claims, we prove that finitary containers are traversable in our sense and argue that elements in a traversable structure are visited exactly once.
Scaling law analysis of paraffin thin films on different surfaces
Dotto, M. E. R.; Camargo, S. S. Jr. [Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materials, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68505, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21945-970 (Brazil)
2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
The dynamics of paraffin deposit formation on different surfaces was analyzed based on scaling laws. Carbon-based films were deposited onto silicon (Si) and stainless steel substrates from methane (CH{sub 4}) gas using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The different substrates were characterized with respect to their surface energy by contact angle measurements, surface roughness, and morphology. Paraffin thin films were obtained by the casting technique and were subsequently characterized by an atomic force microscope in noncontact mode. The results indicate that the morphology of paraffin deposits is strongly influenced by substrates used. Scaling laws analysis for coated substrates present two distinct dynamics: a local roughness exponent ({alpha}{sub local}) associated to short-range surface correlations and a global roughness exponent ({alpha}{sub global}) associated to long-range surface correlations. The local dynamics is described by the Wolf-Villain model, and a global dynamics is described by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang model. A local correlation length (L{sub local}) defines the transition between the local and global dynamics with L{sub local} approximately 700 nm in accordance with the spacing of planes measured from atomic force micrographs. For uncoated substrates, the growth dynamics is related to Edwards-Wilkinson model.
Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.
Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.
Name Law and Gender in Iceland
Willson, Kendra
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
in early nineteenth-century Iceland. ” History of the FamilyMA thesis, University of Iceland. Guđrún Kvaran and SigurđurName Law and Gender in Iceland by Kendra Willson CSW JUN09
Patent Law, HIPPO, and the Biodiversity Crisis
Torrance, Andrew W.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the phenomena largely responsible for the current mass extinction event, and patent law offers valuable assistance in combating each one. Though it cannot offer a complete solution to the biodiversity crisis, the patent system can offer powerful tools to help...
Copyright Law Reform: Some Achievable Goals
MacQueen, Hector L
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Copyright law reform in the European Union. The chapter discusses possible actions in light of new and amended EU Directives and whether these balances rights' holders and users' interests....
Federal Energy Mangement Laws and Requirements
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
To help agencies comply with federal laws and requirements, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) analyzes energy management mandates from legal authorities and publishes notices and rules related to federal energy management.
Essays on malpractice law and physician behavior
Frakes, Michael (Michael D.)
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation contributes to an understanding of the manner in which various dimensions of malpractice law shape physician behavior and how this behavior, in turn, impacts health outcomes. In Chapter 1, I explore the ...
Oil or Hazardous Spills Releases Law (Georgia)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Oil or Hazardous Spills Law requires notice to the Environmental Protection Division of the State Department of Natural Resources Emergency Operations Center when there is a spill or release of...
Essays in empirical law and economics/
Lem, Jacklin Chou
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation, which is a collection of three essays, uses empirical methods to study questions at the intersection of law and economics. The first chapter, co-authored with Joshua Fischman, explores how supervision ...
Martin, Tom
Abstract This paper describes non-ideal properties of batteries and how these properties may impact the characteristics of an ideal battery and how these characteristics are used in sizing batteries and estimating are described. The paper then covers results from a first-prin- ciples, variable-load battery model, showing
AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments...
AARP, National Consumer Law Center, and Public Citizen Comments to:DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges AARP, National Consumer Law...
POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #07 Current Appropriations Law and...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
Due to recent changes in appropriations law, the Department no longer has the authority to compensate a noncitizen, unless the noncitizen is lawfully admitted for permanent...
Decolonizing Copyright Law: Learning from the Jamaican Street Dance
Mann, Larisa K.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and Now Open) Fears of ACTA. ” SMU Law Review 64 (2011): Yu,and Now Open) Fears of ACTA,” SMU Law Review 64 (2011): 975–
Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the American...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Emergency Order and allow federal and state regulators the discretion to enforce binding air pollution control laws. Comments of the Southern Environmental Law Center and the...
Ideal quantum glass transitions: Many-body localization without quenched disorder
Schiulaz, M. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Müller, M. [The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy)
2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z
We explore the possibility for translationally invariant quantum many-body systems to undergo a dynamical glass transition, at which ergodicity and translational invariance break down spontaneously, driven entirely by quantum effects. In contrast to analogous classical systems, where the existence of such an ideal glass transition remains a controversial issue, a genuine phase transition is predicted in the quantum regime. This ideal quantum glass transition can be regarded as a many-body localization transition due to self-generated disorder. Despite their lack of thermalization, these disorder-free quantum glasses do not possess an extensive set of local conserved operators, unlike what is conjectured for many-body localized systems with strong quenched disorder.
Khater, A.H.; Moawad, S.M.; Callebaut, D.K. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Departement Natuurkunde, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen - UA, B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium)
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The equilibrium and Lyapunov stability properties for two-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas with incompressible and homogeneous (i.e., constant density) flows are investigated. In the unperturbed steady state, both the velocity and magnetic field are nonzero and have three components in a Cartesian coordinate system with translational symmetry (i.e., one ignorable spatial coordinate). It is proved that (a) the solutions of the ideal MHD steady state equations with incompressible and homogeneous flows in the plane are also valid for equilibria with the axial velocity component being a free flux function and the axial magnetic field component being a constant (b) the conditions of linearized Lyapunov stability for these MHD flows in the planar case (in which the fields have only two components) are also valid for symmetric equilibria that have a nonplanar velocity field component as well as a nonplanar magnetic field component. On using the method of convexity estimates, nonlinear stability conditions are established.
Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street
Panaggio, Mark J; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this "green wave" scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counter-intuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive dens...
The Case for exCellenCe The University of Houston Law Center is a Tier One law school
Glasser, Adrian
of 200 law schools by U.S. News & World Report, 2011 · Ranked 42nd in 2011 by the National Law Journal. 56 out of 200 law schools in the nation by U.S. News & World Report, and one of only eight public law and Information Law Institute is ranked 6th nationally by U.S. News & World Report, 2011 · UH Health Law
M. P. Freeman; N. W. Watkins; D. J. Riley
2000-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate for the first time the probability density functions (PDFs) P of burst energy e, duration T and inter-burst interval tau for a known turbulent system in nature. Bursts in the earth-sun component of the Poynting flux at 1 AU in the solar wind were measured using the MFI and SWE experiments on the NASA WIND spacecraft. We find P(e) and P(T) to be power laws, consistent with self-organised criticality (SOC). We find also a power law form for P(tau) that distinguishes this turbulent cascade from the exponential P(tau) of ideal SOC, but not from some other SOC-like sandpile models. We discuss the implications for the relation between SOC and turbulence.
Throughput Optimal Policies for Energy Harvesting Wireless Transmitters with Non-Ideal Circuit Power
Xu, Jie
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Characterizing the fundamental tradeoffs for maximizing energy efficiency (EE) versus spectrum efficiency (SE) is a key problem in wireless communication. In this paper, we address this problem for a point-to-point additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with the transmitter powered solely via energy harvesting from the environment. In addition, we assume a practical on-off transmitter model with non-ideal circuit power, i.e., when the transmitter is on, its consumed power is the sum of the transmit power and a constant circuit power. Under this setup, we study the optimal transmit power allocation to maximize the average throughput over a finite horizon, subject to the time-varying energy constraint and the non-ideal circuit power consumption. First, we consider the off-line optimization under the assumption that the energy arrival time and amount are a priori known at the transmitter. Although this problem is non-convex due to the non-ideal circuit power, we show an efficient optimal solution that in g...
Comparison of Idealized and Real-World City Station Citing Models for Hydrogen Distribution
Yang, Christopher; Nicholas, Michael A; Ogden, Joan M
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Natural Gas Based Hydrogen Infrastructure – Optimizingof a Fossil Fuel-Based Hydrogen Infrastructure with Carbonbe achieved with hydrogen infrastructure technologies. One
A simple model of gas flow in a porous powder compact
Shugard, Andrew D.; Robinson, David B.
