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Sample records for ice water path

  1. ARM - Measurement - Ice water path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice water path A measure of the weight of the ice particles in...

  2. Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave Measurements G. Liu ... A better understanding of cloud water content and its large-scale distribution ...

  3. Determination of Ice Water Path Over the ARM SGP Using Combined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of Ice Water Path Over the ARM SGP Using Combined Surface and Satellite ... Global information of cloud ice water path (IWP) is urgently needed for testing ...

  4. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    2008-01-15

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  5. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  6. ARM - Measurement - Liquid water path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Liquid water path A measure of the weight of the liquid water...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Ice water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice water content The concentration (massvol) of ice water...

  8. Flight Path 30L - ICE House

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    L The shape of the neutron spectrum on the 30 flight paths is very similar to that of ... At this angle, the shape of the neutron spectrum here is very similar to that of neutrons ...

  9. Flight Path 30L - ICE House

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications The shape of the neutron spectrum here is very similar to that of neutrons produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays but with a neutron flux a million times higher, depending on altitude. This large flux allows testing of semiconductor devices at greatly accelerated rates. The Invisible Neutron Threat LANSCE - A Key Facility for National Science and Defense Neutron-Induced Failures in Semiconductor Devices THE ICE HOUSE - Neutron Testing Leads to More-Reliable Electronics

  10. Flight Path 30R - ICE II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Links The shape of the neutron spectrum here is very similar to that of neutrons produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays but with a neutron flux a million times higher, depending on altitude. This large flux allows testing of semiconductor devices at greatly accelerated rates. The Invisible Neutron Threat LANSCE - A Key Facility for National Science and Defense Neutron-Induced Failures in Semiconductor Devices THE ICE HOUSE - Neutron Testing Leads to More-Reliable Electronic

  11. Water freezing and ice melting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-10-12

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to freezing of liquid water, and melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice↔liquid and cubic ice↔liquid,more » with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. As a result, pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice.« less

  12. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining ... Title: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface ...

  13. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-11-14

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  14. Viscosity of interfacial water regulates ice nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Kaiyong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qiaolan; Zhang, Yifan; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Xu, Shun; Zhou, Xin; Cui, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun Song, Yanlin

    2014-03-10

    Ice formation on solid surfaces is an important phenomenon in many fields, such as cloud formation and atmospheric icing, and a key factor for applications in preventing freezing. Here, we report temperature-dependent nucleation rates of ice for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The results show that hydrophilic surface presents a lower ice nucleation rate. We develop a strategy to extract the thermodynamic parameters, J{sub 0} and ?, in the context of classical nucleation theory. From the extracted J{sub 0} and ?, we reveal the dominant role played by interfacial water. The results provide an insight into freezing mechanism on solid surfaces.

  15. Comparison of Cloud Fraction and Liquid Water Path between ECMWF...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fraction LidarRadar Liquid Water Path Microwave Radiometer Outputs of the ECMWF forecast model Introduction Comparison Strategy Observed-Modeled Cloud Fraction Comparison of...

  16. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled ice machines.

  17. An Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor R. T. Marchand and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction This paper offers some observations on the quality of Microwave Radiometer (MWR) retrievals of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP). The paper shows case study comparisons between the standard "statistical" approach and those obtained using an iterative solution of the microwave

  18. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled ...

  19. HYDROGEN-DEUTERIUM EXCHANGE IN PHOTOLYZED METHANE-WATER ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Amanda S.; Hodyss, Robert; Johnson, Paul V.; Willacy, Karen; Kanik, Isik

    2009-09-20

    Previous work has concluded that H-D exchange occurs readily in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons frozen in deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) irradiated with ultraviolet light. Here, we examine H-D exchange in methane-water ices following exposure to ultraviolet radiation and analyze the products formed as a result. We find that H-D exchange also occurs in methane-water ices by means of ultraviolet photolysis. Exchange proceeds through a radical mechanism that implies that almost all organic species will undergo significant H-D exchange with the matrix in water ices exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Given sufficient energetic processing of the ice, the H/D ratio of an ice matrix may be transferred to the organic species in the ice.

  20. THE STICKINESS OF MICROMETER-SIZED WATER-ICE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water ice is one of the most abundant materials in dense molecular clouds and in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks. In contrast to other materials (e.g., silicates), water ice is assumed to be stickier due to its higher specific surface energy, leading to faster or more efficient growth in mutual collisions. However, experiments investigating the stickiness of water ice have been scarce, particularly in the astrophysically relevant micrometer-sized region and at low temperatures. In this work, we present an experimental setup to grow aggregates composed of ?m-sized water-ice particles, which we used to measure the sticking and erosion thresholds of the ice particles at different temperatures between 114 K and 260 K. We show with our experiments that for low temperatures (below ?210 K), ?m-sized water-ice particles stick below a threshold velocity of 9.6 m s{sup 1}, which is approximately 10times higher than the sticking threshold of ?m-sized silica particles. Furthermore, erosion of the grown ice aggregates is observed for velocities above 15.3 m s{sup 1}. A comparison of the experimentally derived sticking threshold with model predictions is performed to determine important material properties of water ice, i.e., the specific surface energy and the viscous relaxation time. Our experimental results indicate that the presence of water ice in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks can enhance the growth of planetesimals by direct sticking of particles.

  1. THE PHASES OF WATER ICE IN THE SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciesla, Fred J.

    2014-03-20

    Understanding the phases of water ice that were present in the solar nebula has implications for understanding cometary and planetary compositions as well as the internal evolution of these bodies. Here we show that amorphous ice formed more readily than previously recognized, with formation at temperatures <70K being possible under protoplanetary disk conditions. We further argue that photodesorption and freeze-out of water molecules near the surface layers of the solar nebula would have provided the conditions needed for amorphous ice to form. This processing would be a natural consequence of ice dynamics and would allow for the trapping of noble gases and other volatiles in water ice in the outer solar nebula.

  2. ARM - PI Product - Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Guosheng Liu Florida State University liug@met.fsu.edu (850) 644-6298 Department of Meteorology Tallahassee, FL 32306-4520 United States Resource(s) Data Directory ReadMe ...

  3. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2) Citation Details In-Document ...

  4. Oil spreading in surface waters with an ice cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapa, P.D.; Weerasuriya, S.A.; Belaskas, D.P.; Chowdhury, T.

    1993-02-01

    A study of oil spreading in surface waters in the presence of a floating ice cover is presented. The ice can be solid or fragmented. Both axi-symmetrical and uni-directional spreading are studied. The report describes the analytical and numerical model development, the experimental set-up, results from the laboratory experiments, and their comparison with the derived theory and the numerical simulation. To analyze the spreading of oil under solid ice, new equations are derived. These equations consider gravity (buoyancy) - inertia phase, gravity (buoyancy) - viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy - surface tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to termination of spreading is presented. The emphasis of the study is on the dominant spreading mechanism for oil under ice, which is the buoyancy-viscous phase.

  5. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    diffraction across water-ices VIVII transformations using dynamic-DAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VIVII ...

  6. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2) This report provides a short description

  7. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2) × You are accessing a document from the

  8. Equations Governing Space-Time Variability of Liquid Water Path in Stratus Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Equations Governing Space-Time Variability of Liquid Water Path in Stratus Clouds K. Ivanova Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington M. Ausloos University of Liège B-4000 Liège, Belgium Abstract We present a method on how to derive an underlying mathematical (statistical or model free) equation for a liquid water path (LWP) signal directly from empirical data. The evolution of the probability density

  9. Determination of 3-D Cloud Ice Water Contents by Combining Multiple...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of 3-D Cloud Ice Water Contents by Combining Multiple Data Sources from Satellite, Ground Radar, and a Numerical Model Liu, Guosheng Florida State University Seo,...

  10. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet), Highlights in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace. Researchers in the Residential Buildings group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed an R&D roadmap outlining a path for innovative, cost-effective solar water heating solutions for the U.S. market. Solar water heaters (SWHs) currently make up less than 1% of the U.S. residential water heating market, leaving a significant

  11. A PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF WATER AND METHANE ICES ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Schaller, Emily L. E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present a new near-infrared photometric system for detection of water ice and methane ice in the solar system. The system consists of two medium-band filters in the K-band region of the near-infrared, which are sensitive to water ice and methane ice, plus continuum observations in the J band and Y band. The primary purpose of this system is to distinguish between three basic types of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)-those rich in water ice, those rich in methane ice, and those with little absorbance. In this work, we present proof-of-concept observations of 51 KBOs using our filter system, 21 of which have never been observed in the near-infrared spectroscopically. We show that our custom photometric system is consistent with previous spectroscopic observations while reducing telescope observing time by a factor of {approx}3. We use our filters to identify Haumea collisional family members, which are thought to be collisional remnants of a much larger body and are characterized by large fractions of water ice on their surfaces. We add 2009 YE{sub 7} to the Haumea collisional family based on our water ice band observations (J - H{sub 2}O = -1.03 {+-} 0.27) which indicate a high amount of water ice absorption, our calculated proper orbital elements, and the neutral optical colors we measured, V - R = 0.38 {+-} 0.04, which are all consistent with the rest of the Haumea family. We identify several objects dynamically similar to Haumea as being distinct from the Haumea family as they do not have water ice on their surfaces. In addition, we find that only the largest KBOs have methane ice, and Haumea itself has significantly less water ice absorption than the smaller Haumea family members. We find no evidence for other families in the Kuiper Belt.

  12. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below 273 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Roedel, Tobias R.; Gilles, Marry K.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2012-09-25

    Atmospheric ice formation induced by particles with complex chemical and physical properties through heterogeneous nucleation is not well understood. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by ambient particles collected from urban environments in Los Angeles and Mexico City are presented. Using a vapour controlled cooling system equipped with an optical microscopy, the range of onset conditions for ice nucleation and water uptake by the collected particles was determined as a function of temperature (200{273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) up to water saturation. Three distinctly different types of authentic atmospheric particles were investigated including soot particles associated with organics/inorganics, inorganic particles of marine origin coated with organic material, and Pb/Zn containing inorganic particles apportioned to anthropogenic emissions relevant to waste incineration. Single particle characterization was provided by micro-spectroscopic analyses using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption ne structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Above 230 K, signicant differences in water uptake and immersion freezing effciencies of the different particle types were observed. Below 230 K, the particles exhibited high deposition ice nucleation effciencies and formed ice at RHice values well below homogeneous ice nucleation limits. The data show that the chemical composition of these eld{collected particles plays an important role in determining water uptake and immersion freezing. Heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coeffcients, cumulative ice nuclei (IN) spectrum, and IN activated fraction for deposition ice nucleation are derived. The presented ice nucleation data demonstrate that anthropogenic and marine particles comprising of various chemical and physical properties exhibit distinctly different ice nucleation effciencies and can serve as effcient IN at atmospheric conditions typical for cirrus and mixed phase clouds. This indicates a potential link between human activities and cloud formation, and thus climate.

  13. Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global

  14. Remote Spectroscopic Sounding of Liquid Water Path in Thick Clouds in Winter Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remote Spectroscopic Sounding of Liquid Water Path in Thick Clouds in Winter Conditions S. V. Dvoryashin and G. S. Golitsyn A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia The liquid water path (LWP) in mixed clouds is restored based on remote measurements of spectral brightness of a cloudy layer in the spectral range 2.15-2.35µm. The results of spectroscopic sounding of dense clouds sounding are presented. Introduction Since the 1980s, in A. M. Obukhov

  15. VOLATILE TRANSPORT INSIDE SUPER-EARTHS BY ENTRAPMENT IN THE WATER-ICE MATRIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, A.; Podolak, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2013-05-20

    Whether volatiles can be entrapped in a background matrix composing planetary envelopes and be dragged via convection to the surface is a key question in understanding atmospheric fluxes, cycles, and composition. In this paper, we consider super-Earths with an extensive water mantle (i.e., water planets), and the possibility of entrapment of methane in their extensive water-ice envelopes. We adopt the theory developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling solid solutions, often used for modeling clathrate hydrates, and modify it in order to estimate the thermodynamic stability field of a new phase called methane filled ice Ih. We find that in comparison to water ice VII the filled ice Ih structure may be stable not only at the high pressures but also at the high temperatures expected at the core-water mantle transition boundary of water planets.

  16. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VIVII transformations using dynamic-DAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction ...

  17. Validation of Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers M. M. Khaiyer and J. Huang Analytical Services & Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis, B. Lin, and W. L. Smith, Jr. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia A. Fan Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia A. Rapp Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Introduction Satellites are useful for monitoring climatological parameters over

  18. The sticking of atomic hydrogen on amorphous water ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veeraghattam, Vijay K.; Manrodt, Katie; Lewis, Steven P.; Stancil, P. C. E-mail: lewis@physast.uga.edu

    2014-07-20

    Using classical molecular dynamics, we have simulated the sticking and scattering process of a hydrogen atom on an amorphous ice film to predict the sticking probability of hydrogen on ice surfaces. A wide range of initial kinetic energies of the incident hydrogen atom (10 K-600 K) and two different ice temperatures (10 K and 70 K) were used to investigate this fundamental process in interstellar chemistry. We report here the sticking probability of atomic hydrogen as a function of incident kinetic energy, gas temperature, and substrate temperature, which can be used in astrophysical models. The current results are compared to previous theoretical and experimental studies that have reported a wide range in the sticking coefficient.

  19. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using dynamic-DAC (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformations using dynamic-DAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformations using dynamic-DAC Authors: Chen, J Y ; Kim, M ; Yoo, C ; Evans, W J Publication Date: 2013-10-15 OSTI Identifier: 1104527 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-645202 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  20. Alaskan Ice Road Water Supplies Augmented by Snow Barriers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks have demonstrated that the use of artificial barriers—snow fences—can significantly increase the amount of fresh water supplies in Arctic lakes at a fraction of the cost of bringing in water from nearby lakes.

  1. CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF PURE AMMONIA AND AMMONIA-WATER ICES INDUCED BY HEAVY IONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordalo, V.; Da Silveira, E. F.; Seperuelo Duarte, E.

    2013-09-10

    Cosmic rays are possibly the main agents to prevent the freeze-out of molecules onto grain surfaces in cold dense clouds. Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is one of the most abundant molecules present in dust ice mantles, with a concentration of up to 15% relative to water (H{sub 2}O). FTIR spectroscopy is used to monitor pure NH{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ice samples as they are irradiated with Ni and Zn ion beams (500-600 MeV) at GANIL/France. New species, such as hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}), diazene (N{sub 2}H{sub 2} isomers), molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) were identified after irradiation of pure NH{sub 3} ices. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2}OH) are some of the products of the NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ice radiolysis. The spectral band at 6.85 {mu}m was observed after irradiation of both types of ice. Besides the likely contribution of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and amino (NH{sub 2}) radicals, data suggest a small contribution of NH{sub 2}OH to this band profile after high fluences of irradiation of NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ices. The spectral shift of the NH{sub 3} ''umbrella'' mode (9.3 {mu}m) band is parameterized as a function of NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O ratio in amorphous ices. Ammonia and water destruction cross-sections are obtained, as well as the rate of NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O (1:10) ice compaction, measured by the OH dangling bond destruction cross-section. Ammonia destruction is enhanced in the presence of H{sub 2}O in the ice and a power law relationship between stopping power and NH{sub 3} destruction cross-section is verified. Such results may provide relevant information for the evolution of molecular species in dense molecular clouds.

  2. Laboratory determination of the infrared band strengths of pyrene frozen in water ice: Implications for the composition of interstellar ices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardegree-Ullman, E. E.; Gudipati, M. S.; Werner, M.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Lignell, H.; Allamandola, L. J.; Stapelfeldt, K. R. E-mail: gudipati@jpl.nasa.gov

    2014-04-01

    Broad infrared emission features (e.g., at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 ?m) from the gas phase interstellar medium have long been attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A significant portion (10%-20%) of the Milky Way's carbon reservoir is locked in PAH molecules, which makes their characterization integral to our understanding of astrochemistry. In molecular clouds and the dense envelopes and disks of young stellar objects (YSOs), PAHs are expected to be frozen in the icy mantles of dust grains where they should reveal themselves through infrared absorption. To facilitate the search for frozen interstellar PAHs, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the positions and strengths of the bands of pyrene mixed with H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O ices. The D{sub 2}O mixtures are used to measure pyrene bands that are masked by the strong bands of H{sub 2}O, leading to the first laboratory determination of the band strength for the CH stretching mode of pyrene in water ice near 3.25 ?m. Our infrared band strengths were normalized to experimentally determined ultraviolet band strengths, and we find that they are generally ?50% larger than those reported by Bouwman et al. based on theoretical strengths. These improved band strengths were used to reexamine YSO spectra published by Boogert et al. to estimate the contribution of frozen PAHs to absorption in the 5-8 ?m spectral region, taking into account the strength of the 3.25 ?m CH stretching mode. It is found that frozen neutral PAHs contain 5%-9% of the cosmic carbon budget and account for 2%-9% of the unidentified absorption in the 5-8 ?m region.

  3. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

    2012-05-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR’s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument’s robustness in a real-world situation.

  4. Molecular origin of the difference in the HOH bend of the IR spectra between liquid water and ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

    2013-02-07

    The intensity of the HOH bend in the IR spectrum of ice is significantly smaller than the corresponding one in liquid water. This difference in the IR intensities of the HOH bend in the two systems is investigated using MD simulations with the flexible, polarizable, ab-initio based TTM3-F model for water, a potential that correctly reproduces the experimentally observed increase of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice from the water monomer value. We have identified two factors that are responsible for the difference in the intensity of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice: (i) the decrease of the intensity of the HOH bend in ice caused by the strong anti-correlation between the permanent dipole moment of a molecule and the induced dipole moment of a neighboring hydrogen bond acceptor molecule and (ii) the weakening of this anti-correlation by the disordered hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The presence of the anti-correlation in ice is further confirmed by ab initio electronic structure calculations of water pentamer clusters extracted from the trajectories of the MD simulations for ice and liquid water.

  5. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 m) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 m), known as the small mode. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 m wavelength relative to 11 m wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 m. This makes the 12/11 m absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 m Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  6. Water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films during icing/deicing cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazauskas, A.; Guobienė, A.; Prosyčevas, I.; Baltrušaitis, V.; Grigaliūnas, V.; Narmontas, P.; Baltrusaitis, J.

    2013-08-15

    This work investigates water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic (water contact angle value of 162 ± 1°) SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments, changes in SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface morphology and their non-wetting characteristics. During the experiment, water droplets on SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface are subjected to a series of icing and deicing cycles in a humid (∼ 70% relative humidity) atmosphere and the resulting morphological changes are monitored and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. Our data show that the formation of the frozen or thawed water droplet, with no further shape change, on superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film, is obtained faster within each cycle as the number of the icing/deicing cycles increases. After 10 icing and deicing cycles, the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film had a water contact angle value of 146 ± 2° which is effectively non-superhydrophobic. AFM analysis showed that the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface area under the water droplet undergoes gradual mechanical damage during the repetitive icing/deicing cycles. We propose a possible mechanism of the morphological changes to the film surface that take place during the consecutive icing/deicing experiments. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic film is subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments. • Water droplet shape transition is recorded and characterized thereafter. • Atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements are performed. • The surface undergoes gradual mechanical damage during repetitive icing/deicing. • Mechanism for the observed surface morphological changes is suggested.

  7. A Compact, Backscattering Deplolarization Cloud Spectrometer for Ice and Water Discrimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, David

    2014-05-15

    This project was to develop a compact optical particle spectrometer, small enough for operation on UAVS, that measures the optical diameter of cloud hydrometeors and differentiates their water phase (liquid or solid). To reach this goal, a work plan was laid out that would complete three objectives: 1) Evaluation of designs for an optical particle spectrometer that measures the component of light backscattered at two polarization angles. 2) Testing of selected designs on an optical bench. 3) Construction and preliminary testing of a prototype instrument based on the selected, optimum design. A protoype instrument was developed and tested in an icing wind tunnel where the results showed good measurement of cloud droplets and ice particles.

  8. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  9. Flight Path 5 - About

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ER1) Target 1 Flight Path 05 (1FP05) utilizes low-energy neutrons from a water moderator on the 1L target. About Target 1 Flight Path 05 (ER1 and Silo) Target 1 Flight Path 05 (1FP05) utilizes low-energy neutrons from a water moderator on the 1L target. This flight path has two detector areas: (1) In experiment building ER-1 (MPF-30) at a distance of approximately 6 m and (2) in a detector shed in the Target-4 yard at a flight path length of approximately 60 m. The relatively short flight path

  10. Communication: Nucleation of water on ice nanograins: Size, charge, and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marciante, Mathieu; Calvo, Florent

    2015-05-07

    The sticking cross sections of water molecules on cold size-selected water clusters have been simulated using classical and quantum (path-integral) molecular dynamics trajectories under realistic conditions. The integrated cross sections for charged clusters show significant size effects with comparable trends as in experiments, as well as essentially no sign effect. Vibrational delocalization, although it contributes to enlarging the geometric cross sections, leads to a counter-intuitive decrease in the dynamical cross section obtained from the trajectories. These results are interpreted based on the apparent reduction in the effective interaction between the projectile and the target owing to zero-point effects.

  11. Spreading of crude petroleum in brash ice; Effects of oil`s physical properties and water current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayed, M.; Kotlyar, L.S.; Sparks, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    Experiments were conducted in a refrigerated, circulating current flume to examine crude oil spreading in brash ice. Amauligak, Hibernia and Norman Wells crudes were tested. Measurements of the physical properties of the oils were also conducted, including: surface and interfacial tensions as well as viscosities. Spreading coefficients were calculated from measured surface and interfacial tensions. Results were obtained for original and weathered oils. For the spreading tests, spill volumes up to 3 liters and water currents up to 0.55 m/s were used. Tests were done using both fresh water ice and saline ice. Slick dimensions were measured, and modes of oil spreading were observed. Slick dimensions depended on oil type, but were not influenced by water current. Oils of high spreading coefficient and low viscosity spread over larger areas than those with low spreading coefficient and high viscosity.

  12. Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

  13. Study in use and management of de/anti-icing constituents with regard to new storm water legislation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, D.P.; Willing, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    This research identified management practices of airfield and aircraft de/anti-icing constituents which may be implemented to deal with new storm water legislation. Storm water regulations require that deicing operations obtain a NPDES permit for discharges into storm water runoff which may mandate the use of Best Management Practices. An FAA civilian airport survey and a USAF survey were used, with a literature search, to identify practices of de/anti-icing constituents. Four major constituents are used-glycol, urea, calcium magnesium acetate, and sodium formate. Concerns of uncontrolled release of the constituents include high BOD rates, nitrate and nitrite enrichment, impaired aesthetic water quality, ammonia formation from the degradation of urea, and the toxicity of such chemicals to aquatic life. Several options that exist for managing the runoff of de/anti-icing constituents include alternative constituents such as potassium acetate; alternative application procedures such as centralized facilities and greater use of anti-icing operations; collection alternatives using porous surface materials, drainage systems, and holding tanks; and treatment alternatives such as a mobile recovery unit to recycle deicing fluids for re-use.... Aircraft, Runways, Deicing systems, Deicing materials, Runoff, Water pollution, Urea, Glycols, Biochemical oxygen demand.

  14. Ice Concentration Retrieval in Stratiform Mixed-phase Clouds Using Cloud Radar Reflectivity Measurements and 1D Ice Growth Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.

  15. Path Finder

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-07

    PathFinder is a graph search program, traversing a directed cyclic graph to find pathways between labeled nodes. Searches for paths through ordered sequences of labels are termed signatures. Determining the presence of signatures within one or more graphs is the primary function of Path Finder. Path Finder can work in either batch mode or interactively with an analyst. Results are limited to Path Finder whether or not a given signature is present in the graph(s).

  16. Synchrotron x-ray photoemission study of soft x-ray processed ultrathin glycine-water ice films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzvetkov, George; Netzer, Falko P.

    2011-05-28

    Ultrathin glycine-water ice films have been prepared in ultrahigh vacuum by condensation of H{sub 2}O and glycine at 90 K on single crystalline alumina surfaces and processed by soft x-ray (610 eV) exposure for up to 60 min. The physicochemical changes in the films were monitored using synchrotron x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Two films with different amounts of H{sub 2}O have been considered in order to evaluate the influence of the water ice content on the radiation-induced effects. The analysis of C1s, N1s, and O1s spectral regions together with the changes in the valence band spectra indicates that amino acid degradation occurs fast mainly via decarboxylation and deamination of pristine molecules. Enrichment of the x-ray exposed surfaces with fragments with carbon atoms without strong electronegative substituents (C-C and C-H) is documented as well. In the thinner glycine-water ice film (six layers of glycine + six layers of water) the 3D ice suffers strongly from the x-rays and is largely removed from the sample. The rate of photodecomposition of glycine in this film is about 30% higher than for glycine in the thicker film (6 layers of glycine + 60 layers of water). The photoemission results suggest that the destruction of amino acid molecules is caused by the direct interaction with the radiation and that no chemical attack of glycine by the species released by water radiolysis is detected.

  17. A NEW SOURCE OF CO{sub 2} IN THE UNIVERSE: A PHOTOACTIVATED ELEY-RIDEAL SURFACE REACTION ON WATER ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Cooke, Ilsa R.; Yates, John T. Jr.

    2014-08-20

    CO{sub 2} is one of the most abundant components of ices in the interstellar medium; however, its formation mechanism has not been clearly identified. Here we report an experimental observation of an Eley-Rideal-type reaction on a water ice surface, where CO gas molecules react by direct collisions with surface OH radicals, made by photodissociation of H{sub 2}O molecules, to produce CO{sub 2} ice on the surface. The discovery of this source of CO{sub 2} provides a new mechanism to explain the high relative abundance of CO{sub 2} ice in space.

  18. Grain Boundary Character Along Intergranular Stress Corrosion Crack Paths in Austenitic Stainless Alloys Removed from High-Temperature Water Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gertsman, Valerii Y.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    Stress-corrosion cracks produced in high-temperature water environments were examined in alloy 600 and stainless steel samples. The alloy 600 samples were removed from pressurized-water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing after exhibiting cracking in service or after model-boiler stress corrosion cracking tests. The 304 and 316 stainless steel samples also experienced intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in high-temperature-water environments similar to a PWR steam generator. Grain boundary misorientations were measured along IG crack paths as well as in the bulk. In general, only twin Sigma 3 boundaries exhibited improved resistance to crack propagation. If the Sigma 3 were factored out, the fractions of grain boundary types of cracked boundaries corresponded to their frequency of occurrence in the bulk alloy. Other boundaries with coincident site lattice misorientations, including Sigma 9 and Sigma 27, were observed to crack. The cracks were often (but not always) arrested at grain boundary junctions containing Sigma 3 boundaries. The results obtained indicate that grain boundary crystallography does not fully determine its susceptibility to IGSCC in typical commercial alloys. Other factors must be taken into account when assessing material?s propensity to IG failure.

  19. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-11-06

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice number is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 ?m for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.

  20. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice number is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 ?m for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.

  1. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-11-06

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice numbermore » is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 μm for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.« less

  2. The use of plants to enhance microbial degradation of de-icing agents in soil and surface water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, P.J.; Coats, J.R.; Anderson, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Significant quantities of ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) enter the environment through de-icing of aircraft, spills, and improper disposal of used antifreeze. An estimated 80% of the de-icing fluids spill onto the ground, which may lead to the contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater. EG and PG contamination of surface waters creates a high biological oxygen demand (BOD) that can adversely impact aquatic communities. Plants and rhizosphere soils have been shown to enhance the degradation of organic pollutants in the soil. The research investigates the use of vegetation to enhance the transformation of EG and PG in soil by studying the fate of these chemicals in nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils at three temperatures ({minus}10 C, 0 C, 20 C). Terrestrial and aquatic emergent plants were evaluated as a cost-effective and aesthetically pleasing way to remediate and restore soil and surface waters contaminated with chemical de-icing agents. Additional surface runoff and vegetated undisturbed soil column studies were used to determine the influence of vegetation on the prevention of offsite movement by surface runoff and infiltration. Enhanced degradation of EG occurred in all the rhizosphere soils in comparison to the nonrhizosphere and autoclaved soils. After 28 days at 0 C, 40%, 41%, and 18% of applied EG degraded to CO{sub 2} in the Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) rhizosphere soil, and nonrhizosphere soil, respectively.

  3. Flight Path 5 - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Publications Target 1 Flight Path 05 (1FP05) utilizes low-energy neutrons from a water moderator on the 1L target. Energy resolved neutron radiography at LANSCE pulsed neutron facility

  4. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  5. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  6. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment V. Mattioli Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado V. Morris Pacific Northwest National

  8. The quantum nature of the OH stretching mode in ice and water probed by neutron scattering experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senesi, Roberto; Flammini, Davide; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Murray, Eamonn D.; Galli, Giulia; Andreani, Carla

    2013-01-01

    The OH stretching vibrational spectrum of water was measured in a wide range of temperatures across the triple point, 269 K < T < 296 K, using Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). The hydrogen projected density of states and the proton mean kinetic energy, _OH, were determined for the first time within the framework of a harmonic description of the proton dynamics. We found that in the liquid the value of _OH is nearly constant as a function of T, indicating that quantum effects on the OH stretching frequency are weakly dependent on temperature. In the case of ice, ab initio electronic structure calculations, using non-local van der Waals functionals, provided _OH values in agreement with INS experiments. We also found that the ratio of the stretching (_OH) to the total (_exp) kinetic energy, obtained from the present measurements, increases in going from ice, where hydrogen bonding is the strongest, to the liquid at ambient conditions and then to the vapour phase, where hydrogen bonding is the weakest. The same ratio was also derived from the combination of previous deep inelastic neutron scattering data, which does not rely upon the harmonic approximation, and the present measurements. We found that the ratio of stretching to the total kinetic energy shows a minimum in the metastable liquid phase. This finding suggests that the strength of intermolecular interactions increases in the supercooled phase, with respect to that in ice, contrary to the accepted view that supercooled water exhibits weaker hydrogen bonding than ice.

