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Sample records for ice water content

  1. ARM - Measurement - Ice water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    content ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice water content The concentration (mass/vol) of ice water particles in a cloud. Categories Cloud Properties, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  2. ARM - PI Product - Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsLarge Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM

  3. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    2008-01-15

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  4. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  5. Determination of 3-D Cloud Ice Water Contents by Combining Multiple...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of 3-D Cloud Ice Water Contents by Combining Multiple Data Sources from Satellite, Ground Radar, and a Numerical Model Liu, Guosheng Florida State University Seo,...

  6. Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave Measurements G. Liu ... A better understanding of cloud water content and its large-scale distribution ...

  7. Water freezing and ice melting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malolepsza, Edyta; Keyes, Tom

    2015-10-12

    The generalized replica exchange method (gREM) is designed to sample states with coexisting phases and thereby to describe strong first order phase transitions. The isobaric MD version of the gREM is presented and applied to freezing of liquid water, and melting of hexagonal and cubic ice. It is confirmed that coexisting states are well sampled. The statistical temperature as a function of enthalpy, TS(H), is obtained. Hysteresis between freezing and melting is observed and discussed. The entropic analysis of phase transitions is applied and equilibrium transition temperatures, latent heats, and surface tensions are obtained for hexagonal ice↔liquid and cubic ice↔liquid,more » with excellent agreement with published values. A new method is given to assign water molecules among various symmetry types. As a result, pathways for water freezing, ultimately leading to hexagonal ice, are found to contain intermediate layered structures built from hexagonal and cubic ice.« less

  8. ARM - Measurement - Ice water path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    path ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice water path A measure of the weight of the ice particles in the atmosphere above a unit surface area in kg m-2. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements,

  9. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining ... Title: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface ...

  10. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Water-Cooled Ice Machines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Purchasing Energy-Efficient Water-Cooled Ice Machines Purchasing Energy-Efficient Water-Cooled Ice Machines The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides efficiency ...

  11. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-11-14

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  12. Viscosity of interfacial water regulates ice nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Kaiyong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qiaolan; Zhang, Yifan; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Xu, Shun; Zhou, Xin; Cui, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun Song, Yanlin

    2014-03-10

    Ice formation on solid surfaces is an important phenomenon in many fields, such as cloud formation and atmospheric icing, and a key factor for applications in preventing freezing. Here, we report temperature-dependent nucleation rates of ice for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The results show that hydrophilic surface presents a lower ice nucleation rate. We develop a strategy to extract the thermodynamic parameters, J{sub 0} and ?, in the context of classical nucleation theory. From the extracted J{sub 0} and ?, we reveal the dominant role played by interfacial water. The results provide an insight into freezing mechanism on solid surfaces.

  13. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled ice machines.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Liquid water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    content ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Liquid water content The concentration (mass/vol) of liquid water droplets in a cloud. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded

  15. HYDROGEN-DEUTERIUM EXCHANGE IN PHOTOLYZED METHANE-WATER ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Amanda S.; Hodyss, Robert; Johnson, Paul V.; Willacy, Karen; Kanik, Isik

    2009-09-20

    Previous work has concluded that H-D exchange occurs readily in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons frozen in deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) irradiated with ultraviolet light. Here, we examine H-D exchange in methane-water ices following exposure to ultraviolet radiation and analyze the products formed as a result. We find that H-D exchange also occurs in methane-water ices by means of ultraviolet photolysis. Exchange proceeds through a radical mechanism that implies that almost all organic species will undergo significant H-D exchange with the matrix in water ices exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Given sufficient energetic processing of the ice, the H/D ratio of an ice matrix may be transferred to the organic species in the ice.

  16. THE STICKINESS OF MICROMETER-SIZED WATER-ICE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water ice is one of the most abundant materials in dense molecular clouds and in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks. In contrast to other materials (e.g., silicates), water ice is assumed to be stickier due to its higher specific surface energy, leading to faster or more efficient growth in mutual collisions. However, experiments investigating the stickiness of water ice have been scarce, particularly in the astrophysically relevant micrometer-sized region and at low temperatures. In this work, we present an experimental setup to grow aggregates composed of ?m-sized water-ice particles, which we used to measure the sticking and erosion thresholds of the ice particles at different temperatures between 114 K and 260 K. We show with our experiments that for low temperatures (below ?210 K), ?m-sized water-ice particles stick below a threshold velocity of 9.6 m s{sup 1}, which is approximately 10times higher than the sticking threshold of ?m-sized silica particles. Furthermore, erosion of the grown ice aggregates is observed for velocities above 15.3 m s{sup 1}. A comparison of the experimentally derived sticking threshold with model predictions is performed to determine important material properties of water ice, i.e., the specific surface energy and the viscous relaxation time. Our experimental results indicate that the presence of water ice in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks can enhance the growth of planetesimals by direct sticking of particles.

  17. Determination of Ice Water Path Over the ARM SGP Using Combined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of Ice Water Path Over the ARM SGP Using Combined Surface and Satellite ... Global information of cloud ice water path (IWP) is urgently needed for testing ...

  18. THE PHASES OF WATER ICE IN THE SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciesla, Fred J.

    2014-03-20

    Understanding the phases of water ice that were present in the solar nebula has implications for understanding cometary and planetary compositions as well as the internal evolution of these bodies. Here we show that amorphous ice formed more readily than previously recognized, with formation at temperatures <70K being possible under protoplanetary disk conditions. We further argue that photodesorption and freeze-out of water molecules near the surface layers of the solar nebula would have provided the conditions needed for amorphous ice to form. This processing would be a natural consequence of ice dynamics and would allow for the trapping of noble gases and other volatiles in water ice in the outer solar nebula.

  19. Dielectric Properties of Ice and Liquid Water from First Principles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculations | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Dielectric Properties of Ice and Liquid Water from First Principles Calculations Authors: Lu, D., Gygi, F., Galli, G. We present a first-principles study of the static dielectric properties of ice and liquid water. The eigenmodes of the dielectric matrix ϵ are analyzed in terms of maximally localized dielectric functions similar, in their definition, to maximally localized Wannier orbitals obtained from Bloch eigenstates of the electronic

  20. Determination of content of anti-icing additives by indicator liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zrelov, V.N.; Krasnaya, L.V.; Piskunov, V.A.; Popleteev, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The content of anti-icing additive (AIA) in jet fuels is determined either refractometrically (according to the change in refractive index of water after it has extracted the additive from the fuel) or by a dichromate method (according to the change in color of an aqueous extract from the fuel after a solution of potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid is added). Points out that the first of these methods is not suitable for the analysis of fuels under field conditions, and the second is not suitable for use in the winter. Uses indicator liquid chromatography as a basis for the development of a rapid method for the determination of the content of AIA in jet fuels under any conditions, including wintertime operations at airports and temporary landing fields. Finds that the chromatographic method gives better precision indexes over a wide range of temperatures; it requires less fuel for analysis; and there is no need for complex apparatus, nor for the water and aqueous solutions of potassium dichromate and concentrated sulfuric acid, items that make it difficult to determine the AIA content at subfreezing temperatures.

  1. Oil spreading in surface waters with an ice cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapa, P.D.; Weerasuriya, S.A.; Belaskas, D.P.; Chowdhury, T.

    1993-02-01

    A study of oil spreading in surface waters in the presence of a floating ice cover is presented. The ice can be solid or fragmented. Both axi-symmetrical and uni-directional spreading are studied. The report describes the analytical and numerical model development, the experimental set-up, results from the laboratory experiments, and their comparison with the derived theory and the numerical simulation. To analyze the spreading of oil under solid ice, new equations are derived. These equations consider gravity (buoyancy) - inertia phase, gravity (buoyancy) - viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy - surface tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to termination of spreading is presented. The emphasis of the study is on the dominant spreading mechanism for oil under ice, which is the buoyancy-viscous phase.

  2. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Water-Cooled Ice Machines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides efficiency requirements and acquisition guidance for water-cooled ice machines. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase FEMP-designated products or ENERGY STAR-qualified products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  3. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    diffraction across water-ices VIVII transformations using dynamic-DAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VIVII ...

  4. Sleuthing the Fate of Water in Ancient Aquifers and Ice Cores...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Sleuthing the Fate of Water in Ancient Aquifers and Ice Cores Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home ... Sleuthing the Fate of Water in Ancient Aquifers and Ice Cores Precision analytical ...

  5. Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid ...

  6. A PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF WATER AND METHANE ICES ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Schaller, Emily L. E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present a new near-infrared photometric system for detection of water ice and methane ice in the solar system. The system consists of two medium-band filters in the K-band region of the near-infrared, which are sensitive to water ice and methane ice, plus continuum observations in the J band and Y band. The primary purpose of this system is to distinguish between three basic types of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)-those rich in water ice, those rich in methane ice, and those with little absorbance. In this work, we present proof-of-concept observations of 51 KBOs using our filter system, 21 of which have never been observed in the near-infrared spectroscopically. We show that our custom photometric system is consistent with previous spectroscopic observations while reducing telescope observing time by a factor of {approx}3. We use our filters to identify Haumea collisional family members, which are thought to be collisional remnants of a much larger body and are characterized by large fractions of water ice on their surfaces. We add 2009 YE{sub 7} to the Haumea collisional family based on our water ice band observations (J - H{sub 2}O = -1.03 {+-} 0.27) which indicate a high amount of water ice absorption, our calculated proper orbital elements, and the neutral optical colors we measured, V - R = 0.38 {+-} 0.04, which are all consistent with the rest of the Haumea family. We identify several objects dynamically similar to Haumea as being distinct from the Haumea family as they do not have water ice on their surfaces. In addition, we find that only the largest KBOs have methane ice, and Haumea itself has significantly less water ice absorption than the smaller Haumea family members. We find no evidence for other families in the Kuiper Belt.