2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report describes a simple model for ideal gas flow from a vessel through a bed of porous material into another vessel. It assumes constant temperature and uniform porosity. Transport is treated as a combination of viscous and molecular flow, with no inertial contribution (low Reynolds number). This model can be used to fit data to obtain permeability values, determine flow rates, understand the relative contributions of viscous and molecular flow, and verify volume calibrations. It draws upon the Dusty Gas Model and other detailed studies of gas flow through porous media.
Supplementary balance laws and the entropy principle
Serge Preston
2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we study the mathematical aspects of the development in the continuum thermodynamics known as the "Entropy Principle". It started with the pioneering works of B.Coleman, W.Noll and I. Muller in 60th of XX cent. and got its further development mostly in the works of G. Boillat, I-Shis Liu and T.Ruggeri. "Entropy Principle" combines in itself the structural requirement on the form of balance laws of the thermodynamical system (denote such system $(\\mathcal{C})$) and on the entropy balance law with the convexity condition of the entropy density. First of these requirements has pure mathematical form defining so called "supplementary balance laws" (shortly SBL) associated with the original balance system. Vector space of SBL can be considered as a kind of natural "closure" of the original balance system. This space includes the original balance laws, the entropy balance, the balance laws corresponding to the symmetries of the balance system and some other balance equations. We consider the case of Rational Extended Thermodynamics where densities, fluxes and sources of the balance equations do not depend on the derivatives of physical fields $y^i$. We present the basic structures of RET: Lagrange-Liu equations,"main fields", and dual formulation of the balance system. We obtain and start studying the defining system of equations for the density $h^0$ of a supplementary balance law. This overdetermined linear system of PDE of second order determines all the densities $h^0$ and with them, due to the formalism of RET, the fluxes and sources of SBL. Solvability conditions of defining system delivers the constitutive restrictions on the balance equations of the original balance system. We illustrate our results by some simple examples of balance system and by describing all the supplementary balance laws and the constitutive restrictions for the Cattaneo heat propagation system.
Thermodynamics of a non-commutative fermion gas
F G Scholtz; J Govaerts
2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z
Building on the recent solution for the spectrum of the non-commutative well in two dimensions, the thermodynamics that follows from it is computed. In particular the focus is put on an ideal fermion gas confined to such a well. At low densities the thermodynamics is the same as for the commutative gas. However, at high densities the thermodynamics deviate strongly from the commutative gas due to the implied excluded area resulting from the non-commutativity. In particular there are extremal macroscopic states, characterized by area, number of particles and angular momentum, that correspond to a single microscopic state and thus have vanishing entropy. When the system size and excluded area are comparable, thermodynamic quantities, such as entropy, exhibit non-extensive features.
Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This rule, applicable to gas utilities, establishes rules for calculation of gas cost adjustments, procedures to be followed in establishing gas cost adjustments and refunds, and describes reports...
Li, J.; Zhou, L.; Pan, K.; Jiang, D. [Xi`an Jiaotong Univ. (China); Chae, J.
1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Heat transfer losses in the swirl chamber, throttling losses at the connecting passage and combustion delay in the main chamber are considered as the three factors influencing the thermal efficiency of IDI diesel engines. This paper suggests a thermodynamic model, in which three idealized diesel engines including no passage throttling engine, adiabatic diesel engine for swirl chamber and DI diesel engine are assumed to isolate heat transfer losses, throttling losses and combustion delay in IDI diesel engines. The Second Law analysis is carried out by the thermodynamic state parameters calculated by the cycle simulation of engines based on the First Law. The effects of heat transfer losses in the swirl chamber, throttling losses at the connecting passage and combustion delay in the main chamber on the irreversibilities and availability losses during the engine cycle are analyzed in detail. The relative influences among the three losses are also investigated. The results of First Law analysis indicate that heat transfer losses in the swirl chamber at low load conditions and combustion delay in the main chamber at full load conditions are the main factors impairing the fuel economy of IDI diesel engines. However, the results of further analysis of the Second Law indicate that passage throttling is a key factor affecting the fuel economy of IDI diesel engines at full load conditions. On the basis of thermodynamic analysis, a modified design of connecting passage is made on a single cylinder IDI diesel engine.The modified connecting passage has different inclination angles at both sides of the passage, and reduces throttling losses at the connecting passage, shortens combustion delay and combustion period in the main chamber, and hence reduces the engine fuel consumption and smoke emission.
Marcos Marino; Pavel Putrov
2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
The partition function on the three-sphere of many supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories reduces, by localization, to a matrix model. We develop a new method to study these models in the M-theory limit, but at all orders in the 1/N expansion. The method is based on reformulating the matrix model as the partition function of an ideal Fermi gas with a non-trivial, one-particle quantum Hamiltonian. This new approach leads to a completely elementary derivation of the N^{3/2} behavior for ABJM theory and N=3 quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories. In addition, the full series of 1/N corrections to the original matrix integral can be simply determined by a next-to-leading calculation in the WKB or semiclassical expansion of the quantum gas, and we show that, for several quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories, it is given by an Airy function. This generalizes a recent result of Fuji, Hirano and Moriyama for ABJM theory. It turns out that the semiclassical expansion of the Fermi gas corresponds to a strong coupling expansion in type IIA theory, and it is dual to the genus expansion. This allows us to calculate explicitly non-perturbative effects due to D2-brane instantons in the AdS background.
Nahum Gelber Law Library A Self-Guided Library Tour
Kambhampati, Patanjali
Nahum Gelber Law Library A Self-Guided Library Tour Welcome to the Nahum Gelber Law Library by the library and how to locate materials for assignments, course readings, reserves etc. The tour should take you about 30 minutes. The Nahum Gelber Law Library is one of the Faculty of Law buildings on the north
INVERSE-SQUARE LAW TESTS 1 TESTS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL
Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group
INVERSE-SQUARE LAW TESTS 1 TESTS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL INVERSE-SQUARE LAW E.G.Adelberger, B-1560 KEYWORDS: gravitation, experimental tests of inverse-square law, quantum gravity, extra dimensions ABSTRACT: We review recent experimental tests of the gravitational inverse-square law, and the wide variety
Ecological Economics 29 (1999) 473483 The second law, the fourth law, recycling and limits to growth
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Ecological Economics 29 (1999) 473483 ANALYSIS The second law, the fourth law, recycling that there must be a large stockpile of inactive materials as well as an exogenous source of exergy (e.g. from energy (i.e. exergy) is ultimately the only scarce element be- cause, if enough of it is available, all
RECONSTRUCTION OF A CONSTITUTIVE LAW FOR RUBBER FROM IN SILICO EXPERIMENTS USING OGDEN'S LAWS
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
RECONSTRUCTION OF A CONSTITUTIVE LAW FOR RUBBER FROM IN SILICO EXPERIMENTS USING OGDEN'S LAWS MAYA for rubber. Macroscopic quantities of interest such as the Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor can be ap: paramater estimation, multiscale modelling, rubber elasticity, polymer physics. 1. Introduction
Recirculating rotary gas compressor
Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.
NONE
1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...
Microminiature gas chromatograph
Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.
Microminiature gas chromatograph
Yu, C.M.
1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.
Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations U.S. Climate Change Science;Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1a
Recirculating rotary gas compressor
Weinbrecht, J.F.
1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z
A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.
Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation
Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas have continued to make small contributions to transportation,transportation actions include electric power sector actions, eg coal to natural gas
Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation
Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Summary of transportation greenhouse gas mitigation optionsof alternative fuels. Low greenhouse gas fuels Mixing ofMAC) refrigerant replacement. Greenhouse gas budgets for
Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules are implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority). Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA) Rules are intended to permit the company/LDC (local gas...
NONE
1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.
Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)
2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.
NONE
1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.