  9. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guosheng

    2013-03-15

    Single-column modeling (SCM) is one of the key elements of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research initiatives for the development and testing of various physical parameterizations to be used in general circulation models (GCMs). The data required for use with an SCM include observed vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water, as well as the large-scale vertical motion and tendencies of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water due to horizontal advection. Surface-based measurements operated at ARM sites and upper-air sounding networks supply most of the required variables for model inputs, but do not provide the horizontal advection term of condensed water. Since surface cloud radar and microwave radiometer observations at ARM sites are single-point measurements, they can provide the amount of condensed water at the location of observation sites, but not a horizontal distribution of condensed water contents. Consequently, observational data for the large-scale advection tendencies of condensed water have not been available to the ARM cloud modeling community based on surface observations alone. This lack of advection data of water condensate could cause large uncertainties in SCM simulations. Additionally, to evaluate GCMs’ cloud physical parameterization, we need to compare GCM results with observed cloud water amounts over a scale that is large enough to be comparable to what a GCM grid represents. To this end, the point-measurements at ARM surface sites are again not adequate. Therefore, cloud water observations over a large area are needed. The main goal of this project is to retrieve ice water contents over an area of 10 x 10 deg. surrounding the ARM sites by combining surface and satellite observations. Built on the progress made during previous ARM research, we have conducted the retrievals of 3-dimensional ice water content by combining surface radar/radiometer and satellite measurements, and have produced 3-D cloud ice water contents in support of cloud modeling activities. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) area measurement. That is, the study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements (particularly cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements) at the point of the ARM sites. We use the cloud ice water characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain a satellite retrieval algorithm, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the 3-D cloud ice water distributions within an 10° (latitude) x 10° (longitude) area. During the research period, we have developed, validated and improved our cloud ice water retrievals, and have produced and archived at ARM website as a PI-product of the 3-D cloud ice water contents using combined satellite high-frequency microwave and surface radar observations for SGP March 2000 IOP and TWP-ICE 2006 IOP over 10 deg. x 10 deg. area centered at ARM SGP central facility and Darwin sites. We have also worked on validation of the 3-D ice water product by CloudSat data, synergy with visible/infrared cloud ice water retrievals for better results at low ice water conditions, and created a long-term (several years) of ice water climatology in 10 x 10 deg. area of ARM SGP and TWP sites and then compared it with GCMs.

  10. Path ANalysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-07-14

    The PANL software determines path through an Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) with minimum Probability of Interruption, P(I), given the ASD information and data about site detection, delay, and response force times. To accomplish this, the software generates each path through the ASD, then applies the Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) methodology for calculating P(I) to each path, and keeps track of the path with the lowest P(I). Primary use is for training purposes duringmore » courses on physical security design. During such courses PANL will be used to demonstrate to students how more complex software codes are used by the US Department of Energy to determine the most-vulnerable paths and, where security needs improvement, how such codes can help determine physical security upgrades.« less

  11. Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffery, Nicole; Hunke, Elizabeth; Elliott, Scott; Turner, Adrian

    2012-06-18

    Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

  12. EVOLUTION OF SNOW LINE IN OPTICALLY THICK PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: EFFECTS OF WATER ICE OPACITY AND DUST GRAIN SIZE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Akinori; Nakamoto, Taishi; Ida, Shigeru, E-mail: akinorioka1@gmail.com, E-mail: nakamoto@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-09-10

    Evolution of a snow line in an optically thick protoplanetary disk is investigated with numerical simulations. The ice-condensing region in the disk is obtained by calculating the temperature and the density with the 1+1D approach. The snow line migrates as the mass accretion rate ( M-dot ) in the disk decreases with time. Calculations are carried out from an early phase with high disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -7} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) to a later phase with low disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -12} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) using the same numerical method. It is found that the snow line moves inward for M-dot {approx}>10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, while it gradually moves outward in the later evolution phase with M-dot {approx}<10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. In addition to the silicate opacity, the ice opacity is taken into consideration. In the inward migration phase, the additional ice opacity increases the distance of the snow line from the central star by a factor of 1.3 for dust grains {approx}< 10 {mu}m in size and of 1.6 for {approx}> 100 {mu}m. It is inevitable that the snow line comes inside Earth's orbit in the course of the disk evolution if the viscosity parameter {alpha} is in the range 0.001-0.1, the dust-to-gas mass ratio is higher than a tenth of the solar abundance value, and the dust grains are smaller than 1 mm. The formation of water-devoid planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region seems to be difficult throughout the disk evolution, which imposes a new challenge to planet formation theory.

  13. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40°C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  14. Formation mechanisms of oxygen atoms in the O({sup 1}D{sub 2}) state from the 157 nm photoirradiation of amorphous water ice at 90 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Yabushita, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Naoki

    2009-09-21

    Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice in the first absorption band was studied at 157 nm. Translational and internal energy distributions of the desorbed species, O({sup 1}D) and OH(v=0,1), were directly measured with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization method. Two different mechanisms are discussed for desorption of electronically excited O({sup 1}D) atoms from the ice surface. One is unimolecular dissociation of H{sub 2}O to H{sub 2}+O({sup 1}D) as a primary photoprocess. The other is the surface recombination reaction of hot OH radicals that are produced from photodissociation of hydrogen peroxide as a secondary photoprocess. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is one of the major photoproducts in the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice.

  15. Flight Path 30R - About ICE II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (There has been more industrial participation in this activity than in any other user activity at LANL.) The ultimate goal of this research will be to find ways to overcome the...

  16. Flight Path 30L - ICE House

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flux a million times higher, depending on altitude. This large flux allows testing of semiconductor devices at greatly accelerated rates. The Invisible Neutron Threat LANSCE -...

  17. Flight Path 30R - ICE II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flux a million times higher, depending on altitude. This large flux allows testing of semiconductor devices at greatly accelerated rates. The Invisible Neutron Threat LANSCE -...

  18. Flight Path 30R | ICE II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R The shape of the neutron spectrum here is very similar to that of neutrons produced in ... At this angle, the shape of the neutron spectrum here is very similar to that of neutrons ...

  19. Flight Path 30L - About ICE House

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    L The shape of the neutron spectrum here is very similar to that of neutrons produced in ... At this angle, the shape of the neutron spectrum here is very similar to that of neutrons ...

  20. Flight Path 30R - About ICE II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    At this angle, the shape of the neutron spectrum here is very similar to that of neutrons ... The shape of the neutron spectrum produced at WNR is very similar to the spectrum of ...

  1. Long-Path Absorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Path Absorption - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  2. Energy Distributions of Neutrons Scattered from Graphite, Light and Heavy Water, Ice, Zirconium Hydride, Lithium Hydride, Sodium Hydride and Ammonium Chloride by the Beryllium Detector Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Woods, A. D. B.; Brockhouse, Bertram N.; Sakamoto, M.; Sinclair, R. N.

    1960-09-12

    Energy distributions of neutrons scattered from various moderators and from several hydrogenous substances were measured at energy transfers of 0.02 to 0.24 ev. Results from experiments on graphite, light and heavy water, ice, ZrH, LiH, NaH, and NH4Cl are included. It is noted that the results are of a preliminary character; however, they are probably the most accurate measurements of high-energy transfers yet made. (J.R.D.)

  3. Sensitivity of CAM5-Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation to Ice Nucleation Parameterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Shaocheng; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Yuying

    2013-08-01

    Sensitivity of Arctic clouds and radiation in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 to the ice nucleation process is examined by testing a new physically based ice nucleation scheme that links the variation of ice nuclei (IN) number concentration to aerosol properties. The default scheme parameterizes the IN concentration simply as a function of ice supersaturation. The new scheme leads to a significant reduction in simulated IN number concentrations at all latitudes while changes in cloud amount and cloud properties are mainly seen in high latitudes and middle latitude storm tracks. In the Arctic, there is a considerable increase in mid-level clouds and a decrease in low clouds, which result from the complex interaction among the cloud macrophysics, microphysics, and the large-scale environment. The smaller IN concentrations result in an increase in liquid water path and a decrease in ice water path due to the slow-down of the Bergeron-Findeisen process in mixed-phase clouds. Overall, there is an increase in the optical depth of Arctic clouds, which leads to a stronger cloud radiative forcing (net cooling) at the top of the atmosphere. The comparison with satellite data shows that the new scheme slightly improves low cloud simulations over most of the Arctic, but produces too many mid-level clouds. Considerable improvements are seen in the simulated low clouds and their properties when compared to Arctic ground-based measurements. Issues with the observations and the model-observation comparison in the Arctic region are discussed.

  4. Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Ice Machines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ice Machines Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Ice Machines Vary capacity size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Type of Ice Cube Machine Ice Making Head Self-Contained Remote Condensing Unit Ice Making Head Type of Condenser Air Cooled Water Cooled Air Cooled Ice Harvest Rate (lbs. ice per 24 hrs.) lbs. per 24 hrs. 500 lbs. per 24 hrs. Energy

  5. Understanding Ice Supersaturation, Particle Growth, and Number Concentration in Cirrus Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O.; Yang, P.

    2008-12-10

    Many factors control the ice supersaturation and microphysical properties in cirrus clouds. We explore the effects of dynamic forcing, ice nucleation mechanisms, and ice crystal growth rate on the evolution and distribution of water vapor and cloud properties in cirrus clouds using a detailed microphysical model and remote sensing measurements obtained at the Department of Energys Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility located near Lamont, OK. To help understand dynamic scales important in cirrus formation, we force the model using both large-scale forcing derived using ARM variational analysis, and mean mesoscale velocity derived from radar Doppler velocity measurements. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation processes are explored, where we have implemented a rigorous classical theory heterogeneous nucleation scheme to compare with empirical representations. We evaluate model simulations by examining both bulk cloud properties and distributions of measured radar reflectivity, lidar extinction, and water vapor profiles, as well as retrieved cloud microphysical properties. This approach allows for independent verification of both the large and small particle modes of the particle size distribution. Our results suggest that mesoscale variability is the primary mechanism needed to reproduce observed quantities, while nucleation mechanism is secondary. Slow ice crystal growth tends to overestimate the number of small ice crystals, but does not seem to influence bulk properties such as ice water path and cloud thickness. The most realistic simulations as compared with observations are forced using mesoscale waves, include fast ice crystal growth, and initiate ice by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Ice crystal number concentrations on the order of 10-100 L-1 produce results consistent with both lidar and radar observations during a cirrus event observed on 7 December 1999, which has an optical depth range typical of midlatitude cirrus.

  6. Intercomparison of Large-eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-phase Clouds: Importance of Ice Size Distribution Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew; Avramov, Alex; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann; Ghan, Steven J.; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg; Morrison, H.; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara

    2014-03-14

    Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP) and potential cloud dissipation, in agreement with earlier studies. By comparing simulations with the same microphysics coupled to different dynamical cores as well as the same dynamics coupled to different microphysics schemes, it is found that the ice water path (IWP) is mainly controlled by ice microphysics, while the inter-model differences in LWP are largely driven by physics and numerics of the dynamical cores. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSD) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case.

  7. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on whether the dominant role of dust is CCN or IN. These results indicate the importance of the heterogeneous ice nucleation treatments and dust emissions in accurately simulating regional climate and air quality.

  8. BISICLES Captures Details of Retreating Antarctic Ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Satellite and ground observations show that the ice in this region is thinning and retreating significantly as shifting wind patterns and ocean currents allow warmer water to flow ...

  9. Formation mechanisms of oxygen atoms in the O({sup 3}P{sub J}) state from the 157 nm photoirradiation of amorphous water ice at 90 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Yabushita, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Naoki

    2009-09-21

    Desorption of ground state O({sup 3}P{sub J=2,1,0}) atoms following the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice in the first absorption band was directly measured with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) method. Based on their translational energy distributions and evolution behavior, two different formation mechanisms are proposed: One is exothermic recombination reaction of OH radicals, OH+OH{yields}H{sub 2}O+O({sup 3}P{sub J}) and the other is the photodissociation of OH radicals on the surface of amorphous solid water. The translational and internal energy distributions of OH radicals as well as the evolution behavior were also measured by REMPI to elucidate the roles of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and OH in the O({sup 3}P{sub J}) formation mechanisms.

  10. The absolute path command

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  11. Flight Path 15R

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R Flight Path 15R is a flexible general-purpose experimental area that can be used for a wide range of experiments. A fission ionization chamber for measuring neutron flux is available. Target 4 Flight Path 15R Target 4 Flight Path 15R is located in building 1302 with length approximately 13m-29m. Magnets in the flight path deflect charged particles. Flight path 15R has a variable jaw shutter up to 4" square. Flight Path 15R is a flexible general-purpose experimental area that can be used

  12. Flight Path 14 - DANCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the 1L target. This flight path is located in experiment building ER-2 (MPF-30) at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE. The flight path utilizes a liquid...

  13. Flight Paths at WNR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For the Target-4 flight paths, the neutron spectrum depends on the angle of the flight ... The shape of the neutron spectrum at the different flight path angles must be considered ...

  14. Flight Path 12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 This flight path is located in experiment building ER-2 (MPF-30) at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE. . Target 1 Flight Path 12 (1FP12) Target 1 Flight...

  15. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of icemore » supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on whether the dominant role of dust is CCN or IN. These results indicate the importance of the heterogeneous ice nucleation treatments and dust emissions in accurately simulating regional climate and air quality.« less

  16. Icing modelling in NSMB with chimera overset grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pena, D.; Deloze, T.; Laurendeau, E.; Hoarau, Y.

    2015-03-10

    In aerospace Engineering, the accurate simulation of ice accretion is a key element to increase flight safety and avoid accidents related to icing effects. The icing code developed in the NSMB solver is based on an Eulerian formulation for droplets tracking, an iterative Messinger model using a modified water runback scheme for ice thickness calculation and mesh deformation to track the ice/air interface through time. The whole process is parallelized with MPI and applied with chimera grids.

  17. A Nano Surface Icephobic Coating Delays Ice Formation | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... at the water-substrate interface. icing-image-with-caption-300x193 I recently ... sensors, non-icing surfaces, nano-enabled media storage and optoelectronic devices. ...

  18. Modeling the Effect of Ice Nuclei on ARM Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upper-Tropospheric Ice Water Content in TWP-ICE Xiping Zeng, Wei-Kuo Tao, Minghua Zhang, and Shaochen Xie March 31, 2009 Papers Published Recently * Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, M. Zhang,...

  19. Icing on wind-energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffer, T.; Reale, T.; Elfiqi, A.

    1981-01-01

    A source of icing data is the network of meteorological recording stations within the continental United States which collect meteorological measurements both at the surface and aloft. This report presents procedures for analyzing this data to determine the maximum possible icing to be expected at specified locations. Since the physical processes are different, the procedures for predicting maximum glaze ice and rime are presented in separate sections. Models developed to simulate the maximum possible ice buildup on an exposed surface using the rainfall and cloud water data as input are also presented. In addition to the maximal dynamic and static icing loads, comparative icing values based on an attempt to simulate actual field conditions are also shown. Included are assumptions of droplet splashing and water drainage for the glaze cases and atmospheric mixing during orographic lifting for rime cases.

  20. Seeking solutions for icing at dams and hydro plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, F.D. )

    1993-12-01

    Hydroelectric plant operators in the northern US and Canada often encounter icing problems that interfere with normal operations. Icing can cause problems in machinery, valves, and gates, and frazil ice can block water intakes. (Frazil ice is a slightly super-cooled, slush-type ice commonly formed on northern rivers in a rapids area or any area without an ice cover.) Icing problems, especially blockage of water intakes, can shut down a hydropower plant and cause a considerable loss of power generation. The US Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) surveyed hydro plant operators about icing problems experienced at their facilities and solutions to these problems. By sharing the survey results, CRREL researchers hope to spread solutions among operators and to identify those problems for which no solutions are currently known that require more research. CRREL researchers also are developing promising technology that may help to alleviate icing problems.

  1. Method of forming calthrate ice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hino, T.; Gorski, A.J.

    1985-09-30

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultransonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. Thes small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  2. Method of forming clathrate ice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hino, Toshiyuki (Tokyo, JP); Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultrasonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. These small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  3. Reclamation of water contaminated with fuel system icing inhibitor: Phase 1, Literature review and information compilation. [281 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Stirling, K.Q.; Whisman, M.L.; Bhan, O.K.

    1988-02-01

    The volume of water that must be removed from an aviation turbine fuel storage tank can be as much as 15,000 to 20,000 gallons per year from a fuel tank of moderate capacity. If each fuel storage facility has 10 fuel storage tanks, a total water volume of 200,000 gallons per terminal per year is a reasonable estimate. Some terminals generate as much as one million gallons per year of FSII contaminated wastewater. In the past, this FSII/water mixture was released from time to time into diked areas around the storage tank where it evaporated or penetrated underlying media. A host of recent studies that have shown these glycol ethers to be toxic now make this practice questionable based on both vapor inhalation toxicity and potential groundwater contamination. The ensuing narrative sections contain a summary of the data and information that have been compiled as a result of computerized literature searches, personal contacts with government and industry representatives knowledgeable in the field of FSII, and contact with vendors of equipment and processes with some applicability to achieving the goals of this research. Our recommendations for the subsequent bench-scale testing phase are included and are based upon this literature compilation and review. If the second phase yields a technically and economically attractive solution, a third phase will follow to implement concept verification studies. 281 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  5. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  6. Flight Path Target 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Target 2 provides experimenters direct access to the 800 MeV proton beam as well as several flight paths. Target 2 is located in MPF-7 at LANSCE.. Target 2 Target 2 is housed in...

  7. Flight Path 12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications This flight path is located in experiment building ER-2 (MPF-30) at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE. . New instrument aids fission-fragment...

  8. Intercomparison of the Cloud Water Phase among Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komurcu, Muge; Storelvmo, Trude; Tan, Ivy; Lohmann, U.; Yun, Yuxing; Penner, Joyce E.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong; Takemura, T.

    2014-03-27

    Mixed-phase clouds (clouds that consist of both cloud droplets and ice crystals) are frequently present in the Earths atmosphere and influence the Earths energy budget through their radiative properties, which are highly dependent on the cloud water phase. In this study, the phase partitioning of cloud water is compared among six global climate models (GCMs) and with Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization retrievals. It is found that the GCMs predict vastly different distributions of cloud phase for a given temperature, and none of them are capable of reproducing the spatial distribution or magnitude of the observed phase partitioning. While some GCMs produced liquid water paths comparable to satellite observations, they all failed to preserve sufficient liquid water at mixed-phase cloud temperatures. Our results suggest that validating GCMs using only the vertically integrated water contents could lead to amplified differences in cloud radiative feedback. The sensitivity of the simulated cloud phase in GCMs to the choice of heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization is also investigated. The response to a change in ice nucleation is quite different for each GCM, and the implementation of the same ice nucleation parameterization in all models does not reduce the spread in simulated phase among GCMs. The results suggest that processes subsequent to ice nucleation are at least as important in determining phase and should be the focus of future studies aimed at understanding and reducing differences among the models.

  9. Turbine anti-icing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, B. D.

    1985-12-31

    Exhaust gas is recirculated from the exhaust stack of a gas fired turbine to the air inlet along a constantly-open path to prevent inlet freeze-up. When anti-icing is not needed the exhaust stack is fully opened, creating a partial vacuum in the exhaust stack. At the turbine inlet the recirculation line, is opened to atmosphere. The resultant pressure differential between the opposite ends of the recirculation line creates a driving force for positively purging the recirculation line of unwanted residual exhaust gases. This in turn eliminates a source of unwanted moisture which could otherwise condense, freeze and interfere with turbine operations.

  10. ARM - Measurement - Ice nuclei

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Ice nuclei Small particles around which ice particles form. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  11. Developing and Evaluating Ice Cloud Parameterizations by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by remote sensing is that the transfer functions which relate the observables (e. g., radar Doppler spectrum) to cloud properties (e. g., ice water content, or IWC) are not...

  12. Counting paths in digraphs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Blair D; Seymour, Dr. Paul Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Say a digraph is k-free if it has no directed cycles of length at most k, for k {element_of} Z{sup +}. Thomasse conjectured that the number of induced 3-vertex directed paths in a simple 2-free digraph on n vertices is at most (n-1)n(n+1)/15. We present an unpublished result of Bondy proving there are at most 2n{sup 3}/25 such paths, and prove that for the class of circular interval digraphs, an upper bound of n{sup 3}/16 holds. We also study the problem of bounding the number of (non-induced) 4-vertex paths in 3-free digraphs. We show an upper bound of 4n{sup 4}/75 using Bondy's result for Thomasse's conjecture.

  13. Heat recovery anti-icing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummins, J.R.

    1982-05-11

    A heat recovery anti-icing system is disclosed. The heat recovery system includes a blower which removes air from the air flow path of a combustion turbine power generating system and circulates the air through a heat exchanger located in the exhaust stack of the combustion turbine. The heated air circulating through the heat exchanger is returned to an inlet filter compartment in the air flow path so as to maintain the temperature of the air in the inlet filter compartment at an elevated level.

  14. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquid water and ice, and they hold together the two strands of a DNA molecule. But Golan et al. asked themselves: Does proton transfer really require the assistance of...

  15. Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 using Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, Jim; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2009-07-23

    Here, cloud properties have been simulated with a new double-moment microphysics scheme under the framework of the single-column version of NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3). For comparison, the same simulation was made with the standard single-moment microphysics scheme of CAM3. Results from both simulations compared favorably with observations during the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program in terms of the temporal variation and vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud condensate. Major differences between the two simulations are in the magnitude and distribution of ice water content within themore » mixed-phase cloud during the monsoon period, though the total frozen water (snow plus ice) contents are similar. The ice mass content in the mixed-phase cloud from the new scheme is larger than that from the standard scheme, and ice water content extends 2 km further downward, which is in better agreement with observations. The dependence of the frozen water mass fraction on temperature from the new scheme is also in better agreement with available observations. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from the simulation with the new scheme is, in general, larger than that with the standard scheme, while the surface downward longwave radiation is similar. Sensitivity tests suggest that different treatments of the ice crystal effective radius contribute significantly to the difference in the calculations of TOA OLR, in addition to cloud water path. Numerical experiments show that cloud properties in the new scheme can respond reasonably to changes in the concentration of aerosols and emphasize the importance of correctly simulating aerosol effects in climate models for aerosol-cloud interactions. Further evaluation, especially for ice cloud properties based on in-situ data, is needed.« less

  16. Molecular simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation. I. Controlling ice nucleation through surface hydrophilicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Slater, B.; Michaelides, Angelos

    2015-05-14

    Ice formation is one of the most common and important processes on earth and almost always occurs at the surface of a material. A basic understanding of how the physicochemical properties of a material’s surface affect its ability to form ice has remained elusive. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to directly probe heterogeneous ice nucleation at a hexagonal surface of a nanoparticle of varying hydrophilicity. Surprisingly, we find that structurally identical surfaces can both inhibit and promote ice formation and analogous to a chemical catalyst, it is found that an optimal interaction between the surface and the water exists for promoting ice nucleation.We use our microscopic understanding of the mechanism to design a modified surface in silico with enhanced ice nucleating ability. C 2015 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  17. Flight Path 12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific Applications This flight path is located in experiment building ER-2 (MPF-30) at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE. . SPIDER Detector at LANSCE Uranium undergoes fission with thermal neutrons. The fissioning isotope, 235U, splits into two asymmetric fragments. The distribution of the mass of these fragments-the mass yield-is an important test for different theoretical models of nuclear fission. In addition, it provides important data to nuclear weapons

  18. Spongy icing in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lozowski, E.P.; Blackmore, R.Z.; Forest, T.W.; Shi, J.

    1996-12-01

    Newly formed marine ice accretions may include liquid brine amounts up to about 50% of the total accretion mass. Because they ignore this sponginess, traditional thermodynamic models of icing may significantly underestimate the total marine ice load. In an attempt to improve the capabilities of such models, the authors have undertaken experimental and theoretical research, directed at measuring and predicting the liquid fraction of ice accretions. The experimental work consisted of growing ice accretions on rotating cylinders in the Marine Icing Wind Tunnel at the University of Alberta, over a range of temperatures from {minus}2 C to {minus}25 C, and wind speeds from 19 to 30 m/s, at liquid water contents (3 to 9 g/m) typical of the marine spray environment. A calorimeter was used to measure the liquid fraction of the ice accretions. The experiments indicate that the liquid fraction is almost independent of the environmental conditions and ranges between about 32% and 47%. The authors have also developed a theoretical model of the morphology of the icing process which takes place under a falling supercooled liquid film. Comparisons between the model and experiments show that the model is able to predict accretion growth rate and sponginess with some degree of skill. However, there remain important aspects of the sponginess phenomenon which continue to elude them.

  19. Communication: On the stability of ice 0, ice i, and I{sub h}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quigley, D.; Alf, D.; Slater, B.

    2014-10-28

    Using ab initio methods, we examine the stability of ice 0, a recently proposed tetragonal form of ice implicated in the homogeneous freezing of water [J. Russo, F. Romano, and H. Tanaka, Nat. Mater. 13, 670 (2014)]. Vibrational frequencies are computed across the complete Brillouin Zone using Density Functional Theory (DFT), to confirm mechanical stability and quantify the free energy of ice 0 relative to ice I{sub h}. The robustness of this result is tested via dispersion corrected semi-local and hybrid DFT, and Quantum Monte-Carlo calculation of lattice energies. Results indicate that popular molecular models only slightly overestimate the stability of ice zero. In addition, we study all possible realisations of proton disorder within the ice zero unit cell, and identify the ground state as ferroelectric. Comparisons are made to other low density metastable forms of ice, suggesting that the ice i structure [C. J. Fennel and J. D. Gezelter, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 1, 662 (2005)] may be equally relevant to ice formation.

  20. Flight Path Target 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Target 2 provides experimenters direct access to the 800 MeV proton beam as well as several flight paths. Target 2 is located in MPF-7 at LANSCE.. About Target 2 - Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer lsds1 LSDS with cadmium sheets on the outside to reduce room-return neutrons. The Blue Room is the shield structure and experiment housing building around Target 2. The Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) installed in the Blue Room at the Los Alamos Science Center is a 20-ton cube of lead surrounding

  1. Flight Path Target 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Target 2 provides experimenters direct access to the 800 MeV proton beam as well as several flight paths. Target 2 is located in MPF-7 at LANSCE.. Target 2 Target 2 is housed in the Blue Room in MPF-7 at LANSCE and provides experimenters direct access to the LANSCE proton beam. The Blue Room is a domed room with a diameter of 40 feet. The main floor of the Blue Room is constructed primarily of aluminum and elevated 20 feet above the basement floor to minimize neutron wall return for experiments

  2. Flight Path Target 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Scientific Applications Target 2 provides experimenters direct access to the 800 MeV proton beam as well as several flight paths. Target 2 is located in MPF-7 at LANSCE.. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer lsds1 LSDS with cadmium sheets on the outside to reduce room-return neutrons. The Blue Room is the shield structure and experiment housing building around Target 2. The Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) installed in the Blue Room at the Los Alamos Science Center is a 20-ton cube of lead

  3. Flight Path 13

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 FP-13 is a general-purpose flight path that was configured for making total cross section measurements. It views the upper-tier cold hydrogen moderator. The current configuration uses an evacuated neutron guide for the first 30 m, with a collimator in air at 30 m. The beam is then transported in an eight-inch vacuum pipe to 60 m, after which there is about 5 m available for experiment setup. With 6 mm diameter collimation at 30 m, the beam spot is approx. 13 cm square at 63 m. fp13 Total cross

  4. A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model for Ice Sheet and Ice Shelf Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

    2012-02-08

    Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH is a fully Lagrangian particle method. It is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface flows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper SPH is used to study ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from the SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is further verified by simulating the plane shear flow of two immiscible fluids and the propagation of a highly viscous blob of fluid along a horizontal surface. In the experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous newtonian fluid. For consistency, in the described SPH model the ice is also modeled as a viscous newtonian fluid. Typically, ice sheets are modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid, accounting for the changes in the mechanical properties of ice. Implementation of a non-Newtonian rheology in the SPH model is the subject of our ongoing research.

  5. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Non-Newtonian model for ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

    2013-06-01

    Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) non-Newtonian model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH, a fully Lagrangian particle method, is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface ?ows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper, SPH is used to study 3D ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios, similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is veri?ed by simulating Poiseuille ?ow, plane shear ?ow with free surface and the propagation of a blob of ice along a horizontal surface. In the laboratory experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous Newtonian ?uid. In the present work, however, the ice is modeled as both viscous Newtonian ?uid and non-Newtonian ?uid, such that the e?ect of non-Newtonian rheology on the dynamics of grounding line was examined. The non-Newtonian constitutive relation is prescribed to be Glens law for the creep of polycrystalline ice. A V-shaped bedrock ramp is further introduced to model the real geometry of bedrock slope.

  6. NNSA Organizational Redress Strengthens Path Forward | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Strengthens Path Forward NNSA Organizational Redress Strengthens Path Forward Press Release Mar 14, 2001 NNSA Organizational Redress Strengthens Path Forward (PDF - 0.02Mb)...

  7. Thermoalgebras and path integral

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanna, F.C. Malbouisson, A.P.C. Malbouisson, J.M.C. Santana, A.E.

    2009-09-15

    Using a representation for Lie groups closely associated with thermal problems, we derive the algebraic rules of the real-time formalism for thermal quantum field theories, the so-called thermo-field dynamics (TFD), including the tilde conjugation rules for interacting fields. These thermo-group representations provide a unified view of different approaches for finite-temperature quantum fields in terms of a symmetry group. On these grounds, a path integral formalism is constructed, using Bogoliubov transformations, for bosons, fermions and non-abelian gauge fields. The generalization of the results for quantum fields in (S{sup 1}){sup d}xR{sup D-d} topology is addressed.

  8. Microphysical Consequences of the Spatial Distribution of Ice Nucleation in Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Fan; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2014-07-28

    Mixed-phase stratiform clouds can persist even with steady ice precipitation fluxes, and the origin and microphysical properties of the ice crystals are of interest. Vapor deposition growth and sedimentation of ice particles along with a uniform volume source of ice nucleation, leads to a power law relation between ice water content wi and ice number concentration ni with exponent 2.5. The result is independent of assumptions about the vertical velocity structure of the cloud and is therefore more general than the related expression of Yang et al. [2013]. The sensitivity of the wi-ni relationship to the spatial distribution of ice nucleation is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking and ice growth with cloud-volume, cloud-top, and cloud-base sources of ice particles through a time-dependent cloud field. Based on observed wi and ni from ISDAC, a lower bound of 0.006 m^3/s is obtained for the ice crystal formation rate.