  7. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guosheng

    2013-03-15

    Single-column modeling (SCM) is one of the key elements of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research initiatives for the development and testing of various physical parameterizations to be used in general circulation models (GCMs). The data required for use with an SCM include observed vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water, as well as the large-scale vertical motion and tendencies of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water due to horizontal advection. Surface-based measurements operated at ARM sites and upper-air sounding networks supply most of the required variables for model inputs, but do not provide the horizontal advection term of condensed water. Since surface cloud radar and microwave radiometer observations at ARM sites are single-point measurements, they can provide the amount of condensed water at the location of observation sites, but not a horizontal distribution of condensed water contents. Consequently, observational data for the large-scale advection tendencies of condensed water have not been available to the ARM cloud modeling community based on surface observations alone. This lack of advection data of water condensate could cause large uncertainties in SCM simulations. Additionally, to evaluate GCMs’ cloud physical parameterization, we need to compare GCM results with observed cloud water amounts over a scale that is large enough to be comparable to what a GCM grid represents. To this end, the point-measurements at ARM surface sites are again not adequate. Therefore, cloud water observations over a large area are needed. The main goal of this project is to retrieve ice water contents over an area of 10 x 10 deg. surrounding the ARM sites by combining surface and satellite observations. Built on the progress made during previous ARM research, we have conducted the retrievals of 3-dimensional ice water content by combining surface radar/radiometer and satellite measurements, and have produced 3

  8. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below 273 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Roedel, Tobias R.; Gilles, Marry K.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2012-09-25

    Atmospheric ice formation induced by particles with complex chemical and physical properties through heterogeneous nucleation is not well understood. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by ambient particles collected from urban environments in Los Angeles and Mexico City are presented. Using a vapour controlled cooling system equipped with an optical microscopy, the range of onset conditions for ice nucleation and water uptake by the collected particles was determined as a function of temperature (200{273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) up to water saturation. Three distinctly different types of authentic atmospheric particles were investigated including soot particles associated with organics/inorganics, inorganic particles of marine origin coated with organic material, and Pb/Zn containing inorganic particles apportioned to anthropogenic emissions relevant to waste incineration. Single particle characterization was provided by micro-spectroscopic analyses using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption ne structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Above 230 K, signicant differences in water uptake and immersion freezing effciencies of the different particle types were observed. Below 230 K, the particles exhibited high deposition ice nucleation effciencies and formed ice at RHice values well below homogeneous ice nucleation limits. The data show that the chemical composition of these eld{collected particles plays an important role in determining water uptake and immersion freezing. Heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coeffcients, cumulative ice nuclei (IN) spectrum, and IN activated fraction for deposition ice nucleation are derived. The presented ice nucleation data demonstrate that anthropogenic and marine particles comprising of various chemical and physical properties exhibit distinctly different ice

  9. VOLATILE TRANSPORT INSIDE SUPER-EARTHS BY ENTRAPMENT IN THE WATER-ICE MATRIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, A.; Podolak, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2013-05-20

    Whether volatiles can be entrapped in a background matrix composing planetary envelopes and be dragged via convection to the surface is a key question in understanding atmospheric fluxes, cycles, and composition. In this paper, we consider super-Earths with an extensive water mantle (i.e., water planets), and the possibility of entrapment of methane in their extensive water-ice envelopes. We adopt the theory developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling solid solutions, often used for modeling clathrate hydrates, and modify it in order to estimate the thermodynamic stability field of a new phase called methane filled ice Ih. We find that in comparison to water ice VII the filled ice Ih structure may be stable not only at the high pressures but also at the high temperatures expected at the core-water mantle transition boundary of water planets.

  10. Unusual dynamic properties of water near the ice-binding plane of hyperactive antifreeze protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuffel, Anna; Czapiewski, Dariusz; Zielkiewicz, Jan

    2015-10-07

    The dynamical properties of solvation water of hyperactive antifreeze protein from Choristoneura fumiferana (CfAFP) are analyzed and discussed in context of its antifreeze activity. The protein comprises of three well-defined planes and one of them binds to the surface of ice. The dynamical properties of solvation water around each of these planes were analyzed separately; the results are compared with the dynamical properties of solvation water of ice around its two crystallographic planes: basal and prism. Three main conclusions are inferred from our investigations. The first one is that the solvation shell of CfAFP does not seem to be particularly far-ranged, at least not beyond what is usually observed for proteins that do not interact with ice. Therefore, it does not appear to us that the antifreeze activity is enhanced by a long-ranged retardation of water mobility. Also the correlation between the collective mobility of water and the collective mobility of protein atoms highly resembles the one measured for the protein that does not interact with ice. Our second conclusion is that the dynamical properties of solvation water of CfAFP are non-uniform. The dynamics of solvation water of ice-binding plane is, in some respects, different from the dynamics of solvation water of the two remaining planes. The feature that distinguishes the dynamics of solvation water of the three planes is the activation energy of diffusion process. The third conclusion is that—from the three analyzed solvation shells of CfAFP—the dynamical properties of solvation water of the ice-binding plane resemble the most the properties of solvation water of ice; note, however, that these properties still clearly differ from the dynamic properties of solvation water of ice.

  11. Modeling the Effect of Ice Nuclei on ARM Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upper-Tropospheric Ice Water Content in TWP-ICE Xiping Zeng, Wei-Kuo Tao, Minghua Zhang, and Shaochen Xie March 31, 2009 Papers Published Recently * Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, M. Zhang,...

  12. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VI/VII transformatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction across water-ices VIVII transformations using dynamic-DAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-resolved x-ray diffraction ...

  13. Synchrotron x-ray photoemission study of soft x-ray processed ultrathin glycine-water ice films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzvetkov, George; Netzer, Falko P.

    2011-05-28

    Ultrathin glycine-water ice films have been prepared in ultrahigh vacuum by condensation of H{sub 2}O and glycine at 90 K on single crystalline alumina surfaces and processed by soft x-ray (610 eV) exposure for up to 60 min. The physicochemical changes in the films were monitored using synchrotron x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Two films with different amounts of H{sub 2}O have been considered in order to evaluate the influence of the water ice content on the radiation-induced effects. The analysis of C1s, N1s, and O1s spectral regions together with the changes in the valence band spectra indicates that amino acid degradation occurs fast mainly via decarboxylation and deamination of pristine molecules. Enrichment of the x-ray exposed surfaces with fragments with carbon atoms without strong electronegative substituents (C-C and C-H) is documented as well. In the thinner glycine-water ice film (six layers of glycine + six layers of water) the 3D ice suffers strongly from the x-rays and is largely removed from the sample. The rate of photodecomposition of glycine in this film is about 30% higher than for glycine in the thicker film (6 layers of glycine + 60 layers of water). The photoemission results suggest that the destruction of amino acid molecules is caused by the direct interaction with the radiation and that no chemical attack of glycine by the species released by water radiolysis is detected.

  14. Role of Dipolar Correlations in the Infrared Spectra of Water and Ice |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Role of Dipolar Correlations in the Infrared Spectra of Water and Ice Authors: Chen, W., Sharma, M., Resta, R., Galli, G., Car, R. We report simulated infrared (IR) spectra of deuterated water and ice using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics with maximally localized Wannier functions. Experimental features are accurately reproduced within the harmonic approximation. By decomposing the line shapes in terms of intramolecular and intermolecular dipole

  15. The sticking of atomic hydrogen on amorphous water ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veeraghattam, Vijay K.; Manrodt, Katie; Lewis, Steven P.; Stancil, P. C. E-mail: lewis@physast.uga.edu

    2014-07-20

    Using classical molecular dynamics, we have simulated the sticking and scattering process of a hydrogen atom on an amorphous ice film to predict the sticking probability of hydrogen on ice surfaces. A wide range of initial kinetic energies of the incident hydrogen atom (10 K-600 K) and two different ice temperatures (10 K and 70 K) were used to investigate this fundamental process in interstellar chemistry. We report here the sticking probability of atomic hydrogen as a function of incident kinetic energy, gas temperature, and substrate temperature, which can be used in astrophysical models. The current results are compared to previous theoretical and experimental studies that have reported a wide range in the sticking coefficient.

  16. A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  17. Ice and water droplets on graphite: A comparison of quantum and classical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramírez, Rafael; Singh, Jayant K.; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Böhm, Michael C.

    2014-11-28

    Ice and water droplets on graphite have been studied by quantum path integral and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The point-charge q-TIP4P/F potential was used to model the interaction between flexible water molecules, while the water-graphite interaction was described by a Lennard-Jones potential previously used to reproduce the macroscopic contact angle of water droplets on graphite. Several energetic and structural properties of water droplets with sizes between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 3} molecules were analyzed in a temperature interval of 50–350 K. The vibrational density of states of crystalline and amorphous ice drops was correlated to the one of ice Ih to assess the influence of the droplet interface and molecular disorder on the vibrational properties. The average distance of covalent OH bonds is found 0.01 Å larger in the quantum limit than in the classical one. The OO distances are elongated by 0.03 Å in the quantum simulations at 50 K. Bond distance fluctuations are large as a consequence of the zero-point vibrations. The analysis of the H-bond network shows that the liquid droplet is more structured in the classical limit than in the quantum case. The average kinetic and potential energy of the ice and water droplets on graphite has been compared with the values of ice Ih and liquid water as a function of temperature. The droplet kinetic energy shows a temperature dependence similar to the one of liquid water, without apparent discontinuity at temperatures where the droplet is solid. However, the droplet potential energy becomes significantly larger than the one of ice or water at the same temperature. In the quantum limit, the ice droplet is more expanded than in a classical description. Liquid droplets display identical density profiles and liquid-vapor interfaces in the quantum and classical limits. The value of the contact angle is not influenced by quantum effects. Contact angles of droplets decrease as the size of the water droplet

  18. Developing and Evaluating Ice Cloud Parameterizations by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by remote sensing is that the transfer functions which relate the observables (e. g., radar Doppler spectrum) to cloud properties (e. g., ice water content, or IWC) are not...

  19. Alaskan Ice Road Water Supplies Augmented by Snow Barriers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks have demonstrated that the use of artificial barriers—snow fences—can significantly increase the amount of fresh water supplies in Arctic lakes at a fraction of the cost of bringing in water from nearby lakes.

  20. CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF PURE AMMONIA AND AMMONIA-WATER ICES INDUCED BY HEAVY IONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordalo, V.; Da Silveira, E. F.; Seperuelo Duarte, E.

    2013-09-10

    Cosmic rays are possibly the main agents to prevent the freeze-out of molecules onto grain surfaces in cold dense clouds. Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is one of the most abundant molecules present in dust ice mantles, with a concentration of up to 15% relative to water (H{sub 2}O). FTIR spectroscopy is used to monitor pure NH{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ice samples as they are irradiated with Ni and Zn ion beams (500-600 MeV) at GANIL/France. New species, such as hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}), diazene (N{sub 2}H{sub 2} isomers), molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) were identified after irradiation of pure NH{sub 3} ices. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2}OH) are some of the products of the NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ice radiolysis. The spectral band at 6.85 {mu}m was observed after irradiation of both types of ice. Besides the likely contribution of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and amino (NH{sub 2}) radicals, data suggest a small contribution of NH{sub 2}OH to this band profile after high fluences of irradiation of NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O ices. The spectral shift of the NH{sub 3} ''umbrella'' mode (9.3 {mu}m) band is parameterized as a function of NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O ratio in amorphous ices. Ammonia and water destruction cross-sections are obtained, as well as the rate of NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O (1:10) ice compaction, measured by the OH dangling bond destruction cross-section. Ammonia destruction is enhanced in the presence of H{sub 2}O in the ice and a power law relationship between stopping power and NH{sub 3} destruction cross-section is verified. Such results may provide relevant information for the evolution of molecular species in dense molecular clouds.