Compressed Gas Cylinder Policy
of pressure from a compressed gas cylinder and pose a serious threat to life and property. To minimize risk
The elliptical power law profile lens
Tessore, Nicolas
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The deflection, potential, shear and magnification of a gravitational lens following an elliptical power law mass model are investigated. This mass model is derived from the circular power law profile through a rescaling of the axes, similar to the case of a singular isothermal ellipsoid. The resulting deflection can be calculated explicitly and given in terms of the Gaussian hypergeometric function. Analytic expressions for the remaining lensing properties are found as well. Because the power law profile lens contains a number of well-known lens models as special cases, the equivalence of the new expressions with known results is checked. Finally, it is shown how these results naturally lead to a fast and accurate numerical scheme for computing the deflection and other lens quantities, making this method a useful tool for realistically modelling observed lenses.
Benford's Law Applies To Online Social Networks
Golbeck, Jennifer
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Benford's Law states that the frequency of first digits of numbers in naturally occurring systems is not evenly distributed. Numbers beginning with a 1 occur roughly 30\\% of the time, and are six times more common than numbers beginning with a 9. We show that Benford's Law applies to social and behavioral features of users in online social networks. We consider social data from five major social networks: Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, Pinterest, and Live Journal. We show that the distribution of first significant digits of friend and follower counts for users in these systems follow Benford's Law. The same holds for the number of posts users make. We extend this to egocentric networks, showing that friend counts among the people in an individual's social network also follow the expected distribution. We discuss how this can be used to detect suspicious or fraudulent activity online and to validate datasets.
On Power Law Inflation in DBI Models
Michal Spalinski
2007-04-26T23:59:59.000Z
Inflationary models in string theory which identify the inflaton with an open string modulus lead to effective field theories with non-canonical kinetic terms: Dirac-Born-Infeld scalar field theories. In the case of a $D$-brane moving in an AdS throat with a quadratic scalar field potential DBI kinetic terms allow a novel realization of power law inflation. This note adresses the question of whether this behaviour is special to this particular choice of throat geometry and potential. The answer is that for any throat geometry one can explicitly find a potential which leads to power law inflation. This generalizes the well known fact that an exponential potential gives power law inflation in the case of canonical kinetic terms.
Entanglement area law from specific heat capacity
Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Marcus Cramer
2015-08-20T23:59:59.000Z
We study the scaling of entanglement in low-energy states of quantum many-body models on lattices of arbitrary dimensions. We allow for unbounded Hamiltonians such that systems with bosonic degrees of freedom are included. We show that if at low enough temperatures the specific heat capacity of the model decays exponentially with inverse temperature, the entanglement in every low-energy state satisfies an area law (with a logarithmic correction). This behaviour of the heat capacity is typically observed in gapped systems. Assuming merely that the low-temperature specific heat decays polynomially with temperature, we find a subvolume scaling of entanglement. Our results give experimentally verifiable conditions for area laws, show that they are a generic property of low-energy states of matter, and, to the best of our knowledge, constitute the first proof of an area law for unbounded Hamiltonians beyond those that are integrable.
Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes for Gas Separation
Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.
2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Ionic liquids have been rapidly gaining attention for various applications including solvent separation and gas capture. These substances are noted for extremely low vapor pressure and high CO2 solubility making them ideal as transport or capture media for CO2 abatement in power generation applications. Ionic liquids, combined with various supports to form membranes, have been proven selective in CO2 separation. Several ionic liquids and a variety of polymer supports have been studied over a temperature range from 37°C to 300°C and have been optimized for stability. The membranes have demonstrated high permeability and high selectivity since the supported ionic liquid membranes incorporate functionality capable of chemically complexing CO2. A study aimed at improving supported ionic liquid membranes will examine their durability with greater transmembrane pressures and the effects on CO2 permeance, CO2/H2 selectivity and thermal stability.
Gas Cylinders: Proper Management
Boyer, Elizabeth W.
Compressed Gas Cylinders: Proper Management And Use Published by the Office of Environment, Health;1 Introduction University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) departments that use compressed gas cylinders (MSDS) and your department's Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). Talk to your gas supplier about hands
Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.
1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.
Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.
Boyer, Elizabeth W.
. Exploration and extraction of natural gas from the Marcellus shale is a potentially valuable economic stimulus for landowners. You might be wondering how the nation's economic situation is affecting the market for naturalNatural Gas Exploration: A Landowners Guide to Financial Management Natural Gas Exploration
Assigning gas balancing rights in the absence of a gas balancing agreement
Moon, M.S.
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
When two or more working interest owners share an undivided interest in a natural gas well, it is not uncommon for production imbalances to occur. Sometimes such imbalances are remedied pursuant to a gas balancing agreement (GBA) entered into by the interest owners. However, if no GBA is entered into, the common law rules of cotenancy and any other agreement between the parties will be used to cure the production imbalance. In [open quotes]Weiser-Brown Oil Co. v. Samson Resources Co.[close quotes], the Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit held that, absent a GBA, a co-owner has no contractual right to recoup underproduction, only a right to an accounting as between cotenants, and that this right to an accounting does not run with the land to subsequent cotenants, but is only personal to the cotenant who has underproduced. This note analyzes the [open quotes]Weiser-Brown[close quotes] decision by first addressing the common law of cotenancy and how the common law is affected by the existence of an operating agreement. The conclusion reached is that, under an operating agreement, the right to make up an underproduction, even absent a GBA, is an assignable contract right, and that this right runs with the land to inure to subsequent grantees of the original part to the operating agreement.
Fractional conservation laws in optimal control theory
Gastao S. F. Frederico; Delfim F. M. Torres
2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
Using the recent formulation of Noether's theorem for the problems of the calculus of variations with fractional derivatives, the Lagrange multiplier technique, and the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations, we prove a Noether-like theorem to the more general context of the fractional optimal control. As a corollary, it follows that in the fractional case the autonomous Hamiltonian does not define anymore a conservation law. Instead, it is proved that the fractional conservation law adds to the Hamiltonian a new term which depends on the fractional-order of differentiation, the generalized momentum, and the fractional derivative of the state variable.
New method for computing ideal MHD normal modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry
Wysocki, F.; Grimm, R.C.
1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Analytic elimination of the two magnetic surface components of the displacement vector permits the normal mode ideal MHD equations to be reduced to a scalar form. A Galerkin procedure, similar to that used in the PEST codes, is implemented to determine the normal modes computationally. The method retains the efficient stability capabilities of the PEST 2 energy principle code, while allowing computation of the normal mode frequencies and eigenfunctions, if desired. The procedure is illustrated by comparison with earlier various of PEST and by application to tilting modes in spheromaks, and to stable discrete Alfven waves in tokamak geometry.
Sustained spheromaks with ideal n?=?1 kink stability and pressure confinement
Victor, B. S., E-mail: bvictor@uw.edu; Jarboe, T. R.; Hansen, C. J.; Akcay, C.; Morgan, K. D.; Hossack, A. C.; Nelson, B. A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Increasing the helicity injector drive frequency up to 68.5 kHz on the Helicity Injected Torus-Steady Inductive (HIT-SI) experiment has produced spheromaks with current amplifications of 3.8, ideal n?=?1 kink stability, improved toroidal symmetry and pressure confinement. Current centroid calculations from surface magnetic probes show an outward shift in the magnetic field at frequencies above 50 kHz. Grad-Shafranov equilibria indicate pressure confinement at higher injector operating frequencies. The minimum characteristic frequency needed to achieve this confining effect on HIT-SI plasmas is found to be approximately 30?kHz by analysis of the density fluctuations.
Effects of a weakly 3-D equilibrium on ideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities
Hegna, C. C. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
The effect of a small three-dimensional equilibrium distortion on an otherwise axisymmetric configuration is shown to be destabilizing to ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes. The calculations assume that the 3-D fields are weak and that shielding physics is present so that no islands appear in the resulting equilibrium. An eigenfunction that has coupled harmonics of different toroidal mode number is constructed using a perturbation approach. The theory is applied to the case of tokamak H-modes with shielded resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) present indicating RMPs can be destabilizing to intermediate-n peeling-ballooning modes.