  9. Minimalist Model of Ice Microphysics in Mixed-phase Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2013-07-28

    The question of whether persistent ice crystal precipitation from super cooled layer clouds can be explained by time-dependent, stochastic ice nucleation is explored using an approximate, analytical model, and a large-eddy simulation (LES) cloud model. The updraft velocity in the cloud defines an accumulation zone, where small ice particles cannot fall out until they are large enough, which will increase the residence time of ice particles in the cloud. Ice particles reach a quasi-steady state between growth by vapor deposition and fall speed at cloud base. The analytical model predicts that ice water content (wi) has a 2.5 power law relationship with ice number concentration ni. wi and ni from a LES cloud model with stochastic ice nucleation also confirm the 2.5 power law relationship. The prefactor of the power law is proportional to the ice nucleation rate, and therefore provides a quantitative link to observations of ice microphysical properties.

  10. Algae Raceway to speed path to biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Algae Raceway to speed path to biofuels - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  11. Spreading of oil spilled under ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapa, P.D.; Chowdhury, T. )

    1990-12-01

    A new set of equations is presented to describe the process of oil spreading under ice in clam waters. These equations consider the gravity (buoyancy)-inertia phase, the gravity (buoyancy)-viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy-surface-tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to the termination of spreading is presented. Laboratory experiments were conducted using both real ice covers in a cold room and artificial ice covers. The experiments included different ice-cover roughnesses from smooth to rough, oils of different viscosities, and a variety of discharge conditions. The experimental data show close agreement with the theory. These equations can be used during cleanup or environmental impact assessment to estimate the area of an oil slick with respect to time.

  12. Flight Path 14 - About DANCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE. The flight path utilizes a liquid mercury shutter to control the neutron beam transmission from the target. About Target 1...

  13. Fire In The Ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fire in the Ice The methane hydrate newsletter, Fire in the Ice, is a quarterly publication highlighting the latest developments in international gas hydrates R&D. Fire in the Ice promotes the exchange of information amoung those involved in gas hydrates research and development, and also recognizes the efforts of a hydrate researcher in each issue. The newsletter now reaches nearly 1300 scientists and other interested individuals in sixteen countries. To subscribe electronically to Fire in

  14. Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model A process-based treatment of ice supersaturation and ice-nucleation is implemented in the National Center for

  15. Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice Sheet Simulations Citation ... Sponsoring Org: DOELANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: ...

  16. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, A.J.; Schertz, W.W.

    1980-09-29

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  17. Ice formation on nitric acid coated dust particles: Laboratory and modeling studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Chun; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Liu, Xiaohong; Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-08-16

    Changes in the ice nucleation characteristics of atmospherically relevant mineral dust particles due to nitric acid coating are not well understood. Further, the atmospheric implications of dust coating on ice-cloud properties under different assumptions of primary ice nucleation mechanisms are unknown. We investigated ice nucleation ability of Arizona test dust, illite, K-feldspar and quartz as a function of temperature (-25 to -30C) and relative humidity with respect to water (75 to 110%). Particles were size selected at 250 nm and transported (bare or coated) to the ice nucleation chamber to determine the fraction of particles nucleating ice at various temperature and water saturation conditions. All dust nucleated ice at water-subsaturated conditions, but the coated particles showed a reduction in their ice nucleation ability compared to bare particles. However, at water-supersaturated conditions, we observed that bare and coated particles had nearly similar ice nucleation characteristics. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that structural properties of bare dust particles modified after acid treatment. We found that lattice parameters were slightly different, but crystallite sizes of the coated particles were reduced compared to bare particles. Next, single-column model results show that simulated ice crystal number concentrations mostly depends upon fraction of particles that are coated, primary ice nucleation mechanisms, and the competition between ice nucleation mechanisms to nucleate ice. In general, we observed that coating modify the ice-cloud properties and the picture of ice and mixed-phase cloud evolution is complex when different primary ice nucleation mechanisms are competing for fixed water vapor mass.

  18. A New Approach for Representing Ice Particles in Weather

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mass mixing ratio, qi, c) cloud water mass mixing ratio, qc, d) rain mass mixing ratio, qr, e) rime mass fraction, Fr, f) mass-weighted mean ice particle density, p, g)...

  19. Flight Path 90L - TPC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 to 15m long. Instruments used on this flight path have included fission chambers and the fission Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Fission chambers placed on FP90L have...

  20. Arctic Sea ice model sensitivities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  1. EnerPath | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EnerPath Jump to: navigation, search Logo: EnerPath Name: EnerPath Address: 1758 Orange Tree Lane Place: Redlands, California Zip: 92374 Region: Southern CA Area Sector: Buildings,...

  2. Energy conservation in ice skating rinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, B.K.; McAvoy, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    An economic and energy analysis of ice rinks was made to examine the areas in which energy could be profitably conserved. The areas where new equipment could make a major reduction in energy use are: the use of waste heat for space heating, the installation of a low emissivity false ceiling to reduce radiant heat, the use of a load cycling controller to reduce refrigeration costs, and the installation of more efficient lighting systems. Changes in rink operating procedure that could cut energy use are: higher refrigerant temperatures, thinner ice, the use of colder resurfacing water, turning the compressors and pumps off at night, and reducing ventilation.

  3. Probing the Interiors of the Ice Giants: Shock Compression of Water to 700 GPa and 3.8 g/cm³

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Lemke, R. W.; Mattsson, T. R.; French, M.; Nettelmann, N.; Redmer, R.

    2012-02-27

    Recently, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified extrasolar planetary systems. Our understanding of their formation is tied to exoplanet internal structure models, which rely upon equations of state of light elements and compounds such as water. Here, we present shock compression data for water with unprecedented accuracy that show that water equations of state commonly used in planetary modeling significantly overestimate the compressibility at conditions relevant to planetary interiors. Furthermore, we show that its behavior at these conditions, including reflectivity and isentropic response, is well-described by a recent first-principles based equation of state. These findingsmore » advocate that this water model be used as the standard for modeling Neptune, Uranus, and “hot Neptune” exoplanets and should improve our understanding of these types of planets.« less

  4. Probing the Interiors of the Ice Giants: Shock Compression of Water to 700 GPa and 3.8 g/cm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Lemke, R. W.; Mattsson, T. R.; French, M.; Nettelmann, N.; Redmer, R.

    2012-02-27

    Recently, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified extrasolar planetary systems. Our understanding of their formation is tied to exoplanet internal structure models, which rely upon equations of state of light elements and compounds such as water. Here, we present shock compression data for water with unprecedented accuracy that show that water equations of state commonly used in planetary modeling significantly overestimate the compressibility at conditions relevant to planetary interiors. Furthermore, we show that its behavior at these conditions, including reflectivity and isentropic response, is well-described by a recent first-principles based equation of state. These findings advocate that this water model be used as the standard for modeling Neptune, Uranus, and hot Neptune exoplanets and should improve our understanding of these types of planets.

  5. Hydrogen Education Curriculum Path at Michigan Technological...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Curriculum Path at Michigan Technological University Hydrogen Education Curriculum Path at Michigan Technological University 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies ...

  6. Characterization of Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Anti-icing in a Low-Temperature Wind Tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swarctz, Christopher; Alijallis, Elias; Hunter, Scott Robert; Simpson, John T; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a closed loop low-temperature wind tunnel was custom-built and uniquely used to investigate the anti-icing mechanism of superhydrophobic surfaces in regulated flow velocities, temperatures, humidity, and water moisture particle sizes. Silica nanoparticle-based hydrophobic coatings were tested as superhydrophobic surface models. During tests, images of ice formation were captured by a camera and used for analysis of ice morphology. Prior to and after wind tunnel testing, apparent contact angles of water sessile droplets on samples were measured by a contact angle meter to check degradation of surface superhydrophobicity. A simple peel test was also performed to estimate adhesion of ice on the surfaces. When compared to an untreated sample, superhydrophobic surfaces inhibited initial ice formation. After a period of time, random droplet strikes attached to the superhydrophobic surfaces and started to coalesce with previously deposited ice droplets. These sites appear as mounds of accreted ice across the surface. The appearance of the ice formations on the superhydrophobic samples is white rather than transparent, and is due to trapped air. These ice formations resemble soft rime ice rather than the transparent glaze ice seen on the untreated sample. Compared to untreated surfaces, the icing film formed on superhydrophobic surfaces was easy to peel off by shear flows.

  7. Characterization of Flow Paths, Residence Time and Media Chemistry in Complex Landscapes to Integrate Surface, Groundwater and Stream Processes and Inform Models of Hydrologic and Water Quality Response to Land Use Activities; Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitew, Menberu; Jackson, Rhett

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this report is to document the methodology used to calculate the three hydro-geomorphic indices: C Index, Nhot spot, and Interflow Contributing Area (IFC Area). These indices were applied in the Upper Four Mile Creek Watershed in order to better understand the potential mechanisms controlling retention time, path lengths, and potential for nutrient and solute metabolism and exchange associated with the geomorphic configurations of the upland contributing areas, groundwater, the riparian zone, and stream channels.

  8. Field demonstration of the ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, J.L.; Jackson, L.M.

    1999-10-05

    The ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System was engineered to convert water into small ice particles for use in cleaning and decontamination applications. Ice crystals are produced in a special icemaker and pressured through a hose-nozzle onto the surface to be cleaned. The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Ice Cleaning Systems, Inc., conducted a test of this system at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 to evaluate the system's cleaning capabilities in an oil field environment. Equipment cleaned included an oil storage tank, a rod pumping unit, a road grader, and a wellhead. Contaminants were unrefined sour crude oil, hydraulic fluid, paraffin, and dirt, occurring separately and as mixtures. In all four demonstration cleaning tasks, the ICE 250 System effectively removed surface contaminant mixtures in a timely manner and left no oily residue. A minimal amount of waste moisture was generated, thereby reducing cleanup and disposal costs.

  9. Electric heat tracing designed to prevent icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lonsdale, J.T.; Norrby, T.

    1985-11-01

    Mobile offshore rigs designed for warmer climates are not capable of operating year-round in the arctic or near-arctic regions. Icing is but one major operational problem in these waters. The danger of instability due to ice loading exists on an oil rig as well as on a ship. From a safety standpoint, ice must be prevented from forming on the helideck, escape passages, escape doors and hatches and handrails. Norsk Hydro A/S, as one of the major operators in the harsh environment outside northern Norway, recognized at an early stage the need for special considerations for the drilling rigs intended for year-round drilling in these regions. In 1982 Norsk Hydro awarded a contract for an engineering study leading to the design of a harsh environment semisubmersible drilling rig. The basic requirement was to develop a unit for safe and efficient year-round drilling operation in the waters of northern Norway. The study was completed in 1983 and resulted in a comprehensive report including a building specification. The electric heat tracing system designed to prevent icing on the unit is described.

  10. Icing rate meter estimation of in-cloud cable icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComber, P.; Druez, J.; Laflamme, J.

    1994-12-31

    In many northern countries, the design and reliability of power transmission lines are closely related to atmospheric icing overloads. It is becoming increasingly important to have reliable instrument systems to warn of icing conditions before icing loads become sufficient to damage the power transmission network. Various instruments are presently being developed to provide better monitoring of icing conditions. One such instrument is the icing rate meter (IRM) which counts icing and de-icing cycles per unit time on a standard probe and can be used to estimate the icing rate on nearby cables. The calibration presently used was originally based on experiments conducted in a cold room. Even though this calibration has shown that the IRM estimation already offers an improvement over model prediction based on standard meteorological parameters, it can certainly be improved further with appropriate field data. For this purpose, the instrument was tested on an icing test site at Mt. Valin (altitude 902 m) Quebec, Canada. In this paper measurements from twelve in-cloud icing events during the 1991--92 winter are divided into one hour periods of icing to provide the experimental icing rate data. The icing rates measured on a 12.5 mm and a 35 mm cables are then compared with the number of IRM signals, also for one hour periods, in relation to initial ice load, temperature, wind velocity and direction. From this analysis, a better calibration for the IRM instrument is suggested. The improvement of the IRM estimation is illustrated by making a comparison with measurements, of the icing load estimation with the old and new calibrations for two complete icing events.

  11. ARM - Measurement - Cloud ice particle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ice particle ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud ice particle...

  12. ARM - TWP-ICE Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fact Sheet (pdf, 211K) Press Releases TWP-ICE Images ARM flickr site <"" li"" height"14" width"16"> TWP-ICE Maps map1 map2 Download TWP-ICEDarwin annotated maps (pdf, 246K)....

  13. ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) path Title: ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) ...

  14. Really Cool Models of Ice Nucleation | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Really Cool Models of Ice Nucleation Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Really Cool Models of Ice Nucleation Rick Arthur 2013.08.20 I'm excited to highlight some progress GE Research has made in modeling the formation of ice from water droplets in contact with cold surfaces. For several years, a

  15. THE STRUCTURE OF SURFACE H{sub 2}O LAYERS OF ICE-COVERED PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE ICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueta, S.; Sasaki, T. E-mail: takanori@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Many extrasolar (bound) terrestrial planets and free-floating (unbound) planets have been discovered. While the existence of bound and unbound terrestrial planets with liquid water is an important question, of particular importance is the question of these planets' habitability. Even for a globally ice-covered planet, geothermal heat from the planetary interior may melt the interior ice, creating an internal ocean covered by an ice shell. In this paper, we discuss the conditions that terrestrial planets must satisfy for such an internal ocean to exist on the timescale of planetary evolution. The question is addressed in terms of planetary mass, distance from a central star, water abundance, and abundance of radiogenic heat sources. In addition, we investigate the structure of the surface H{sub 2}O layers of ice-covered planets by considering the effects of ice under high pressure (high-pressure ice). As a fiducial case, a 1 M{sub ?} planet at 1 AU from its central star and with 0.6-25 times the H{sub 2}O mass of the Earth could have an internal ocean. We find that high-pressure ice layers may appear between the internal ocean and the rock portion on a planet with an H{sub 2}O mass over 25 times that of the Earth. The planetary mass and abundance of surface water strongly restrict the conditions under which an extrasolar terrestrial planet may have an internal ocean with no high-pressure ice under the ocean. Such high-pressure ice layers underlying the internal ocean are likely to affect the habitability of the planet.

  16. The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane October 11, 2012 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 Ram.jpg The cover represents the environment around the side chain. The right side is the water network that exists between the sulfonate groups shown in yellow. The left side is the short chain with the sulfonate group. Many experts believe that fuel cells may someday serve as revolutionary clean energy conversion devices for

  17. PathScale Compliers at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-800-66-NERSC, option 3 or 510-486-8611 Home For Users Software Compilers PathScale PathScale Compilers (Fortran, C, C++) Availability The Pathscale...

  18. On the Path to SunShot - Environmental Benefits of Solar | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy On the Path to SunShot - Environmental Benefits of Solar On the Path to SunShot - Environmental Benefits of Solar On the Path to SunShot - Environmental Benefits of Solar In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetration of Solar Energy in the United States report highlights how increasing the amount of solar energy connected to the grid will benefit the environment by reducing water scarcity, curbing pollution,

  19. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indicators Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators ...

  20. Impact of Solvent on Photocatalytic Mechanisms: Reactions of Photodesorption Products with Ice Overlayers on the TiO2(110) Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2011-04-07

    The effects of water and methanol ice overlayers on the photodecomposition of acetone on rutile TiO2(110) were evaluated in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In the absence of ice overlayers, acetone photodecomposed on TiO2(110) at 95 K by ejection of a methyl radical into the gas phase and formation of acetate on the surface. With ice overlayers, the methyl radicals are trapped at the interface between TiO2(110) and the ice. When water ice was present, these trapped methyl radicals reacted either with each other to form ethane or with other molecules in the ice (e.g., water or displaced acetone) to form methane (CH4), ethane (CH3CH3) and other products (e.g., methanol), with all of these products trapped in the ice. The new products were free to revisit the surface or depart during desorption of the ice. When methanol ice was present, methane formation came about only from reaction of trapped methyl radicals with the methanol ice. Methane and ethane slowly leaked through methanol ice overlayers into vacuum at 95 K, but not through water ice overlayers. Different degrees of site competition between water and acetone, and between methanol and acetone led to different hydrogen abstraction pathways in the two ices. These results provide new insights into product formation routes and solution-phase radical formation mechanisms that are important in heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  1. Prescriptive Path compliance form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prescriptive Path compliance form Prescriptive Path compliance form This Prescriptive Path compliance form shall be submitted to: doechallengehome@newportpartnersllc.com File challenge_home_prescriptive_compliance_5-12.docx More Documents & Publications Version Tracking Document for DOE Challenge Homes, National Program Requirements (Rev. 03) DOE Zero Energy Ready Home National Program Requirements (Rev. 04) Washington DOE ZERH Program Requirements

  2. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. The STEM Path to Antarctica

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STEM skills Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:May 2016 all issues All Issues » submit The STEM Path to Antarctica Nina Lanza, a staff scientist at the Laboratory realizes her dream of being a space scientist and hunts for space rocks at the ends of the earth March 1, 2016 Nina Lanza, a staff scientist on the ChemCam instrument team for the Curiosity Mars Rover, spent two month on the frozen glaciers with the Antarctica

  4. Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report The ...

  5. TowPath Renewable Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TowPath Renewable Ventures Jump to: navigation, search Name: TowPath Renewable Ventures Place: Washington, Washington, DC Zip: 20007 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: TowPath...

  6. Winter Preparedness ? Slips on Ice

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    can further increase traction; however, they must be removed when ice is no longer present, because their use on floors, smooth concrete, or gravel, presents a different...

  7. Climate Impacts of Ice Nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Barahona, Donifan; Lohmann, U.; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2012-10-27

    Several different ice nucleation parameterizations in two different General Circulation Models are used to understand the effects of ice nucleation on the mean climate state, and the climate effect of aerosol perturbations to ice clouds. The simulations have different ice microphysical states that are consistent with the spread of observations. These different states occur from different parameterizations of the ice cloud nucleation processes, and feature different balances of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. At reasonable efficiencies, consistent with laboratory measurements and constrained by the global radiative balance, black carbon has a small (-0.06 Wm?2) and not statistically significant climate effect. Indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds occur mostly due to increases in homogeneous nucleation fraction as a consequence of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. The resulting ice indirect effects do not seem strongly dependent on the ice micro-physical balance, but are slightly larger for those states with less homogeneous nucleation in the base state. The total ice AIE is estimated at 0.260.09 Wm?2 (1? uncertainty). This represents an offset of 20-30% of the simulated total Aerosol Indirect Effect for ice and liquid clouds.

  8. No Confinement Needed: Observation of a Metastable Hydrophobic Wetting Two-Layer Ice on Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmel, Gregory A.; Matthiesen, Jesper; Baer, Marcel; Mundy, Christopher J.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Smith, R. Scott; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.

    2009-09-09

    The structure of water at interfaces is crucial for processes ranging from photocatalysis to protein folding. Here, we investigate the structure and lattice dynamics of two-layer crystalline ice films grown on a hydrophobic substrate - graphene on Pt(111) - with low energy electron diffraction, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, rare-gas adsorption/desorption, and ab-initio molecular dynamics. Unlike hexagonal ice, which consists of stacks of puckered hexagonal "bilayers", this new ice polymorph consists of two flat hexagonal sheets of water molecules in which the hexagons in each sheet are stacked directly on top of each other. Such two-layer ices have been predicted for water confined between hydrophobic slits, but not previously observed. Our results show that the two-layer ice forms even at zero pressure at a single hydrophobic interface by maximizing the number of hydrogen bonds at the expense of adopting a non-tetrahedral geometry with weakened bonds.

  9. ARM - Lesson Plans: When Land Ice Melts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Arctic and Antarctica are covered with large, heavy sheets of ice. Other islands like New Zealand have ice masses in the form of glaciers on them. When land-based ice melts, ...

  10. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator Title: Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a

  11. Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry Technology available for licensing: Proprietary method and equipment for making an ice slurry coolant to induce...

  12. Light propagation in the South Pole ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dawn; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is located in the ice near the geographic South Pole. Particle showers from neutrino interactions in the ice produce light which is detected by IceCube modules, and the amount and pattern of deposited light are used to reconstruct the properties of the incident neutrino. Since light is scattered and absorbed by ice between the neutrino interaction vertex and the sensor, IceCube event reconstruction depends on understanding the propagation of light through the ice. This paper presents the current status of modeling light propagation in South Pole ice, including the recent observation of an azimuthal anisotropy in the scattering.

  13. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicity in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.

  14. Flight Path Target 4 East Port

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 East Port Target 4 East Port Links Flight Path Overview Target 4 East Port About Target 4 East Port Collaborators Publications Links...

  15. Flight Path Target 4 East Port

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 East Port Target 4 East Port Links Flight Path Overview Target 4 East Port About Target 4 East Port Collaborators Publications Links

  16. Critical function and success path summary display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1995-01-01

    The content of and hierarchical access to three levels of display pages containing information on critical function monitoring and success path monitoring.

  17. Flight Path 15L - Chi-Nu

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    L This flight path is primarily used for the Chi-Nu experiments at 22 meters and neutron detector development and calibration at 90 meters. Target 4 Flight Path 15L (Chi-Nu) Target 4 Flight Path 15L (4FP15L) utilizes the neutrons that are produced at an angle of 15-degrees to the incident proton beam from the spallation source. It is unique among the WNR flight paths in that it has two experimental locations available at distances of 22 and 90 meters from the spallation target. The rectangular

  18. ClearPath | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TOOL Name: ClearPath AgencyCompany Organization: ICLEI Local Governmets for Sustainability USA Sector: Climate Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development, Greenhouse Gas Phase:...

  19. Resonant vibrational energy transfer in ice Ih

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, L.; Li, F.; Skinner, J. L.

    2014-06-28

    Fascinating anisotropy decay experiments have recently been performed on H{sub 2}O ice Ih by Timmer and Bakker [R. L. A. Timmer, and H. J. Bakker, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 4148 (2010)]. The very fast decay (on the order of 100 fs) is indicative of resonant energy transfer between OH stretches on different molecules. Isotope dilution experiments with deuterium show a dramatic dependence on the hydrogen mole fraction, which confirms the energy transfer picture. Timmer and Bakker have interpreted the experiments with a Frster incoherent hopping model, finding that energy transfer within the first solvation shell dominates the relaxation process. We have developed a microscopic theory of vibrational spectroscopy of water and ice, and herein we use this theory to calculate the anisotropy decay in ice as a function of hydrogen mole fraction. We obtain very good agreement with experiment. Interpretation of our results shows that four nearest-neighbor acceptors dominate the energy transfer, and that while the incoherent hopping picture is qualitatively correct, vibrational energy transport is partially coherent on the relevant timescale.

  20. Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as vehicles using gasoline-powered internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  1. Neutrino oscillations with IceCube DeepCore and PINGU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeYoung, T.; Collaboration: IceCube-PINGU Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube neutrino telescope was augmented with the DeepCore infill array, completed in the 2010/11 austral summer, to enhance its response to neutrinos below 100 GeV. At these energies, neutrino oscillation effects are visible in the flux of atmospheric neutrinos traversing path lengths comparable to the Earth's diameter. Initial measurements of muon neutrino disappearance parameters using data from DeepCore are presented, as well as an estimate of potential future precision. In addition, plans for a Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU), which could permit determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy within the coming decade, are discussed.

  2. Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, John E.

    2013-09-30

    Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single paththe shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.

  3. Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: CESM Land Ice Working Group ; 2015-06-17 - 2015-06-17 ; Breckenridge, Colorado, United ...

  4. Development of an ultrasonic pulse-echo (UPE) technique for aircraft icing studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang; Hu, Hui; Chen, Wen-Li; Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-02-18

    Aircraft operating in some cold weather conditions face the risk of icing. Icing poses a threat to flight safety and its management is expensive. Removing light frost on a clear day from a medium-size business jet can cost $300, heavy wet snow removal can cost $3,000 and removal of accumulated frozen/freezing rain can cost close to $10,000. Understanding conditions that lead to severe icing events is important and challenging. When an aircraft or rotorcraft flies in a cold climate, some of the super cooled droplets impinging on exposed aircraft surfaces may flow along the surface prior to freezing and give various forms and shapes of ice. The runback behavior of a water film on an aircraft affects the morphology of ice accretion and the rate of formation. In this study, we report the recent progress to develop an Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo (UPE) technique to provide real-time thickness distribution measurements of surface water flows driven by boundary layer airflows for aircraft icing studies. A series of initial experimental investigations are conducted in an ice wind tunnel employing an array of ultrasonic transducers placed underneath the surface of a flat plate. The water runback behavior on the plate is evaluated by measuring the thickness profile variation of the water film along the surface by using the UPE technique under various wind speed and flow rate conditions.

  5. Experimental investigation of ice slurry flow pressure drop in horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Pressure drop behaviour of ice slurry based on ethanol-water mixture in circular horizontal tubes has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethyl alcohol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The pressure drop tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 30% depending on test conditions. Results from flow tests reveal much higher pressure drop for higher ice concentrations and higher velocities in comparison to the single phase flow. However for ice concentrations of 15% and higher, certain velocity exists at which ice slurry pressure drop is same or even lower than for single phase flow. It seems that higher ice concentration delay flow pattern transition moment (from laminar to turbulent) toward higher velocities. In addition experimental results for pressure drop were compared to the analytical results, based on Poiseulle and Buckingham-Reiner models for laminar flow, Blasius, Darby and Melson, Dodge and Metzner, Steffe and Tomita for turbulent region and general correlation of Kitanovski which is valid for both flow regimes. For laminar flow and low buoyancy numbers Buckingham-Reiner method gives good agreement with experimental results while for turbulent flow best fit is provided with Dodge-Metzner and Tomita methods. Furthermore, for transport purposes it has been shown that ice mass fraction of 20% offers best ratio of ice slurry transport capability and required pumping power. (author)

  6. Highway De-icing Snowmelt Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    De-icing Snowmelt Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Highway De-icing Snowmelt Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Highway De-icing...

  7. Flight Path 90L - About TPC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 to 15m long. Instruments used on this flight path have included fission chambers and the fission Time Projection Chamber (TPC). tpc2 Partial view of FP90L (2013)...

  8. FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal More Documents...

  9. Path Integral for Stochastic Inflation: Non-Perturbative Volume...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Path Integral for Stochastic Inflation: Non-Perturbative Volume Weighting, Complex ... Title: Path Integral for Stochastic Inflation: Non-Perturbative Volume Weighting, Complex ...

  10. EIS-0516: Clean Path Energy Center Project; San Juan County,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Path Energy Center Project; San Juan County, New Mexico EIS-0516: Clean Path Energy Center Project; San Juan County, New Mexico Summary DOE's Western Area Power Administration is ...

  11. Long path-length experimental studies of longitudinal phenomena...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long path-length experimental studies of longitudinal phenomena in intense beams Citation ... This content will become publicly available on March 22, 2017 Title: Long path-length ...

  12. Commercial Light Water Production of Tritium Update and Path...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    D&T program; Production limited to 704 TPBARs without revision to Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident methodology 2012 - Production increased to 544 TPBARs with Lead Use Rods, ...

  13. Commercial Light Water Production of Tritium: Update and Path Forward

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the 32nd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Germantown, Maryland on April 23-25, 2013.

  14. The New ICE Age | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the heavy truck market PDF icon deer12gruden.pdf More Documents & Publications The New ICE Age The New ICE Age Roadmapping Engine Technology for Post-2020 Heavy Duty ...

  15. Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate change and projecting the impacts of ... COSIM researchers develop, test and apply ocean and ice models in support of DOE Climate ...

  16. Ice in Arctic Mixed-phase Stratocumulus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Nuclei Recycling in the Maintenance of Cloud Ice in Arctic Mixed-phase Stratocumulus For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.gov...

  17. Modeling the impediment of methane ebullition bubbles by seasonal lake ice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greene, S.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Archer, D.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K.

    2014-07-15

    Microbial methane (CH4) ebullition (bubbling) from anoxic lake sediments comprises a globally significant flux to the atmosphere, but ebullition bubbles in temperate and polar lakes can be trapped by winter ice cover and later released during spring thaw. This "ice-bubble storage" (IBS) constitutes a novel mode of CH4 emission. Before bubbles are encapsulated by downward-growing ice, some of their CH4 dissolves into the lake water, where it may be subject to oxidation. We present field characterization and a model of the annual CH4 cycle in Goldstream Lake, a thermokarst (thaw) lake in interior Alaska. We find that summertime ebullition dominatesmore » annual CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Eighty percent of CH4 in bubbles trapped by ice dissolves into the lake water column in winter, and about half of that is oxidized. The ice growth rate and the magnitude of the CH4 ebullition flux are important controlling factors of bubble dissolution. Seven percent of annual ebullition CH4 is trapped as IBS and later emitted as ice melts. In a future warmer climate, there will likely be less seasonal ice cover, less IBS, less CH4 dissolution from trapped bubbles, and greater CH4 emissions from northern lakes.« less

  18. Modeling the impediment of methane ebullition bubbles by seasonal lake ice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greene, S.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Archer, D.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K.

    2014-12-08

    Microbial methane (CH4) ebullition (bubbling) from anoxic lake sediments comprises a globally significant flux to the atmosphere, but ebullition bubbles in temperate and polar lakes can be trapped by winter ice cover and later released during spring thaw. This "ice-bubble storage" (IBS) constitutes a novel mode of CH4 emission. Before bubbles are encapsulated by downward-growing ice, some of their CH4 dissolves into the lake water, where it may be subject to oxidation. We present field characterization and a model of the annual CH4 cycle in Goldstream Lake, a thermokarst (thaw) lake in interior Alaska. We find that summertime ebullition dominatesmore » annual CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Eighty percent of CH4 in bubbles trapped by ice dissolves into the lake water column in winter, and about half of that is oxidized. The ice growth rate and the magnitude of the CH4 ebullition flux are important controlling factors of bubble dissolution. Seven percent of annual ebullition CH4 is trapped as IBS and later emitted as ice melts. In a future warmer climate, there will likely be less seasonal ice cover, less IBS, less CH4 dissolution from trapped bubbles, and greater CH4 emissions from northern lakes.« less

  19. Contractor SOW Template - ICE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ICE Contractor SOW Template - ICE The template presented below is a Statement of Work (SOW) for services of an ICE Support Contractor for assisting OECM in conducting an ICE. Project and review specific information should be incorporated. Explanatory text appears in italics, while information that should be selected appears in <<brackets>>. The format and contents of this SOW is not compulsory, and the use is at the discretion of the OECM Analysts, tailored as appropriate for the

  20. Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth, Space Sciences » Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate change and projecting the impacts of high-latitude change on regions throughout the globe. Contact Us Phil Jones Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics Email Wilbert Weijer Computational Physics and Methods Email Elizabeth Hunke Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics

  1. Laboratory Investigation of Contact Freezing and the Aerosol to Ice Crystal Transformation Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, Raymond A.