  1. Laboratory determination of the infrared band strengths of pyrene frozen in water ice: Implications for the composition of interstellar ices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardegree-Ullman, E. E.; Gudipati, M. S.; Werner, M.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Lignell, H.; Allamandola, L. J.; Stapelfeldt, K. R. E-mail: gudipati@jpl.nasa.gov

    2014-04-01

    Broad infrared emission features (e.g., at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 ?m) from the gas phase interstellar medium have long been attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A significant portion (10%-20%) of the Milky Way's carbon reservoir is locked in PAH molecules, which makes their characterization integral to our understanding of astrochemistry. In molecular clouds and the dense envelopes and disks of young stellar objects (YSOs), PAHs are expected to be frozen in the icy mantles of dust grains where they should reveal themselves through infrared absorption. To facilitate the search for frozen interstellar PAHs, laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the positions and strengths of the bands of pyrene mixed with H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O ices. The D{sub 2}O mixtures are used to measure pyrene bands that are masked by the strong bands of H{sub 2}O, leading to the first laboratory determination of the band strength for the CH stretching mode of pyrene in water ice near 3.25 ?m. Our infrared band strengths were normalized to experimentally determined ultraviolet band strengths, and we find that they are generally ?50% larger than those reported by Bouwman et al. based on theoretical strengths. These improved band strengths were used to reexamine YSO spectra published by Boogert et al. to estimate the contribution of frozen PAHs to absorption in the 5-8 ?m spectral region, taking into account the strength of the 3.25 ?m CH stretching mode. It is found that frozen neutral PAHs contain 5%-9% of the cosmic carbon budget and account for 2%-9% of the unidentified absorption in the 5-8 ?m region.

  2. Molecular origin of the difference in the HOH bend of the IR spectra between liquid water and ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

    2013-02-07

    The intensity of the HOH bend in the IR spectrum of ice is significantly smaller than the corresponding one in liquid water. This difference in the IR intensities of the HOH bend in the two systems is investigated using MD simulations with the flexible, polarizable, ab-initio based TTM3-F model for water, a potential that correctly reproduces the experimentally observed increase of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice from the water monomer value. We have identified two factors that are responsible for the difference in the intensity of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice: (i) the decrease of the intensity of the HOH bend in ice caused by the strong anti-correlation between the permanent dipole moment of a molecule and the induced dipole moment of a neighboring hydrogen bond acceptor molecule and (ii) the weakening of this anti-correlation by the disordered hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The presence of the anti-correlation in ice is further confirmed by ab initio electronic structure calculations of water pentamer clusters extracted from the trajectories of the MD simulations for ice and liquid water.

  3. Water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films during icing/deicing cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazauskas, A.; Guobienė, A.; Prosyčevas, I.; Baltrušaitis, V.; Grigaliūnas, V.; Narmontas, P.; Baltrusaitis, J.

    2013-08-15

    This work investigates water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic (water contact angle value of 162 ± 1°) SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments, changes in SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface morphology and their non-wetting characteristics. During the experiment, water droplets on SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface are subjected to a series of icing and deicing cycles in a humid (∼ 70% relative humidity) atmosphere and the resulting morphological changes are monitored and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. Our data show that the formation of the frozen or thawed water droplet, with no further shape change, on superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film, is obtained faster within each cycle as the number of the icing/deicing cycles increases. After 10 icing and deicing cycles, the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film had a water contact angle value of 146 ± 2° which is effectively non-superhydrophobic. AFM analysis showed that the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface area under the water droplet undergoes gradual mechanical damage during the repetitive icing/deicing cycles. We propose a possible mechanism of the morphological changes to the film surface that take place during the consecutive icing/deicing experiments. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic film is subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments. • Water droplet shape transition is recorded and characterized thereafter. • Atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements are performed. • The surface undergoes gradual mechanical damage during repetitive icing/deicing. • Mechanism for the observed surface morphological changes is suggested.

  4. A Compact, Backscattering Deplolarization Cloud Spectrometer for Ice and Water Discrimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, David

    2014-05-15

    This project was to develop a compact optical particle spectrometer, small enough for operation on UAVS, that measures the optical diameter of cloud hydrometeors and differentiates their water phase (liquid or solid). To reach this goal, a work plan was laid out that would complete three objectives: 1) Evaluation of designs for an optical particle spectrometer that measures the component of light backscattered at two polarization angles. 2) Testing of selected designs on an optical bench. 3) Construction and preliminary testing of a prototype instrument based on the selected, optimum design. A protoype instrument was developed and tested in an icing wind tunnel where the results showed good measurement of cloud droplets and ice particles.

  5. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the

  6. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  7. Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 August 2005 Contents Bechtel Nevada achieves 5 million hours! 1 WSI graduates fresh members of security 1 protective forces Handling radiation emergencies 2 SiteLines features a new editor 2 Rocky Flats survey 3 NTS Swift Water Rescue Team practices on the 3 Colorado River Drilling Program overcomes challenges at the NTS 3 Toastmasters: making effective communication a 4 worldwide reality Atomic Testing Museum update 4 Two more successful shots at JASPER 5 Hazardous Substance Inventory users 5

  8. Spreading of crude petroleum in brash ice; Effects of oil`s physical properties and water current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayed, M.; Kotlyar, L.S.; Sparks, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    Experiments were conducted in a refrigerated, circulating current flume to examine crude oil spreading in brash ice. Amauligak, Hibernia and Norman Wells crudes were tested. Measurements of the physical properties of the oils were also conducted, including: surface and interfacial tensions as well as viscosities. Spreading coefficients were calculated from measured surface and interfacial tensions. Results were obtained for original and weathered oils. For the spreading tests, spill volumes up to 3 liters and water currents up to 0.55 m/s were used. Tests were done using both fresh water ice and saline ice. Slick dimensions were measured, and modes of oil spreading were observed. Slick dimensions depended on oil type, but were not influenced by water current. Oils of high spreading coefficient and low viscosity spread over larger areas than those with low spreading coefficient and high viscosity.

  9. Microphysical Consequences of the Spatial Distribution of Ice Nucleation in Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Fan; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2014-07-28

    Mixed-phase stratiform clouds can persist even with steady ice precipitation fluxes, and the origin and microphysical properties of the ice crystals are of interest. Vapor deposition growth and sedimentation of ice particles along with a uniform volume source of ice nucleation, leads to a power law relation between ice water content wi and ice number concentration ni with exponent 2.5. The result is independent of assumptions about the vertical velocity structure of the cloud and is therefore more general than the related expression of Yang et al. [2013]. The sensitivity of the wi-ni relationship to the spatial distribution of ice nucleation is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking and ice growth with cloud-volume, cloud-top, and cloud-base sources of ice particles through a time-dependent cloud field. Based on observed wi and ni from ISDAC, a lower bound of 0.006 m^3/s is obtained for the ice crystal formation rate.

  10. Minimalist Model of Ice Microphysics in Mixed-phase Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2013-07-28

    The question of whether persistent ice crystal precipitation from super cooled layer clouds can be explained by time-dependent, stochastic ice nucleation is explored using an approximate, analytical model, and a large-eddy simulation (LES) cloud model. The updraft velocity in the cloud defines an accumulation zone, where small ice particles cannot fall out until they are large enough, which will increase the residence time of ice particles in the cloud. Ice particles reach a quasi-steady state between growth by vapor deposition and fall speed at cloud base. The analytical model predicts that ice water content (wi) has a 2.5 power law relationship with ice number concentration ni. wi and ni from a LES cloud model with stochastic ice nucleation also confirm the 2.5 power law relationship. The prefactor of the power law is proportional to the ice nucleation rate, and therefore provides a quantitative link to observations of ice microphysical properties.

  11. Study in use and management of de/anti-icing constituents with regard to new storm water legislation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, D.P.; Willing, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    This research identified management practices of airfield and aircraft de/anti-icing constituents which may be implemented to deal with new storm water legislation. Storm water regulations require that deicing operations obtain a NPDES permit for discharges into storm water runoff which may mandate the use of Best Management Practices. An FAA civilian airport survey and a USAF survey were used, with a literature search, to identify practices of de/anti-icing constituents. Four major constituents are used-glycol, urea, calcium magnesium acetate, and sodium formate. Concerns of uncontrolled release of the constituents include high BOD rates, nitrate and nitrite enrichment, impaired aesthetic water quality, ammonia formation from the degradation of urea, and the toxicity of such chemicals to aquatic life. Several options that exist for managing the runoff of de/anti-icing constituents include alternative constituents such as potassium acetate; alternative application procedures such as centralized facilities and greater use of anti-icing operations; collection alternatives using porous surface materials, drainage systems, and holding tanks; and treatment alternatives such as a mobile recovery unit to recycle deicing fluids for re-use.... Aircraft, Runways, Deicing systems, Deicing materials, Runoff, Water pollution, Urea, Glycols, Biochemical oxygen demand.

  12. Molecular simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation. I. Controlling ice nucleation through surface hydrophilicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Slater, B.; Michaelides, Angelos

    2015-05-14

    Ice formation is one of the most common and important processes on earth and almost always occurs at the surface of a material. A basic understanding of how the physicochemical properties of a material’s surface affect its ability to form ice has remained elusive. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to directly probe heterogeneous ice nucleation at a hexagonal surface of a nanoparticle of varying hydrophilicity. Surprisingly, we find that structurally identical surfaces can both inhibit and promote ice formation and analogous to a chemical catalyst, it is found that an optimal interaction between the surface and the water exists for promoting ice nucleation.We use our microscopic understanding of the mechanism to design a modified surface in silico with enhanced ice nucleating ability. C 2015 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  13. Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsten Knappenberger; Markus Flury; Earl D. Mattson; James B. Harsh

    2014-03-01

    Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? ?r)/(?s ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

  14. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.0 - HOISTING AND RIGGING IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS February 18, 2010 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 18.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................................................................1 PAGINATION TABLE.....................................................................................................................................1 18.0 HOISTING AND RIGGING IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS

  15. A NEW SOURCE OF CO{sub 2} IN THE UNIVERSE: A PHOTOACTIVATED ELEY-RIDEAL SURFACE REACTION ON WATER ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Cooke, Ilsa R.; Yates, John T. Jr.