The centrality dependence of v2/epsilon: the ideal hydro limit and eta/s
H. Masui; J-Y. Ollitrault; R. Snellings; A. Tang
2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
The large elliptic flow observed at RHIC is considered to be evidence for almost perfect liquid behavior of the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma produced in the collisions. In these proceedings we present a two parameter fit for the centrality dependence of the elliptic flow scaled by the spatial eccentricity. We show by comparing to viscous hydrodynamical calculations that these two parameters are in good approximation proportional to the shear viscosity over entropy ratio and the ideal hydro limit of the ratio v2/epsilon.
Characterization in bi-parameter space of a non-ideal oscillator
S. L. T. de Souza; A. M. Batista; M. S. Baptista; I. L. Caldas; J. M. Balthazar
2015-07-24T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the dynamical behavior of a non-ideal Duffing oscillator, a system composed of a mass-spring-pendulum driven by a DC motor with limited power supply. To identify new features on Duffing oscillator parameter space due to the limited power supply, we provide an extensive numerical characterization in the bi-parameter space by using Lyapunov exponents. Following this procedure, we identify remarkable new periodic windows, the ones known as Arnold tongues and also shrimp-shaped structures. Such windows appear in highly organized distribution with typical self-similar structures for the shrimps, and, surprisingly, codimension-2 bifurcation as a point of accumulations for the tongues.
, as shown in Stern and Nolan (2012, hereafter SN12). SN12 further showed that in idealized numerical; Holland 1997; Knaff et al. 2004; Braun 2002; Emanuel 1986; Wang 2001; Powell et al. 2009). In this study
Lee, Sanghun
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation investigates the transformation of architectural ideals brought about by the development of iron construction during the nineteenth century in France. The emergence of iron construction paralleled the ...
ATOC/CHEM 5151 Problem 2 Atmospheric Number Density at Sea Level
Toohey, Darin W.
of moles and A is Avogadro's number. Methodology: Use Ideal Gas Law, find "R" in units that are close in Avogadro's number for molecules cm-3) [M] = N/V = P/RT Source of information: Wikipedia ("Gas Constant") R
Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.
Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)
2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.
Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas
Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge
2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.
California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)
Reports and Publications (EIA)
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.
The Spatial Scaling Laws of Compressible Turbulence
Sun, Bohua
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This Letter proposed spatial scaling laws of the density-weighted energy spectrum of compressible flow in terms of dissipation rate, wave number and the Mach number. The study has shown the compressible turbulence energy spectrum does not show the complete similarity, but incomplete similarity as $E(k,Ma)=(C+\\frac{D}{\\ln{Ma}})\
Workshop on Energy Law 12 September 2014
Johansen, Tom Henning
guidelines on state aid for environmental protection and energy on the promotion of renewable energies for the implementation of national promotion schemes for renewable energies in the light of the Essent- and des Vent DeWorkshop on Energy Law 12 September 2014 Venue: Institut für Energie und Regulierungsrecht Berlin
Extending Amdahl's Law for Energy-Efficient
Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"
Extending Amdahl's Law for Energy-Efficient Computing in the Many-Core Era Dong Hyuk Woo and Hsien design constraints to analyze many-core design alternatives. The revised models provide computer architects with a better understanding of many- core design types, enabling them to make more informed
Patent Law and Complementary Innovations Yann Mnirey
Boyer, Edmond
Patent Law and Complementary Innovations Yann Méničrey CERNA, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des mines: Innovation, Patent, R&D, Complementarity I am grateful to John Barton, Matthieu Glachant, François Lévęque #12;The patent system was initially designed to provide incentives to develop stand-alone innovations
A Taxonomy of Tort Law Defences
Wolfe, Patrick J.
467 19 A Taxonomy of Tort Law Defences James Goudkamp* Introduction This chapter addresses defences". A taxonomy of defences will then be delineated. Thereafter, it will be suggested how a substantial number of defences should be categorised within the taxonomy. The analysis here will be illustrated with examples
On multitemporal generalization of Newton's gravitational law
V. D. Ivashchuk
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
A n-time generalization of Newton's law (of universal gravitation) formula in N =n + d + 1-dimensional space-time is conjectured. This formula implies a relation for effective N-dimensional gravitational constant G_{eff} = G cos^2 \\theta, where \\theta is the angle between the direction of motion of two particles in n-dimensional time manifold R^n.
CHILD LABOR LAWS Texas Workforce Commission
Rock, Chris
for the nearest office of the U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division or call 1 these exceptions should contact the nearest office of the United States Department of Labor. Occupations declared occupation under state or federal law.) (3) connected with coal mining. (4) including logging and sawmill
Strathclyde University Law Journal House Style
Strathclyde, University of
Strathclyde University Law Journal House Style Important Notice The guidelines presented below MUST Paragraphs start flush to the left margin after headings or quotes. All other paragraphs must be indented the punctuation and the closing quotation mark. Quotations which are longer than three lines should be in a double-indented
Impacts of Minnesota's Primary Seat Belt Law
Minnesota, University of
for Excellence in Rural Safety Humphrey School of Public Affairs #12;CERS's "Safe Six Regardless of Residence Urban/Small City Suburban Rural/Small Town Primary Seat; . . AND IN MINNESOTA #12;Predicted Impact 2009 and 2010 CERS Reports: · Primary Seat Belt Laws
Wavelet Based Estimation for Univariate Stable Laws
GonĂ§alves, Paulo
Wavelet Based Estimation for Univariate Stable Laws Anestis Antoniadis Laboratoire IMAG to implement. This article describes a fast, wavelet-based, regression-type method for estimating the parameters of a stable distribution. Fourier domain representations, combined with a wavelet multiresolution
Today's Material Gauss' Law and Flux
Ashlock, Dan
Field Lines' #12;© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Concept of Flux Consider a box surrounding a region;© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Concept of Flux Consider a box surrounding a region of space. We can.1 22.3 Next lecture · More on Gauss's law #12;Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing
QER- Comment of Western Environmental Law Center
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
To whom it may concern, I provided the following comments at the public meeting in Santa Fe, NM on 8/11/14: My name is Thomas Singer, and I am a Senior Policy Advisor at the Western Environmental Law Center.
law.wayne.edu Admissions Bulletin
Berdichevsky, Victor
Abbatt, '83 Hon. Nancy G. Edmunds, '76 Hon. Marilyn Kelly, '71 Thomas G. Kienbaum, '68 E. Powell Miller, '57 Maurice S. Binkow Richard J. Burstein, '69 Robert M. Carson, '68 Eric T. Carver, '97 Ina C. Cohen are a family here." -- Jocelyn Benson Dean " introduction02 Jocelyn Benson was named dean of Wayne Law in June
Selected Bibliography Law, Information Policy, and
California at Santa Barbara, University of
Selected Bibliography on Law, Information Policy, and Spatial Databases Compiled by: Harlan J 04469-5711 National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis Report 94-2 #12;ii Preface, Information Policy, and Spatial Databases. Articles have been placed within one of the following categories: 1
Occupational safety and health law handbook
Sarvadi, D.G. [ed.; Keller; Heckman
1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This book reviews the regulations and standards governing the protection of employees in the workplace and provides insight into dealing with pertinent regulations and regulatory authorities. Written for safety professionals, industrial hygienists, human resource professionals, attorneys, and students, this companion to Government Institutes' best-selling ``Environmental Law Handbook'' offers the legal fundamentals behind occupational safety and health laws in one concise and authoritative volume. In 19 chapters, the authoring law firm of Keller and Heckman cover the OSHAct and its development; OSHA, NIOSH, and OSHRC; the roles played by other regulatory agencies; the OSHA rulemaking process; OSHA Standards and the General Duty Clause; record keeping and reporting; employers' and employees' rights; inspections; violations, penalties, and how to contest them; criminal prosecutions; state plans; industry-specific issues; OSHA reform; and international regulations and standards. This book references approximately 400 seminal OSHA legal decisions from the approximately 1,300 cases on record and includes coverage of Canadian and European Community regulations, making it the first comprehensive global overview of occupational safety and health law.