    2014-10-28

    This project has been focused on the following objectives: 1. Investigations of the physical processes governing immersion versus contact nucleation, specifically surface-induced crystallization; 2. Development of a quadrupole particle trap with full thermodynamic control over the temperature range 0 to –40 °C and precisely controlled water vapor saturation ratios for continuous, single-particle measurement of the aerosol to ice crystal transformation process for realistic ice nuclei; 3. Understanding the role of ice nucleation in determining the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds, within a framework that allows bridging between laboratory and field measurements.

  2. Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report The Norwegian Young Sea Ice (N-ICE) experiment was conducted aboard the R/V Lance research vessel from January through June 2015. The primary purpose of the experiment was to better understand thin, first-year sea ice. This includes understanding of how different components of the Arctic system

  3. Medical ice slurry production device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  4. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  5. Seismicity on the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface fracture in the vicinity of active moulins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Joughin, Ian; Behn, Mark D.; Das, Sarah; King, Matt A.; Stevens, Laura; Lizarralde, Dan

    2015-06-25

    We analyzed geophone and GPS measurements collected within the ablation zone of the western Greenland Ice Sheet during a ~35 day period of the 2011 melt season to study changes in ice deformation before, during, and after a supraglacial lake drainage event. During rapid lake drainage, ice flow speeds increased to ~400% of winter values, and icequake activity peaked. At times >7 days after drainage, this seismicity developed variability over both diurnal and longer periods (~10 days), while coincident ice speeds fell to ~150% of winter values and showed nightly peaks in spatial variability. Approximately 95% of all detected seismicitymore » in the lake basin and its immediate vicinity was triggered by fracture propagation within near-surface ice (<330 m deep) that generated Rayleigh waves. Icequakes occurring before and during drainage frequently were collocated with the down flow (west) end of the primary hydrofracture through which the lake drained but shifted farther west and outside the lake basin after the drainage. We interpret these results to reveal vertical hydrofracture opening and local uplift during the drainage, followed by enhanced seismicity and ice flow on the downstream side of the lake basin. This region collocates with interferometric synthetic aperture radar-measured speedup in previous years and could reflect the migration path of the meltwater supplied to the bed by the lake. The diurnal seismic signal can be associated with nightly reductions in surface melt input that increase effective basal pressure and traction, thereby promoting elevated strain in the surficial ice.« less

  6. Evaluating and Constraining Ice Cloud Parameterizations in CAM5 using Aircraft Measurements from the SPARTICUS Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Minghuai; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mitchell, David; Mishra, Subhashree; Mace, Gerald G.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses aircraft measurements of relative humidity and ice crystal size distribution collected in synoptic cirrus during the SPARTICUS (Small PARTicles In CirrUS) field campaign to evaluate and constrain ice cloud parameterizations in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The probability density function (PDF) of ice crystal number concentration (Ni) derived from high frequency (1 Hz) measurements features a strong dependence on ambient temperature. As temperature decreases from -35C to -62C, the peak in the PDF shifts from 10-20 L-1 to 200-1000 L-1, while the ice crystal number concentration shows a factor of 6-7 increase. Model simulations are performed with two different insitu ice nucleation schemes. One of the schemes can reproduce a clear increase of Ni with decreasing temperature, by using either an observation based ice nuclei spectrum or a classical theory based spectrum with a relatively low (5%-10%) maximum freezing ratio for dust aerosols. The simulation with the other scheme, which assumes a high maximum freezing ratio (100%), shows much weaker temperature dependence of Ni. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to water vapor deposition and the auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that a value between 0.05 and 0.1 for the water vapor deposition coefficient and 250 um for the critical ice crystal size can produce good agreements between model simulation and the SPARTICUS measurements in terms of ice crystal number concentration and effective radius. The climate impact of perturbing these parameters is also discussed.

  7. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carangelo, Robert M. (Glastonbury, CT); Wright, David D. (Vershire, VT)

    1995-01-01

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal focii coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell.

  8. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carangelo, R.M.; Wright, D.D.

    1995-08-08

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal foci coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell. 10 figs.

  9. From fire to ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adcock, P.W.

    1995-06-01

    Absorption chillers are heat-operate refrigeration without harmful environmental emissions (CFCs, HCFCS, and HFCS). The machine uses either steam or a gas-fired burner as the energy source and utilizes endothermic evaporation to provide refrigeration to an external process fluid, usually chilled water. In the United States, absorption chillers are used in regions where the cost of electricity is high relative to natural gas. Absorption chillers are also used in applications where steam is readily available or in areas where seasonal load peaks cause utilities to subsidize gas cooling. This paper will describe the history of absorption, the basic absorption refrigeration cycle and some advanced high efficiency cycles. Practical applications of absorption refrigeration to commercial end uses will also be discussed.

  10. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

  11. On the Path to SunShot- Environmental Benefits of Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetration of Solar Energy in the United States report highlights how increasing the amount of solar energy connected to the grid will benefit the environment by reducing water scarcity, curbing pollution, mitigating climate change, and creating better health outcomes.

  12. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixed-phase stratocumulus (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed phase stratocumulus in large-eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a

  13. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mixed-phase stratocumulus (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus in large eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a

  14. Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

  15. The measured compositions of Uranus and Neptune from their formation on the CO ice line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-20

    The formation mechanisms of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, and the origin of their elemental and isotopic compositions, have long been debated. The density of solids in the outer protosolar nebula is too low to explain their formation, and spectroscopic observations show that both planets are highly enriched in carbon, very poor in nitrogen, and the ices from which they originally formed might have had deuterium-to-hydrogen ratios lower than the predicted cometary value, unexplained properties that were observed in no other planets. Here, we show that all these properties can be explained naturally if Uranus and Neptune both formed at the carbon monoxide ice line. Due to the diffusive redistribution of vapors, this outer region of the protosolar nebula intrinsically has enough surface density to form both planets from carbon-rich solids but nitrogen-depleted gas, in abundances consistent with their observed values. Water-rich interiors originating mostly from transformed CO ices reconcile the D/H value of Uranus's and Neptune's building blocks with the cometary value. Finally, our scenario generalizes a well known hypothesis that Jupiter formed on an ice line (water snow line) for the two ice giants, and might be a first step toward generalizing this mechanism for other giant planets.

  16. A GCM Parameterization of Ice Particle Mean Effective Sizes for High Latitude Cirrus Clouds and It's Comparison with Mid-Latitude Parmaterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GCM Parameterization of Ice Particle Mean Effective Sizes for High Latitude Cirrus Clouds and It's Comparison with Mid-Latitude Parameterization F. S. Boudala Department of Oceanography Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Q. Fu Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Washington Seattle, Washington G. A. Issac Meteorological Service of Canada Toronto, Ontario, Canada Introduction Single-scattering properties of ice clouds depend on both ice water content (IWC) and effective

  17. The Flight Paths for Biojet Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Flight Paths for Biojet Fuel Tony Radich October 9, 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES October 2015 Tony Radich | U.S. Energy Information Administration | This paper is released to

  18. Video Highlights Accomplishments, Path Forward for WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 17, 2016 Video Highlights Accomplishments, Path Forward for WIPP Participants at the Waste Management Symposium in Phoenix learned last week about the progress that has been made to recover the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and what steps remain to restart WIPP, the nation's only deep-geologic repository for defense transuranic waste later this year. As part of the update, WIPP's leadership team showed a short video that provides key elements of the recovery

  19. Molecular interactions with ice: Molecular embedding, adsorption, detection, and release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, K. D.; Langlois, Grant G.; Li, Wenxin; Sibener, S. J.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2014-11-14

    The interaction of atomic and molecular species with water and ice is of fundamental importance for chemistry. In a previous series of publications, we demonstrated that translational energy activates the embedding of Xe and Kr atoms in the near surface region of ice surfaces. In this paper, we show that inert molecular species may be absorbed in a similar fashion. We also revisit Xe embedding, and further probe the nature of the absorption into the selvedge. CF{sub 4} molecules with high translational energies (?3 eV) were observed to embed in amorphous solid water. Just as with Xe, the initial adsorption rate is strongly activated by translational energy, but the CF{sub 4} embedding probability is much less than for Xe. In addition, a larger molecule, SF{sub 6}, did not embed at the same translational energies that both CF{sub 4} and Xe embedded. The embedding rate for a given energy thus goes in the order Xe > CF{sub 4} > SF{sub 6}. We do not have as much data for Kr, but it appears to have a rate that is between that of Xe and CF{sub 4}. Tentatively, this order suggests that for Xe and CF{sub 4}, which have similar van der Waals radii, the momentum is the key factor in determining whether the incident atom or molecule can penetrate deeply enough below the surface to embed. The more massive SF{sub 6} molecule also has a larger van der Waals radius, which appears to prevent it from stably embedding in the selvedge. We also determined that the maximum depth of embedding is less than the equivalent of four layers of hexagonal ice, while some of the atoms just below the ice surface can escape before ice desorption begins. These results show that energetic ballistic embedding in ice is a general phenomenon, and represents a significant new channel by which incident species can be trapped under conditions where they would otherwise not be bound stably as surface adsorbates. These findings have implications for many fields including environmental science, trace gas collection and release, and the chemical composition of astrophysical icy bodies in space.

  20. Ice Nucleation of Bare and Sulfuric Acid-coated Mineral Dust Particles and Implication for Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Sanders, Cassandra N.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2014-08-27

    Ice nucleation properties of different dust species coated with soluble material are not well understood. We determined the ice nucleation ability of bare and sulfuric acid coated mineral dust particles as a function of temperature (-25 to -35 deg C) and relative humidity with respect to water (RHw). Five different mineral dust species: Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, montmorillonite, quartz and kaolinite were dry dispersed and size-selected at 150 nm and exposed to sulfuric acid vapors in the coating apparatus. The condensed sulfuric acid soluble mass fraction per particle was estimated from the cloud condensation nuclei activated fraction measurements. The fraction of dust particles nucleating ice at various temperatures and RHw was determined using a compact ice chamber. In water-subsaturated conditions, compared to bare dust particles, we found that only coated ATD particles showed suppression of ice nucleation ability while other four dust species did not showed the effect of coating on the fraction of particles nucleating ice. The results suggest that interactions between the dust surface and sulfuric acid vapor are important, such that interactions may or may not modify the surface via chemical reactions with sulfuric acid. At water-supersaturated conditions we did not observed the effect of coating, i.e. the bare and coated dust particles had similar ice nucleation behavior.

  1. Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... This includes understanding how different components of the Arctic system affect sea ice (e.g., atmosphere, ocean), but also how changing sea ice affects the system (e.g., ecology, ...

  2. Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    46 Investigations of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ocean and Ice Conditions in and Near the Marginal Ice Zone: The "Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment" (MIZOPEX) Final Campaign Summary JA Maslanik February 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any

  3. Automatic Commercial Ice Makers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Automatic Commercial Ice Makers The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. File Automatic Commercial Ice Makers -- v2.0 More Documents

  4. Working with Utilities: Effective Paths for Tribal Governments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working with Utilities: Effective Paths for Tribal Governments Webinar Working with Utilities: Effective Paths for Tribal Governments Webinar September 30, 2015 11:00AM to 12:30PM...

  5. MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs Print Friday, 27 February 2015 17:11 Hu et al. designed a new yellow phosphor with high...

  6. Solar Decathlon 2013 Infographic: The Path to a Brighter Future...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infographic: The Path to a Brighter Future Solar Decathlon 2013 Infographic: The Path to a Brighter Future September 13, 2013 - 11:50am Addthis Our latest infographic -- Solar ...

  7. The Path to Low Carbon Passenger Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Path to Low Carbon Passenger Vehicles The Path to Low Carbon Passenger Vehicles Technology to reduce GHG emissions by 40% available by 2025, and cost effective. PDF icon ...

  8. Solar Decathlon 2013 Infographic: The Path to a Brighter Future...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infographic: The Path to a Brighter Future Solar Decathlon 2013 Infographic: The Path to a Brighter Future September 13, 2013 - 11:50am Addthis Our latest infographic -- Solar...

  9. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Hydrogen bonds are...

  10. The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane October 11, 2012 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 Ram.jpg The cover ...

  11. Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice Sheet

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulations (Conference) | SciTech Connect Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice Sheet Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice Sheet Simulations Authors: Lipscomb, William [1] ; Leguy, Gunter [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2015-06-17 OSTI Identifier: 1186039 Report Number(s): LA-UR-15-24514 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type:

  12. Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics Authors: Frank, Mark R. ; Scott, Henry P. ; Aarestad, Elizabeth ; Prakapenka, Vitali B. [1] ; UC) [2] ; NIU) [2] + Show Author Affiliations Indiana ( Publication Date: 2015-12-10 OSTI Identifier: 1229896 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation:

  13. Laboratory investigations of irradiated acetonitrile-containing ices on an interstellar dust analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulgalil, Ali G. M.; Marchione, Demian; Rosu-Finsen, Alexander; Collings, Mark P.; McCoustra, Martin R. S.

    2012-07-15

    Reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy is used to study the impact of low-energy electron irradiation of acetonitrile-containing ices, under conditions close to those in the dense star-forming regions in the interstellar medium. Both the incident electron energy and the surface coverage were varied. The experiments reveal that solid acetonitrile is desorbed from its ultrathin solid films with a cross section of the order of 10{sup -17} cm{sup 2}. Evidence is presented for a significantly larger desorption cross section for acetonitrile molecules at the water-ice interface, similar to that previously observed for the benzene-water system.

  14. Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. ... Title: Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in ...

  15. Southern Great Plains Ice Nuclei Characterization Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization Experiment Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Southern Great Plains Ice Nuclei Characterization Experiment Final Campaign ...

  16. Comparison of 17 Ice Nucleation Measurement Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 Ice Nucleation Measurement Techniques for Immersion Freezing For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research...

  17. Hygroscopicity of fuels with anti-icing additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedrik, B.G.; Golubushkin, V.N.; Uspenskii, S.I.

    1984-03-01

    This article investigates the accumulation of water by hydrocarbon fuels under static and dynamic conditions. Standard TS-1 fuel (aviation kerosine) is examined without an anti-icing additive (AIA) and blended with ethyl cellosolve or tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol in the concentrations that are added to fuel before refueling flight vehicles under service conditions in order to prevent the formation of ice crystals in the fuel. The fuel hygroscopicity under static conditions is measured in desiccators over saturated salt solutions giving air relative humidities from 37% to 97% at 20/sup 0/C. It is determined that tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol increases the fuel hygroscopicity to a greater degree than does the ethyl cellosolve. The fuel containing the AIA becomes a medium for the transfer of water from the ambient medium to the emulsion droplets, and these droplets in turn form a liquid phase. It is shown that the rate at which the fuel with the AIA becomes saturated with water under dynamic conditions is much greater than under static conditions. In the fuel without the AIA no water emulsion is formed, even with prolonged contact (more than 2 days) with 100% humidity air, whereas in the fuel with the AIA (even with 0.1% ethyl cellosolve), emulsion and liquid phase are formed. It is concluded that the physical stability of fuel containing AIA depends on the AIA concentration. Includes 3 tables.

  18. Path integral quantization of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the Hamiltonian structure of the system following Dirac's methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation of one-loop approximations of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  19. Path to Economic Sovereignty: Arctic Opportunities

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Path to Economic Sovereignty: Arctic Opportunities Presented by Kip Knudson Office of Alaska Governor Bill Walker Slide Deck prepared by Sean Skaling, Director, Alaska Energy Authority Photo by Chuck Berray 200 remote microgrids spread over large area  Population: 735,000  Area: 660,000 sq. miles  1.2 people/sq. mile  New Jersey has 1,000 times the density  About 200 stand-alone microgrid communities 3 Alaska Electrical Generation Railbelt 72% of Pop 76% of Energy Natural Gas*

  20. Flight Path 60R - About GEANIE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Target 4 Flight Path 60R (GEANIE) GErmanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE) is the first large-scale, escape-suppressed, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer to be used at a white neutron source. It is now installed at the WNR high-energy neutron facility at LANSCE. The operation and upgrade of GEANIE is a joint project of the Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories, funded primarily by the Stockpile Stewardship program of the NNSA. geanie2 The GEANIE Array

  1. Career Paths | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Career Paths Learning doesn't stop with a college or post-graduate degree. It is a key part of individual career development and is central to NNSA's efforts to build a highly-skilled workforce ready to meet the challenges of a changing world. Learning doesn't stop with a college or post-graduate degree. It is a key part of individual career development and is central to NNSA's efforts to build a highly-skilled workforce ready to meet the challenges of a changing world. NNSA executives listened

  2. A direct evidence of vibrationally delocalized response at ice surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Morita, Akihiro

    2014-11-14

    Surface-specific vibrational spectroscopic responses at isotope diluted ice and amorphous ice are investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. The intense response specific to the ordinary crystal ice surface is predicted to be significantly suppressed in the isotopically diluted and amorphous ices, demonstrating the vibrational delocalization at the ordinary ice surface. The collective vibration at the ice surface is also analyzed with varying temperature by the MD simulation.

  3. Cable twisting due to atmospheric icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComber, P.; Druez, J.; Savadjiev, K.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of ice accretions collected on cables of overhead transmission lines have shown evidence of twisting of the cable during atmospheric icing. Previous work has attributed cable twisting to the torque created by the weight of an eccentric ice shape and by wind forces. However, testing of stranded cables and conductors has shown that such cables also twist when there is a change in tension in the cable span. This phenomenon is related to the interaction of the different strand layers under tension. When a cable is subjected to atmospheric icing, cable tension increases and this type of twisting should also be considered. In order to determine how the two types of twisting would compare on transmission lines, a numerical simulation was made using characteristics of a typical 35-mm stranded conductor. The twist angle was computed as a function of cable span, sag to span ratio and increasing ice loads. The simulation shows that for transmission lines, twisting due to varying tension will be significant. Since cable tension is influenced by wind speed and ambient temperature as well as ice load, this phenomenon, unless prevented, results in ice accretion more circular in shape and hence eventually in larger ice loads.

  4. Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smidstrup, Sren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt

    2014-06-07

    A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used.

  5. Sandia Energy - Ice-Sheet Simulation Code Matures, Leveraging...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and as the land ice component of coupled climate simulations in DOE's Earth System Model. The land ice component is responsible for simulating the evolution of the...

  6. Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    melting of Greenland ice sheet Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet International research team's field work shows that, well, things are more complicated...

  7. STATEMENT OF WORK (SOW) TEMPLATE FOR ICE SUPPORT CONTRACTOR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ICE Scope: Perform a <ICE Contractor may mutually agree to add or delete particular sections, based ...

  8. ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Documents & Publications INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures Contractor SOW Template - ICR Contractor SOW Template - ICE...

  9. Building a next-generation community ice sheet model: meeting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Building a next-generation community ice sheet model: meeting summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Building a next-generation community ice sheet ...

  10. New climate model predicts likelihood of Greenland ice melt,...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New climate model predicts likelihood of Greenland ice melt New climate model predicts likelihood of Greenland ice melt, sea level rise and dangerous temperatures A new computer ...

  11. Greenland Ice Sheet Modeling Update (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Greenland Ice Sheet Modeling Update Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Greenland Ice Sheet Modeling Update You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's...

  12. Optimal Initial Conditions for Coupling Ice Sheet Models to Earth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Coupling Ice Sheet Models to Earth System Models. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optimal Initial Conditions for Coupling Ice Sheet Models to Earth System Models. ...

  13. Department of Energy Land Ice Modeling Efforts (Conference) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Land Ice Modeling Efforts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Department of Energy Land Ice Modeling Efforts Authors: Price, Stephen F. Dr 1 + Show Author...

  14. Modeling the Alaskan Continental Shelf waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, S.K.; Leendertse, J.J.

    1987-10-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional ocean circulation model and two dimensional stochastic weather model used to calculate hypothetical oil-spill trajectories over the Alaskan Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas. Special consideration is given to the movement of sea ice in areas characterized by the presence of seasonal ice, and to ice/water interaction under different current and wind conditions. Spreading, dispersion, and weathering of crude oil, and probable landfalls of trajectories are calculated under hypothetical scenarios of oil spills from tanker accidents and well blow-outs. The report also provides comparisons between simulated data on water and sea ice motion with available field observations.

  15. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE FORMATION OF FORMIC ACID (HCOOH) IN INTERSTELLAR AND COMETARY ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Chris J.; Kim, Yong Seol; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Hama, Tetsuya; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2011-01-20

    Mixtures of water (H{sub 2}O) and carbon monoxide (CO) ices were irradiated at 10 K with energetic electrons to simulate the energy transfer processes that occur in the track of galactic cosmic-ray particles penetrating interstellar ices. We identified formic acid (HCOOH) through new absorption bands in the infrared spectra at 1690 and 1224 cm{sup -1} (5.92 and 8.17 {mu}m, respectively). During the subsequent warm-up of the irradiated samples, formic acid is evident from the mass spectrometer signal at the mass-to-charge ratio, m/z = 46 (HCOOH{sup +}) as the ice sublimates. The detection of formic acid was confirmed using isotopically labeled water-d2 with carbon monoxide, leading to formic acid-d2 (DCOOD). The temporal fits of the reactants, reaction intermediates, and products elucidate two reaction pathways to formic acid in carbon monoxide-water ices. The reaction is induced by unimolecular decomposition of water forming atomic hydrogen (H) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). The dominating pathway to formic acid (HCOOH) was found to involve addition of suprathermal hydrogen atoms to carbon monoxide forming the formyl radical (HCO); the latter recombined with neighboring hydroxyl radicals to yield formic acid (HCOOH). To a lesser extent, hydroxyl radicals react with carbon monoxide to yield the hydroxyformyl radical (HOCO), which recombined with atomic hydrogen to produce formic acid. Similar processes are expected to produce formic acid within interstellar ices, cometary ices, and icy satellites, thus providing alternative processes for the generation of formic acid whose abundance in hot cores such as Sgr-B2 cannot be accounted for solely by gas-phase chemistry.

  16. Anaerobic treatment of aircraft de-icing agent using the SNC-LAVALIN Multiplate Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulligan, C.; Chebib, J.; Safi, B.

    1997-12-31

    A system for the anaerobic treatment of aircraft de-icing agent has been developed by SNC Research Corp., a subsidiary of the SNC-LAVALIN Group (Montreal, Canada). The de-icing agent used in the evaluation contains 54% ethylene glycol, 46% water and trace additives such as surfactants and colorants. The process is comprised of a buffer tank and the SNC-LAVALIN Multiplate Reactor and is as follows. The effluent containing the aircraft de-icing agent with ethylene glycol as the major component enters the buffer tank where the temperature and pH adjustment and the addition of nutrients takes place. The water is then sent to the SNC-LAVALIN Multiplate Reactor. Here, the de-icing agent is converted to biogas which contains 80% methane and the liquid effluent which is essentially ethylene glycol free is discharged. The biogas can be either burned in a flare or used for heating purposes. The following results are typical for the aircraft de-icing agent: Greater than 90% total COD and 99% ethylene glycol removal at an organic load of 15 kg COD/m{sup 3}-day. The de-icing agent can be collected and subsequently treated on-site using the SNC-LAVALIN system. The advantages of the SNC-LAVALIN system are low capital and operating costs, possibility of treating a wide range of de-icing agent concentrations and other liquid effluents unlike evaporation processes, potential recuperation of the biogas and a gentle technology for the environment without generation of VOCs.

  17. Ice formation in PEM fuel cells operated isothermally at sub-freezing temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Luhan, Roger W; Davey, John R; Spendelow, Jacob S; Borup, Rodney L; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David L; Arif, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    The effect of MEA and GDL structure and composition on the performance of single-PEM fuel cells operated isothermally at subfreezing temperatures is presented. The cell performance and durability are not only dependent on the MEA/GDL materials used but also on their interfaces. When a cell is operated isothermally at sub-freezing temperatures in constant current mode, the water formation due to the current density initially hydrates the membrane/ionomer and then forms ice in the catalyst layer/GDL. An increase in high frequency resistance was also observed in certain MEAs where there is a possibility of ice formation between the catalyst layer and GDL leading to a loss in contact area. The total water/ice holding capacity for any MEA was lower at lower temperatures and higher current densities. The durability of MEAs subjected to multiple isothermal starts was better for LANL prepared MEAs as compared to commercial MEAs, and cloth GDLs when compared to paper GDLs. The ice formation was monitored using high-resolution neutron radiography and was found to be concentrated near the cathode catalyst layer. However, there was significant ice formation in the GDLs especially at the higher temperature ({approx} -10 C) and lower current density (0.02 A/cm{sup 2}) operations. These results are consistent with the longer-term durability observations that show more severe degradation at the lower temperatures.

  18. An update on modeling land-ice/ocean interactions in CESM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asay-davis, Xylar

    2011-01-24

    This talk is an update on ongoing land-ice/ocean coupling work within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). The coupling method is designed to allow simulation of a fully dynamic ice/ocean interface, while requiring minimal modification to the existing ocean model (the Parallel Ocean Program, POP). The method makes use of an immersed boundary method (IBM) to represent the geometry of the ice-ocean interface without requiring that the computational grid be modified in time. We show many of the remaining development challenges that need to be addressed in order to perform global, century long climate runs with fully coupled ocean and ice sheet models. These challenges include moving to a new grid where the computational pole is no longer at the true south pole and several changes to the coupler (the software tool used to communicate between model components) to allow the boundary between land and ocean to vary in time. We discuss benefits for ice/ocean coupling that would be gained from longer-term ocean model development to allow for natural salt fluxes (which conserve both water and salt mass, rather than water volume).

  19. Water in protoplanetary disks: Deuteration and turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Nomura, Hideko; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

    2013-12-10

    We investigate water and deuterated water chemistry in turbulent protoplanetary disks. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking turbulent mixing in a vertical direction. Water near the midplane is transported to the disk atmosphere by turbulence and is destroyed by photoreactions to produce atomic oxygen, while the atomic oxygen is transported to the midplane and reforms water and/or other molecules. We find that this cycle significantly decreases column densities of water ice at r ? 30 AU, where dust temperatures are too high to reform water ice effectively. The radial extent of such region depends on the desorption energy of atomic hydrogen. Our model indicates that water ice could be deficient even outside the sublimation radius. Outside this radius, the cycle decreases the deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio of water ice from ?2 10{sup 2}, which is set by the collapsing core model, to 10{sup 4}-10{sup 2} in 10{sup 6} yr, without significantly decreasing the water ice column density. The resultant D/H ratios depend on the strength of mixing and the radial distance from the central star. Our finding suggests that the D/H ratio of cometary water (?10{sup 4}) could be established (i.e., cometary water could be formed) in the solar nebula, even if the D/H ratio of water ice delivered to the disk was very high (?10{sup 2}).

  20. Video monitoring of atmospheric icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wareing, J.B.; Chetwood, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past six years, EA Technology has been involved in the remote monitoring of test spans and samples of overhead transmission line conductors in the UK in areas chosen for their severe winter weather. The sites are unmanned and regularly suffer gales, blizzards and severe icing conditions. Test samples at the sites are monitored day and night using automate, computer and remotely controlled video and still cameras using both the visible and near infrared spectrum. Video and still picture data is stored on site for periodic collection. Meteorological and load force data is collected and also stored at these remote sites and is sent automatically by mobile phone link to a computer at the EA Technology center. All this data can also be monitored at any time at the center over 200 miles away.

  1. Hot gas path component cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  2. Wind turbine performance under icing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasinski, W.J.; Noe, S.C.; Selig, M.S.; Bragg, M.B.

    1998-02-01

    The effects of rime ice on horizontal axis wind turbine performance were estimated. For typical supercooled fog conditions found in cold northern regions, four rime ice accretions on the S809 wind turbine airfoil were predicted using the NASA LEWICE code. The resulting airfoil/ice profile combinations were wind tunnel tested to obtain the lift, drag, and pitching moment characteristics over the Reynolds number range 1--2 {times} 10{sup 6}. These data were used in the PROPID wind turbine performance prediction code to predict the effects of rime ice on a 450-kW rated-power, 28.7-m diameter turbine operated under both stall-regulated and variable-speed/variable-pitch modes. Performance losses on the order of 20% were observed for the variable-speed/variable-pitch rotor. For the stall-regulated rotor, however, a relatively small rime ice profile yielded significantly larger performance losses. For a larger 0.08c-long rime ice protrusion, however, the rated peak power was exceeded by 16% because at high angles the rime ice shape acted like a leading edge flap, thereby increasing the airfoil C{sub l,max} and delaying stall.

  3. Critical Mechanisms for the Formation of Extreme Arctic Sea-Ice Extent in the Summers of 2007 and 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xiquan; Zib, Benjamin J.; Xi, Baike; Stanfield, Ryan; Deng, Yi; Zhang, Xiangdong; Lin, B.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-07-29

    A warming Arctic climate is undergoing significant e 21 nvironmental change, most evidenced by the reduction of Arctic sea-ice extent during the summer. In this study, we examine two extreme anomalies of September sea-ice extent in 2007 and 1996, and investigate the impacts of cloud fraction (CF), atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV), downwelling longwave flux (DLF), surface air temperature (SAT), pressure and winds on the sea-ice variation in 2007 and 1996 using both satellite-derived sea-ice products and MERRA reanalysis. The area of the Laptev, East Siberian and West Chukchi seas (70-90oN, 90-180oE) has experienced the largest variation in sea-ice extent from year-to-year and defined here as the Area Of Focus (AOF). The record low September sea-ice extent in 2007 was associated with positive anomalies 30 of CF, PWV, DLF, and SAT over the AOF. Persistent anti-cyclone positioned over the Beaufort Sea coupled with low pressure over Eurasia induced easterly zonal and southerly meridional winds. In contrast, negative CF, PWV, DLF and SAT anomalies, as well as opposite wind patterns to those in 2007, characterized the 1996 high September sea-ice extent. Through this study, we hypothesize the following positive feedbacks of clouds, water vapor, radiation and atmospheric variables on the sea-ice retreat during the summer 2007. The record low sea-ice extent during the summer 2007 is initially triggered by the atmospheric circulation anomaly. The southerly winds across the Chukchi and East Siberian seas transport warm, moist air from the north Pacific, which is not only enhancing sea-ice melt across the AOF, but also increasing clouds. The positive cloud feedback results in higher SAT and more sea-ice melt. Therefore, 40 more water vapor could be evaporated from open seas and higher SAT to form more clouds, which will enhance positive cloud feedback. This enhanced positive cloud feedback will then further increase SAT and accelerate the sea-ice retreat during the summer 2007.