    2014-08-20

    CO{sub 2} is one of the most abundant components of ices in the interstellar medium; however, its formation mechanism has not been clearly identified. Here we report an experimental observation of an Eley-Rideal-type reaction on a water ice surface, where CO gas molecules react by direct collisions with surface OH radicals, made by photodissociation of H{sub 2}O molecules, to produce CO{sub 2} ice on the surface. The discovery of this source of CO{sub 2} provides a new mechanism to explain the high relative abundance of CO{sub 2} ice in space.

  16. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 m wavelength relative to 11 m wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 m. This makes the 12/11 m absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 m Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  17. The use of plants to enhance microbial degradation of de-icing agents in soil and surface water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, P.J.; Coats, J.R.; Anderson, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Significant quantities of ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) enter the environment through de-icing of aircraft, spills, and improper disposal of used antifreeze. An estimated 80% of the de-icing fluids spill onto the ground, which may lead to the contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater. EG and PG contamination of surface waters creates a high biological oxygen demand (BOD) that can adversely impact aquatic communities. Plants and rhizosphere soils have been shown to enhance the degradation of organic pollutants in the soil. The research investigates the use of vegetation to enhance the transformation of EG and PG in soil by studying the fate of these chemicals in nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils at three temperatures ({minus}10 C, 0 C, 20 C). Terrestrial and aquatic emergent plants were evaluated as a cost-effective and aesthetically pleasing way to remediate and restore soil and surface waters contaminated with chemical de-icing agents. Additional surface runoff and vegetated undisturbed soil column studies were used to determine the influence of vegetation on the prevention of offsite movement by surface runoff and infiltration. Enhanced degradation of EG occurred in all the rhizosphere soils in comparison to the nonrhizosphere and autoclaved soils. After 28 days at 0 C, 40%, 41%, and 18% of applied EG degraded to CO{sub 2} in the Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) rhizosphere soil, and nonrhizosphere soil, respectively.

  18. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.0 - CRITICAL, SPECIAL, & ENGINEERED LIFTS January 4, 2016 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 3.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.0 CRITICAL LIFTS ....................................................................................................................................... 3 3.1 SCOPE .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 3.2 CRITICAL LIFT DETERMINATION

  19. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  20. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  1. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Spongy icing in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lozowski, E.P.; Blackmore, R.Z.; Forest, T.W.; Shi, J.

    1996-12-01

    Newly formed marine ice accretions may include liquid brine amounts up to about 50% of the total accretion mass. Because they ignore this sponginess, traditional thermodynamic models of icing may significantly underestimate the total marine ice load. In an attempt to improve the capabilities of such models, the authors have undertaken experimental and theoretical research, directed at measuring and predicting the liquid fraction of ice accretions. The experimental work consisted of growing ice accretions on rotating cylinders in the Marine Icing Wind Tunnel at the University of Alberta, over a range of temperatures from {minus}2 C to {minus}25 C, and wind speeds from 19 to 30 m/s, at liquid water contents (3 to 9 g/m) typical of the marine spray environment. A calorimeter was used to measure the liquid fraction of the ice accretions. The experiments indicate that the liquid fraction is almost independent of the environmental conditions and ranges between about 32% and 47%. The authors have also developed a theoretical model of the morphology of the icing process which takes place under a falling supercooled liquid film. Comparisons between the model and experiments show that the model is able to predict accretion growth rate and sponginess with some degree of skill. However, there remain important aspects of the sponginess phenomenon which continue to elude them.

  3. The quantum nature of the OH stretching mode in ice and water probed by neutron scattering experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senesi, Roberto; Flammini, Davide; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Murray, Eamonn D.; Galli, Giulia; Andreani, Carla

    2013-01-01

    The OH stretching vibrational spectrum of water was measured in a wide range of temperatures across the triple point, 269 K < T < 296 K, using Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). The hydrogen projected density of states and the proton mean kinetic energy, _OH, were determined for the first time within the framework of a harmonic description of the proton dynamics. We found that in the liquid the value of _OH is nearly constant as a function of T, indicating that quantum effects on the OH stretching frequency are weakly dependent on temperature. In the case of ice, ab initio electronic structure calculations, using non-local van der Waals functionals, provided _OH values in agreement with INS experiments. We also found that the ratio of the stretching (_OH) to the total (_exp) kinetic energy, obtained from the present measurements, increases in going from ice, where hydrogen bonding is the strongest, to the liquid at ambient conditions and then to the vapour phase, where hydrogen bonding is the weakest. The same ratio was also derived from the combination of previous deep inelastic neutron scattering data, which does not rely upon the harmonic approximation, and the present measurements. We found that the ratio of stretching to the total kinetic energy shows a minimum in the metastable liquid phase. This finding suggests that the strength of intermolecular interactions increases in the supercooled phase, with respect to that in ice, contrary to the accepted view that supercooled water exhibits weaker hydrogen bonding than ice.

  4. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume 2, Sampling Technical Requirements Effective Date: 6/1/07 Vol. 2: i CONTENTS 1.0 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROCESS .................................................................... 1-1 2.0 DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES ................................................................................... 2-1 3.0 SAMPLING SYSTEMS .................................................................................................. 3-1 3.1 Facility Management

  5. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume 4, Laboratory Technical Requirements Effective Date: 6/1/07 Vol. 4: i CONTENTS 1.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES......................................................................... 1-1 1.1 DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES............................................................................ 1-1 1.2 CLIENT DATA QUALITY REQUIREMENTS ..................................................... 1-2 1.2.1 Precision

  6. Hydrogen isotopes as a proxy for the [sup 18]O content of water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Hydrogen isotopes as a proxy for the sup 18O content of water in carbonates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen isotopes as a proxy for the sup 18O ...

  7. The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements ofwood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Green, M.A.; Luft, P.A.; McInturff,A.D.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.

    2001-09-20

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a device that measures the water content of wood chips, pulp and brown stock for the paper industry. This device employs a permanent magnet as the central part of a NMR measurement system. This report describes the magnet and the NMR measurement system. The results of water content measurements in wood chips in a magnetic field of 0.47 T are presented.

  8. Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program and Book of Abstracts Contents Organizers i-ii Detailed Program iii-viii Oral presentations 1-38 Posters P1-P27 Program Schematic back cover The LAPD Symposium brings together scientists from laser physics, low- temperature plasma chemistry and physics, and nuclear fusion. The Symposium is an important, unique, and fruitful source for cross-fertilization between these fields. Major topics include laser-aided diagnostics for fusion plasmas, industrial process plasmas, and environmental

  9. Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yochim, April, E-mail: ayochim@regionofwaterloo.ca [Region of Waterloo Waste Management Division, 925 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2J 3Z4 (Canada); Zytner, Richard G., E-mail: rzytner@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); McBean, Edward A., E-mail: emcbean@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Endres, Anthony L., E-mail: alendres@sciborg.uwaterloo.ca [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initially completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable at 33

  10. Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 June/July 2005 Contents Fires burn Nevada Test Site in June NNSA/NSO and Department of Homeland Security break ground at the Nevada Test Site U1h ribbon cutting marks the remarkable New training grounds dedicated at NTS Changes enhance the EAP Unicorn subcritical experiment completes key milestone New communication system takes flight SiteLines goes online DNFSB visits U1a Funnel clouds at the Nevada Test Site Community Environmental Monitor receives EPA award Take Our Daughters and Sons to

  11. The photoexcitation of crystalline ice and amorphous solid water: A molecular dynamics study of outcomes at 11 K and 125 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crouse, J.; Loock, H.-P. Cann, N. M.

    2015-07-21

    Photoexcitation of crystalline ice Ih and amorphous solid water at 7-9 eV is examined using molecular dynamics simulations and a fully flexible water model. The probabilities of photofragment desorption, trapping, and recombination are examined for crystalline ice at 11 K and at 125 K and for amorphous solid water at 11 K. For 11 K crystalline ice, a fully rigid water model is also employed for comparison. The kinetic energy of desorbed H atoms and the distance travelled by trapped fragments are correlated to the location and the local environment of the photoexcited water molecule. In all cases, H atom desorption is found to be the most likely outcome in the top bilayer while trapping of all photofragments is most probable deeper in the solid where the likelihood for recombination of the fragments into H{sub 2}O molecules also rises. Trajectory analysis indicates that the local hydrogen bonding network in amorphous solid water is more easily distorted by a photodissociation event compared to crystalline ice. Also, simulations indicate that desorption of OH radicals and H{sub 2}O molecules are more probable in amorphous solid water. The kinetic energy distributions for desorbed H atoms show a peak at high energy in crystalline ice, arising from photoexcited water molecules in the top monolayer. This peak is less pronounced in amorphous solid water. H atoms that are trapped may be displaced by up to ∼10 water cages, but migrate on average 3 water cages. Trapped OH fragments tend to stay near the original solvent cage.

  12. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-11-06

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice number is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 ?m for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.

  13. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice number is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 ?m for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.

  14. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-11-06

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice numbermore » is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 μm for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.« less

  15. Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffery, Nicole; Hunke, Elizabeth; Elliott, Scott; Turner, Adrian

    2012-06-18

    Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

  16. EVOLUTION OF SNOW LINE IN OPTICALLY THICK PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: EFFECTS OF WATER ICE OPACITY AND DUST GRAIN SIZE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Akinori; Nakamoto, Taishi; Ida, Shigeru, E-mail: akinorioka1@gmail.com, E-mail: nakamoto@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-09-10

    Evolution of a snow line in an optically thick protoplanetary disk is investigated with numerical simulations. The ice-condensing region in the disk is obtained by calculating the temperature and the density with the 1+1D approach. The snow line migrates as the mass accretion rate ( M-dot ) in the disk decreases with time. Calculations are carried out from an early phase with high disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -7} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) to a later phase with low disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -12} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) using the same numerical method. It is found that the snow line moves inward for M-dot {approx}>10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, while it gradually moves outward in the later evolution phase with M-dot {approx}<10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. In addition to the silicate opacity, the ice opacity is taken into consideration. In the inward migration phase, the additional ice opacity increases the distance of the snow line from the central star by a factor of 1.3 for dust grains {approx}< 10 {mu}m in size and of 1.6 for {approx}> 100 {mu}m. It is inevitable that the snow line comes inside Earth's orbit in the course of the disk evolution if the viscosity parameter {alpha} is in the range 0.001-0.1, the dust-to-gas mass ratio is higher than a tenth of the solar abundance value, and the dust grains are smaller than 1 mm. The formation of water-devoid planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region seems to be difficult throughout the disk evolution, which imposes a new challenge to planet formation theory.