Off-center HII regions in power-law density distributions
S. J. Arthur
2007-05-05T23:59:59.000Z
The expansion of ionization fronts in uniform and spherically symmetric power-law density distributions is a well-studied topic. However, in many situations, such as a star formed at the edge of a molecular cloud core, an offset power-law density distribution would be more appropriate. In this paper a few of the main issues of the formation and expansion of HII regions in such media are outlined and results are presented for the particular cases where the underlying power laws are 1/r^2 and 1/r^3. A simple criterion is developed for determining whether the initial photoionized region will be unbounded, which depends on the power-law exponent and the ratio of the equivalent Stroemgren radius produced by the star in a uniform medium to the stellar offset distance. In the expansion stage, the ionized volumes will eventually become unbounded unless pressure balance with the external medium is reached before the ionization front velocity becomes supersonic with respect to the ionized gas.
Chapter 15 Equations First Law of Thermodynamics (U = internal energy)
Wysin, Gary
= Q - W work = W = area under P(V ) curve. W = PV for isobaric processes. heat = Q = heat absorbed = TL TH for ideal Carnot cycle. Cooling Machines, Heat Pumps: W = QH - QL, refrigerators: COP = QL W , heat pumps: COP = QH W , QL QH = TL TH for ideal Carnot. Power: Pave = W t , or use Pave = energy time
Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.
1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.
Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage
Oldenburg, Curtis M.
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas
Van't Hoff law for temperature dependent Langmuir constants in clathrate hydrate nanocavities
Lakhlifi, Azzedine
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This work gives a van't Hoff law expression of Langmuir constants of different species for determining their occupancy in the nanocavities of clathrate hydrates. The van't Hoff law's parameters are derived from a fit with Langmuir constants calculated using a pairwise site-site interaction potential to model the anisotropic potential environment in the cavities, as a function of temperature. The parameters can be used for calculating clathrates compositions. Results are given for nineteen gas species trapped in the small and large cavities of structure types I and II [1]. The accuracy of this approach is based on a comparison with available experimental data for ethane and cyclo- propane clathrate hydrates. The numerical method applied in this work, was recently validated from a comparison with the spherical cell method based on analytical considerations [1
Law, Justice and Regulation at UEA law-justice-regulation@uea.ac.uk
Everest, Graham R
.dewing@uea.ac.uk Ivan Diaz-Rainey (NBS) Regulation of energy and environmental markets http://www.uea.ac.uk/nbs/people/People/Academic/Ivan+Diaz- Rainey i.diaz-rainey@uea.ac.uk Catherine Wad- dams (NBS/CCP) Economic regulation, competition, energy1 Network on Law, Justice and Regulation at UEA law-justice-regulation@uea.ac.uk 21 October 2010
A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators
Bender, Rick
2002-03-18T23:59:59.000Z
The accompanying report, manual and assimilated data represent the initial preparation for submission of an Application for Primacy under the Class II Underground Injection Control (UIC) program on behalf of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to identify deficiencies in Kentucky law and regulation that would prevent the Kentucky Division of Oil and Gas from receiving approval of primacy of the UIC program, currently under control of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Atlanta, Georgia.
Power-laws and Non-Power-laws in Dark Matter Halos
R. N. Henriksen
2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
Simulated dark matter profiles are often modelled as a `NFW' density profile rather than a single power law. Recently, attention has turned to the rather rigorous power-law behaviour exhibited by the `pseudo phase-space density' of the dark matter halo, which is defined dimensionally in terms of the local density and velocity dispersion of the dark matter particles. The non-power-law behaviour of the density profile is generally taken to exclude simple scale-free, in-fall models; however the power-law behaviour of the `pseudo-density' is a counter indication. We argue in this paper that both behaviours may be at least qualitatively understood in terms of a dynamically evolving self-similarity, rather than the form for self-similar infall that is fixed by cosmological initial conditions. The evolution is likely due to collective relaxation such as that provided by the radial-orbit instability on large scales. We deduce, from a distribution function given by first order coarse-graining, both the NFW-type density profile and the power-law pseudo-density profile. The results are not greatly sensitive to variation about 3 in the power of the velocity dispersion used in the definition of the phase space pseudo-density. We suggest that the power 2 may create the more physical quantity, whose deviations from a power-law are a diagnostic of incomplete relaxation.
Brandt, D.
1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.
Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas
Yun Soo Myung
2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).
Hahs, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burbage, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.
Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James
2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.
Dave Heldebrant
2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.
G. L. Alberghi
2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a possible realization of the spontaneous baryogenesis mechanism in the context of extra-dimensional string cosmology and specifically in the string gas scenario.
NONE
1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.
Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.
1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This document adopts the standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association as rules for the transportation, storage, handling, and use of liquefied natural gas. The NFPA standards...
Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.
1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Oil & Gas Publications KMD Contacts Project Summaries EPAct 2005 Arctic Energy Office Announcements Software Stripper Wells Efficient recovery of our nation's fossil fuel resources...
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Natural Gas Prices",8,"Monthly","52015","01151989" ,"Release Date:","07312015"...
Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.
2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.
Forensic imaging tools for law enforcement
SMITHPETER,COLIN L.; SANDISON,DAVID R.; VARGO,TIMOTHY D.
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Conventional methods of gathering forensic evidence at crime scenes are encumbered by difficulties that limit local law enforcement efforts to apprehend offenders and bring them to justice. Working with a local law-enforcement agency, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a prototype multispectral imaging system that can speed up the investigative search task and provide additional and more accurate evidence. The system, called the Criminalistics Light-imaging Unit (CLU), has demonstrated the capabilities of locating fluorescing evidence at crime scenes under normal lighting conditions and of imaging other types of evidence, such as untreated fingerprints, by direct white-light reflectance. CLU employs state of the art technology that provides for viewing and recording of the entire search process on videotape. This report describes the work performed by Sandia to design, build, evaluate, and commercialize CLU.
Parvan, A S
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the present paper, the Tsallis statistics in the grand canonical ensemble was reconsidered in a general form. The thermodynamic properties of the nonrelativistic ideal gas of hadrons in the grand canonical ensemble was studied numerically and analytically in a finite volume and the thermodynamic limit. It was proved that the Tsallis statistics in the grand canonical ensemble satisfies the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics in the thermodynamic limit if the thermodynamic potential is a homogeneous function of the first order with respect to the extensive variables of state of the system and the entropic variable $z=1/(q-1)$ is an extensive variable of state. The equivalence of canonical, microcanonical and grand canonical ensembles for the nonrelativistic ideal gas of hadrons was demonstrated.
VISCOSITY AND RELAXATION APPROXIMATIONS FOR HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS OF CONSERVATION LAWS
Tzavaras, Athanasios E.
VISCOSITY AND RELAXATION APPROXIMATIONS FOR HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS OF CONSERVATION LAWS Athanasios E. Tzavaras Abstract. These lecture notes deal with the approximation of conservation laws via viscosity or relaxation. The following topics are covered: The general structure of viscosity and relaxation
TRANSBOUNDARY GROUNDWATER AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: PAST PRACTICES AND CURRENT IMPLICATIONS
Wolf, Aaron
TRANSBOUNDARY GROUNDWATER AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: PAST PRACTICES AND CURRENT IMPLICATIONS By Kyoko........................................................................................................................................ 1 2. The Notion of Transboundary Groundwater................................................................................... 3 3. Evolution of International Groundwater Management in Environmental Law
Law and Society in Saint Domingue, 1789-1805
Polk, Katelyn Brune
2013-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
therefore law in Saint Domingue) clearly delineated certain boundaries between races that in reality did not occur. We will argue the inconsistency between the law and its execution created a grey area for the people of Saint Domingue. Examining...