  4. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases.

  5. The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arctic mixed-phase clouds The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of arctic mixed-phase clouds Avramov, Alexander The Pennsylvania State University Category: Modeling Mixed-phase arctic stratus clouds are the predominant cloud type in the Arctic . Perhaps one of the most intriguing of their features is that they tend to have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Despite the fact that this situation is colloidally unstable, these cloud systems are quite long lived

  6. Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System Y-12 National Security Complex Contact Y12 About...

  7. The Path to Program Sustainability | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Path to Program Sustainability The strategies outlined below help create self-sustaining clean energy finance programs. Prove Energy Efficiency Finance as a Profitable Line of ...

  8. Graph Coarsening for Path Finding in Cybersecurity Graphs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Emilie A.; Johnson, John R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2013-01-01

    n the pass-the-hash attack, hackers repeatedly steal password hashes and move through a computer network with the goal of reaching a computer with high level administrative privileges. In this paper we apply graph coarsening in network graphs for the purpose of detecting hackers using this attack or assessing the risk level of the network's current state. We repeatedly take graph minors, which preserve the existence of paths in the graph, and take powers of the adjacency matrix to count the paths. This allows us to detect the existence of paths as well as find paths that have high risk of being used by adversaries.

  9. Office of River Protection's (ORP) Path to Reinvigorating Technology...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Office of River Protection's (ORP) Path to Reinvigorating Technology Development Presentation from the 2015 DOE National Cleanup Workshop by Kevin Smith, Manager, Office of River ...

  10. Two-path plasmonic interferometer with integrated detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Aizin, Gregory

    2016-03-29

    An electrically tunable terahertz two-path plasmonic interferometer with an integrated detection element can down convert a terahertz field to a rectified DC signal. The integrated detector utilizes a resonant plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism that measures the component of the plasma waves in-phase with an excitation field that functions as the local oscillator in the mixer. The plasmonic interferometer comprises two independently tuned electrical paths. The plasmonic interferometer enables a spectrometer-on-a-chip where the tuning of electrical path length plays an analogous role to that of physical path length in macroscopic Fourier transform interferometers.

  11. Community-Based Forest (Natural) Resource Management: A Path...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Based Forest (Natural) Resource Management: A Path to Sustainable Environment and Development Jump to: navigation, search Name Community-Based Forest (Natural) Resource Management:...

  12. Entropic description of gas hydrate ice/liquid equilibrium via enhanced sampling of coexisting phases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Kim, Jaegil; Keyes, Tom

    2015-04-28

    Metastable β ice holds small guest molecules in stable gas hydrates, so its solid/liquid equilibrium is of interest. However, aqueous crystal/liquid transitions are very difficult to simulate. A new MD algorithm generates trajectories in a generalized NPT ensemble and equilibrates states of coexisting phases with a selectable enthalpy. Furthermore, with replicas spanning the range between β ice and liquid water we find the statistical temperature from the enthalpy histograms and characterize the transition by the entropy, introducing a general computational procedure for first-order transitions.

  13. De-icing: recovery of diffraction intensities in the presence of ice rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Michael S.; Somasundaram, Thayumanasamy

    2010-11-03

    Macromolecular structures are routinely determined at cryotemperatures using samples flash-cooled in the presence of cryoprotectants. However, sometimes the best diffraction is obtained under conditions where ice formation is not completely ablated, with the result that characteristic ice rings are superimposed on the macromolecular diffraction. In data processing, the reflections that are most affected by the ice rings are usually excluded. Here, an alternative approach of subtracting the ice diffraction is tested. High completeness can be retained with little adverse effect upon the quality of the integrated data. This offers an alternate strategy when high levels of cryoprotectant lead to loss of crystal quality.

  14. An analysis of selected atmospheric icing events on test cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Druez, J.; McComber, P.; Laflamme, J.

    1996-12-01

    In cold countries, the design of transmission lines and communication networks requires the knowledge of ice loads on conductors. Atmospheric icing is a stochastic phenomenon and therefore probabilistic design is used more and more for structure icing analysis. For strength and reliability assessments, a data base on atmospheric icing is needed to characterize the distributions of ice load and corresponding meteorological parameters. A test site where icing is frequent is used to obtain field data on atmospheric icing. This test site is located on the Mt. Valin, near Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada. The experimental installation is mainly composed of various instrumented but non-energized test cables, meteorological instruments, a data acquisition system, and a video recorder. Several types of icing events can produce large ice accretions dangerous for land-based structures. They are rime due to in-cloud icing, glaze caused by freezing rain, wet snow, and mixtures of these types of ice. These icing events have very different characteristics and must be distinguished, before statistical analysis, in a data base on atmospheric icing. This is done by comparison of data from a precipitation gauge, an icing rate meter and a temperature sensor. An analysis of selected icing periods recorded on the cables of two perpendicular test lines during the 1992--1993 winter season is presented. Only significant icing events have been considered. A comparative analysis of the ice load on the four test cables is drawn from the data, and typical accretion and shedding parameters are calculated separately for icing events related to in-cloud icing and precipitation icing.

  15. Investigations of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ocean and Ice

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conditions in and Near the Marginal Ice Zone. The "Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment" (MIZOPEX) Final Campaign Summary (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Investigations of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ocean and Ice Conditions in and Near the Marginal Ice Zone. The "Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Processes Experiment" (MIZOPEX) Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigations of Spatial and Temporal

  16. Melting of ice wedges adds to arctic warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can we someday predict earthquakes? Melting of ice wedges adds to arctic warming New ways of looking at seismic information and innovative laboratory experiments are offering tantalizing clues to what triggers earthquakes-and when. March 14, 2016 Ice throughout the Arctic is vanishing due to a rapidly warming climate. Ice throughout the Arctic is vanishing due to a rapidly warming climate. Melting of ice wedges adds to arctic warming Ice wedges are a particularly cool surface feature in the

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    in Minnesota Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air

  18. Hanford spent nuclear fuel project recommended path forward, volume III: Alternatives and path forward evaluation supporting documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Volume I of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project - Recommended Path Forward constitutes an aggressive series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to safely retrieve, package, transport, process, and store K Basins fuel and sludge. Volume II provided a comparative evaluation of four Alternatives for the Path Forward and an evaluation for the Recommended Path Forward. Although Volume II contained extensive appendices, six supporting documents have been compiled in Volume III to provide additional background for Volume II.

  19. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  20. A Path to Collaborative Strategic Learning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy M. Carlson

    2003-10-01

    Collaborative learning is critical for the future of any organization and must align with the strategic organizational processes that result in products valued by others. To discover these processes, proposal preparation is explored using topic-oriented ethnography, grounded theory, and an innovative addition to qualitative interviewing, called metainquiry. Using interview data from editors, graphic artists, text processors, scientists, engineers, and technical managers, substantive theory emerges. The research discovers the five essential processes of owning, visioning, reviewing, producing, and contributing needed for organizational strategic learning to occur. The dimensions of these processes are made explicit and can be used to gauge the health of any organization. The substantive theory also provides insight into the ability of collaborative learning to evolve, flourish, and adapt to the strategic advantage of the organization. Lastly, actionable goals with ten essential elements emerge that link owning, visioning, reviewing, producing, and contributing as a path for all organizations to follow to promote collaborative learning communities and enhance their competitive advantage.

  1. NGNP Program 2013 Status and Path Forward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-03-01

    High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology can play an important role in the energy future of the United States by extending the use of nuclear energy for non-electricity energy production missions, as well as continuing to provide a considerable base load electric power generation capability. Extending nuclear energy into the industrial and transportation sectors through the coproduction of process heat and electricity provides safe, reliable energy for these sectors in an environmentally responsible manner. The modular HTGR provides a substantial improvement in nuclear plant safety for the protection of the public and the environment, and supports collocation of the HTGRhigh temperature gas-cooled reactor with major industrial facilities. Under U.S. Department of Energy direction since 2006, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project at Idaho National Laboratory has been working toward commercializing the HTGR technology. However, a recent decision by the Secretary of Energy to reduce the scope of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project to a research and development program, considerable realignment has taken place. This report: (1) summarizes the accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program from FY2011 through FY2013; (2) lays out the path forward necessary to achieve the ultimate objective of commercializing HTGR technology; and (3) discusses ongoing technical, licensing, and evaluation activities under the realigned Next Generation Nuclear Plant program considered important to preserve the significant investment made by the government to-date and to maintain some progress in meeting the objectives of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct2005).

  2. Influence of the surface liquid film on cylinder icing under marine conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lozowski, E.P.; Kobos, A.M.; Kachurin, L.G.

    1996-05-01

    A new steady-state icing model is presented which explicitly takes into account the dynamics and thermodynamics of a liquid film on the ice accretion surface under high liquid fluxes. The film is generated by excess unfrozen impinging liquid, is set in motion by the aerodynamic shear stress, and is eventually shed. In order to keep the model simple, it is formulated for a rotating cylinder subjected to a continuous supercooled freshwater spray. The model is used to explore the physics of the liquid film, and confirms that the film is thin and laminar except possibly under extreme liquid fluxes. It predicts supercooling of several degrees at the film surface, in agreement with recent observations. Further, the model is used to investigate the dependence of the icing rate on the following parameters: liquid water content, air temperature, wind speed, spray temperature, cylinder diameter, and heat transfer coefficient.

  3. Modulated Tool Path Chip Breaking Operation | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Modulated Tool Path Chip ... Modulated Tool Path Chip Breaking Operation The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 2:09 min. The developers of the MTP chip-breaking system, an R&D 100 award winning technology, share some of the system's benefits and uses

  4. Multilayer formation and evaporation of deuterated ices in prestellar and protostellar cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B.; Sipil, Olli

    2014-08-10

    Extremely large deuteration of several molecules has been observed toward prestellar cores and low-mass protostars for a decade. New observations performed toward low-mass protostars suggest that water presents a lower deuteration in the warm inner gas than in the cold external envelope. We coupled a gas-grain astrochemical model with a one-dimensional model of a collapsing core to properly follow the formation and the deuteration of interstellar ices as well as their subsequent evaporation in the low-mass protostellar envelopes with the aim of interpreting the spatial and temporal evolutions of their deuteration. The astrochemical model follows the formation and the evaporation of ices with a multilayer approach and also includes a state-of-the-art deuterated chemical network by taking the spin states of H{sub 2} and light ions into account. Because of their slow formation, interstellar ices are chemically heterogeneous and show an increase of their deuterium fractionation toward the surface. The differentiation of the deuteration in ices induces an evolution of the deuteration within protostellar envelopes. The warm inner region is poorly deuterated because it includes the whole molecular content of ices, while the deuteration predicted in the cold external envelope scales with the highly deuterated surface of ices. We are able to reproduce the observed evolution of water deuteration within protostellar envelopes, but we are still unable to predict the super-high deuteration observed for formaldehyde and methanol. Finally, the extension of this study to the deuteration of complex organics, important for the prebiotic chemistry, shows good agreement with the observations, suggesting that we can use the deuteration to retrace their mechanisms and their moments of formation.

  5. Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2014-09-01

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that tracks ice saturation ratio in the clear-sky and cloudy portion of a grid box separately has been implemented into NCAR CAM5 to provide a consistent treatment of ice nucleation and cloud formation. Simulated ice supersaturation and ice crystal number concentrations strongly depend on the number concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN), subgrid temperature formulas and the number concentration of sulfate particles participating in homogeneous freezing, while simulated ice water content is insensitive to these perturbations. 1% to 10% dust particles serving as heterogeneous IN is 20 found to produce ice supersaturaiton in better agreement with observations. Introducing a subgrid temperature perturbation based on long-term aircraft observations of meso-scale motion produces a better hemispheric contrast in ice supersaturation compared to observations. Heterogeneous IN from dust particles significantly alter the net radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) (-0.24 to -1.59 W m-2) with a significant clear-sky longwave component (0.01 to -0.55 W m-2). Different cirrus treatments significantly perturb the net TOA anthropogenic aerosol forcing from -1.21 W m-2 to -1.54 W m-2, with a standard deviation of 0.10 W m-2. Aerosol effects on cirrus clouds exert an even larger impact on the atmospheric component of the radiative fluxes (two or three times the changes in the TOA radiative fluxes) and therefore on the hydrology cycle through the fast atmosphere response. This points to the urgent need to quantify aerosol effects on cirrus clouds through ice nucleation and how these further affect the hydrological cycle.

  6. De-icing: recovery of diffraction intensities in the presence of ice rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Michael S.; Somasundaram, Thayumanasamy

    2010-06-01

    Correction for ice-rings in diffraction images is demonstrated as an alternative to exclusion of affected reflections. Completeness can be increased without significant loss of quality in the integrated data. Macromolecular structures are routinely determined at cryotemperatures using samples flash-cooled in the presence of cryoprotectants. However, sometimes the best diffraction is obtained under conditions where ice formation is not completely ablated, with the result that characteristic ice rings are superimposed on the macromolecular diffraction. In data processing, the reflections that are most affected by the ice rings are usually excluded. Here, an alternative approach of subtracting the ice diffraction is tested. High completeness can be retained with little adverse effect upon the quality of the integrated data. This offers an alternate strategy when high levels of cryoprotectant lead to loss of crystal quality.

  7. The Role of Snow and Ice in the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, Roger

    2007-12-19

    Global snow and ice cover (the 'cryosphere') plays a major role in global climate and hydrology through a range of complex interactions and feedbacks, the best known of which is the ice - albedo feedback. Snow and ice cover undergo marked seasonal and long term changes in extent and thickness. The perennial elements - the major ice sheets and permafrost - play a role in present-day regional and local climate and hydrology, but the large seasonal variations in snow cover and sea ice are of importance on continental to hemispheric scales. The characteristics of these variations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and evidence for recent trends in snow and ice extent are discussed.

  8. The Role of Snow and Ice in the Climate System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Barry, Roger G.

    2009-09-01

    Global snow and ice cover (the 'cryosphere') plays a major role in global climate and hydrology through a range of complex interactions and feedbacks, the best known of which is the ice - albedo feedback. Snow and ice cover undergo marked seasonal and long term changes in extent and thickness. The perennial elements - the major ice sheets and permafrost - play a role in present-day regional and local climate and hydrology, but the large seasonal variations in snow cover and sea ice are of importance on continental to hemispheric scales. The characteristics of these variations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and evidence for recent trends in snow and ice extent are discussed.

  9. A Comprehensive Parameterization of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation of Dust Surrogate: Laboratory Study with Hematite Particles and Its Application to Atmospheric Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Paukert, Marco; Steinke, Isabelle; Zhang, Kai; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Hoose, Corinna; Schnaiter, Martin; Saathoff, Harald; Mohler, Ottmar

    2014-12-10

    A new heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization that covers a wide temperature range (-36 ?C to -78 ?C) is presented. Developing and testing such an ice nucleation parameterization, which is constrained through identical experimental conditions, is critical in order to accurately simulate the ice nucleation processes in cirrus clouds. The surface-scaled ice nucleation efficiencies of hematite particles, inferred by ns, were derived from AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber measurements under water subsaturated conditions that were realized by continuously changing temperature (T) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) in the chamber. Our measurements showed several different pathways to nucleate ice depending on T and RHice conditions. For instance, almost independent freezing was observed at -60 ?C < T < -50 ?C, where RHice explicitly controlled ice nucleation efficiency, while both T and RHice played roles in other two T regimes: -78 ?C < T < -60 ?C and -50 ?C < T < -36 ?C. More specifically, observations at T colder than -60 ?C revealed that higher RHice was necessary to maintain constant ns, whereas T may have played a significant role in ice nucleation at T warmer than -50 ?C. We implemented new ns parameterizations into two cloud models to investigate its sensitivity and compare with the existing ice nucleation schemes towards simulating cirrus cloud properties. Our results show that the new AIDA-based parameterizations lead to an order of magnitude higher ice crystal concentrations and inhibition of homogeneous nucleation in colder temperature regions. Our cloud simulation results suggest that atmospheric dust particles that form ice nuclei at lower temperatures, below -36 ?C, can potentially have stronger influence on cloud properties such as cloud longevity and initiation when compared to previous parameterizations.

  10. Heuristic optimization of the scanning path of particle therapy beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pardo, J.; Donetti, M.; Bourhaleb, F.; Ansarinejad, A.; Attili, A.; Cirio, R.; Garella, M. A.; Giordanengo, S.; Givehchi, N.; La Rosa, A.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Pecka, A.; Peroni, C.; Russo, G.; Sacchi, R.

    2009-06-15

    Quasidiscrete scanning is a delivery strategy for proton and ion beam therapy in which the beam is turned off when a slice is finished and a new energy must be set but not during the scanning between consecutive spots. Different scanning paths lead to different dose distributions due to the contribution of the unintended transit dose between spots. In this work an algorithm to optimize the scanning path for quasidiscrete scanned beams is presented. The classical simulated annealing algorithm is used. It is a heuristic algorithm frequently used in combinatorial optimization problems, which allows us to obtain nearly optimal solutions in acceptable running times. A study focused on the best choice of operational parameters on which the algorithm performance depends is presented. The convergence properties of the algorithm have been further improved by using the next-neighbor algorithm to generate the starting paths. Scanning paths for two clinical treatments have been optimized. The optimized paths are found to be shorter than the back-and-forth, top-to-bottom (zigzag) paths generally provided by the treatment planning systems. The gamma method has been applied to quantify the improvement achieved on the dose distribution. Results show a reduction of the transit dose when the optimized paths are used. The benefit is clear especially when the fluence per spot is low, as in the case of repainting. The minimization of the transit dose can potentially allow the use of higher beam intensities, thus decreasing the treatment time. The algorithm implemented for this work can optimize efficiently the scanning path of quasidiscrete scanned particle beams. Optimized scanning paths decrease the transit dose and lead to better dose distributions.

  11. Selecta from a Life-Long Obsession with Path Integrals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klauder, John R.

    2008-06-18

    The definition and interpretation of canonical, phase space path integrals has evolved over many years to achieve a form that now admits a correct and rigorous formulation, which is also covariant under canonical coordinate transformations. Such formulations involve coherent state representations, which, in their modern version, were originally introduced as an alternative tool to construct phase space path integrals. Moreover, coherent state representations lead to physical interpretations that are more natural than those afforded by more traditional representations. Suitable continuous time regularization procedures lead to a covariant phase space path integral formulation that greatly clarifies the vague phrase that canonical quantization requires Cartesian coordinates.

  12. Aircraft de-icing best management plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, A.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the environmental impact of glycol-based de-icing fluids and the best management practices utilized at Canadian airports. The operational, safety and environmental effects of glycol are discussed as well as the management instruments available to address these areas of concern. In today`s highly mobile society, increasing air travel necessitates an awareness of flight safety by the aviation industry. This is most evident during the inclement winter season when de-icing operations are mandatory. De-icing fluids are both a safety and an environmental concern. Although glycol-based de-icers are applied to ensure flight safety, the release of this chemical has a detrimental effect on the environment.

  13. Land Ice Verification and Validation Kit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-07-15

    To address a pressing need to better understand the behavior and complex interaction of ice sheets within the global Earth system, significant development of continental-scale, dynamical ice-sheet models is underway. The associated verification and validation process of these models is being coordinated through a new, robust, python-based extensible software package, the Land Ice Verification and Validation toolkit (LIVV). This release provides robust and automated verification and a performance evaluation on LCF platforms. The performance V&Vmore » involves a comprehensive comparison of model performance relative to expected behavior on a given computing platform. LIVV operates on a set of benchmark and test data, and provides comparisons for a suite of community prioritized tests, including configuration and parameter variations, bit-4-bit evaluation, and plots of tests where differences occur.« less

  14. Land Ice Verification and Validation Kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-07-15

    To address a pressing need to better understand the behavior and complex interaction of ice sheets within the global Earth system, significant development of continental-scale, dynamical ice-sheet models is underway. The associated verification and validation process of these models is being coordinated through a new, robust, python-based extensible software package, the Land Ice Verification and Validation toolkit (LIVV). This release provides robust and automated verification and a performance evaluation on LCF platforms. The performance V&V involves a comprehensive comparison of model performance relative to expected behavior on a given computing platform. LIVV operates on a set of benchmark and test data, and provides comparisons for a suite of community prioritized tests, including configuration and parameter variations, bit-4-bit evaluation, and plots of tests where differences occur.

  15. Equations of state of ice VI and ice VII at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bezacier, Lucile; Hanfland, Michael; Journaux, Baptiste; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Cardon, Herv; Daniel, Isabelle

    2014-09-14

    High-pressure H{sub 2}O polymorphs among which ice VI and ice VII are abundant in the interiors of large icy satellites and exo-planets. Knowledge of the elastic properties of these pure H{sub 2}O ices at high-temperature and high-pressure is thus crucial to decipher the internal structure of icy bodies. In this study we assess for the first time the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relations of both polycrystalline pure ice VI and ice VII at high pressures and temperatures from 1 to 9 GPa and 300 to 450 K, respectively, by using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PVT data are adjusted to a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and give V{sub 0} = 14.17(2) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 14.05(23) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 14.6(14) 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VI and V{sub 0} = 12.49(1) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 20.15(16) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 11.6(5) 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VII.

  16. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at the surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is generally consistent with or even better than that reported for East Asia with only a few exceptions. The model generally reproduces the observed seasonal variations and the difference between 2006 and 2011 for most variables or chemical species. Overall, these results demonstrate promising skills of WRF-CAM5 for long-term simulations at a regional scale and suggest several areas of potential improvements.

  17. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at themore » surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is generally consistent with or even better than that reported for East Asia with only a few exceptions. The model generally reproduces the observed seasonal variations and the difference between 2006 and 2011 for most variables or chemical species. Overall, these results demonstrate promising skills of WRF-CAM5 for long-term simulations at a regional scale and suggest several areas of potential improvements.« less

  18. Nanotextured Anti-Icing Surfaces | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces Click to email this to a friend (Opens in ... GE Scientists Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces GE Global Research today ...

  19. A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study Mace, Gerald University of Utah Category: Field Campaigns The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP ICE) was conducted near...

  20. Ice Sheet Model Reveals Most Comprehensive Projections for West...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has been stage to dramatic thinning in recent years. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is out of balance because it is losing significant amounts of ice to the ocean, with...

  1. Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

  2. EECBG Success Story: Atlanta Suburb Greases the Path to Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ken Cook Atlanta Suburb Greases the Path to Savings with Biodiesel The new energy efficient IT Data Center in Savannah, Georgia. | Courtesy of the City of Savannah, GA. EECBG ...

  3. On the Path to SunShot- Deployment and Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs report highlights how the cost of solar panels has decreased with...

  4. Honea Path, South Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Honea Path is a town in Abbeville County and Anderson County, South Carolina. It falls under South Carolina's 3rd congressional...

  5. Groundwater Quantity Regulation in Vermont: A Path Forward |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Groundwater Quantity Regulation in Vermont: A Path Forward Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Secondary Legal SourceSecondary Legal...

  6. Spent nuclear fuel project path forward preliminary safety evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brehm, J.R.; Crowe, R.D.; Siemer, J.M.; Wojdac, L.F.; Hosler, A.G.

    1995-03-01

    This preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) provides validation of the initial project design criteria for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Path Forward for removal of fuel from K Basins.

  7. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Some batteries can ... Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show ...

  8. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond...

  9. Rapid Cooling Using Ice Slurries for Industrial and Medical Applications -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Cooling Using Ice Slurries for Industrial and Medical Applications Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Schematic of distributed-load ice slurry building cooling system Schematic of distributed-load ice slurry building cooling system Endoscopic view of a swine kidney covered with ice slurry delivered

  10. ARM - What About Melting Polar Ice Caps and Sea Levels?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What About Melting Polar Ice Caps and Sea Levels? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What About Melting Polar Ice Caps and Sea Levels? As the northern polar zone warms up, sea ice could melt (very probable) and the sea/ice interface could retreat to the north. This is likely to

  11. Team advances understanding of the Greenland Ice Sheet's meltwater

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    channels Greenland Ice Sheet's meltwater channels Team advances understanding of the Greenland Ice Sheet's meltwater channels An international research team's field work is showing that, well, things are more complicated than we thought. October 1, 2014 An international team of researchers deployed to western Greenland to study the melt rates of the Greenland Ice Sheet. An international team of researchers deployed to western Greenland to study the melt rates of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  12. WATER TRAPPING ON TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS REQUIRES SPECIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S.; Liu, Yonggang; Hu, Yongyun

    2014-12-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains O(10m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir O(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

  13. Nanotubes open new path toward quantum information technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotubes open new path toward quantum information Nanotubes open new path toward quantum information technologies In optical communication, critical information ranging from a credit card number to national security data is transmitted in streams of laser pulses. September 3, 2015 A solitary oxygen dopant (red sphere) covalently attached to the sidewall of the carbon nanotube (gray) can generate single photons (red) at room temperature when excited by laser pulses (green). A solitary oxygen

  14. DOE Continues Path Forward on Global Nuclear Energy Partnership |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Path Forward on Global Nuclear Energy Partnership DOE Continues Path Forward on Global Nuclear Energy Partnership August 3, 2006 - 8:39am Addthis Department Announces $20 Million for GNEP Siting Studies and Seeks Further Coordination with Industry WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced $20 million to conduct detailed siting studies for public or commercial entities interested in hosting DOE's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

  15. EM Cleanup Chief Discusses Path Forward for DOE's Excess Facilities |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Cleanup Chief Discusses Path Forward for DOE's Excess Facilities EM Cleanup Chief Discusses Path Forward for DOE's Excess Facilities April 27, 2016 - 1:00pm Addthis Panel moderator Jenny Freeman, president of the Energy Technology and Environmental Business Association (second from left), talks as panelists (left to right) Ken Harrawood, senior director of Y-12 Legacy Facility Disposition, Mark Duff, director of Environmental Management, Fluor Paducah Deactivation

  16. Path Integral for Stochastic Inflation: Non-Perturbative Volume Weighting,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Complex Histories, Initial Conditions and the End of Inflation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Path Integral for Stochastic Inflation: Non-Perturbative Volume Weighting, Complex Histories, Initial Conditions and the End of Inflation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Path Integral for Stochastic Inflation: Non-Perturbative Volume Weighting, Complex Histories, Initial Conditions and the End of Inflation Authors: Gratton, Steven ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Cambridge U. Publication Date:

  17. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional

  18. On the Path to SunShot- Cost Reductions Required

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs report highlights that while we are making major progress toward meeting the SunShot goals, further cost reductions are required to make solar energy cost competitive with conventional sources of energy by 2020. Learn more about the reports in the On the Path to SunShot series and view all of their associated graphics.

  19. Demonstration of scan path optimization in proton therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Joanne H.; Wilkens, Jan J.; Oelfke, Uwe

    2007-09-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) intensity modulated proton therapy treatment plan to be delivered by magnetic scanning may comprise thousands of discrete beam positions. This research presents the minimization of the total scan path length by application of a fast simulated annealing (FSA) optimization algorithm. Treatment plans for clinical prostate and head and neck cases were sequenced for continuous raster scanning in two ways, and the resulting scan path lengths were compared: (1) A simple back-and-forth, top-to-bottom (zigzag) succession, and (2) an optimized path produced as a solution of the FSA algorithm. Using a first approximation of the scanning dynamics, the delivery times for the scan sequences before and after path optimization were calculated for comparison. In these clinical examples, the FSA optimization shortened the total scan path length for the 3D target volumes by approximately 13%-56%. The number of extraneous spilled particles was correspondingly reduced by about 13%-54% due to the more efficient scanning maps that eliminated multiple crossings through regions of zero fluence. The relative decrease in delivery time due to path length minimization was estimated to be less than 1%, due to both a high scanning speed and time requirements that could not be altered by optimization (e.g., time required to change the beam energy). In a preliminary consideration of application to rescanning techniques, the decrease in delivery time was estimated to be 4%-20%.

  20. Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry Technology available for licensing: Proprietary method and equipment for making an ice slurry coolant to induce therapeutic hypothermia. Portable, automatic Advantageous for emergency care, cooling during surgeries, organ harvesting PDF icon ice_slurry

  1. Acetals and ketals of reduced sugars as fuel system icing inhibitor additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mushrush, G.W.; Stalick, W.M.; Basu, S.

    1996-10-01

    Currently the fuel system icing inhibitor additives ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DiEGME) are mandatory in all military aircraft fuels. These additives are optional for use in all worldwide commercial aviation fuels depending on routes, flight lengths, and season. These deicing compounds are toxic at the concentrations that are required for effective deicing. The additives are leached out of the fuel and into tank water bottoms; glycols exert high oxygen demand. In addition, water drained from fuel system pumps, filters and storage tanks contain EGME/DiEGME and creates a personnel hazard. Acetals and ketals of reduced sugars represent viable alternatives to glycol based additives. They are inexpensive, fuel stable for at least one year and show the similar icing inhibitor characteristics. The synthesis and fuel studies for these compounds will be presented.

  2. Ocean-ice/oil-weathering computer program user's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirstein, B.E.; Redding, R.T.

    1987-10-01

    The ocean-ice/oil-weathering code is written in FORTRAN as a series of stand-alone subroutines that can easily be installed on most any computer. All of the trial-and-error routines, integration routines, and other special routines are written in the code so that nothing more than the normal system functions such as EXP are required. The code is user-interactive and requests input by prompting questions with suggested input. Therefore, the user can actually learn about the nature of crude oil and oil weathering by using this code. The ocean-ice oil-weathering model considers the following weathering processes: evaporation; dispersion (oil into water); moussee (water into oil); and spreading; These processes are used to predict the mass balance and composition of oil remaining in the slick as a function of time and environmental parameters.

  3. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  4. The Next ICE Age | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    developments in diesel engines for light- and heavy-duty applications PDF icon deer12_ruth.pdf More Documents & Publications The Next ICE Age Cummins SuperTruck Program - Technology and System Level Demonstration of Highly Efficient and Clean, Diesel Powered Class 8 Trucks SuperTruck Program: Engine Project Review

  5. Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report VP Walden SR Hudson L Cohen , March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its

  6. Energy Upgrade California in Los Angeles County-- The Flex Path Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Upgrade California in Los Angeles County: The Flex Path Program. Provides an overview of the Flex Path Pilot Program, progress and next steps.

  7. AHSS Stamping Project … A/SP 050; Nonlinear Strain Paths Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AHSS Stamping Project ASP 050; Nonlinear Strain Paths Project ASP 061 AHSS Stamping Project ASP 050; Nonlinear Strain Paths Project ASP 061 2011 DOE Hydrogen and ...