  17. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40°C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  18. Formation mechanisms of oxygen atoms in the O({sup 1}D{sub 2}) state from the 157 nm photoirradiation of amorphous water ice at 90 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Yabushita, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Naoki

    2009-09-21

    Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice in the first absorption band was studied at 157 nm. Translational and internal energy distributions of the desorbed species, O({sup 1}D) and OH(v=0,1), were directly measured with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization method. Two different mechanisms are discussed for desorption of electronically excited O({sup 1}D) atoms from the ice surface. One is unimolecular dissociation of H{sub 2}O to H{sub 2}+O({sup 1}D) as a primary photoprocess. The other is the surface recombination reaction of hot OH radicals that are produced from photodissociation of hydrogen peroxide as a secondary photoprocess. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is one of the major photoproducts in the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice.

  19. Communication: Nucleation of water on ice nanograins: Size, charge, and quantum effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marciante, Mathieu; Calvo, Florent

    2015-05-07

    The sticking cross sections of water molecules on cold size-selected water clusters have been simulated using classical and quantum (path-integral) molecular dynamics trajectories under realistic conditions. The integrated cross sections for charged clusters show significant size effects with comparable trends as in experiments, as well as essentially no sign effect. Vibrational delocalization, although it contributes to enlarging the geometric cross sections, leads to a counter-intuitive decrease in the dynamical cross section obtained from the trajectories. These results are interpreted based on the apparent reduction in the effective interaction between the projectile and the target owing to zero-point effects.

  20. Chemical Characterization and Water Content Determination of Bio-Oils Obtained from Various Biomass Species using 31P NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, K.; Ben, H.; Muzzy, J.; Feik, C.; Iisa, K.; Ragauskas, A.

    2012-03-01

    Pyrolysis is a promising approach to utilize biomass for biofuels. One of the key challenges for this conversion is how to analyze complicated components in the pyrolysis oils. Water contents of pyrolysis oils are normally analyzed by Karl Fischer titration. The use of 2-chloro-4,4,5,5,-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by {sup 31}P NMR analysis has been used to quantitatively analyze the structure of hydroxyl groups in lignin and whole biomass. Results: {sup 31}P NMR analysis of pyrolysis oils is a novel technique to simultaneously characterize components and analyze water contents in pyrolysis oils produced from various biomasses. The water contents of various pyrolysis oils range from 16 to 40 wt%. The pyrolysis oils obtained from Loblolly pine had higher guaiacyl content, while that from oak had a higher syringyl content. Conclusion: The comparison with Karl Fischer titration shows that {sup 31}P NMR could also reliably be used to measure the water content of pyrolysis oils. Simultaneously with analysis of water content, quantitative characterization of hydroxyl groups, including aliphatic, C-5 substituted/syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyl phenyl and carboxylic hydroxyl groups, could also be provided by {sup 31}P NMR analysis.

  1. Freezing a Droplet to Stop the Ice | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Freezing a Droplet to Stop the Ice Advances in simulating water molecules in droplets ... Million molecule simulation of ice formation in a single water droplet. The location of ...

  2. Evaluation of Tritium Content and Release from Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Sharon M.; Chattin, Marc Rhea; Giaquinto, Joseph; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2015-09-01

    It is expected that tritium pretreatment will be required in future reprocessing plants to prevent the release of tritium to the environment (except for long-cooled fuels). To design and operate future reprocessing plants in a safe and environmentally compliant manner, the amount and form of tritium in the used nuclear fuel (UNF) must be understood and quantified. Tritium in light water reactor (LWR) fuel is dispersed between the fuel matrix and the fuel cladding, and some tritium may be in the plenum, probably as tritium labelled water (THO) or T2O. In a standard processing flowsheet, tritium management would be accomplished by treatment of liquid streams within the plant. Pretreating the fuel prior to dissolution to release the tritium into a single off-gas stream could simplify tritium management, so the removal of tritium in the liquid streams throughout the plant may not be required. The fraction of tritium remaining in the cladding may be reduced as a result of tritium pretreatment. Since Zircaloy® cladding makes up roughly 25% by mass of UNF in the United States, processes are being considered to reduce the volume of reprocessing waste for Zircaloy® clad fuel by recovering the zirconium from the cladding for reuse. These recycle processes could release the tritium in the cladding. For Zircaloy-clad fuels from light water reactors, the tritium produced from ternary fission and other sources is expected to be divided between the fuel, where it is generated, and the cladding. It has been previously documented that a fraction of the tritium produced in uranium oxide fuel from LWRs can migrate and become trapped in the cladding. Estimates of the percentage of tritium in the cladding typically range from 0–96%. There is relatively limited data on how the tritium content of the cladding varies with burnup and fuel history (temperature, power, etc.) and how pretreatment impacts its release. To gain a better understanding of how tritium in cladding

  3. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  4. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-05-29

    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  5. Equilibrium Water Contents of Cellulose Films Determined via Solvent Exchange and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kittle, Joshua D.; Du, Xiaosong; Jiang, Feng; Qian, Chen; Heinze, Thomas; Roman, Maren; Esker, Alan R.

    2011-08-08

    Model cellulose surfaces have attracted increasing attention for studying interactions with cell wall matrix polymers and as substrates for enzymatic degradation studies. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) solvent exchange studies showed that the water content of regenerated cellulose (RC) films was proportional to the film thickness (d) and was consistent with about five water molecules per anhydroglucose unit. Sulfated nanocrystalline cellulose (SNC) and desulfated nanocrystalline cellulose (DNC) films had comparable water contents and contained about five times more water than RC films. A cellulase mixture served as a probe for studies of substrate accessibility and degradation. Cellulase adsorption onto RC films was independent of d, whereas degradation times increased with d. However, adsorption onto SNC and DNC films increased with d, whereas cellulase degradation times for DNC films were independent of studied d. Enhanced access to guest molecules for SNC and DNC films revealed they are more porous than RC films.

  6. System and method for monitoring water content or other dielectric influences in a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Robert S.; Anderson, Allen A.

    2001-01-01

    A sensor system is provided that measures water content or other detectable properties in a medium along the entire length of the sensor at any point in time. The sensor system includes an electromagnetic signal generator and a transmission line disposed in a medium to be monitored. Alternatively, the transmission line can be configured for movement across a medium to be monitored, or the transmission line can be fixed relative to a moving medium being monitored. A signal is transmitted along the transmission line at predetermined frequencies, and the signal is returned back along the transmission line and/or into an optional receive line in proximity to the transmission line. The returned signal is processed to generate a one-dimensional data output profile that is a function of a detectable property of the medium. The data output profile can be mapped onto a physical system to generate a two-dimensional or three-dimensional profile if desired. The sensor system is useful in a variety of different applications such as agriculture, horticulture, biofiltration systems for industrial offgases, leak detection in landfills or drum storage facilities at buried waste sites, and in many other applications.

  7. BISICLES Captures Details of Retreating Antarctic Ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Satellite and ground observations show that the ice in this region is thinning and retreating significantly as shifting wind patterns and ocean currents allow warmer water to flow ...

  8. Formation mechanisms of oxygen atoms in the O({sup 3}P{sub J}) state from the 157 nm photoirradiation of amorphous water ice at 90 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hama, Tetsuya; Yabushita, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Watanabe, Naoki

    2009-09-21

    Desorption of ground state O({sup 3}P{sub J=2,1,0}) atoms following the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of water ice in the first absorption band was directly measured with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) method. Based on their translational energy distributions and evolution behavior, two different formation mechanisms are proposed: One is exothermic recombination reaction of OH radicals, OH+OH{yields}H{sub 2}O+O({sup 3}P{sub J}) and the other is the photodissociation of OH radicals on the surface of amorphous solid water. The translational and internal energy distributions of OH radicals as well as the evolution behavior were also measured by REMPI to elucidate the roles of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and OH in the O({sup 3}P{sub J}) formation mechanisms.

  9. Icing modelling in NSMB with chimera overset grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pena, D.; Deloze, T.; Laurendeau, E.; Hoarau, Y.

    2015-03-10

    In aerospace Engineering, the accurate simulation of ice accretion is a key element to increase flight safety and avoid accidents related to icing effects. The icing code developed in the NSMB solver is based on an Eulerian formulation for droplets tracking, an iterative Messinger model using a modified water runback scheme for ice thickness calculation and mesh deformation to track the ice/air interface through time. The whole process is parallelized with MPI and applied with chimera grids.

  10. An evaluation of hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical behavior of processed oil shale solid waste 2; The use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring in-situ volumetric water content in processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Elgezawi, S.M. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Kaser, T.G. (GIGO Computer and Electronic, Laramie, WY (US))

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for monitoring volumetric water contents in processed oil shale solid waste. TDR measures soil water content via a correlation between the dielectric constant (K) of the 3 phase (soil-water-air) system and the volumetric water content ({theta}{sub v}). An extensive bench top research program has been conducted to evaluate and verify the use of this technique in processed oil shale solid waste. This study utilizes columns of processed oil shale packed to known densities and varying water contents and compares the columetric water content measured via TDR and the volumetric water content measured through gravimetric determination.

  11. Icing on wind-energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffer, T.; Reale, T.; Elfiqi, A.

    1981-01-01

    A source of icing data is the network of meteorological recording stations within the continental United States which collect meteorological measurements both at the surface and aloft. This report presents procedures for analyzing this data to determine the maximum possible icing to be expected at specified locations. Since the physical processes are different, the procedures for predicting maximum glaze ice and rime are presented in separate sections. Models developed to simulate the maximum possible ice buildup on an exposed surface using the rainfall and cloud water data as input are also presented. In addition to the maximal dynamic and static icing loads, comparative icing values based on an attempt to simulate actual field conditions are also shown. Included are assumptions of droplet splashing and water drainage for the glaze cases and atmospheric mixing during orographic lifting for rime cases.

  12. Seeking solutions for icing at dams and hydro plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, F.D. )

    1993-12-01

    Hydroelectric plant operators in the northern US and Canada often encounter icing problems that interfere with normal operations. Icing can cause problems in machinery, valves, and gates, and frazil ice can block water intakes. (Frazil ice is a slightly super-cooled, slush-type ice commonly formed on northern rivers in a rapids area or any area without an ice cover.) Icing problems, especially blockage of water intakes, can shut down a hydropower plant and cause a considerable loss of power generation. The US Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) surveyed hydro plant operators about icing problems experienced at their facilities and solutions to these problems. By sharing the survey results, CRREL researchers hope to spread solutions among operators and to identify those problems for which no solutions are currently known that require more research. CRREL researchers also are developing promising technology that may help to alleviate icing problems.

  13. Method of forming clathrate ice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hino, Toshiyuki (Tokyo, JP); Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultrasonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. These small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  14. Method of forming calthrate ice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hino, T.; Gorski, A.J.

    1985-09-30

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultransonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. Thes small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  15. Application of TDR technology to water content monitoring of capillary barriers made of pulp and paper residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, A.R.; Burnotte, F.; Lefebvre, G.