Tests of the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law
E. G. Adelberger; B. R. Heckel; A. E. Nelson
2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z
We review recent experimental tests of the gravitational inverse-square law and the wide variety of theoretical considerations that suggest the law may break down in experimentally accessible regions.
City of Madison- Solar and Wind Access and Planning Laws
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Madison, Wisconsin, has established several local laws to facilitate the planning and permitting of solar and wind systems. The planning guidelines are specific to solar, while the permitting laws...
Aliens in Medieval Law: The Origins of Modern Citizenship (review)
Turner, Wendy J.
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
REVIEWS Keechang Kim, Aliens in Medieval Law: The Origins ofhis thought-provoking work Aliens in Medieval Law, Keechangmedieval world to citizen and alien at the beginning of the
Fractal Weyl law for Linux Kernel Architecture
L. Ermann; A. D. Chepelianskii; D. L. Shepelyansky
2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z
We study the properties of spectrum and eigenstates of the Google matrix of a directed network formed by the procedure calls in the Linux Kernel. Our results obtained for various versions of the Linux Kernel show that the spectrum is characterized by the fractal Weyl law established recently for systems of quantum chaotic scattering and the Perron-Frobenius operators of dynamical maps. The fractal Weyl exponent is found to be $\
Scaling laws of solar and stellar flares
Markus J. Aschwanden; Robert A. Stern; Manuel Güdel
2007-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
In this study we compile for the first time comprehensive data sets of solar and stellar flare parameters, including flare peak temperatures T_p, flare peak volume emission measures EM_p, and flare durations t_f from both solar and stellar data, as well as flare length scales L from solar data. Key results are that both the solar and stellar data are consistent with a common scaling law of EM_p ~ T_p^4.7, but the stellar flares exhibit ~250 times higher emission measures (at the same flare peak temperature). For solar flares we observe also systematic trends for the flare length scale L(T_p) ~ T_p^0.9 and the flare duration t_F(T_p) ~ T_p^0.9 as a function of the flare peak temperature. Using the theoretical RTV scaling law and the fractal volume scaling observed for solar flares, i.e., V(L) ~ L^2.4, we predict a scaling law of EM_p ~ T_p^4.3, which is consistent with observations, and a scaling law for electron densities in flare loops, n_p ~ T_p^2/L ~ T_p^1.1. The RTV-predicted electron densities were also found to be consistent with densities inferred from total emission measures, n_p=(EM_p/q_V*V)^1/2, using volume filling factors of q_V=0.03-0.08 constrained by fractal dimensions measured in solar flares. Our results affect also the determination of radiative and conductive cooling times, thermal energies, and frequency distributions of solar and stellar flare energies.
Power-law tailed spectra from equilibrium
T. S. Biro; G. Purcsel; G. Gyorgyi; A. Jakovac; Zs. Schram
2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
We propose that power-law tailed hadron spectra may be viewed as stemming from a matter in an unconventional equilibrium state typical for non-extensive thermodynamics. A non-extensive Boltzmann equation, which is able to form such spectra as a stationary solution, is utilized as a rough model of quark matter hadronization. Basic ideas about non-extensive simulation of the QCD equation of state on the lattice are presented.
Covariant Balance Laws in Continua with Microstructure
Arash Yavari; Jerrold E. Marsden
2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this paper is to extend the Green-Naghdi-Rivlin balance of energy method to continua with microstructure. The key idea is to replace the group of Galilean transformations with the group of diffeomorphisms of the ambient space. A key advantage is that one obtains in a natural way all the needed balance laws on both the macro and micro levels along with two Doyle-Erickson formulas.
Local semicircle law for random regular graphs
Roland Bauerschmidt; Antti Knowles; Horng-Tzer Yau
2015-05-26T23:59:59.000Z
We consider random $d$-regular graphs on $N$ vertices, with degree $d$ at least $(\\log N)^4$. We prove that the Green's function of the adjacency matrix and the Stieltjes transform of its empirical spectral measure are well approximated by Wigner's semicircle law, down to the optimal scale given by the typical eigenvalue spacing (up to a logarithmic correction). Aside from well-known consequences for the local eigenvalue distribution, this result implies the complete delocalization of all eigenvectors.
Laws of thermodynamics and game theory
Lev Sakhnovich
2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z
Using a game theory approach and a new extremal problem, Gibbs formula is proved in a most simple and general way for the classical mechanics case. A corresponding conjecture on the asymptotics of the classical entropy is formulated. For the ordinary quantum mechanics case, the third law of thermodynamics is derived. Some results on the number of ground states and residual entropy are obtained rigorously.
Violation of a Leggett-Garg inequality with ideal non-invasive measurements
George C. Knee; Stephanie Simmons; Erik M. Gauger; John J. L. Morton; Helge Riemann; Nikolai V. Abrosimov; Peter Becker; Hans-Joachim Pohl; Kohei M. Itoh; Mike L. W. Thewalt; G. Andrew D. Briggs; Simon C. Benjamin
2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z
The quantum superposition principle states that an entity can exist in two different states simultaneously, counter to our 'classical' intuition. Is it possible to understand a given system's behaviour without such a concept? A test designed by Leggett and Garg can rule out this possibility. The test, originally intended for macroscopic objects, has been implemented in various systems. However to-date no experiment has employed the 'ideal negative result' measurements that are required for the most robust test. Here we introduce a general protocol for these special measurements using an ancillary system which acts as a local measuring device but which need not be perfectly prepared. We report an experimental realisation using spin-bearing phosphorus impurities in silicon. The results demonstrate the necessity of a non-classical picture for this class of microscopic system. Our procedure can be applied to systems of any size, whether individually controlled or in a spatial ensemble.
Thermodynamic Limits of Solar Cells with Non-ideal Optical Response
M. Ryyan Khan; Peter Bermel; Muhammad A. Alam
2013-12-26T23:59:59.000Z
The Shockley-Queisser (S-Q) theory defines the thermodynamic upper limits for Jsc, Voc, FF, and efficiency of a solar cell. The classical calculation assumes an abrupt onset of absorption at the band-edge, perfect absorption for all energies above the bandgap, and absence of non-radiative recombination. These assumptions are never satisfied for any practical solar cell. In this paper, we explain how the S-Q limits are redefined in the presence of the non-ideal optical effects, and we provide closed-form analytical expressions for the new limits for Jsc, Voc, and FF. Remarkably, these new limits can be achieved to a very high degree, even with significantly imperfect materials.
Newtonian CAFE: a new ideal MHD code to study the solar atmosphere
Gonzalez-Aviles, J J; Lora-Clavijo, F D; Guzman, F S
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new code designed to solve the equations of classical ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) in three dimensions, submitted to a constant gravitational field. The purpose of the code centers on the analysis of solar phenomena within the photosphere-corona region. We present 1D and 2D standard tests to demonstrate the quality of the numerical results obtained with our code. As solar tests we present the transverse oscillations of Alfvenic pulses in coronal loops using a 2.5D model, and as 3D tests we present the propagation of impulsively generated MHD-gravity waves and vortices in the solar atmosphere. The code is based on high-resolution shock-capturing methods, uses the HLLE flux formula combined with Minmod, MC and WENO5 reconstructors. The divergence free magnetic field constraint is controlled using the Flux Constrained Transport method.
Ideal forms of Coppersmith's theorem and Guruswami-Sudan list decoding
Cohn, Henry
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a framework for solving polynomial equations with size constraints on solutions. We obtain our results by showing how to apply a technique of Coppersmith for finding small solutions of polynomial equations modulo integers to analogous problems over polynomial rings, number fields, and function fields. This gives us a unified view of several problems arising naturally in cryptography, coding theory, and the study of lattices. We give (1) a polynomial-time algorithm for finding small solutions of polynomial equations modulo ideals over algebraic number fields, (2) a faster variant of the Guruswami-Sudan algorithm for list decoding of Reed-Solomon codes, and (3) an algorithm for list decoding of algebraic-geometric codes that handles both single-point and multi-point codes. Coppersmith's algorithm uses lattice basis reduction to find a short vector in a carefully constructed lattice; powerful analogies from algebraic number theory allow us to identify the appropriate analogue of a lattice in each appl...