  8. The Path to a 50% Thermal Efficient Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Path to a 50% Thermal Efficient Engine The Path to a 50% Thermal Efficient Engine 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon...

  9. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bassham, J. A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1960-10-01

    Biosynthesis begins with photosynthesis. Green plants and other photosynthetic organisms use the energy of absorbed visible light to make organic compounds from inorganic compounds. These organic compounds are the starting point for all other biosynthetic pathways. The products of photosynthesis provide not only the substrate material but also chemical energy for all subsequent biosynthesis. For example, nonphotosynthetic organisms making fats from sugars would first break down the sugars to smaller organic molecules. Some of the smaller molecules might be oxidized with O{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and water. These reactions are accompanied by a release of chemical energy because O{sub 2} and sugar have a high chemical potential energy towards conversion to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In a biochemical system only part of this energy would be released as heat. The heat would be used to bring about the conversion of certain enzymic cofactors to their more energetic forms. These cofactors would then enter into specific enzymic reactions in such a way as to supply energy to drive reactions in the direction of fat synthesis. Fats would be formed from the small organic molecules resulting from the breakdown of sugars. Thus sugar, a photosynthetic product, can supply both the energy and the material for the biosynthesis of fats.

  10. THE INTERIOR DYNAMICS OF WATER PLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Roger; O'Connell, Richard J.; Sasselov, Dimitar D. E-mail: richard_oconnell@harvard.ed

    2010-01-10

    The ever-expanding catalog of detected super-Earths calls for theoretical studies of their properties in the case of a substantial water layer. This work considers such water planets with a range of masses and water mass fractions (2-5 M{sub Earth}, 0.02%-50% H{sub 2}O). First, we model the thermal and dynamical structure of the near-surface for icy and oceanic surfaces, finding separate regimes where the planet is expected to maintain a subsurface liquid ocean and where it is expected to exhibit ice tectonics. Newly discovered exoplanets may be placed into one of these regimes given estimates of surface temperature, heat flux, and gravity. Second, we construct a parameterized convection model for the underlying ice mantle of higher ice phases, finding that materials released from the silicate-iron core should traverse the ice mantle on the timescale of 0.1 to 100 megayears. We present the dependence of the overturn times of the ice mantle and the planetary radius on total mass and water mass fraction. Finally, we discuss the implications of these internal processes on atmospheric observables.

  11. Modeling the Fracture of Ice Sheets on Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waisman, Haim; Tuminaro, Ray

    2013-10-10

    The objective of this project was to investigate the complex fracture of ice and understand its role within larger ice sheet simulations and global climate change. This objective was achieved by developing novel physics based models for ice, novel numerical tools to enable the modeling of the physics and by collaboration with the ice community experts. At the present time, ice fracture is not explicitly considered within ice sheet models due in part to large computational costs associated with the accurate modeling of this complex phenomena. However, fracture not only plays an extremely important role in regional behavior but also influences ice dynamics over much larger zones in ways that are currently not well understood. To this end, our research findings through this project offers significant advancement to the field and closes a large gap of knowledge in understanding and modeling the fracture of ice sheets in the polar regions. Thus, we believe that our objective has been achieved and our research accomplishments are significant. This is corroborated through a set of published papers, posters and presentations at technical conferences in the field. In particular significant progress has been made in the mechanics of ice, fracture of ice sheets and ice shelves in polar regions and sophisticated numerical methods that enable the solution of the physics in an efficient way.

  12. How to measure the wind accurately in icing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenyon, P.R.; Blittersdorf, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric icing occurs frequently in the northwestern, Midwestern and northeastern United States from early October through April at locations with high average wind speeds. It has caused wind data recovery problems at sites as far south as Texas. Icing slows anemometers used to assess the wind resource. Data recovered from sites prone to icing will show lower average wind speeds than actual, undervaluing them. The assessment of a wind site must present the actual wind potential. Anemometers used at these sites must remain free of ice. This report presents a description of icing types and the data distortion they cause based on NRG field experience. A brief history of anti-icing anemometers available today for remote site and turbine site monitoring follows. Comparative data of NRG`s IceFree anemometers and the industry standard unheated anemometer is included.

  13. Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basoli, Francesco; Senesi, Roberto; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Licoccia, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

  14. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattson, Earl; Smith, Robert; Fujita, Yoshiko; McLing, Travis; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Palmer, Carl; Reed, David; Thompson, Vicki

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within ±30 °C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  15. Laser Polishing: Green Path to Improved Accelerator Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Michael

    2015-10-06

    We pursued three paths toward reducing the initial cost and operating expense of particle accelerators. First, we investigated laser surface melting as an alternative to the present cavity processing approach using noxious chemicals. We successfully demonstrated a process that can be scaled up and defined the path to do so. Second, we sought to develop tailored laser pulsing as a way to simulate the thermal fatigue environment responsible for damaging accelerator components. Though the first three steps along the path were successfully accomplished, the final segment depended on collaborators with unique facilities, whose program was terminated. The third segment aimed to acquire a fundamental understanding of the widely used chemical process that yields the rough surfaces smoothed by laser melting. We found that the roughness is an inherent and unavoidable outcome that limits the performance of components processed thusly.

  16. Tribal Energy Summit Tackles Challenges, Explores Opportunities on Path to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economic Sovereignty | Department of Energy Summit Tackles Challenges, Explores Opportunities on Path to Economic Sovereignty Tribal Energy Summit Tackles Challenges, Explores Opportunities on Path to Economic Sovereignty October 22, 2015 - 11:25am Addthis Tribal Energy Summit 1 of 14 Tribal Energy Summit Date taken: 2015-09-30 09:46 Tribal Energy Summit 2 of 14 Tribal Energy Summit Date taken: 2015-09-24 10:01 Tribal Energy Summit 3 of 14 Tribal Energy Summit Date taken: 2015-09-24 12:41

  17. New Reports Chart Offshore Wind's Path Forward | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reports Chart Offshore Wind's Path Forward New Reports Chart Offshore Wind's Path Forward December 12, 2012 - 2:29pm Addthis Taking a look at the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead as the U.S. prepares to enter the offshore wind market. <a href=" http://energy.gov/articles/infographic-offshore-wind-outlook"> Click here</a> to view the full infographic. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity. Taking a look at the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead as the U.S.

  18. ESnet, NERSC Blaze 400G Production Network Path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ESnet, NERSC Blaze 400G Production Network Path ESnet, NERSC Blaze 400G Production Network Path 400G Link is First Ever by R&E Network November 10, 2015 Contact: Jon Bashor, jbashor@lbl.gov, 510-486-5849 NetworkMapIllustration.png This map shows the 400G production link between Wang Hall at the main LBNL site and the Oakland Scientific Facility. The Department of Energy's Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) have built a 400

  19. Flight Path 15L - About Chi-Nu

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Target 4 Flight Path 15L (Chi-Nu) Target 4 Flight Path 15L (4FP15L) is primarily used for the Chi-Nu experiments at 22 meters and neutron detector development and calibration at 90 meters. The Chi-Nu experimental area is centered 22.50 meters from the spallation target. It has two arrays of neutron detectors which are not usually used concurrently. These arrays are used primarily for detecting prompt fission neutrons or neutrons from elastic or inelastic scattering. For produced neutrons

  20. Flight Path 15L - About Chi-Nu

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Target 4 Flight Path 15L-A (20m) (Chi-Nu) Target 4 Flight Path 15L (4FP15L) is primarily used for the Chi-Nu experiments at 22 meters and neutron detector development and calibration at 90 meters. The Chi-Nu experimental area is centered 22.50 meters from the spallation target. It has two arrays of neutron detectors which are not usually used concurrently. These arrays are used primarily for detecting prompt fission neutrons or neutrons from elastic or inelastic scattering. For produced

  1. LANL researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds, candidates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for advanced nuclear fuels April » Researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds LANL researchers improve path to producing uranium compounds, candidates for advanced nuclear fuels Enhance the ability to develop advanced nuclear fuels in a safer, simpler manner. April 7, 2011 This illustration shows the structures of UI4(1,4-dioxane)2 (left) and the UI3(1,4-dioxane)1.5 complexes. This illustration shows the structures of UI4(1,4-dioxane)2 (left) and the UI3(1,4-dioxane)1.5

  2. MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs Print Friday, 27 February 2015 17:11 Hu et al. designed a new yellow phosphor with high quantum yield by immobilizing a preslected chromophore into the rigid framework of a metal-organic framework (MOF); the structure was determined at Beamline 11.3.1. Coating a blue light-emitting diode (LED) with this compound readily generates white light with high luminous efficacy. The new yellow phosphor demonstrates

  3. FactSheet-TWP_ICE.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) is a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteo- rology. Beginning January 19 and ending February 28, 2006, the experiment will be conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped with

  4. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and ice water path (IWP) for (a) baseline simulations, (b) decreased INice crystal concentration, and (c) increased INice crystal concentration. Different model results are shown...

  5. Full-physics 3D heterogeneous simulations of electromagnetic induction fields on level and deformed sea ice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samluk, Jesse P.; Geiger, Cathleen A.; Weiss, Chester J.; Kolodzey, James

    2015-10-01

    In this article we explore simulated responses of electromagnetic (EM) signals relative to in situ field surveys and quantify the effects that different values of conductivity in sea ice have on the EM fields. We compute EM responses of ice types with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-volume discretization of Maxwell's equations and present 2-D sliced visualizations of their associated EM fields at discrete frequencies. Several interesting observations result: First, since the simulator computes the fields everywhere, each gridcell acts as a receiver within the model volume, and captures the complete, coupled interactions between air, snow, sea ice and sea water asmore » a function of their conductivity; second, visualizations demonstrate how 1-D approximations near deformed ice features are violated. But the most important new finding is that changes in conductivity affect EM field response by modifying the magnitude and spatial patterns (i.e. footprint size and shape) of current density and magnetic fields. These effects are demonstrated through a visual feature we define as 'null lines'. Null line shape is affected by changes in conductivity near material boundaries as well as transmitter location. Our results encourage the use of null lines as a planning tool for better ground-truth field measurements near deformed ice types.« less

  6. Crystal Field Disorder in the Quantum Spin Ice Ground State of Tb2Sn2 xTixO7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaulin, Bruce D.; Zhang, J.; Dahlberg, M. L.; Matthews, Maria J.; Bert, F.; Kermarrec, E.; Fritsch, Katharina; Granroth, Garrett E; Jiramongkolchai, P.; Amato, A.; Baines, C.; Cava, R. J.; Mendels, P.; Schiffer, P

    2015-01-01

    Spin ice physics marries that of hydrogen disorder in water ice, first discussed almost 60 years ago by Pauling, and that of low temperature magnetism on certain networks of connected tetrahedra. Recently the classical spin ice mag- nets Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 have shown an emergent artificial magneto- statics , which manifests itself as Coulombic spin correlations and excitations behaving as diffusive magnetic monopoles. The related pyrochlore magnet, Tb2Ti2O7, has been proposed as a quantum variant of spin ice, stabilized by 1 virtual excitations between the crystal field (CF) ground state doublet appro- priate to Tb3+, and its low lying excited state doublet. Isostructural Tb2Sn2O7 displays soft spin ice order, and its Tb3+ ground and excited CF eigenstates are known to differ relative to those of Tb2Ti2O7. We present a comprehensive study of Tb2Sn2 xTixO7 showing a novel, dynamic spin liquid state for all x other than the end members (0, 2). This state is the result of disorder in the low lying Tb3+ CF environments which de-stabilizes the mechanism by which quantum fluctuations contribute to ground state selection in Tb2Sn2 xTixO7.

  7. Full-physics 3D heterogeneous simulations of electromagnetic induction fields on level and deformed sea ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samluk, Jesse P.; Geiger, Cathleen A.; Weiss, Chester J.; Kolodzey, James

    2015-10-01

    In this article we explore simulated responses of electromagnetic (EM) signals relative to in situ field surveys and quantify the effects that different values of conductivity in sea ice have on the EM fields. We compute EM responses of ice types with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-volume discretization of Maxwell's equations and present 2-D sliced visualizations of their associated EM fields at discrete frequencies. Several interesting observations result: First, since the simulator computes the fields everywhere, each gridcell acts as a receiver within the model volume, and captures the complete, coupled interactions between air, snow, sea ice and sea water as a function of their conductivity; second, visualizations demonstrate how 1-D approximations near deformed ice features are violated. But the most important new finding is that changes in conductivity affect EM field response by modifying the magnitude and spatial patterns (i.e. footprint size and shape) of current density and magnetic fields. These effects are demonstrated through a visual feature we define as 'null lines'. Null line shape is affected by changes in conductivity near material boundaries as well as transmitter location. Our results encourage the use of null lines as a planning tool for better ground-truth field measurements near deformed ice types.

  8. Ground Water Levels for NGEE Areas A, B, C and D, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2015-06-08

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  9. IceVeto: Extended PeV neutrino astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere with IceCube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    IceCube, the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the South Pole, recently reported evidence of an astrophysical neutrino flux extending to PeV energies in the Southern Hemisphere. This observation raises the question of how the sensitivity in this energy range could be further increased. In the down-going sector, in IceCube's case the Southern Hemisphere, backgrounds from atmospheric muons and neutrinos pose a challenge to the identification of an astrophysical neutrino flux. The IceCube analysis, that led to the evidence for astrophysical neutrinos, is based on an in-ice veto strategy for background rejection. One possibility available to IceCube is the concept of an extended surface detector, IceVeto, which could allow the rejection of a large fraction of atmospheric backgrounds, primarily for muons from cosmic ray (CR) air showers as well as from neutrinos in the same air showers. Building on the experience of IceTop/IceCube, possibly the most cost-effective and sensitive way to build IceVeto is as an extension of the IceTop detector, with simple photomultiplier based detector modules for CR air shower detection. Initial simulations and estimates indicate that such a veto detector will significantly increase the sensitivity to an astrophysical flux of ?{sub ?} induced muon tracks in the Southern Hemisphere compared to current analyses. Here we present the motivation and capabilities based on initial simulations. Conceptual ideas for a simplified surface array will be discussed briefly.

  10. Tribal Energy Summit: A Path to Economic Sovereignty

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is participating in a National Tribal Energy Summit: A Path to Economic Sovereignty September 23–25, 2015, in Washington, D.C. The National Summit supports the Obama Administration’s ongoing commitment to assist tribal efforts to enhance energy security, increase community resiliency, and cultivate a sustainable energy future.

  11. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators | Department of Energy Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon geothermometry_cooper_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications track 4: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Chemical

  12. On the Path to SunShot- Community Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Emerging Opportunities and Challenges in Financing Solar report highlights how community solar has the ability to greatly expand solar access to the general public and which states currently have legislation to support it.

  13. MANAGING HANFORD'S LEGACY NO-PATH-FORWARD WASTES TO DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEST LD

    2011-01-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. This vision will protect the Columbia River, reduce the Site footprint, and reduce Site mortgage costs. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W&FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 m{sup 3} of waste was defined as 'no-path-forward waste.' The majority of these wastes are suspect transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes which are currently stored in the low-level Burial Grounds (LLBG), or stored above ground in the Central Waste Complex (CWC). A portion of the waste will be generated during ongoing and future site cleanup activities. The DOE-RL and CHPRC have collaborated to identify and deliver safe, cost-effective disposition paths for 90% ({approx}8,000 m{sup 3}) of these problematic wastes. These paths include accelerated disposition through expanded use of offsite treatment capabilities. Disposal paths were selected that minimize the need to develop new technologies, minimize the need for new, on-site capabilities, and accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  14. On the Path to SunShot- Interconnection Process

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Emerging Issues and Challenges with Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Distribution System report highlights improvements needed to current solar interconnection processes, associated standards and codes, and compensation mechanisms. This work is critical to facilitating distributed PV deployment so they embrace PV’s contributions to system-wide operations.

  15. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  16. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

  17. Sandia's ice sheet modeling of Greenland, Antarctica helps predict

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    sea-level rise | National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia's ice sheet modeling of Greenland, Antarctica helps predict sea-level rise Wednesday, March 2, 2016 - 12:00am Sandia California researchers Irina Tezaur and Ray Tuminaro analyze a model of Antarctica. They are part of a Sandia team working to improve the reliability and efficiency of computational models that describe ice sheet behavior and dynamics. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will make a dominant contribution to

  18. Ice Sheet Model Reveals Most Comprehensive Projections for West

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Antarctica's Future Most Comprehensive Projections for West Antarctica's Future Revealed Ice Sheet Model Reveals Most Comprehensive Projections for West Antarctica's Future BISICLES Simulations Run at NERSC Help Estimate Ice Loss, Sea Level Rise August 18, 2015 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov IceSheet Retreat in the Amundsen Sea Embayment in 2154 (Credit: Cornford et al., The Cryosphere, 2015) A new international study is the first to use a high-resolution, large-scale

  19. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Annual progress report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Annual progress report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Annual progress report This is the third annual report on: Sea Ice-Atmosphere Interaction -

  20. ACAPEX - Ship-Based Ice Nuclei Collections Field Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: ACAPEX - Ship-Based Ice Nuclei Collections Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ACAPEX - Ship-Based Ice Nuclei Collections Field Campaign Report Measurements were sought to evaluate a hypotheses that sea-spray-sourced ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are of biological origin and represent a distinctly different INP population in comparison to long-range-transported desert or urban

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of D{sub 2}O ice photodesorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasa, C.; Andersson, S.; Cuppen, H. M.; Dishoeck, E. F. van; Kroes, G. J.

    2011-04-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations have been performed to study the ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation of D{sub 2}O in an amorphous D{sub 2}O ice surface at 10, 20, 60, and 90 K, in order to investigate the influence of isotope effects on the photodesorption processes. As for H{sub 2}O, the main processes after UV photodissociation are trapping and desorption of either fragments or D{sub 2}O molecules. Trapping mainly takes place in the deeper monolayers of the ice, whereas desorption occurs in the uppermost layers. There are three desorption processes: D atom, OD radical, and D{sub 2}O molecule photodesorption. D{sub 2}O desorption takes places either by direct desorption of a recombined D{sub 2}O molecule, or when an energetic D atom produced by photodissociation kicks a surrounding D{sub 2}O molecule out of the surface by transferring part of its momentum. Desorption probabilities are calculated for photoexcitation of D{sub 2}O in the top four monolayers and are compared quantitatively with those for H{sub 2}O obtained from previous MD simulations of UV photodissociation of amorphous water ice at different ice temperatures [Arasa et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 184510 (2010)]. The main conclusions are the same, but the average D atom photodesorption probability is smaller than that of the H atom (by about a factor of 0.9) because D has lower kinetic energy than H, whereas the average OD radical photodesorption probability is larger than that of OH (by about a factor of 2.5-2.9 depending on ice temperature) because OD has higher translational energy than OH for every ice temperature studied. The average D{sub 2}O photodesorption probability is larger than that of H{sub 2}O (by about a factor of 1.4-2.3 depending on ice temperature), and this is entirely due to a larger contribution of the D{sub 2}O kick-out mechanism. This is an isotope effect: the kick-out mechanism is more efficient for D{sub 2}O ice, because the D atom formed after D{sub 2}O photodissociation has a larger momentum than photogenerated H atoms from H{sub 2}O, and D transfers momentum more easily to D{sub 2}O than H to H{sub 2}O. The total (OD + D{sub 2}O) yield has been compared with experiments and the total (OH + H{sub 2}O) yield from previous simulations. We find better agreement when we compare experimental yields with calculated yields for D{sub 2}O ice than when we compare with calculated yields for H{sub 2}O ice.

  2. Nanotextured Anti-Icing Surfaces | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE Scientists Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces GE Global Research today presented new research findings on its nanotextured anti-icing surfaces. In addition to dramatically reducing ice adhesion, these surfaces

  3. Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust? (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated ...

  4. Rapid development of an ice sheet climate application using the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid development of an ice sheet climate ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  5. optimal initial conditions for coupling ice sheet models to earth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    optimal initial conditions for coupling ice sheet models to earth system models Perego, Mauro Sandia National Laboratories Sandia National Laboratories; Price, Stephen F. Dr...

  6. Single Particle Database of Natural Ice Crystals: Dimensions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Database of Natural Ice Crystals: Dimensions and Aspect Ratios For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights...

  7. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, T. W.; Ladino, L. A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Breckels, M. N.; Brooks, I. M.; Browse, J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Judd, C.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, L. A.; Najera, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Rae, S.; Schiller, C. L.; Si, M.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Whale, Thomas; Wong, J P S; Wurl, O.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Abbatt, JPD; Aller, Josephine Y.; Bertram, Allan K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-09

    The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3–11. Here we show that material in the sea surface microlayer, which is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea- spray aerosol12–21, nucleates ice under conditions that occur in mixed-phase clouds and high-altitude ice clouds. The ice active material is likely biogenic and is less than ~0.2 ?m in size. We also show that organic material (exudate) released by a common marine diatom nucleates ice when separated from cells and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates are a candidate for the observed ice nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. By combining our measurements with global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, we show that ice nucleating particles of marine origin are dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic.

  8. STORMVEX. Ice Nuclei and Cloud Condensation Nuclei Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: STORMVEX. Ice Nuclei and Cloud Condensation Nuclei Characterization Field Campaign ... warm clouds, require precise separation techniques and accurate identification of phase. ...

  9. IceCube: A Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer R; Klein, S.R.

    2008-06-01

    IceCube is a 1 km{sup 3} neutrino detector now being built at the Amudsen-Scott South Pole Station. It consists of 4800 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) which detect Cherenkov radiation from the charged particles produced in neutrino interactions. IceCube will observe astrophysical neutrinos with energies above about 100 GeV. IceCube will be able to separate {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub t}, and {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions because of their different topologies. IceCube construction is currently 50% complete.

  10. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  11. Meltwater effects on flow of Greenland's ice sheet less severe...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (University of Texas). Location: west coast of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Photo by Matt Hoffman, Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505)...

  12. An Ice Sheet Model Initialization Procedure for Smooth Coupling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Procedure for Smooth Coupling with Climate Forcing. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Ice Sheet Model Initialization Procedure for Smooth Coupling with Climate Forcing. ...

  13. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Air-Cooled Ice Machines | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for air-cooled ice machines, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws ...

  14. The Rush to Exploit an Increasingly Ice-Free Arctic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rush to Exploit an Increasingly Ice-Free Arctic - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy ...

  15. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CLOUDS; REMOTE SENSING; ICE; ...

  16. City of Eagan …Civic Ice Arena Renovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Provide a reliable central ice making and heating system that meets the performance requirements of the owner. Reduce operation and maintenance costs.

  17. Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for air-cooled ice machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  18. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solomon, A.; Feingold, G.; Shupe, M. D.

    2015-09-25

    This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus in large eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a diurnal cycle. Balances derived from a mixed-layer model and phase analyses are used to provide insight into buffering mechanisms that maintain ice in these cloud systems. We find that, for the case under investigation, IN recycling through subcloud sublimation considerably prolongs ice production over a multi-day integration. This effective source of IN to the cloud dominates over mixing sources from above or below the cloud-driven mixed layer. Competing feedbacks between dynamical mixing andmore » recycling are found to slow the rate of ice lost from the mixed layer when a diurnal cycle is simulated. The results of this study have important implications for maintaining phase partitioning of cloud ice and liquid that determine the radiative forcing of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.« less

  19. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solomon, A.; Feingold, G.; Shupe, M. D.

    2015-04-21

    This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed phase stratocumulus in large-eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a diurnal cycle. Balances derived from a mixed-layer model and phase analyses are used to provide insight into buffering mechanisms that maintain ice in these cloud systems. We find that for the case under investigation, IN recycling through subcloud sublimation considerably prolongs ice production over a multi-day integration. This effective source of IN to the cloud dominates over mixing sources from above or below the cloud-driven mixed layer. Competing feedbacks between dynamical mixing andmore » recycling are found to slow the rate of ice lost from the mixed layer when a diurnal cycle is simulated. The results of this study have important implications for maintaining phase partitioning of cloud ice and liquid that determine the radiative forcing of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.« less

  20. Final scientific report for DOE award title: Improving the Representation of Ice Sedimentation Rates in Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, David L.

    2013-09-05

    It is well known that cirrus clouds play a major role in regulating the earth’s climate, but the details of how this works are just beginning to be understood. This project targeted the main property of cirrus clouds that influence climate processes; the ice fall speed. That is, this project improves the representation of the mass-weighted ice particle fall velocity, Vm, in climate models, used to predict future climate on global and regional scales. Prior to 2007, the dominant sizes of ice particles in cirrus clouds were poorly understood, making it virtually impossible to predict how cirrus clouds interact with sunlight and thermal radiation. Due to several studies investigating the performance of optical probes used to measure the ice particle size distribution (PSD), as well as the remote sensing results from our last ARM project, it is now well established that the anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals often reported prior to 2007 were measurement artifacts. Advances in the design and data processing of optical probes have greatly reduced these ice artifacts that resulted from the shattering of ice particles on the probe tips and/or inlet tube, and PSD measurements from one of these improved probes (the 2-dimensional Stereo or 2D-S probe) are utilized in this project to parameterize Vm for climate models. Our original plan in the proposal was to parameterize the ice PSD (in terms of temperature and ice water content) and ice particle mass and projected area (in terms of mass- and area-dimensional power laws or m-D/A-D expressions) since these are the microphysical properties that determine Vm, and then proceed to calculate Vm from these parameterized properties. But the 2D-S probe directly measures ice particle projected area and indirectly estimates ice particle mass for each size bin. It soon became apparent that the original plan would introduce more uncertainty in the Vm calculations than simply using the 2D-S measurements to directly calculate Vm. By calculating Vm directly from the measured PSD, ice particle projected area and estimated mass, more accurate estimates of Vm are obtained. These Vm values were then parameterized for climate models by relating them to (1) sampling temperature and ice water content (IWC) and (2) the effective diameter (De) of the ice PSD. Parameterization (1) is appropriate for climate models having single-moment microphysical schemes whereas (2) is appropriate for double-moment microphysical schemes and yields more accurate Vm estimates. These parameterizations were developed for tropical cirrus clouds, Arctic cirrus, mid-latitude synoptic cirrus and mid-latitude anvil cirrus clouds based on field campaigns in these regions. An important but unexpected result of this research was the discovery of microphysical evidence indicating the mechanisms by which ice crystals are produced in cirrus clouds. This evidence, derived from PSD measurements, indicates that homogeneous freezing ice nucleation dominates in mid-latitude synoptic cirrus clouds, whereas heterogeneous ice nucleation processes dominate in mid-latitude anvil cirrus. Based on these findings, De was parameterized in terms of temperature (T) for conditions dominated by (1) homo- and (2) heterogeneous ice nucleation. From this, an experiment was designed for global climate models (GCMs). The net radiative forcing from cirrus clouds may be affected by the means ice is produced (homo- or heterogeneously), and this net forcing contributes to climate sensitivity (i.e. the change in mean global surface temperature resulting from a doubling of CO2). The objective of this GCM experiment was to determine how a change in ice nucleation mode affects the predicted global radiation balance. In the first simulation (Run 1), the De-T relationship for homogeneous nucleation is used at all latitudes, while in the second simulation (Run 2), the De-T relationship for heterogeneous nucleation is used at all latitudes. For both runs, Vm is calculated from De. Two GCMs were used; the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) and a European GCM known as ECHAM5 (thanks to our European colleagues who collaborated with us). Similar results were obtained from both GCMs in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, with a net cooling of ~ 1.0 W m-2 due to heterogeneous nucleation, relative to Run 1. The mean global net cooling was 2.4 W m-2 for the ECHAM5 GCM while CAM5 produced a mean global net cooling of about 0.8 W m-2. This dependence of the radiation balance on nucleation mode is substantial when one considers the direct radiative forcing from a CO2 doubling is 4 W m-2. The differences between GCMs in mean global net cooling estimates may demonstrate a need for improving the representation of cirrus clouds in GCMs, including the coupling between microphysical and radiative properties. Unfortunately, after completing this GCM experiment, we learned from the company that provided the 2D-S microphysical data that the data was corrupted due to a computer program coding problem. Therefore the microphysical data had to be reprocessed and reanalyzed, and the GCM experiments were redone under our current ASR project but using an improved experimental design.

  1. Ultrasonic Phased Array Assessment of the Interference Fit and Leak Path of the North Anna Unit 2 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzle 63 with Destructive Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic testing (UT) for primary water leak path assessments of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) upper head penetrations. Operating reactors have experienced leakage when stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy penetrations allowed primary water into the annulus of the interference fit between the penetration and the low-alloy steel RPV head. In this investigation, UT leak path data were acquired for an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism nozzle penetration, referred to as Nozzle 63, which was removed from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor when the RPV head was replaced in 2002. In-service inspection prior to the head replacement indicated that Nozzle 63 had a probable leakage path through the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was examined using a phased-array UT probe with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array. Immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter surface. The UT data were interpreted by comparing to responses measured on a mockup penetration with known features. Following acquisition of the UT data, Nozzle 63 was destructively examined to determine if the features identified in the UT examination, including leakage paths and crystalline boric acid deposits, could be visually confirmed. Additional measurements of boric acid deposit thickness and low-alloy steel wastage were made to assess how these factors affect the UT response. The implications of these findings for interpreting UT leak path data are described.

  2. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrieval of Ice Water Path, Ice Particle Size, and Shape Mitchell, D.L., Arnott, W.P., and Ivanova, D.C., Desert Research Institute Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)...

  3. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The role of ice nuclei recycling in ...

  4. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  5. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Wrme und Feuchte instationr Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  6. Gas-path leakage seal for a turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Aksit, M.F.; Farrell, T.R.

    1999-08-10

    A gas-path leakage seal for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a turbine (such as combustor casing segments of a gas turbine). The seal includes a flexible and generally imperforate metal sheet assemblage having opposing first and second surfaces and two opposing raised edges extending a generally identical distance above and below the surfaces. A first cloth layer assemblage has a thickness generally equal to the previously-defined identical distance and is superimposed on the first surface between the raised edges. A second cloth layer assemblage is generally identical to the first cloth layer assemblage and is superimposed on the second surface between the raised edges. 5 figs.