    1999-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) can be curbed by covering tailings with capillary barriers. The purposes of these barriers is to prevent O{sub 2} from interacting with mine residues. This control can be made by keeping a high degree of moisture inside the cover material. Saturation is thus a key parameter to be monitored. The purpose of this paper is to present how the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique can be used in order to monitor the volumetric water content for pulp and paper residues that have been used as capillary barriers. Calibration curves for deinking residues are presented and compared to literature data relating to mineral and organic soils.

  16. Reclamation of water contaminated with fuel system icing inhibitor: Phase 1, Literature review and information compilation. [281 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Stirling, K.Q.; Whisman, M.L.; Bhan, O.K.

    1988-02-01

    The volume of water that must be removed from an aviation turbine fuel storage tank can be as much as 15,000 to 20,000 gallons per year from a fuel tank of moderate capacity. If each fuel storage facility has 10 fuel storage tanks, a total water volume of 200,000 gallons per terminal per year is a reasonable estimate. Some terminals generate as much as one million gallons per year of FSII contaminated wastewater. In the past, this FSII/water mixture was released from time to time into diked areas around the storage tank where it evaporated or penetrated underlying media. A host of recent studies that have shown these glycol ethers to be toxic now make this practice questionable based on both vapor inhalation toxicity and potential groundwater contamination. The ensuing narrative sections contain a summary of the data and information that have been compiled as a result of computerized literature searches, personal contacts with government and industry representatives knowledgeable in the field of FSII, and contact with vendors of equipment and processes with some applicability to achieving the goals of this research. Our recommendations for the subsequent bench-scale testing phase are included and are based upon this literature compilation and review. If the second phase yields a technically and economically attractive solution, a third phase will follow to implement concept verification studies. 281 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  18. ARM - Measurement - Ice nuclei

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Ice nuclei Small particles around which ice particles form. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  19. Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 using Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, Jim; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2009-07-23

    Here, cloud properties have been simulated with a new double-moment microphysics scheme under the framework of the single-column version of NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3). For comparison, the same simulation was made with the standard single-moment microphysics scheme of CAM3. Results from both simulations compared favorably with observations during the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program in terms of the temporal variation and vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud condensate. Major differences between the two simulations are in the magnitude and distribution of ice water content within the mixed-phase cloud during the monsoon period, though the total frozen water (snow plus ice) contents are similar. The ice mass content in the mixed-phase cloud from the new scheme is larger than that from the standard scheme, and ice water content extends 2 km further downward, which is in better agreement with observations. The dependence of the frozen water mass fraction on temperature from the new scheme is also in better agreement with available observations. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from the simulation with the new scheme is, in general, larger than that with the standard scheme, while the surface downward longwave radiation is similar. Sensitivity tests suggest that different treatments of the ice crystal effective radius contribute significantly to the difference in the calculations of TOA OLR, in addition to cloud water path. Numerical experiments show that cloud properties in the new scheme can respond reasonably to changes in the concentration of aerosols and emphasize the importance of correctly simulating aerosol effects in climate models for aerosol-cloud interactions. Further evaluation, especially for ice cloud properties based on in-situ data, is needed.

  20. Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 using Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, Jim; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2009-07-23

    Here, cloud properties have been simulated with a new double-moment microphysics scheme under the framework of the single-column version of NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3). For comparison, the same simulation was made with the standard single-moment microphysics scheme of CAM3. Results from both simulations compared favorably with observations during the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program in terms of the temporal variation and vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud condensate. Major differences between the two simulations are in the magnitude and distribution of ice water content within themore » mixed-phase cloud during the monsoon period, though the total frozen water (snow plus ice) contents are similar. The ice mass content in the mixed-phase cloud from the new scheme is larger than that from the standard scheme, and ice water content extends 2 km further downward, which is in better agreement with observations. The dependence of the frozen water mass fraction on temperature from the new scheme is also in better agreement with available observations. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from the simulation with the new scheme is, in general, larger than that with the standard scheme, while the surface downward longwave radiation is similar. Sensitivity tests suggest that different treatments of the ice crystal effective radius contribute significantly to the difference in the calculations of TOA OLR, in addition to cloud water path. Numerical experiments show that cloud properties in the new scheme can respond reasonably to changes in the concentration of aerosols and emphasize the importance of correctly simulating aerosol effects in climate models for aerosol-cloud interactions. Further evaluation, especially for ice cloud properties based on in-situ data, is needed.« less

  1. Influence of the surface liquid film on cylinder icing under marine conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lozowski, E.P.; Kobos, A.M.; Kachurin, L.G.

    1996-05-01

    A new steady-state icing model is presented which explicitly takes into account the dynamics and thermodynamics of a liquid film on the ice accretion surface under high liquid fluxes. The film is generated by excess unfrozen impinging liquid, is set in motion by the aerodynamic shear stress, and is eventually shed. In order to keep the model simple, it is formulated for a rotating cylinder subjected to a continuous supercooled freshwater spray. The model is used to explore the physics of the liquid film, and confirms that the film is thin and laminar except possibly under extreme liquid fluxes. It predicts supercooling of several degrees at the film surface, in agreement with recent observations. Further, the model is used to investigate the dependence of the icing rate on the following parameters: liquid water content, air temperature, wind speed, spray temperature, cylinder diameter, and heat transfer coefficient.

  2. Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice Sheet Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine ...

  3. Aerosol Effects on Cirrus through Ice Nucleation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5 with a Statistical Cirrus Scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2014-09-01

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that tracks ice saturation ratio in the clear-sky and cloudy portion of a grid box separately has been implemented into NCAR CAM5 to provide a consistent treatment of ice nucleation and cloud formation. Simulated ice supersaturation and ice crystal number concentrations strongly depend on the number concentrations of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN), subgrid temperature formulas and the number concentration of sulfate particles participating in homogeneous freezing, while simulated ice water content is insensitive to these perturbations. 1% to 10% dust particles serving as heterogeneous IN is 20 found to produce ice supersaturaiton in better agreement with observations. Introducing a subgrid temperature perturbation based on long-term aircraft observations of meso-scale motion produces a better hemispheric contrast in ice supersaturation compared to observations. Heterogeneous IN from dust particles significantly alter the net radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) (-0.24 to -1.59 W m-2) with a significant clear-sky longwave component (0.01 to -0.55 W m-2). Different cirrus treatments significantly perturb the net TOA anthropogenic aerosol forcing from -1.21 W m-2 to -1.54 W m-2, with a standard deviation of 0.10 W m-2. Aerosol effects on cirrus clouds exert an even larger impact on the atmospheric component of the radiative fluxes (two or three times the changes in the TOA radiative fluxes) and therefore on the hydrology cycle through the fast atmosphere response. This points to the urgent need to quantify aerosol effects on cirrus clouds through ice nucleation and how these further affect the hydrological cycle.

  4. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-10-21

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leading to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Furthermore, better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.

  5. STATEMENT OF WORK (SOW) TEMPLATE FOR ICE SUPPORT CONTRACTOR

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ICE SUPPORT CONTRACTOR The template presented below is a Statement of Work (SOW) for services of an ICE Support Contractor for assisting OECM in conducting an ICE. Project and review specific information should be incorporated. Explanatory text appears in italics, while information that should be selected appears in <<brackets>>. The format and contents of this SOW is not compulsory, and the use is at the discretion of the OECM Analysts, tailored as appropriate for the desired

  6. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B.; Rohde, C. A.; Tellier, L. L.; Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  7. The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of ice crystals. Without depletion even the MPACE-derived IN lead to rapid glaciation and loss of all liquid water. These results suggest that in order to more accurately simulate...

  8. Multilayer formation and evaporation of deuterated ices in prestellar and protostellar cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B.; Sipil, Olli

    2014-08-10

    Extremely large deuteration of several molecules has been observed toward prestellar cores and low-mass protostars for a decade. New observations performed toward low-mass protostars suggest that water presents a lower deuteration in the warm inner gas than in the cold external envelope. We coupled a gas-grain astrochemical model with a one-dimensional model of a collapsing core to properly follow the formation and the deuteration of interstellar ices as well as their subsequent evaporation in the low-mass protostellar envelopes with the aim of interpreting the spatial and temporal evolutions of their deuteration. The astrochemical model follows the formation and the evaporation of ices with a multilayer approach and also includes a state-of-the-art deuterated chemical network by taking the spin states of H{sub 2} and light ions into account. Because of their slow formation, interstellar ices are chemically heterogeneous and show an increase of their deuterium fractionation toward the surface. The differentiation of the deuteration in ices induces an evolution of the deuteration within protostellar envelopes. The warm inner region is poorly deuterated because it includes the whole molecular content of ices, while the deuteration predicted in the cold external envelope scales with the highly deuterated surface of ices. We are able to reproduce the observed evolution of water deuteration within protostellar envelopes, but we are still unable to predict the super-high deuteration observed for formaldehyde and methanol. Finally, the extension of this study to the deuteration of complex organics, important for the prebiotic chemistry, shows good agreement with the observations, suggesting that we can use the deuteration to retrace their mechanisms and their moments of formation.

  9. Communication: On the stability of ice 0, ice i, and I{sub h}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quigley, D.; Alf, D.; Slater, B.

    2014-10-28

    Using ab initio methods, we examine the stability of ice 0, a recently proposed tetragonal form of ice implicated in the homogeneous freezing of water [J. Russo, F. Romano, and H. Tanaka, Nat. Mater. 13, 670 (2014)]. Vibrational frequencies are computed across the complete Brillouin Zone using Density Functional Theory (DFT), to confirm mechanical stability and quantify the free energy of ice 0 relative to ice I{sub h}. The robustness of this result is tested via dispersion corrected semi-local and hybrid DFT, and Quantum Monte-Carlo calculation of lattice energies. Results indicate that popular molecular models only slightly overestimate the stability of ice zero. In addition, we study all possible realisations of proton disorder within the ice zero unit cell, and identify the ground state as ferroelectric. Comparisons are made to other low density metastable forms of ice, suggesting that the ice i structure [C. J. Fennel and J. D. Gezelter, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 1, 662 (2005)] may be equally relevant to ice formation.

  10. A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model for Ice Sheet and Ice Shelf Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

    2012-02-08

    Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH is a fully Lagrangian particle method. It is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface flows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper SPH is used to study ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from the SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is further verified by simulating the plane shear flow of two immiscible fluids and the propagation of a highly viscous blob of fluid along a horizontal surface. In the experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous newtonian fluid. For consistency, in the described SPH model the ice is also modeled as a viscous newtonian fluid. Typically, ice sheets are modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid, accounting for the changes in the mechanical properties of ice. Implementation of a non-Newtonian rheology in the SPH model is the subject of our ongoing research.