Liu, Wei; Li, Hui
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low $\\beta$ compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation, and reconnection with the background magnetic field, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.
Liu, Wei
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into core fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). Unmagnetized jet injection is similar to compact toroid injection but with higher possible injection density and total mass, as well as a potentially smaller footprint for the injector hardware. Our simulation results show that the unmagnetized dense jet is quickly magnetized upon injection. The penetration depth of the jet into the tokamak plasma is mostly dependent on the jet's initial kinetic energy while the jet's magnetic field determines its interior evolution. A key requirement for spatially precise fueling is for the jet's slowing-down time to be less than the time for the perturbed tokamak magnetic flux to relax due to magnetic reconnection. Thus ...
Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.
Extended law of corresponding states for protein solutions
Florian Platten; Néstor E. Valadez-Pérez; Ramón Castańeda-Priego; Stefan U. Egelhaaf
2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
The so-called extended law of corresponding states, as proposed by Noro and Frenkel [J. Chem. Phys. 113, 2941 (2000)], involves a mapping of the phase behaviors of systems with short-range attractive interactions. While it has already extensively been applied to various model potentials, here we test its applicability to protein solutions with their complex interactions. We successfully map their experimentally determined metastable gas--liquid binodals, as available in the literature, to the binodals of short-range square-well fluids, as determined by previous as well as new Monte Carlo simulations. This is achieved by representing the binodals as a function of the temperature scaled with the critical temperature (or as a function of the reduced second virial coefficient) and the concentration scaled by the cube of an effective particle diameter, where the scalings take into account the attractive and repulsive contributions to the interaction potential, respectively. The scaled binodals of the protein solutions coincide with simulation data of the adhesive hard-sphere fluid. Furthermore, once the repulsive contributions are taken into account by the effective particle diameter, the temperature dependence of the reduced second virial coefficients follows a master curve that corresponds to a linear temperature dependence of the depth of the square-well potential. We moreover demonstrate that, based on this approach and cloud-point measurements only, second virial coefficients can be estimated, which we show to agree with values determined by light scattering or by DLVO-based calculations.
The Bayesian Second Law of Thermodynamics
Bartolotta, Anthony; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We derive a generalization of the Second Law of Thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically-evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian Second Law can be written as $\\Delta H(\\rho_m, \\rho) + \\langle \\mathcal{Q}\\rangle_{F|m}\\geq 0$, where $\\Delta H(\\rho_m, \\rho)$ is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution $\\rho$ and the measurement-updated distribution $\\rho_m$, and $\\langle \\mathcal{Q}\\rangle_{F|m}$ is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the Second Law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, ...
Economical utilization of natural gas to produce synthetic petroleum liquids
Agee, K.L.; Agee, M.A. [Syntroleum Corp., Tulsa, OK (United States); Willingham, F.Y.; Trepper, E.L. [Bateman Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
A new process for converting pipeline quality or subquality natural gas into liquid fuels and other petroleum products is described. The technology, developed by Syntroleum Corporation, utilizes autothermal reforming with air to produce a nitrogen-diluted synthesis gas having a near ideal ratio for converting into synthetic hydrocarbons via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. A proprietary F-T catalyst system, designed to operate in a nitrogen-diluted atmosphere, achieves conversion rates comparable to conventional F-T processes without the need for recycle and the associated recompression equipment. This results in potential plant capital costs low enough to make conversion of remote and or subquality gas into synthetic fuels economical, based on current oil prices. The process is energy self-sufficient and compact enough to be constructed in 5,000 to 10,000 b/d plants on floating or platform facilities to utilize offshore gas reserves. The liquid fuels produced by the process are free of sulfur and aromatics. The process has been demonstrated at pilot-scale. Numerous engineering studies and cost estimates have been conducted to provide the information needed for economic evaluation and confident scale-up. This paper also outlines improvements to the process currently under development and how the process presents new opportunities for gas processors.
GAS EXPLORATION Winter 2006 GasTIPS 5
Rubin, Yoram
GAS EXPLORATION Winter 2006 · GasTIPS 5 T he prediction of reservoir parameters such as gas or oil, but is particularly challenging in the case of gas exploration. Current seismic imaging technol- ogy cannot accurately discriminate between economic and non-eco- nomic concentrations of gas. This is primarily because
47 Natural Gas Market Trends NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS
47 Natural Gas Market Trends Chapter 5 NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS INTRODUCTION Natural gas discusses current natural gas market conditions in California and the rest of North America, followed on the outlook for demand, supply, and price of natural gas for the forecasted 20-year horizon. It also addresses
Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*
Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level
Vortex in a weakly relativistic Bose gas at zero temperature and relativistic fluid approximation
B. Boisseau
2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
The Bogoliubov procedure in quantum field theory is used to describe a relativistic almost ideal Bose gas at zero temperature. Special attention is given to the study of a vortex. The radius of the vortex in the field description is compared to that obtained in the relativistic fluid approximation. The Kelvin waves are studied and, for long wavelengths, the dispersion relation is obtained by an asymptotic matching method and compared with the non relativistic result.
Suggested Courses for ME Students Interested in Thermal/Fluids Sciences: Required courses
Virginia Tech
transfer. Fluid and thermal properties of materials. Ideal gas equation of state. First law. Thermodynamic properties of pure substances: property tables, property software, equations of state. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics. Gas mixtures. Combustion: atom and energy balances. Power
Michigan Law School Pro Bono Program Organization Evaluation of Student
Kamat, Vineet R.
Michigan Law School Pro Bono Program Organization Evaluation of Student Date Student Name the student perform in a professionally responsible manner? Would you supervise another Michigan Law student.) Comments or suggestions regarding Michigan Law School's Pro Bono Program. From: I certify that completed
Viscosity and Relaxation Approximation for Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws
Tzavaras, Athanasios E.
Viscosity and Relaxation Approximation for Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws Athanasios E with the approximation of conservation laws via viscosity or relaxation. The following topics are covered: The general structure of viscosity and relaxation approximations is discussed, as suggested by the second law
Disasters and the Law: The Legal Implications of Hurricane Katrina
Kammen, Daniel M.
Law 224.9 Disasters and the Law: The Legal Implications of Hurricane Katrina (Spring 2006) Units: 3 Time: Mondays 3:20-6:00 Course Description: Recent hurricanes and other natural disasters demonstrate An Unnatural Disaster: The Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. This report, spearheaded by University of Texas law
OPTIMAL CONTROL OF SYSTEMS OF CONSERVATION LAWS AND APPLICATION
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
OPTIMAL CONTROL OF SYSTEMS OF CONSERVATION LAWS AND APPLICATION TO NON-EQUILIBRIUM TRAFFIC STEERING iteratively optimal control problems involving systems of conservation laws. The irregularity of discontinuous waves in computing an optimal (or suboptimal) control for systems of conservation laws
THE LAW OF VECTOR FIELDS Daniel H. Gottlieb
DANIEL H. GOTTLIEB What do I mean ? Look at the example of Newton's Law of Gravitation. HereTHE LAW OF VECTOR FIELDS Daniel H. Gottlieb 1. Introduction. When I was 13, the intellectual world. Something fantastically beautiful. This something is the existence of a few general laws or principles which
THE LAW OF VECTOR FIELDS Daniel H. Gottlieb
;2 DANIEL H. GOTTLIEB What do I mean ? Look at the example of Newton's Law of Gravitation. Here THE LAW OF VECTOR FIELDS Daniel H. Something fantastically beautiful. This something is the existence of a few general laws or principles which
Center for National Security Law SELECTED FURTHER RESOURCES
Huang, Wei
Center for National Security Law SELECTED FURTHER RESOURCES Articles Careers in National Security) Brown, The National Security Council: A Legal History (2008) Fernández-Sánchez, International Legal National Security Law Report) #12;Key Resources ABA National Security Law Report DC District Court
Boolean Theory laws proof Number Theory Character Theory
Hehner, Eric C.R.