  7. LANL achieves milestone on path to zero wastewater discharge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL achieves milestone on wastewater discharge LANL achieves milestone on path to zero wastewater discharge Industrial wastewater will be recycled as the result of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. January 20, 2012 Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Contact Colleen Curran Communications Office (505) 664-0344 Email Improved compliance while recycling millions of gallons of industrial

  8. LDRD Program Gives NREL Researchers Path Toward Innovation - News Feature |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL LDRD Program Gives NREL Researchers Path Toward Innovation March 21, 2016 Two people stand in front of a screen displaying reports about NREL's LDRD program. Eric Manuel, director of NREL's Planning and Performance Management Office, and Sheila Terry, LDRD program administrator, stand in front of a display of reports about NREL's LDRD-funded projects over the years. Photo by Dennis Schroeder The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is preparing to foster the

  9. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  10. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  11. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  12. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  13. Initiative Guides Hawaii to the Path of Energy Independence

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With 90 percent of its energy coming from oil, Hawaii is the most oil-dependent state in the nation. The Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative is an ambitious plan to reverse that. Outlining a combination of increased energy efficiency and renewable energy sources the HCEI maps out a path toward achieving the state’s goal of meeting at least 70 percent of its energy needs from clean energy by 2030.

  14. Reduction of Emission Variance by Intelligent Air Path Control | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy This poster describes an air path control concept, which minimizes NOx and PM emission variance while having the ability to run reliably with many different sensor configurations. PDF icon p-17_nanjundaswamy.pdf More Documents & Publications Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment concepts as pathway for SULEV Future Directions in Engines and Fuels A Novel Approach in Determining Oil Dilution Level on a DPF Equipped Vehicle as a Result of Regeneratio

  15. Third international workshop on ice storage for cooling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorski, A.J.

    1986-04-01

    The third international workshop on ice storage for cooling applications which was informal and interactive in nature, was open to persons interested in all ice-growing technologies and in ice storage, both seasonal and diurnal. Presentations were made on some 20 topics, ranging from freezers in Alaska to ice cooling of commercial jet aircraft. Workshop tours included visits to ice-storage systems at Commonwealth Edison's facilities in Bolingbrook and Des Plaines Valley, the A.C. Neilsen builing in Northbrook, and the new State of Illinois Center in Chicago. The first workshop in the present series considered the future of ice storage and predicted applications in the agricultural sector, desalinization, and commercial ice production. Progress has been rapid in the intervening two years, and an important topic at the third workshop was the possible use of ''warm ices'' (clathrate hydrates) for energy storage. This report consists primarily of abstracts of presentations made at the workshop. Persons wishing to obtain further information about particular papers should contact the speakers directly; speakers' addresses and telephone numbers are listed in this report.

  16. An update on land-ice modeling in the CESM (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An update on land-ice modeling in the CESM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An update on land-ice modeling in the CESM Mass loss from land ice, including the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets as well as smaller glacier and ice caps, is making a large and growing contribution to global sea-level rise. Land ice is only beginning to be incorporated in climate models. The goal of the Land Ice Working Group (LIWG) is to develop improved land-ice models and incorporate them in CESM, in

  17. FELIX: The Albany Ice Sheet Modeling Code. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FELIX: The Albany Ice Sheet Modeling Code. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FELIX: The Albany Ice Sheet Modeling Code. Abstract not provided. Authors: Kalashnikova, Irina ...

  18. Calculational method for determination of carburetor icing rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarov, V.I.; Emel'yanov, V.E.; Gonopol'ska, A.F.; Zaslavskii, A.A.

    1986-05-01

    This paper investigates the dependence of the carburetor icing rate on the density, distillation curve, and vapor pressure of gasoline. More than 100 gasoline samples, covering a range of volatility, were investigated. No clear-cut relationship can be observed between the carburetor icing rate and any specific property index of the gasoline. At the same time, there are certain variables that cannot be observed directly but can be interpreted readily through which the influence of gasoline quality on the carburetor icing rate can be explained. The conversion to these variables was accomplished with regard for the values of the variance and correlation of the carburetor icing rate. Equations are presented that may be used to predict the carburetor icing rate when using gasolines differing in quality. The equations can also determine the need for incorporating antiicing additives in the gasoline.

  19. Methods and apparatus for rotor blade ice detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMieux, David Lawrence

    2006-08-08

    A method for detecting ice on a wind turbine having a rotor and one or more rotor blades each having blade roots includes monitoring meteorological conditions relating to icing conditions and monitoring one or more physical characteristics of the wind turbine in operation that vary in accordance with at least one of the mass of the one or more rotor blades or a mass imbalance between the rotor blades. The method also includes using the one or more monitored physical characteristics to determine whether a blade mass anomaly exists, determining whether the monitored meteorological conditions are consistent with blade icing; and signaling an icing-related blade mass anomaly when a blade mass anomaly is determined to exist and the monitored meteorological conditions are determined to be consistent with icing.

  20. Scientists at ALS Find New Path to More Efficient Organic Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists at ALS Find New Path to More Efficient Organic Solar Cells Scientists at ALS Find New Path to More Efficient Organic Solar Cells Print Monday, 07 January 2013 00:00 ...

  1. New Accelerator Will Study Steps on the Path to Fusion Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Accelerator Will Study Steps on the Path to Fusion Power New Accelerator Will Study Steps on the Path to Fusion Power Unusual Machine Tailor-made to Examine Heavy-ion Fusion ...

  2. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirstrm, E. S.; Persson, C. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (?10K) water vapor has been detectedL1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at worklikely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  3. 2009 Community Sequencing Program: Life Under Ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victo Kunin, PhD; Microbial Ecology Group, DOE JGI; Phil Hugenholtz, PhD; Microbial Ecology Program Head, DOE JGI

    2008-09-25

    A JGI Multimedia Presentation: Buried deep beneath the surface of Antarctica is a fresh water lake, Lake Vostok.

  4. 2009 Community Sequencing Program: Life Under Ice

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Victo Kunin, PhD (Project co-PI); Microbial Ecology Group, DOE JGI; Phil Hugenholtz, PhD (CSP Project PI); Microbial Ecology Program Head, DOE JGI

    2010-09-01

    A JGI Multimedia Presentation: Buried deep beneath the surface of Antarctica is a fresh water lake, Lake Vostok.

  5. Water Levels, Barrow, Alaska, NGEE Areas A, B, C and D for 2012, 2013, 2014, Final Version, 20150324

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2015-06-08

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  6. Water Levels, Barrow, Alaska, NGEE Areas A, B, C and D for 2012, 2013, 2014, Final Version, 20150324

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  7. Recommendation 219: Recommendation Regarding the Creation of a Graphic Representation of Waste Disposition Paths

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board recommends that DOE develop graphic representations of waste disposition paths.

  8. Glaciers, ice sheets, and sea level: effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1985-09-01

    The workshop examined the basic questions of how much water has been exchanged between land ice and ocean during the last century, what is happening now, and, given existing climate-modeling prediction, how much exchange can be expected in the next century. In addition, the evidence for exchange was examined and gaps in that evidence were identified. The report includes the 23 presentations made at the workshop, summarizes the workshop discussion, and presents the Committee's findings and recommendations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 23 presentations.

  9. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  10. Multi-path transportation futures study: Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Phil; Singh, Margaret; Plotkin, Steve; Moore, Jim

    2007-03-09

    This PowerPoint briefing provides documentation and details for Phase 1 of the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study, which compares alternative ways to make significant reductions in oil use and carbon emissions from U.S. light vehicles to 2050. Phase I, completed in 2006, was a scoping study, aimed at identifying key analytic issues and constructing a study design. The Phase 1 analysis included an evaluation of several pathways and scenarios; however, these analyses were limited in number and scope and were designed to be preliminary.

  11. Path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, John K.P.; Wang, Kai-Ting Amy; Yamashita, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2014-07-22

    A mechanism is provided for path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads. The mechanism receives, in a compiler, program code to be compiled to form compiled code. The mechanism divides the code into basic blocks. The mechanism then determines a restore register set for each of the one or more basic blocks to form one or more restore register sets. The mechanism then stores the one or more register sets such that responsive to a rollback during execution of the compiled code. A rollback routine identifies a restore register set from the one or more restore register sets and restores registers identified in the identified restore register set.

  12. Random paths and current fluctuations in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaspard, Pierre

    2014-07-15

    An overview is given of recent advances in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics about the statistics of random paths and current fluctuations. Although statistics is carried out in space for equilibrium statistical mechanics, statistics is considered in time or spacetime for nonequilibrium systems. In this approach, relationships have been established between nonequilibrium properties such as the transport coefficients, the thermodynamic entropy production, or the affinities, and quantities characterizing the microscopic Hamiltonian dynamics and the chaos or fluctuations it may generate. This overview presents results for classical systems in the escape-rate formalism, stochastic processes, and open quantum systems.

  13. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  14. Development and Applications of the Community Ice Sheet Model (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect and Applications of the Community Ice Sheet Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development and Applications of the Community Ice Sheet Model The initial goals of the project are: (1) create a model for land ice that includes relevant and necessary dynamics, physical processes, and couplings; and (2) apply that model to say something more substantial about SLR in Lme for IPCC AR5 (AR6?). Authors: Hoffman, Matthew J. [1] ; Lipscomb, William H. [1] ; Price,

  15. Searching for Cosmic Accelerators via IceCube

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Searching for Cosmic Accelerators via IceCube Searching for Cosmic Accelerators via IceCube Berkeley Lab Researchers Part of an International Hunt November 21, 2013 Lynn Yarris, lcyarris@lbl.gov, 510.486.5375 Bert.jpg This event display shows "Bert," one of two neutrino events discovered at IceCube whose energies exceeded one petaelectronvolt (PeV). The colors show when the light arrived, with reds being the earliest, succeeded by yellows, greens and blues. The size of the circle

  16. Relative permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments from percolation theory and critical path analysis: theoretical and experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daigle, Hugh; Rice, Mary Anna; Daigle, Hugh

    2015-12-14

    Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.

  17. Development, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification of high-fidelity arctic sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana S.

    2010-09-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and due to feedback effects the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice to model physical parameters. A new sea ice model that has the potential to improve sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code and the MPM sea ice code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness, and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  18. DISPOSITION PATHS FOR ROCKY FLATS GLOVEBOXES: EVALUATING OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobdell, D.; Geimer, R.; Larsen, P.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC has the responsibility for closure activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). One of the challenges faced for closure is the disposition of radiologically contaminated gloveboxes. Evaluation of the disposition options for gloveboxes included a detailed analysis of available treatment capabilities, disposal facilities, and lifecycle costs. The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC followed several processes in determining how the gloveboxes would be managed for disposition. Currently, multiple disposition paths have been chosen to accommodate the needs of the varying styles and conditions of the gloveboxes, meet the needs of the decommissioning team, and to best manage lifecycle costs. Several challenges associated with developing a disposition path that addresses both the radiological and RCRA concerns as well as offering the most cost-effective solution were encountered. These challenges included meeting the radiological waste acceptance criteria of available disposal facilities, making a RCRA determination, evaluating treatment options and costs, addressing void requirements associated with disposal, and identifying packaging and transportation options. The varying disposal facility requirements affected disposition choices. Facility conditions that impacted decisions included radiological and chemical waste acceptance criteria, physical requirements, and measurement for payment options. The facility requirements also impacted onsite activities including management strategies, decontamination activities, and life-cycle cost.

  19. Preserving correlations between trajectories for efficient path sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gingrich, Todd R.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2015-06-21

    Importance sampling of trajectories has proved a uniquely successful strategy for exploring rare dynamical behaviors of complex systems in an unbiased way. Carrying out this sampling, however, requires an ability to propose changes to dynamical pathways that are substantial, yet sufficiently modest to obtain reasonable acceptance rates. Satisfying this requirement becomes very challenging in the case of long trajectories, due to the characteristic divergences of chaotic dynamics. Here, we examine schemes for addressing this problem, which engineer correlation between a trial trajectory and its reference path, for instance using artificial forces. Our analysis is facilitated by a modern perspective on Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling, inspired by non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, which clarifies the types of sampling strategies that can scale to long trajectories. Viewed in this light, the most promising such strategy guides a trial trajectory by manipulating the sequence of random numbers that advance its stochastic time evolution, as done in a handful of existing methods. In cases where this “noise guidance” synchronizes trajectories effectively, as the Glauber dynamics of a two-dimensional Ising model, we show that efficient path sampling can be achieved for even very long trajectories.

  20. Gas-path leakage seal for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C.E.; Dinc, O.S.; Bagepalli, B.S.; Correia, V.H.; Aksit, M.F.

    1996-04-23

    A gas-path leakage seal is described for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a gas turbine (such as combustor casing segments). The seal includes a generally imperforate foil-layer assemblage which is generally impervious to gas and is located in the leakage-gap. The seal also includes a cloth-layer assemblage generally enclosingly contacting the foil-layer assemblage. In one seal, the first edge of the foil-layer assemblage is left exposed, and the foil-layer assemblage resiliently contacts the first member near the first edge to reduce leakage in the ``plane`` of the cloth-layer assemblage under conditions which include differential thermal growth of the two members. In another seal, such leakage is reduced by having a first weld-bead which permeates the cloth-layer assemblage, is attached to the metal-foil-layer assemblage near the first edge, and unattachedly contacts the first member. 4 figs.

  1. Gas-path leakage seal for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Christopher E.; Dinc, Osman S.; Bagepalli, Bharat S.; Correia, Victor H.; Aksit, Mahmut F.

    1996-01-01

    A gas-path leakage seal for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a gas turbine (such as combustor casing segments). The seal includes a generally imperforate foil-layer assemblage which is generally impervious to gas and is located in the leakage-gap. The seal also includes a cloth-layer assemblage generally enclosingly contacting the foil-layer assemblage. In one seal, the first edge of the foil-layer assemblage is left exposed, and the foil-layer assemblage resiliently contacts the first member near the first edge to reduce leakage in the "plane" of the cloth-layer assemblage under conditions which include differential thermal growth of the two members. In another seal, such leakage is reduced by having a first weld-bead which permeates the cloth-layer assemblage, is attached to the metal-foil-layer assemblage near the first edge, and unattachedly contacts the first member.

  2. Operating Experience Level 3, Winter Preparedness: Slips on Ice

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE-3 2015-06: This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides information about the hazards of slips, trips, and falls on ice across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex.

  3. Radiokrypton Dating Identifies Ancient Antarctic Ice | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    count the number of radioactive krypton-81 atoms remaining in ice using a laser trap. ... is demonstrated by counting the radioactive krypton-81 atoms with a laser-based atom trap. ...

  4. The TWP-ICE CRM Intercomparison Specification and First Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TWP-ICE CRM Intercomparison Specification and First Results Ann Fridlind (ann.fridlind@nasa.gov), Andrew Ackerman (andrew.ackerman@nasa.gov), Adrian Hill (adrian.hill@metoffice.gov...

  5. Ice Particle Projected Area- and Mass-dimension Expressions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    m-D and A-D expressions in BMPs is described in this paper. Figure 1. The m-D expression (black curve) for synoptic ice clouds between -20C and -40C based on SCPP m-D...

  6. Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    image of emergent domains of ordered magnetic charges in honeycomb artificial spin ice. The black and white dots in the image are the north and south magnetic poles of the...

  7. Arctic sea ice modeling with the material-point method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2010-04-01

    Arctic sea ice plays an important role in global climate by reflecting solar radiation and insulating the ocean from the atmosphere. Due to feedback effects, the Arctic sea ice cover is changing rapidly. To accurately model this change, high-resolution calculations must incorporate: (1) annual cycle of growth and melt due to radiative forcing; (2) mechanical deformation due to surface winds, ocean currents and Coriolis forces; and (3) localized effects of leads and ridges. We have demonstrated a new mathematical algorithm for solving the sea ice governing equations using the material-point method with an elastic-decohesive constitutive model. An initial comparison with the LANL CICE code indicates that the ice edge is sharper using Materials-Point Method (MPM), but that many of the overall features are similar.

  8. Magnetization plateaus of dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Y. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2014-05-07

    Unlike spin ice on pyrochlore lattice, the spin ice structure on kagome lattice retains net magnetic charge, indicating non-negligible dipolar interaction in modulating the spin ice states. While it is predicted that the dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice exhibits a ground state with magnetic charge order and ?3???3 spin order, our work focuses on the magnetization plateau of this system. By employing the Wang-Landau algorithm, it is revealed that the lattice exhibits the fantastic three-step magnetization in response to magnetic field h along the [10] and [01] directions, respectively. For the h//[1 0] case, an additional ?3/6M{sub s} step, where M{sub s} is the saturated magnetization, is observed in a specific temperature range, corresponding to a new state with charge order and short-range spin order.

  9. Path to a commercial fast reactor option in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, P.; McCullum, R.; Nesbit, S.; Sowder, A.; Stout, D.

    2012-07-01

    Fast reactors represent one technology with the potential to transform the energy sector through increased resource utilization and unique waste management opportunities that are not available through the established light water reactor (LWR) technology. The technology is 'old' by 21 st century standards, as the United States and other nations have funded fast reactor research and development efforts from the birth of nuclear power that have led to deployment at all scales from experimental to commercial. Yet, in spite of great promise, the experience with fast reactors can be characterized as mixed, with both notable successes and failures. Why then, after 50 years of development, is there no commercial fast reactor operating in the United States? Is commercialization of the technology possible? If so, what business case is needed for a commercial utility to operate a fast reactor? This paper will attempt to sketch a possible path for the development and demonstration of technology needed to make fast reactors a real option for commercial operation by mid-century. This path starts with today's proven LWR technology and uranium oxide fuels and takes an evolutionary route to a first commercial fast reactor that complements and supports the existing reliable LWR fleet. This paper is not intended to promote any one technology or approach, but instead seeks to illustrate the value of national level support for an energy technology program oriented toward demonstration and seeks eventual deployment of transformational energy systems on the scale and time-frame that matters. The observations and conclusions presented are derived primarily from the collective experience and expertise of the authors who represent a broad range of commercial perspectives from the utility, vendor, research and development, and regulatory policy communities. (authors)

  10. Greenland Ice Sheet Modeling Update (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Greenland Ice Sheet Modeling Update Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Greenland Ice Sheet Modeling Update Authors: Lipscomb, William H. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-06-05 OSTI Identifier: 1133752 Report Number(s): LA-UR-14-24034 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Regional Arctic System Model workshop ; 2014-06-04 - 2014-06-06 ; Monterey,

  11. Ice Nucleation of Fungal Spores from the Classes Agaricomycetes,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes, and the effect on the Atmospheric Transport of these Spores (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ice Nucleation of Fungal Spores from the Classes Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes, and the effect on the Atmospheric Transport of these Spores Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ice Nucleation of Fungal Spores from the Classes Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes, and the effect on the Atmospheric Transport of

  12. Adjoint-based Deterministic Inversion for Ice Sheets. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Adjoint-based Deterministic Inversion for Ice Sheets. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Adjoint-based Deterministic Inversion for Ice Sheets. Abstract not provided. Authors: Perego, Mauro ; Salinger, Andrew G. ; Phipps, Eric Todd ; Ridzal, Denis ; Kouri, Drew Philip ; Kalashnikova, Irina ; S. Price ; G. Stadler Publication Date: 2014-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1242148 Report Number(s): SAND2014-19449PE 540987 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference

  13. An Ice Sheet Model Initialization Procedure for Smooth Coupling with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate Forcing. (Conference) | SciTech Connect An Ice Sheet Model Initialization Procedure for Smooth Coupling with Climate Forcing. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Ice Sheet Model Initialization Procedure for Smooth Coupling with Climate Forcing. Abstract not provided. Authors: Perego, Mauro ; Price, Stephen [1] ; Stadler, Georg [2] ; Kalashnikova, Irina ; Salinger, Andrew G. + Show Author Affiliations (LANL) (Curant Institute) Publication Date: 2015-01-01 OSTI Identifier:

  14. Real and effective thermal equilibrium in artificial square spin ices

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Real and effective thermal equilibrium in artificial square spin ices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Real and effective thermal equilibrium in artificial square spin ices Authors: Morgan, Jason P. ; Akerman, Johanna ; Stein, Aaron ; Phatak, Charudatta ; Evans, R. M. L. ; Langridge, Sean ; Marrows, Christopher H. Publication Date: 2013-01-09 OSTI Identifier: 1101866 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional

  15. STORMVEX. Ice Nuclei and Cloud Condensation Nuclei Characterization Field

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect STORMVEX. Ice Nuclei and Cloud Condensation Nuclei Characterization Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: STORMVEX. Ice Nuclei and Cloud Condensation Nuclei Characterization Field Campaign Report The relationship between aerosol particles and the formation of clouds is among the most uncertain aspects in our current understanding of climate change. Warm clouds have been the most extensively studied, in large part

  16. Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Semiannual Progress Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Semiannual Progress Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Semiannual Progress Report In the past six months, work has continued on energy flux

  17. Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet International research team's field work shows that, well, things are more complicated than we thought December 22, 2014 The newly discovered rolling movement shown in (A) three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy image of ribosome, and (B) computer-generated atomic-resolution model of the human ribosome consistent with microscopy. An international team of researchers deployed to

  18. Distribution of fast hydrologic paths in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabryka-Martin, J.T.; Wolfsberg, A.V.; Levy, S.S.; Roach, J.L.; Winters, S.T.; Wolfsberg, L.E.; Elmore, D.; Sharma, P.

    1998-12-31

    Development and testing of conceptual flow and transport models for hydrologic systems are strengthened when natural environmental tracers are incorporated into the process. One such tracer is chlorine-36 ({sup 36}Cl, half-life, 301,000 years), a radioactive isotope produced in the atmosphere and carried underground with percolating groundwater. High concentrations of this isotope were also added to meteoric water during a period of global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear devices, primarily in the 1950s. This bomb-pulse signal has been used to test for the presence of fast transport paths in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and to provide the basis for a conceptual model for their distribution. Yucca Mountain is under investigation by the US Department of Energy as a potential site at which to host an underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Under wetter climatic conditions, fast-flow pathways will respond quickly to increases in infiltration and have the potential to become seeps in the tunnel drifts. The {sup 36}Cl data are also being used in numerical flow and transport models to establish lower bounds on infiltration rates, estimate ground water ages, and establish bounding values for hydrologic flow parameters governing fracture transport.

  19. IceCube: An Instrument for Neutrino Astronomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Halzen, F.; Klein, S.

    2010-06-04

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5,160 optical sensors are embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system, including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems and LEDs for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of Galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams.

  20. Micro-Spectroscopic Imaging and Characterization of Individually Identified Ice Nucleating Particles from a Case Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knopf, Daniel A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Wang, Bingbing; O'Brien, Rachel E.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Moffet, Ryan C.

    2014-09-03

    The effect of anthropogenic and biogenic organic particles on atmospheric glaciation processes is poorly understood. We use an optical microscopy (OM) setup to identify the location of ice nuclei (IN) active in immersion freezing and deposition ice nucleation for temperatures of 200-273 K within a large population of particles sampled from an ambient environment. Applying multi-modal micro-spectroscopy methods we characterize the physicochemical properties of individual IN in particle populations collected in central California. Chemical composition and mixing state analysis of particle populations are performed to identify characteristic particle-type classes. All particle-types contained organic material. Particles in these samples take up water at subsaturated conditions, induce immersion freezing at subsaturated and saturated conditions above 226 K, and act as deposition IN below 226 K. The identified IN belong to the most common particle-type classes observed in the field samples: organic coated sea salt, Na-rich, and secondary and refractory carbonaceous particles. Based on these observations, we suggest that the IN are not always particles with unique chemical composition and exceptional ice nucleation propensity; rather, they are common particles in the ambient particle population. Thus, particle composition and morphology alone are insufficient to assess their potential to act as IN. The results suggest that particle-type abundance is also a crucial factor in determining the ice nucleation efficiency of specific IN types. These findings emphasize that ubiquitous organic particles can induce ice nucleation under atmospherically relevant conditions and that they may play an important role in atmospheric glaciation processes.

  1. Energy Upgrade California in Los Angeles County - The Flex Path...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bundle of Measures) * Air sealing * Attic insulation * HVAC duct sealing * Insulate water heater pipes * Thermostatic shower valve * Low-flow shower head * Combustion ...

  2. De-icing thermostat for air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, M.R.

    1986-12-09

    This patent describes an electronic thermostat adapted to be connected to an air-cooling apparatus to control the operative state of the apparatus. The thermostat includes a means for generating a digital electrical signal representative of a desired temperature setpoint and means for generating a digital electrical signal representative of the ambient temperature at the thermostat. The improvement described here comprises: means for generating control signals for the aircooling apparatus in order to inhibit the accumulation of ice on the cooling element of the air-cooling apparatus when the ambient temperature is above the temperature setpoint; means, responsive to the control signals, for deenergizing the compressor in the air-cooling apparatus for a first preselected period of time whenever the compressor is determined to have run continuously for a second preselected period of time; and means for adaptively adjusting the length of at least one of the first or second preselected periods of time as a function of the change in the rate of change of the ambient temperature.

  3. Integrating laboratory and field data to quantify the immersion freezing ice nucleation activity of mineral dust particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, R. C.; Petters, M. D.; Tobo, Y.; Niemand, M.; Möhler, O.; Snider, J. R.; Wang, Z.; et al

    2015-01-13

    Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop an empirical parameterization for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) are taken as a measure of the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. The parameterizationmore » developed follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A calibration factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RHw of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RHw. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RHw in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this calibration factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization, including calibration correction, to predictions of the immersion freezing surface active site density parameterization for mineral dust particles, developed separately from AIDA experimental data alone, shows excellent agreement for data collected in a descent through a Saharan aerosol layer. These studies support the utility of laboratory measurements to obtain atmospherically relevant data on the ice nucleation properties of dust and other particle types, and suggest the suitability of considering all mineral dust as a single type of ice nucleating particle as a useful first-order approximation in numerical modeling investigations.« less

  4. Integrating laboratory and field data to quantify the immersion freezing ice nucleation activity of mineral dust particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, R. C.; Petters, M. D.; Tobo, Y.; Niemand, M.; Möhler, O.; Snider, J. R.; Wang, Z.; et al

    2014-06-27

    Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop a simple parametric description for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) are taken to approximate the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. The parameterization developedmore » follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A correction factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RHw of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RHw. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RHw in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this correction factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization to the immersion freezing surface active site density parameterization for mineral dust particles, developed separately from AIDA experimental data alone, shows excellent agreement for data collected in a descent through a Saharan aerosol layer. These studies support the utility of laboratory measurements to obtain atmospherically-relevant data on the ice nucleation properties of dust and other particle types, and suggest the suitability of considering all mineral dust as a single type of ice nucleating particle as a useful first order approximation in numerical modeling investigations.« less

  5. Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prather, William S.

    1993-01-01

    A device for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid therebetween and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data.

  6. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study: Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phil Patterson, P.; Singh, M.; Plotkin, S.; Moore, J.

    2007-03-09

    Presentation reporting Phase 1 results, 3/9/2007. Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance and uncertainty of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). The Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of what if questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  7. Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prather, W.S.

    1993-12-07

    A device is described for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid there between and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data. 2 figures.

  8. Executive Summary- On the Path to SunShot

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, at the halfway mark of the SunShot Initiative’s 2020 target date, it is a good time to take stock: How much progress has been made? What have we learned? What barriers and opportunities must still be addressed to ensure that solar technologies achieve cost parity in 2020 and realize their full potential in the decades beyond? To answer these questions, the Solar Energy Technology Office launched the On the Path to SunShot series in early 2015 in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and with contributions from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The reports focus on the areas of technology development, systems integration, and market enablers.

  9. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transmission lines (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating

  10. Urban Sustainability Water Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-22

    Most urban areas are experiencing substantial growth rate. In order to support the growth and still maintain the high quality of life currently available in these areas, government planners, and developers and general stakeholders are very interested in a product that will allow them to experiment with different development scenarios to determine the best path forward. One of the biggest concerns is the amount of water that will be available as the growth continues. Thismore » software package will allow them as a group to input their ideas and get a visual view of the results, immediately. They will be able to watch the water resources as they are consumed by the increasing growth in residential, commercial and industrial areas.« less

  11. Understanding cirrus ice crystal number variability for different heterogeneous ice nucleation spectra

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Morales Betancourt, Ricardo; Barahona, Donifan; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-03-03

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of the nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the adjoint of a cirrus formation parameterization (Barahona and Nenes, 2009b) to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are donemore » with a theoretically derived spectrum, an empirical lab-based spectrum and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon particles and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. In conclusion, Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never deconstructed as done here.« less

  12. Understanding cirrus ice crystal number variability for different heterogeneous ice nucleation spectra

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sullivan, S. C.; Morales Betancourt, R.; Barahona, D.; Nenes, A.

    2015-08-11

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the Barahona and Nenes cirrus formation parameterization to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are done with a theoretically-derived spectrum,morea lab-based empirical spectrum, and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon aerosol and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never unraveled as done here.less

  13. A New Model for Liquid Water Absorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model for Liquid Water Absorption For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Liquid water path (LWP) is a critical measurement for a wide range of atmospheric studies, as the amount of liquid in a cloud is critical to understanding many cloud processes. For example, the radiative impact of the cloud (in both the longwave and shortwave portions of the spectrum) depends heavily on the LWP. Thus, the Atmospheric

  14. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON METHANOL PRODUCTION IN INTERSTELLAR AND PREPLANETARY ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Cook, A. M.; Herbst, Eric; Chiar, J. E.; Shenoy, S. S.

    2011-11-20

    Methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) is thought to be an important link in the chain of chemical evolution that leads from simple diatomic interstellar molecules to complex organic species in protoplanetary disks that may be delivered to the surfaces of Earthlike planets. Previous research has shown that CH{sub 3}OH forms in the interstellar medium predominantly on the surfaces of dust grains. To enhance our understanding of the conditions that lead to its efficient production, we assemble a homogenized catalog of published detections and limiting values in interstellar and preplanetary ices for both CH{sub 3}OH and the other commonly observed C- and O-bearing species, H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2}. We use this catalog to investigate the abundance of ice-phase CH{sub 3}OH in environments ranging from dense molecular clouds to circumstellar envelopes around newly born stars of low and high mass. Results show that CH{sub 3}OH production arises during the CO freezeout phase of ice-mantle growth in the clouds, after an ice layer rich in H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} is already in place on the dust, in agreement with current astrochemical models. The abundance of solid-phase CH{sub 3}OH in this environment is sufficient to account for observed gas-phase abundances when the ices are subsequently desorbed in the vicinity of embedded stars. CH{sub 3}OH concentrations in the ices toward embedded stars show order-of-magnitude object-to-object variations, even in a sample restricted to stars of low mass associated with ices lacking evidence of thermal processing. We hypothesize that the efficiency of CH{sub 3}OH production in dense cores and protostellar envelopes is mediated by the degree of prior CO depletion.