  11. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Non-Newtonian model for ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

    2013-06-01

    Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) non-Newtonian model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH, a fully Lagrangian particle method, is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface ?ows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper, SPH is used to study 3D ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios, similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is veri?ed by simulating Poiseuille ?ow, plane shear ?ow with free surface and the propagation of a blob of ice along a horizontal surface. In the laboratory experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous Newtonian ?uid. In the present work, however, the ice is modeled as both viscous Newtonian ?uid and non-Newtonian ?uid, such that the e?ect of non-Newtonian rheology on the dynamics of grounding line was examined. The non-Newtonian constitutive relation is prescribed to be Glens law for the creep of polycrystalline ice. A V-shaped bedrock ramp is further introduced to model the real geometry of bedrock slope.

  12. Greenland Ice Sheet "Sliding" a Small Contributor to Future Sea...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    A wide range of observations suggests that water generated by melt at the ice sheet ... vertical well-like shafts within a glacier through which water enters from the surface). ...

  13. Spreading of oil spilled under ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapa, P.D.; Chowdhury, T. )

    1990-12-01

    A new set of equations is presented to describe the process of oil spreading under ice in clam waters. These equations consider the gravity (buoyancy)-inertia phase, the gravity (buoyancy)-viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy-surface-tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to the termination of spreading is presented. Laboratory experiments were conducted using both real ice covers in a cold room and artificial ice covers. The experiments included different ice-cover roughnesses from smooth to rough, oils of different viscosities, and a variety of discharge conditions. The experimental data show close agreement with the theory. These equations can be used during cleanup or environmental impact assessment to estimate the area of an oil slick with respect to time.

  14. Mobile Ice Nucleus Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Kok, G. L.

    2012-05-07

    This first year report presents results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to assess the flow and temperature profiles within the mobile ice nucleus spectrometer.

  15. Intercomparison of the Cloud Water Phase among Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komurcu, Muge; Storelvmo, Trude; Tan, Ivy; Lohmann, U.; Yun, Yuxing; Penner, Joyce E.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong; Takemura, T.

    2014-03-27

    Mixed-phase clouds (clouds that consist of both cloud droplets and ice crystals) are frequently present in the Earths atmosphere and influence the Earths energy budget through their radiative properties, which are highly dependent on the cloud water phase. In this study, the phase partitioning of cloud water is compared among six global climate models (GCMs) and with Cloud and Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization retrievals. It is found that the GCMs predict vastly different distributions of cloud phase for a given temperature, and none of them are capable of reproducing the spatial distribution or magnitude of the observed phase partitioning. While some GCMs produced liquid water paths comparable to satellite observations, they all failed to preserve sufficient liquid water at mixed-phase cloud temperatures. Our results suggest that validating GCMs using only the vertically integrated water contents could lead to amplified differences in cloud radiative feedback. The sensitivity of the simulated cloud phase in GCMs to the choice of heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization is also investigated. The response to a change in ice nucleation is quite different for each GCM, and the implementation of the same ice nucleation parameterization in all models does not reduce the spread in simulated phase among GCMs. The results suggest that processes subsequent to ice nucleation are at least as important in determining phase and should be the focus of future studies aimed at understanding and reducing differences among the models.

  16. Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Community Atmosphere Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community ...

  17. Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice Sheet Simulations Citation ... Sponsoring Org: DOELANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: ...

  18. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, A.J.; Schertz, W.W.

    1980-09-29

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  19. Ice formation on nitric acid coated dust particles: Laboratory and modeling studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Chun; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Liu, Xiaohong; Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-08-16

    Changes in the ice nucleation characteristics of atmospherically relevant mineral dust particles due to nitric acid coating are not well understood. Further, the atmospheric implications of dust coating on ice-cloud properties under different assumptions of primary ice nucleation mechanisms are unknown. We investigated ice nucleation ability of Arizona test dust, illite, K-feldspar and quartz as a function of temperature (-25 to -30C) and relative humidity with respect to water (75 to 110%). Particles were size selected at 250 nm and transported (bare or coated) to the ice nucleation chamber to determine the fraction of particles nucleating ice at various temperature and water saturation conditions. All dust nucleated ice at water-subsaturated conditions, but the coated particles showed a reduction in their ice nucleation ability compared to bare particles. However, at water-supersaturated conditions, we observed that bare and coated particles had nearly similar ice nucleation characteristics. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that structural properties of bare dust particles modified after acid treatment. We found that lattice parameters were slightly different, but crystallite sizes of the coated particles were reduced compared to bare particles. Next, single-column model results show that simulated ice crystal number concentrations mostly depends upon fraction of particles that are coated, primary ice nucleation mechanisms, and the competition between ice nucleation mechanisms to nucleate ice. In general, we observed that coating modify the ice-cloud properties and the picture of ice and mixed-phase cloud evolution is complex when different primary ice nucleation mechanisms are competing for fixed water vapor mass.

  20. Ice Concentration Retrieval in Stratiform Mixed-phase Clouds Using Cloud Radar Reflectivity Measurements and 1D Ice Growth Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.

  1. A New Approach for Representing Ice Particles in Weather

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mass mixing ratio, qi, c) cloud water mass mixing ratio, qc, d) rain mass mixing ratio, qr, e) rime mass fraction, Fr, f) mass-weighted mean ice particle density, p, g)...

  2. Arctic Sea ice model sensitivities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  3. Energy conservation in ice skating rinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, B.K.; McAvoy, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    An economic and energy analysis of ice rinks was made to examine the areas in which energy could be profitably conserved. The areas where new equipment could make a major reduction in energy use are: the use of waste heat for space heating, the installation of a low emissivity false ceiling to reduce radiant heat, the use of a load cycling controller to reduce refrigeration costs, and the installation of more efficient lighting systems. Changes in rink operating procedure that could cut energy use are: higher refrigerant temperatures, thinner ice, the use of colder resurfacing water, turning the compressors and pumps off at night, and reducing ventilation.

  4. Independent Cost Estimate (ICE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independent Cost Estimate (ICE). On August 8-12, the Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments (PM) will conduct an ICE on the NNSA Albuquerque Complex Project (NACP) at Albuquerque, NM. This estimate will support the Critical Decision (CD) for establishing the performance baseline and approval to start construction (CD-2/3). This project is at CD-1, with a total project cost range of $183M to $251M.

  5. Probing the Interiors of the Ice Giants: Shock Compression of Water to 700 GPa and 3.8 g/cm³

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Lemke, R. W.; Mattsson, T. R.; French, M.; Nettelmann, N.; Redmer, R.

    2012-02-27

    Recently, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified extrasolar planetary systems. Our understanding of their formation is tied to exoplanet internal structure models, which rely upon equations of state of light elements and compounds such as water. Here, we present shock compression data for water with unprecedented accuracy that show that water equations of state commonly used in planetary modeling significantly overestimate the compressibility at conditions relevant to planetary interiors. Furthermore, we show that its behavior at these conditions, including reflectivity and isentropic response, is well-described by a recent first-principles based equation of state. These findingsmore » advocate that this water model be used as the standard for modeling Neptune, Uranus, and “hot Neptune” exoplanets and should improve our understanding of these types of planets.« less

  6. Probing the Interiors of the Ice Giants: Shock Compression of Water to 700 GPa and 3.8 g/cm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Lemke, R. W.; Mattsson, T. R.; French, M.; Nettelmann, N.; Redmer, R.

    2012-02-27

    Recently, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified extrasolar planetary systems. Our understanding of their formation is tied to exoplanet internal structure models, which rely upon equations of state of light elements and compounds such as water. Here, we present shock compression data for water with unprecedented accuracy that show that water equations of state commonly used in planetary modeling significantly overestimate the compressibility at conditions relevant to planetary interiors. Furthermore, we show that its behavior at these conditions, including reflectivity and isentropic response, is well-described by a recent first-principles based equation of state. These findings advocate that this water model be used as the standard for modeling Neptune, Uranus, and hot Neptune exoplanets and should improve our understanding of these types of planets.

  7. Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth, Space Sciences Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for ...

  8. Final scientific report for DOE award title: Improving the Representation of Ice Sedimentation Rates in Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, David L.

    2013-09-05

    It is well known that cirrus clouds play a major role in regulating the earth’s climate, but the details of how this works are just beginning to be understood. This project targeted the main property of cirrus clouds that influence climate processes; the ice fall speed. That is, this project improves the representation of the mass-weighted ice particle fall velocity, Vm, in climate models, used to predict future climate on global and regional scales. Prior to 2007, the dominant sizes of ice particles in cirrus clouds were poorly understood, making it virtually impossible to predict how cirrus clouds interact with sunlight and thermal radiation. Due to several studies investigating the performance of optical probes used to measure the ice particle size distribution (PSD), as well as the remote sensing results from our last ARM project, it is now well established that the anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals often reported prior to 2007 were measurement artifacts. Advances in the design and data processing of optical probes have greatly reduced these ice artifacts that resulted from the shattering of ice particles on the probe tips and/or inlet tube, and PSD measurements from one of these improved probes (the 2-dimensional Stereo or 2D-S probe) are utilized in this project to parameterize Vm for climate models. Our original plan in the proposal was to parameterize the ice PSD (in terms of temperature and ice water content) and ice particle mass and projected area (in terms of mass- and area-dimensional power laws or m-D/A-D expressions) since these are the microphysical properties that determine Vm, and then proceed to calculate Vm from these parameterized properties. But the 2D-S probe directly measures ice particle projected area and indirectly estimates ice particle mass for each size bin. It soon became apparent that the original plan would introduce more uncertainty in the Vm calculations

  9. Characterization of Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Anti-icing in a Low-Temperature Wind Tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swarctz, Christopher; Alijallis, Elias; Hunter, Scott Robert; Simpson, John T; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a closed loop low-temperature wind tunnel was custom-built and uniquely used to investigate the anti-icing mechanism of superhydrophobic surfaces in regulated flow velocities, temperatures, humidity, and water moisture particle sizes. Silica nanoparticle-based hydrophobic coatings were tested as superhydrophobic surface models. During tests, images of ice formation were captured by a camera and used for analysis of ice morphology. Prior to and after wind tunnel testing, apparent contact angles of water sessile droplets on samples were measured by a contact angle meter to check degradation of surface superhydrophobicity. A simple peel test was also performed to estimate adhesion of ice on the surfaces. When compared to an untreated sample, superhydrophobic surfaces inhibited initial ice formation. After a period of time, random droplet strikes attached to the superhydrophobic surfaces and started to coalesce with previously deposited ice droplets. These sites appear as mounds of accreted ice across the surface. The appearance of the ice formations on the superhydrophobic samples is white rather than transparent, and is due to trapped air. These ice formations resemble soft rime ice rather than the transparent glaze ice seen on the untreated sample. Compared to untreated surfaces, the icing film formed on superhydrophobic surfaces was easy to peel off by shear flows.