Review Boolean Theory laws proof Number Theory Character Theory Bunches Sets Strings Lists for loop 1/109 #12;Review Boolean Theory laws proof Number Theory Character Theory Bunches Sets Strings with exit for loop 2/109 #12;Review Boolean Theory laws proof Number Theory Character Theory Bunches Sets
Chicago-Kent College of Law 565 W. Adams St.
Heller, Barbara
Law Criminal Litigation Environmental and Energy Law Intellectual Property Law International, builds software tools, teaches classes, and supports faculty, staff, and student projects on access of risks and benefits. Emphasis is placed on forging a shared understanding of the problems at hand
Power laws in economics and elsewhere J. Doyne Farmer
Power laws in economics and elsewhere J. Doyne Farmer and John Geanakoplos May 14, 2008 Abstract We review power laws in financial economics. This is a chapter from a preliminary draft of a book called of it applies to power laws in general the nouns may change, but the underlying questions are similar in many
Curriculum Policy of the Graduate School of Law Master's Program
Banbara, Mutsunori
Curriculum Policy of the Graduate School of Law Master's Program Advanced Program Through special on writing their doctoral thesis in seminars. #12;2L: 2nd year in the curriculum for students without basic knowledge of law, 1st year in the curriculum for students with basic knowledge of law 3L: 3rd year
Fletcher, Robin
Law Queen's R E P O R T S Criminal Law at Queen's: 50 Years of Leadership in Teaching Manager of Records, Registration and Communications deanna Morash Director, Career Services nancy Somers T S C O V E R S T O R Y 8 Criminal Law at Queen's: 50 Years of Leadership in Teaching and Scholarship F
Kallenrode, May-Britt
Law, Language, and Culture! 3rd International Osnabrück Graduate Summer School on the Cultural://www.blogs.uni-osnabrueck.de/lawandculture/!! The 3rd Graduate Summer School on Law, Language, and Culture aims to further promote
Tingley, Joseph V.
, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada
Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels
Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)
1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.
Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)
NONE
1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2)). Projected production estimates of U.S. crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects U.S. domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.
Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)
2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z
Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.
Lawlor, Shawn P. (Bellevue, WA); Novaresi, Mark A. (San Diego, CA); Cornelius, Charles C. (Kirkland, WA)
2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z
A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.
Western Europe's future gas supplies
Kardaun, G.
1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Decline in indigenous natural gas production by 2000 will be compensated by imported natural gas and LNG and gas from unconventional sources. Coal gas will furnish about 10 percent of the demand, more natural gas imports will come from North Africa and the USSR and additional LNG will come from West Africa, the Middle East and the Western Hemisphere.
Statistical test of Duane-Hunt's law and its comparison with an alternative law
Milan Perkovac
2010-10-28T23:59:59.000Z
Using Pearson correlation coefficient a statistical analysis of Duane-Hunt and Kulenkampff's measurement results was performed. This analysis reveals that empirically based Duane-Hunt's law is not entirely consistent with the measurement data. The author has theoretically found the action of electromagnetic oscillators, which corresponds to Planck's constant, and also has found an alternative law based on the classical theory. Using the same statistical method, this alternative law is likewise tested, and it is proved that the alternative law is completely in accordance with the measurements. The alternative law gives a relativistic expression for the energy of electromagnetic wave emitted or absorbed by atoms and proves that the empirically derived Planck-Einstein's expression is only valid for relatively low frequencies. Wave equation, which is similar to the Schr\\"odinger equation, and wavelength of the standing electromagnetic wave are also established by the author's analysis. For a relatively low energy this wavelength becomes equal to the de Broglie wavelength. Without any quantum conditions, the author made a formula similar to the Rydberg's formula, which can be applied to the all known atoms, neutrons and some hyperons.
Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits
Moridis, G.J.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of Gas Price ($/Mscf) for Offshore Gas Hydrate StudyEvaluation of deepwater gas-hydrate systems. The Leadingfor Gas Production from Gas Hydrates Reservoirs. J. Canadian
Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions
O’Sullivan, Francis Martin
Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...
EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Supply Basins...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Corridors About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Major Natural...
Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Nebraska)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This statute declares underground storage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas to be in the public interest if it promotes the conservation of natural gas and permits the accumulation of...
Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas- Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas Natural Gas Savings Programs are offering the following bonus rebates (in addition to the joint utilities bonus rebate). For both offers below, installation must...
Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (BGE) offers Natural Gas Connection program to residential customers to switch from electric to natural gas for heat. The program waives connection charge (...
Intermountain Gas Company (IGC)- Gas Heating Rebate Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system...
Gas Storage Technology Consortium
Joel Morrison
2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.
What is shale gas? | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
What is shale gas? What is shale gas? What is shale gas? More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Glossary Natural Gas Study Guide -...
Environmental laws complex, but compliance is crucial
Fognani, J.D. (Gibson, Dunn and Crutcher, Denver, CO (United States))
1992-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
This paper reports that imposition of criminal penalties for violation of environmental requirements is no longer confined to the midnight dumper or to the blatant practices of illegal pollution of rivers and steams. Criminalization of the environmental regulatory process presents serious consequences to independent oil and gas producers, who use a variety of substances in drilling and production and who generate a number of waste streams What may seem like normal operations, long conducted in a particular way, come under increasing scrutiny, and penalties assessed for criminal acts can be severe. In this new climate, oil and gas operators and their personnel must take special care to satisfy all environmental requirements.
Generalized entropies and the expansion law of the universe
Fatemeh Lalehgani Dezaki; Behrouz Mirza
2015-07-04T23:59:59.000Z
We suggest that using the first law of thermodynamics is a convenient method to obtain a correct form of the expansion law of the universe \\cite{T. Padmanabhan1}. We will, then, use this idea to obtain the expansion law for a Kodama observer. By using the expansion law for a Kodama observer, we can obtain the dynamic equation of the FRW universe for deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The use of the first law of thermodynamics also leads to a new approach for obtaining the Friedmann equations for f(R) and scalar tensor gravities.
Fractional Power-Law Spatial Dispersion in Electrodynamics
Tarasov, Vasily E
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb's law and Debye's screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type.
Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System
Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
operations with natural gas: Fuel composition implications,”of Natural gas testing LANDFILL GAS COMPOSITION Tapping into
Michio Otsuki; Hiroshi Matsukawa
2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z
In many sliding systems consisting of solid object on a solid substrate under dry condition, the friction force does not depend on the apparent contact area and is proportional to the loading force. This behaviour is called Amontons' law and indicates that the friction coefficient, or the ratio of the friction force to the loading force, is constant. Here, however, using numerical and analytical methods, we show that Amontons' law breaks down systematically under certain conditions for an elastic object experiencing a friction force that locally obeys Amontons' law. The macroscopic static friction coefficient, which corresponds to the onset of bulk sliding of the object, decreases as pressure or system length increases. This decrease results from precursor slips before the onset of bulk sliding, and is consistent with the results of certain previous experiments. The mechanisms for these behaviours are clarified. These results will provide new insight into controlling friction.
Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for both energy efficient gas equipment and whole home Energy Star certification. All...
Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment. Builders can also receive whole house rebates for...
Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program (Idaho)
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders who incorporate energy efficiency into new construction. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment placed into new construction....
natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...
natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...
EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
Interstate Pipelines Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Thirty Largest U.S. Interstate Natural...
Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders who incorporate energy efficiency into new construction. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment placed into new construction. ...
Central Hudson Gas & Electric (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
gas customers who upgrade heating, cooling or ventilation systems with specific types of energy efficient equipment. Natural gas rebates apply to water heaters, natural...