  15. FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal PDF icon FACT SHEET: The Path Forward on Nuclear Waste Disposal More Documents & Publications Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Integrated Waste Management and Consent-Based Siting Booklet

  16. On the Path to SunShot - Cost Reductions Required | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cost Reductions Required On the Path to SunShot - Cost Reductions Required On the Path to SunShot - Cost Reductions Required In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs report highlights that while we are making major progress toward meeting the SunShot goals, further cost reductions are required to make solar energy cost competitive with conventional sources of energy by 2020

  17. On the Path to SunShot - Deployment and Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Deployment and Costs On the Path to SunShot - Deployment and Costs On the Path to SunShot - Deployment and Costs In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs report highlights how the cost of solar panels has decreased with technological improvements, which has resulted in higher levels of solar deployment

  18. On the Path to SunShot - Interconnection Process | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Interconnection Process On the Path to SunShot - Interconnection Process On the Path to SunShot - Interconnection Process In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Emerging Issues and Challenges with Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Distribution System report highlights improvements needed to current solar interconnection processes, associated standards and codes, and compensation mechanisms. This work is critical to facilitating distributed PV deployment so they embrace PV's

  19. VIDEO: "Clear Path II" Helps the Department Prepare for Hurricane

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Season | Department of Energy "Clear Path II" Helps the Department Prepare for Hurricane Season VIDEO: "Clear Path II" Helps the Department Prepare for Hurricane Season May 30, 2014 - 12:33pm Addthis On Wednesday, May 28, the Department's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability hosted Clear Path II, a pre-hurricane season energy sector emergency response forum and exercise, at Energy Department headquarters in Washington, D.C. The purpose of Clear Path II is

  20. Silicon Ink Technology Offers Path to Higher Efficiency Solar Cells at Lower Cost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE supported the development of the first liquid silicon on the market that offers a novel path to producing more efficient solar cells at lower cost.

  1. Air Combat Command deicing/anti-icing operation: Compliance evaluation and requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fronapfel, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will present information on Air Combat Command`s (ACC) efforts in evaluating its deicing and anti-icing activities at all applicable ACC bases. This effort, led by Ecology and Environment (E and E), of Lancaster NY, will evaluate the operations, infrastructure, and management of deicing and anti-icing programs at ACC bases and will provide recommendations to each base for maintaining compliance with applicable regulations and minimizing the environmental impact of these operations. In addition to evaluating such operations at ACC bases, E and E, along with subcontractor Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., will research activities around the nation and the world to assist in developing the best recommendations for each ACC base. Armstrong Laboratory`s Water Quality Branch of the Bioenvironmental Engineering Division (AL/OEBW) is responsible for technical and contractual oversight of this effort. A summary of information gathered to date will be presented in this paper. Although the disposal of deicing fluids has led a somewhat charmed life until recently, these activities are likely to receive increased regulatory scrutiny in the years to come. Air Combat Command has had more than one instance where NOVs or potential NOVs have arisen due to fish kills associated with deicing/anti-icing chemical laden runoff. In an effort to prevent future compliance problems and to foster proper stewardship of the environment, ACC has taken these proactive measures at its bases. ACC`s efforts will also be used at the Air Staff level to assist in making Air Force wide pollution prevention and best management practice (P2/BMP) recommendations.

  2. Assessment and management of aquatic impacts from airport de-icing activities -- The Canadian perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent, R.A.; Andersen, D.; Simpson, A.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, aircraft deicing fluids have simply drained from aircraft and runway surfaces into airport drainage systems and invariably end up in surrounding receiving aquatic systems. This led to recent concerns over environmental impacts from glycol-based fluids typically used for deicing aircraft. Glycols from de-icing fluids have been detected at high levels at Canadian airports. Concern not only stems from the high volumes being used at relatively few point sources, but also to the higher toxicity of the formulated de-icing fluids, compared to pure glycols. As a result, significant environmental management efforts have been made at Canadian airports over the last 4 years, including extensive stormwater monitoring, glycol mitigation and pollution prevention plans. Site-specific mitigation plans have been implemented at 15 major Canadian airports which typically include glycol containment, collection and removal. While a reasonable dataset is available on the toxicity of pure glycols, much less information is available on the toxicity of formulated deicers. Furthermore, there have been very few field assessments of the aquatic impacts of de-icing. To date, management regimes developed to address the problem in Canada have focused almost exclusively on glycols and voluntary compliance to discharge limits and receiving water quality guidelines. This approach has resulted in reductions in the quantities of glycols which are released from Canadian airports into the surrounding environment. Currently, government and industry are refining this management system with an examination of new approaches and options such as more holistic airport wastewater quality assessments and toxicity-based guidelines.

  3. Dual nitrate isotopes clarify the role of biological processing and hydrologic flow paths on nitrogen cycling in subtropical low-gradient watersheds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Griffiths, Natalie A.; Jackson, C. Rhett; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Klaus, Julian; Du, Enhao; Bitew, Menberu M.

    2016-02-08

    Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient as it often limits productivity but in excess can impair water quality. Most studies on watershed N cycling have occurred in upland forested catchments where snowmelt dominates N export; fewer studies have focused on low-relief watersheds that lack snow. We examined watershed N cycling in three adjacent, low-relief watersheds in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States to better understand the role of hydrological flow paths and biological transformations of N at the watershed scale. Groundwater was the dominant source of nitrified N to stream water in two of the three watersheds,more » while atmospheric deposition comprised 28% of stream water nitrate in one watershed. The greater atmospheric contribution may have been due to the larger stream channel area relative to total watershed area or the dominance of shallow subsurface flow paths contributing to stream flow in this watershed. There was a positive relationship between temperature and stream water ammonium concentrations and a negative relationship between temperature and stream water nitrate concentrations in each watershed suggesting that N cycling processes (i.e., nitrification and denitrification) varied seasonally. However, there were no clear patterns in the importance of denitrification in different water pools possibly because a variety of factors (i.e., assimilatory uptake, dissimilatory uptake, and mixing) affected nitrate concentrations. In conclusion, together, these results highlight the hydrological and biological controls on N cycling in low-gradient watersheds and variability in N delivery flow paths among adjacent watersheds with similar physical characteristics.« less

  4. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  5. Ice Nucleation of Fungal Spores from the Classes Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes, and the effect on the Atmospheric Transport of these Spores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haga, D. I.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Iannone, R.; Wheeler, M. J.; Mason, R.; Chen, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Poschl, U.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2014-08-26

    Ice nucleation on fungal spores may affect the frequency and properties of ice and mixed-phase clouds. We studied the ice nucleation properties of 12 different species of fungal spores chosen from three classes: Agaricomycetes, Ustilagomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes. Agaricomycetes include many types of mushroom species and are cosmopolitan all over the globe. Ustilagomycetes are agricultural pathogens and have caused widespread damage to crops. Eurotiomycetes are found on all types of decaying material and include important human allergens. We focused on these classes since they are thought to be abundant in the atmosphere and because there is very little information on the ice nucleation ability of these classes of spores in the literature. All of the fungal spores investigated were found to cause freezing of water droplets at temperatures warmer than homogeneous freezing. The cumulative number of ice nuclei per spore was 0.001 at temperatures between -19 C and -29 C, 0.01 between -25.5 C and -31 C, and 0.1 between -26 C and -36 C. On average, the order of ice nucleating ability for these spores is Ustilagomycetes > Agaricomycetes ? Eurotiomycetes. We show that at temperatures below -20 C, all of the fungal spores studied here are less efficient ice nuclei compared to Asian mineral dust on a per surface area basis. We used our new freezing results together with data in the literature to compare the freezing temperatures of spores from the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which together make up 98 % of known fungal species found on Earth. The data show that within both phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) there is a wide range of freezing properties, and also that the variation within a phylum is greater than the variation between the average freezing properties of the phyla. Using a global chemistry-climate transport model, we investigated whether ice nucleation on the studied spores, followed by precipitation, can influence the atmospheric transport and global distributions of these spores in the atmosphere. Simulations show that inclusion of ice nucleation scavenging of fungal spores in mixed-phase clouds can decrease the surface annual mean mixing ratios of fungal spores over the oceans and polar regions and decrease annual mean mixing ratios in the upper troposphere.

  6. Effects of Pre-Existing Ice Crystals on Cirrus Clouds and Comparison between Different Ice Nucleation Parameterizations with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiangjun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the treatment of ice nucleation in a more realistic manner in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5.3 (CAM5.3), the effects of preexisting ice crystals on ice nucleation in cirrus clouds are considered. In addition, by considering the in-cloud variability in ice saturation ratio, homogeneous nucleation takes place spatially only in a portion of cirrus cloud rather than in the whole area of cirrus cloud. With these improvements, the two unphysical limiters used in the representation of ice nucleation are removed. Compared to observations, the ice number concentrations and the probability distributions of ice number concentration are both improved with the updated treatment. The preexisting ice crystals significantly reduce ice number concentrations in cirrus clouds, especially at mid- to high latitudes in the upper troposphere (by a factor of ~10). Furthermore, the contribution of heterogeneous ice nucleation to cirrus ice crystal number increases considerably.Besides the default ice nucleation parameterization of Liu and Penner (2005, hereafter LP) in CAM5.3, two other ice nucleation parameterizations of Barahona and Nenes (2009, hereafter BN) and Krcher et al. (2006, hereafter KL) are implemented in CAM5.3 for the comparison. In-cloud ice crystal number concentration, percentage contribution from heterogeneous ice nucleation to total ice crystal number, and preexisting ice effects simulated by the three ice nucleation parameterizations have similar patterns in the simulations with present-day aerosol emissions. However, the change (present-day minus pre-industrial times) in global annual mean column ice number concentration from the KL parameterization (3.24106 m-2) is obviously less than that from the LP (8.46106 m-2) and BN (5.62106 m-2) parameterizations. As a result, experiment using the KL parameterization predicts a much smaller anthropogenic aerosol longwave indirect forcing (0.24 W m-2) than that using the LP (0.46 W m-2) and BN (0.39 W m-2) parameterizations.

  7. Equation of State for Supercooled Water at Pressures up to 400 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holten, Vincent; Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2014-12-01

    An equation of state is presented for the thermodynamic properties of cold and supercooled water. It is valid for temperatures from the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature up to 300 K and for pressures up to 400 MPa, and can be extrapolated up to 1000 MPa. The equation of state is compared with experimental data for the density, expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, speed of sound, and heat capacity. Estimates for the accuracy of the equation are given. The melting curve of ice I is calculated from the phase-equilibrium condition between the proposed equation and an existing equation of state for ice I.

  8. A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Commercial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Considerable effort has been dedicated to determining the possible properties of a magneticconfinement fusion power plant, particularly in the U.S.1, Europe2 and Japan3. There has also been some effort to detail the development path to fusion energy, particularly in the U.S.4 Only limited attention has been given, in Japan5 and in China6, to the options for a specific device to form the bridge from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, to commercial fusion energy. Nor has much attention been paid, since 2003, to the synergies between magnetic and inertial fusion energy development. Here we consider, at a very high level, the possibility of a Qeng ? 1 Pilot Plant, with linear dimensions ~ 2/3 the linear dimensions of a commercial fusion power plant, as the needed bridge. As we examine the R&D needs for such a system we find significant synergies between the needs for the development of magnetic and inertial fusion energy.

  9. nuSTORM and A Path to a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adey, David; Bayes, Ryan; Bross, Alan; Snopok, Pavel

    2015-05-20

    Our article reviews the current status of the nuSTORM facility and shows how it can be utilized to perform the next step on the path toward the realization of a μ+μ- collider. This review includes the physics motivation behind nuSTORM, a detailed description of the facility and the neutrino beams it can produce, and a summary of the short-baseline neutrino oscillation physics program that can be carried out at the facility. The idea for nuSTORM (the production of neutrino beams from the decay of muons in a racetrack-like decay ring) was discussed in the literature more than 30 years ago in the context of searching for noninteracting (sterile) neutrinos. However, only in the past 5 years has the concept been fully developed, motivated in large part by the facility's unmatched reach in addressing the evolving data on oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. Finally, this article reviews the basics of the μ+μ-collider concept and describes how nuSTORM provides a platform to test advanced concepts for six-dimensional muon ionization cooling.

  10. High order Chin actions in path integral Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakkos, K.; Casulleras, J.; Boronat, J.

    2009-05-28

    High order actions proposed by Chin have been used for the first time in path integral Monte Carlo simulations. Contrary to the Takahashi-Imada action, which is accurate to the fourth order only for the trace, the Chin action is fully fourth order, with the additional advantage that the leading fourth-order error coefficients are finely tunable. By optimizing two free parameters entering in the new action, we show that the time step error dependence achieved is best fitted with a sixth order law. The computational effort per bead is increased but the total number of beads is greatly reduced and the efficiency improvement with respect to the primitive approximation is approximately a factor of 10. The Chin action is tested in a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator, a H{sub 2} drop, and bulk liquid {sup 4}He. In all cases a sixth-order law is obtained with values of the number of beads that compare well with the pair action approximation in the stringent test of superfluid {sup 4}He.

  11. nuSTORM and A Path to a Muon Collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adey, David; Bayes, Ryan; Bross, Alan; Snopok, Pavel

    2015-05-20

    Our article reviews the current status of the nuSTORM facility and shows how it can be utilized to perform the next step on the path toward the realization of a μ+μ- collider. This review includes the physics motivation behind nuSTORM, a detailed description of the facility and the neutrino beams it can produce, and a summary of the short-baseline neutrino oscillation physics program that can be carried out at the facility. The idea for nuSTORM (the production of neutrino beams from the decay of muons in a racetrack-like decay ring) was discussed in the literature more than 30 years agomore » in the context of searching for noninteracting (sterile) neutrinos. However, only in the past 5 years has the concept been fully developed, motivated in large part by the facility's unmatched reach in addressing the evolving data on oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. Finally, this article reviews the basics of the μ+μ-collider concept and describes how nuSTORM provides a platform to test advanced concepts for six-dimensional muon ionization cooling.« less

  12. Paths and ionization losses of proton energy in different substances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilovskiy, I.M.; Karpov, I.I.; Petrukhin, V.I.; Prokoshkin, Yu.D.

    1986-02-14

    Ionization energy losses of charged particles in a substance are described by the well-known Bethe-Bloch formula. However, the magnitudes of the ionization potentials in region of low proton energies (E < 100 MeV) for heavy elements prove to be considerably larger than those at high energies. Thus, studies of ionization losses in the region of high energies are the main source of the experimental information necessary for the correction of the Bethe-Bloch formula and determination of magnitudes of ionization potentials I. The purpose of this work was to measure the magnitudes of ionization losses dE/ds, paths R and ionization potentials I at a proton energy of E 670 MeV. The measurements were taken by the relative method for different substances of x, and the magnitudes of q sub x=(dE/ds) sub x/(dE/ds) sub Al and px=R sub x/R sub Al were found. Quantities qx and px weakly depend on the energy E where at E=200-600 MeV, a=(2-4).10-2 for different substances. The proton energy was determined with an accuracy of 2 MeV.

  13. Adsorption of 2-propanol on ice probed by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newberg, John T.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-08-18

    The interaction of 2-propanol with ice was examined via ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), a surface sensitive technique that probes the adsorbed 2-propanol directly with submonolayer resolution. Isothermal uptake experiments were performed on vapor deposited ice at 227 K in the presence of the equilibrium water vapor pressure of 0.05 Torr and 2-propanol partial pressures ranging from 5 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-3 Torr. The C 1s APXPS spectra of adsorbed 2-propanol showed two characteristic peaks associated with the COH alcohol group and CMe methyl groups in a 1 : 2 ratio, respectively. Coverage increased with 2-propanol partial pressure and followed first order Langmuir kinetics with a Langmuir constant of K = 6.3 × 103 Torr-1. The 1 : 2 ratio of COH : CMe remained constant with increasing coverage, indicating there is no chemical reaction upon adsorption. The observed Langmuir kinetics using APXPS is consistent with previous observations of other small chain alcohols via indirect adsorption methods using, e.g., Knudsen cell and coated wall flow tube reactors.

  14. Light-absorbing Particles in Snow and Ice: Measurement and Modeling of Climatic and Hydrological Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Flanner, M. G.; Lau, William K.; Ming, J.; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Mo; Warren, Stephen G.; Zhang, Rudong

    2015-01-01

    Light absorbing particles (LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust) influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance (a.k.a., surface darkening), which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice (LAPSI) has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g. in the fourth and fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high. In this review paper, we document various technical methods of measuring LAPSI and review the progress made in measuring the LAPSI in Arctic, Tibetan Plateau and other mid-latitude regions. We also report the progress in modeling the mass concentrations, albedo reduction, radiative forcing, andclimatic and hydrological impact of LAPSI at global and regional scales. Finally we identify some research needs for reducing the uncertainties in the impact of LAPSI on global and regional climate and the hydrological cycle.

  15. Adsorption of 2-propanol on ice probed by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Newberg, John T.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-08-18

    The interaction of 2-propanol with ice was examined via ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), a surface sensitive technique that probes the adsorbed 2-propanol directly with submonolayer resolution. Isothermal uptake experiments were performed on vapor deposited ice at 227 K in the presence of the equilibrium water vapor pressure of 0.05 Torr and 2-propanol partial pressures ranging from 5 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-3 Torr. The C 1s APXPS spectra of adsorbed 2-propanol showed two characteristic peaks associated with the COH alcohol group and CMe methyl groups in a 1 : 2 ratio, respectively. Coverage increased with 2-propanol partialmore » pressure and followed first order Langmuir kinetics with a Langmuir constant of K = 6.3 × 103 Torr-1. The 1 : 2 ratio of COH : CMe remained constant with increasing coverage, indicating there is no chemical reaction upon adsorption. The observed Langmuir kinetics using APXPS is consistent with previous observations of other small chain alcohols via indirect adsorption methods using, e.g., Knudsen cell and coated wall flow tube reactors.« less

  16. Flight path-driven mitigation of wavefront curvature effects in SAR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2009-06-23

    A wavefront curvature effect associated with a complex image produced by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be mitigated based on which of a plurality of possible flight paths is taken by the SAR when capturing the image. The mitigation can be performed differently for different ones of the flight paths.

  17. EIS-0516: Clean Path Energy Center Project; San Juan County, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EIS for the proposed interconnection of the Clean Path Energy Center Project to Western’s transmission system at the Shiprock Substation. The planned Clean Path Energy Center will consist of a 680 MW natural gas combined cycle power plant co-located with a 70 MW solar photovoltaic project.

  18. Ice plug employed on subsea pipeline bend during repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-22

    The first controlled-temperature ice plug in the bend of an offshore gas trunkline has been carried out for Phillips Petroleum Co. Norway on its Norpipe A.S. platform in the German sector of the North Sea. The procedure was part of a subsea valve repair operation. The ice plug was successfully formed offshore and tested to a differential pressure of 1,450 psi. Repair of two valves required only 5 days during which time gas production was operating at close to 50--60% via the platform bypass, says the service company. The paper discusses the procedure.

  19. Progress on a TWP-ICE Monsoon Case Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outline Introduction 25-mb large-scale forcing 10-mb large-scale forcing Tracers Future work Progress on a TWP-ICE Monsoon Case Study Ann Fridlind and Andrew Ackerman * NASA GISS thanks to Jon Petch * ECMWF Shaocheng Xie * LLNL TWP-ICE and ACTIVE Science Teams DOE ARM Program and Data Archive NASA Radiation Sciences Program NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division 18th Annual ARM Science Team Meeting 10 March 2008 Outline Introduction 25-mb large-scale forcing 10-mb large-scale forcing Tracers

  20. Statement of Work (SOW) Template (Combined EIR/ICE Support Contractor)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The template presented below is a Statement of Work (SOW) for services of an EIR/ICE Support Contractor for assisting OECM in conducting a combined EIR/ICE at CD-2.

  1. An update on land-ice modeling in the CESM (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    approximation; and there is no ice-ocean coupling. During the next year we plan to implement two-way coupling (including ice-ocean coupling with a dynamic Antarcticmore ...

  2. Predicting Land-Ice Retreat and Sea-Level Rise with the Community...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    linked to changes in Southern Ocean wind stress. To assess the likelihood of fast retreat of marine ice sheets, we need coupled ice-sheetocean models that do not yet exist (but ...

  3. Development of a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Development of a land ice core for the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a land ice core for the Model ...

  4. Predicting Land-Ice Retreat and Sea-Level Rise with the Community...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet, linked to changes in Southern Ocean wind stress. To assess the likelihood of fast retreat of marine ice sheets, we need coupled...

  5. Bio-distribution and metabolic paths of silica coated CdSeS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhen; Chen Hu; Meng Huan; Xing Gengmei Gao Xueyun; Sun Baoyun; Shi Xiaoli; Yuan Hui; Zhang Chengcheng; Liu Ru; Zhao Feng

    2008-08-01

    With the rapid development of quantum dot (QD) technology, water-soluble QDs have the prospect of being used as a biological probe for specific diagnoses, but their biological behaviors in vivo are little known. Our recent in vivo studies concentrated on the bio-kinetics of QDs coated by hydroxyl group modified silica networks (the QDs are 21.3 {+-} 2.0 nm in diameter and have maximal emission at 570 nm). Male ICR mice were intravenously given the water-soluble QDs with a single dose of 5 nmol/mouse. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to measure the {sup 111}Cd content to indicate the concentration of QDs in plasma, organs, and excretion samples collected at predetermined time intervals. Meanwhile, the distribution and aggregation state of QDs in tissues were also investigated by pathological examination and differential centrifugation. The plasma half-life and clearance of QDs were 19.8 {+-} 3.2 h and 57.3 {+-} 9.2 ml/h/kg, respectively. The liver and kidney were the main target organs for QDs. The QDs metabolized in three paths depending on their distinct aggregated states in vivo. A fraction of free QDs, maintaining their original form, could be filtered by glomerular capillaries and excreted via urine as small molecules within five days. Most QDs bound to protein and aggregated into larger particles that were metabolized in the liver and excreted via feces in vivo. After five days, 8.6% of the injected dose of aggregated QDs still remained in hepatic tissue and it was difficult for this fraction to clear.

  6. DIFFERENTIAL GROUP-VELOCITY DETECTION OF FLUID PATHS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leland Timothy Long

    2005-12-20

    For nearly 50 years, surface waves that propagate through near-surface soils have been utilized in engineering for the determination of the small-strain dynamic properties of soils. These techniques, although useful, have not been sufficiently precise to use in detecting the subtle changes in soil properties that accompany short-term changes in fluid content. The differential techniques developed in this research now make it possible to monitor small changes (less than 3 cm) in the water level of shallow soil aquifers. Using inversion techniques and tomography, differential seismic techniques could track the water level distribution in aquifers with water being pumped in or out. Differential surface wave analysis could lead to new ways to monitor reservoir levels and verify hydrologic models. Field data obtained during this investigation have measured changes in surface-wave phase and group velocity before and after major rain events, and have detected subtle changes associated with pumping water into an aquifer and pumping water out of an aquifer. This research has established analysis techniques for observing these changes. These techniques combine time domain measurements to isolate surface wave arrivals with frequency domain techniques to determine the effects as a function of frequency. Understanding the differences in response as a function of wave frequency facilitates the inversion of this data for soil velocity structure. These techniques have also quantified many aspects of data acquisition and analysis that are important for significant results. These include tight control on the character of the source and proper placement of the geophones. One important application is the possibility that surface waves could be used to monitor and/or track fluid movement during clean-up operations, verifying that the fluid reached all affected areas. Extending this to a larger scale could facilitate monitoring of water resources in basins without having to drill many expensive wells. The next step is to investigate the commercial applications of differential surface wave analysis.

  7. Towards More Transmission Asset Utilization through Real-time Path Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Huang, Zhenyu; Jin, Chunlian; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Jin, Shuangshuang; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2013-10-21

    Ratings of transmission paths, typically determined in an offline environment, are static and tend to be conservative, leading to underutilization of transmission assets, higher costs of system operation and renewable energy integration, and lower efficiency and savings. With the ever-increasing transmission congestion costs and new challenges from renewable integration, increasing transfer capacity of existing transmission lines is essential. Real-time path rating provides a promising approach to enabling additional power transfer capability and fully utilizing transfer capability. In this paper, the feasibility of real-time path rating is investigated. Several promising technologies to achieve real-time path rating are discussed. Various benefits that can be expected from real-time path rating, such as increased transfer capability and reduced total generation cost, are demonstrated through simulations conducted on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system model.

  8. Ice at the Interface: Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer Processes and Their Role in Polar Change---Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C.

    2012-07-23

    The atmosphere-ocean boundary layer in which sea ice resides includes many complex processes that require a more realistic treatment in GCMs, particularly as models move toward full earth system descriptions. The primary purpose of the workshop was to define and discuss such coupled processes from observational and modeling points of view, including insight from both the Arctic and Antarctic systems. The workshop met each of its overarching goals, including fostering collaboration among experimentalists, theorists and modelers, proposing modeling strategies, and ascertaining data availability and needs. Several scientific themes emerged from the workshop, such as the importance of episodic or extreme events, precipitation, stratification above and below the ice, and the marginal ice zone, whose seasonal Arctic migrations now traverse more territory than in the past.

  9. Evidence for Gropun-Water Stratification Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Futa; B.D. Marshall; Z.E. Peterman

    2006-03-24

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and strontium isotope ratios (strontium-87/strontium-86) in samples of ground water potentially can be useful in delineating flow paths in the complex ground-water system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water samples were collected from boreholes to characterize the lateral and vertical variability in the composition of water in the saturated zone. Discrete sampling of water-producing intervals in the saturated zone includes isolating borehole sections with packers and extracting pore water from core obtained by sonic drilling. Chemical and isotopic stratification was identified in the saturated zone beneath southern Fortymile Wash.

  10. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Air-Cooled Ice Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for air-cooled ice machines, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  11. Ice method for production of hydrogen clathrate hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokshin, Konstantin; Zhao, Yusheng

    2008-05-13

    The present invention includes a method for hydrogen clathrate hydrate synthesis. First, ice and hydrogen gas are supplied to a containment volume at a first temperature and a first pressure. Next, the containment volume is pressurized with hydrogen gas to a second higher pressure, where hydrogen clathrate hydrates are formed in the process.

  12. Calibration and Characterization of the IceCube Photomultiplier Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.; al., et

    2010-02-11

    Over 5,000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-inch diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts.

  13. ARM-UAV TWP-ICE Payload Instrumentation Details

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Payload Instrumentation Details McCoy, Robert Sandia National Laboratories Tooman, Tim Sandia National Laboratories McFarquhar, Greg University of Illinois Category: Field Campaigns The Proteus aircraqft carried a wide variety of in-situ and remote sensing instrumention the TWP-ICE experiment. Instrument capabilites, characteristics and sample data will be covered

  14. Water Clustering on Nanostructured Iron Oxide Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merte, L. R.; Bechstein, Ralf; Peng, Guowen; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Zeuthen, Helene; Knudsen, Jan; Laegsgaard, E.; Wendt, Stefen; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2014-06-30

    The adhesion of water to solid surfaces is characterized by the tendency to balance competing moleculemolecule and moleculesurface interactions. Hydroxyl groups form strong hydrogen bonds to water molecules and are known to substantially influence the wetting behaviour of oxide surfaces, but it is not well-understood how these hydroxyl groups and their distribution on a surface affect the molecular-scale structure at the interface. Here we report a study of water clustering on a moire-structured iron oxide thin film with a controlled density of hydroxyl groups. While large amorphous monolayer islands form on the are film, the hydroxylated iron oxide film acts as a hydrophilic nanotemplate, causing the formation of a regular array of ice-like hexameric nanoclusters. The formation of this ordered phase is localized at the nanometre scale; with increasing water coverage, ordered and amorphous water are found to coexist at adjacent hydroxylated and hydroxyl-free domains of the moire structure.

  15. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3-11. Here we show that material in the sea

  16. On the scalability of the Albany/FELIX first-order Stokes approximation ice

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sheet solver for large-scale simulations of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. (Conference) | SciTech Connect On the scalability of the Albany/FELIX first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver for large-scale simulations of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the scalability of the Albany/FELIX first-order Stokes approximation ice sheet solver for large-scale simulations of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Abstract not

  17. Manhattan Project: The Plutonium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE PLUTONIUM PATH TO THE BOMB (1942-1944) Events > The Plutonium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Production Reactor (Pile) Design, 1942 DuPont and Hanford, 1942 CP-1 Goes Critical, December 2, 1942 Seaborg and Plutonium Chemistry, 1942-1944 Final Reactor Design and X-10, 1942-1943 Hanford Becomes Operational, 1943-1944 Plutonium, produced in a uranium-fueled reactor (pile), was the second path taken toward achieving an atomic bomb. Design work on a full-scale plutonium production reactor began

  18. Manhattan Project: The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alpha Racetrack, Y-12 Electromagnetic Plant, Oak Ridge THE URANIUM PATH TO THE BOMB (1942-1944) Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Y-12: Design, 1942-1943 Y-12: Construction, 1943 Y-12: Operation, 1943-1944 Working K-25 into the Mix, 1943-1944 The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944 The uranium path to the atomic bomb ran through Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Only if the new plants built at Oak Ridge produced enough enriched uranium-235 would a uranium bomb be possible. General Groves

  19. EERE Success Story-Silicon Ink Technology Offers Path to Higher

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Solar Cells at Lower Cost | Department of Energy Silicon Ink Technology Offers Path to Higher Efficiency Solar Cells at Lower Cost EERE Success Story-Silicon Ink Technology Offers Path to Higher Efficiency Solar Cells at Lower Cost April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE Success Story—Silicon Ink Technology Offers Path to Higher Efficiency Solar Cells at Lower Cost Partnering with Sunnyvale-based Innovalight, which was acquired by DuPont in July 2011, EERE supported the

  20. Blue Lake Rancheria-Forging a Path toward Climate Resiliency | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Rancheria-Forging a Path toward Climate Resiliency Blue Lake Rancheria-Forging a Path toward Climate Resiliency January 22, 2015 - 4:14pm Addthis Blue Lake Rancheria—Forging a Path toward Climate Resiliency Sarai Geary Sarai Geary Program Manager, 48 Contiguous States The Blue Lake Rancheria Tribe is one of 16 communities selected as Climate Action Champions by the Obama Administration in December for exceptional work in response to climate change. To date, the Tribe has