  10. Characterization of 3D Cirrus Cloud and Radiation Fields Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    aerosol number concentration, ice cloud water path, and ice particle number ... effective ice crystal size (De) and ice water content (IWC) by dividing the atmosphere ...

  11. Field demonstration of the ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, J.L.; Jackson, L.M.

    1999-10-05

    The ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System was engineered to convert water into small ice particles for use in cleaning and decontamination applications. Ice crystals are produced in a special icemaker and pressured through a hose-nozzle onto the surface to be cleaned. The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Ice Cleaning Systems, Inc., conducted a test of this system at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 to evaluate the system's cleaning capabilities in an oil field environment. Equipment cleaned included an oil storage tank, a rod pumping unit, a road grader, and a wellhead. Contaminants were unrefined sour crude oil, hydraulic fluid, paraffin, and dirt, occurring separately and as mixtures. In all four demonstration cleaning tasks, the ICE 250 System effectively removed surface contaminant mixtures in a timely manner and left no oily residue. A minimal amount of waste moisture was generated, thereby reducing cleanup and disposal costs.

  12. Electric heat tracing designed to prevent icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lonsdale, J.T.; Norrby, T.

    1985-11-01

    Mobile offshore rigs designed for warmer climates are not capable of operating year-round in the arctic or near-arctic regions. Icing is but one major operational problem in these waters. The danger of instability due to ice loading exists on an oil rig as well as on a ship. From a safety standpoint, ice must be prevented from forming on the helideck, escape passages, escape doors and hatches and handrails. Norsk Hydro A/S, as one of the major operators in the harsh environment outside northern Norway, recognized at an early stage the need for special considerations for the drilling rigs intended for year-round drilling in these regions. In 1982 Norsk Hydro awarded a contract for an engineering study leading to the design of a harsh environment semisubmersible drilling rig. The basic requirement was to develop a unit for safe and efficient year-round drilling operation in the waters of northern Norway. The study was completed in 1983 and resulted in a comprehensive report including a building specification. The electric heat tracing system designed to prevent icing on the unit is described.

  13. Icing rate meter estimation of in-cloud cable icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComber, P.; Druez, J.; Laflamme, J.

    1994-12-31

    In many northern countries, the design and reliability of power transmission lines are closely related to atmospheric icing overloads. It is becoming increasingly important to have reliable instrument systems to warn of icing conditions before icing loads become sufficient to damage the power transmission network. Various instruments are presently being developed to provide better monitoring of icing conditions. One such instrument is the icing rate meter (IRM) which counts icing and de-icing cycles per unit time on a standard probe and can be used to estimate the icing rate on nearby cables. The calibration presently used was originally based on experiments conducted in a cold room. Even though this calibration has shown that the IRM estimation already offers an improvement over model prediction based on standard meteorological parameters, it can certainly be improved further with appropriate field data. For this purpose, the instrument was tested on an icing test site at Mt. Valin (altitude 902 m) Quebec, Canada. In this paper measurements from twelve in-cloud icing events during the 1991--92 winter are divided into one hour periods of icing to provide the experimental icing rate data. The icing rates measured on a 12.5 mm and a 35 mm cables are then compared with the number of IRM signals, also for one hour periods, in relation to initial ice load, temperature, wind velocity and direction. From this analysis, a better calibration for the IRM instrument is suggested. The improvement of the IRM estimation is illustrated by making a comparison with measurements, of the icing load estimation with the old and new calibrations for two complete icing events.

  14. Contractor SOW Template – ICE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The template presented here is a Statement of Work (SOW) for services of an ICE Support Contractor for assisting OECM in conducting an ICE. Project and review specific information should be incorporated.

  15. Really Cool Models of Ice Nucleation | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Really Cool Models of Ice Nucleation Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Really Cool Models of Ice Nucleation Rick Arthur 2013.08.20 I'm excited to highlight some progress GE Research has made in modeling the formation of ice from water droplets in contact with cold surfaces. For several years, a

  16. THE STRUCTURE OF SURFACE H{sub 2}O LAYERS OF ICE-COVERED PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE ICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueta, S.; Sasaki, T. E-mail: takanori@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Many extrasolar (bound) terrestrial planets and free-floating (unbound) planets have been discovered. While the existence of bound and unbound terrestrial planets with liquid water is an important question, of particular importance is the question of these planets' habitability. Even for a globally ice-covered planet, geothermal heat from the planetary interior may melt the interior ice, creating an internal ocean covered by an ice shell. In this paper, we discuss the conditions that terrestrial planets must satisfy for such an internal ocean to exist on the timescale of planetary evolution. The question is addressed in terms of planetary mass, distance from a central star, water abundance, and abundance of radiogenic heat sources. In addition, we investigate the structure of the surface H{sub 2}O layers of ice-covered planets by considering the effects of ice under high pressure (high-pressure ice). As a fiducial case, a 1 M{sub ?} planet at 1 AU from its central star and with 0.6-25 times the H{sub 2}O mass of the Earth could have an internal ocean. We find that high-pressure ice layers may appear between the internal ocean and the rock portion on a planet with an H{sub 2}O mass over 25 times that of the Earth. The planetary mass and abundance of surface water strongly restrict the conditions under which an extrasolar terrestrial planet may have an internal ocean with no high-pressure ice under the ocean. Such high-pressure ice layers underlying the internal ocean are likely to affect the habitability of the planet.

  17. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-10-21

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leadingmore » to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Furthermore, better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.« less

  18. ARM - TWP-ICE Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TWP-ICE Maps Related Links TWP-ICE Home Tropical Western Pacific Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Post-Experiment Data Sets Weather Summary (pdf, 6M) New York Workshop Presentations Experiment Planning TWP-ICE Proposal Abstract Detailed Experiment Description Science Plan (pdf, 1M) Operations Plan (pdf, 321K) Maps Contact Info Related Links Daily Report Report Archives Press Media Coverage TWP-ICE Fact Sheet (pdf, 211K) Press Releases TWP-ICE Images ARM flickr site <=""

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10302015 12:46:21 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Rhode Island Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)"...

  20. Impact of Solvent on Photocatalytic Mechanisms: Reactions of Photodesorption Products with Ice Overlayers on the TiO2(110) Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2011-04-07

    The effects of water and methanol ice overlayers on the photodecomposition of acetone on rutile TiO2(110) were evaluated in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In the absence of ice overlayers, acetone photodecomposed on TiO2(110) at 95 K by ejection of a methyl radical into the gas phase and formation of acetate on the surface. With ice overlayers, the methyl radicals are trapped at the interface between TiO2(110) and the ice. When water ice was present, these trapped methyl radicals reacted either with each other to form ethane or with other molecules in the ice (e.g., water or displaced acetone) to form methane (CH4), ethane (CH3CH3) and other products (e.g., methanol), with all of these products trapped in the ice. The new products were free to revisit the surface or depart during desorption of the ice. When methanol ice was present, methane formation came about only from reaction of trapped methyl radicals with the methanol ice. Methane and ethane slowly leaked through methanol ice overlayers into vacuum at 95 K, but not through water ice overlayers. Different degrees of site competition between water and acetone, and between methanol and acetone led to different hydrogen abstraction pathways in the two ices. These results provide new insights into product formation routes and solution-phase radical formation mechanisms that are important in heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  1. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Hampshire Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic ...

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage ... 6:59:57 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage ...

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural ... 1:08:57 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural ...

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumed" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","District of Columbia Heat Content ...

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click ... Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","32016" ,"Release ...

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas Injections into Underground ... 7:00:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Natural Gas Injections into Underground ...

  8. Winter Preparedness ? Slips on Ice

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    can further increase traction; however, they must be removed when ice is no longer present, because their use on floors, smooth concrete, or gravel, presents a different...

  9. Climate Impacts of Ice Nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Barahona, Donifan; Lohmann, U.; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2012-10-27

    Several different ice nucleation parameterizations in two different General Circulation Models are used to understand the effects of ice nucleation on the mean climate state, and the climate effect of aerosol perturbations to ice clouds. The simulations have different ice microphysical states that are consistent with the spread of observations. These different states occur from different parameterizations of the ice cloud nucleation processes, and feature different balances of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. At reasonable efficiencies, consistent with laboratory measurements and constrained by the global radiative balance, black carbon has a small (-0.06 Wm?2) and not statistically significant climate effect. Indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds occur mostly due to increases in homogeneous nucleation fraction as a consequence of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. The resulting ice indirect effects do not seem strongly dependent on the ice micro-physical balance, but are slightly larger for those states with less homogeneous nucleation in the base state. The total ice AIE is estimated at 0.260.09 Wm?2 (1? uncertainty). This represents an offset of 20-30% of the simulated total Aerosol Indirect Effect for ice and liquid clouds.

  10. No Confinement Needed: Observation of a Metastable Hydrophobic Wetting Two-Layer Ice on Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmel, Gregory A.; Matthiesen, Jesper; Baer, Marcel; Mundy, Christopher J.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Smith, R. Scott; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.

    2009-09-09

    The structure of water at interfaces is crucial for processes ranging from photocatalysis to protein folding. Here, we investigate the structure and lattice dynamics of two-layer crystalline ice films grown on a hydrophobic substrate - graphene on Pt(111) - with low energy electron diffraction, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, rare-gas adsorption/desorption, and ab-initio molecular dynamics. Unlike hexagonal ice, which consists of stacks of puckered hexagonal "bilayers", this new ice polymorph consists of two flat hexagonal sheets of water molecules in which the hexagons in each sheet are stacked directly on top of each other. Such two-layer ices have been predicted for water confined between hydrophobic slits, but not previously observed. Our results show that the two-layer ice forms even at zero pressure at a single hydrophobic interface by maximizing the number of hydrogen bonds at the expense of adopting a non-tetrahedral geometry with weakened bonds.

  11. ARM - Lesson Plans: When Land Ice Melts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Arctic and Antarctica are covered with large, heavy sheets of ice. Other islands like New Zealand have ice masses in the form of glaciers on them. When land-based ice melts, ...

  12. Evaluation of Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Simulations Using TWP-ICE Observations: Precipitation and Cloud Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam C.; Fridlind, Ann; Zipser, Ed; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; McFarlane, Sally A.; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Shipway, Ben

    2011-06-24

    The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) provided high quality model forcing and observational datasets through which detailed model and observational intercomparisons could be performed. In this first of a two part study, precipitation and cloud structures within nine cloud-resolving model simulations are compared with scanning radar reflectivity and satellite infrared brightness temperature observations during an active monsoon period from 19 to 25 January 2006. Most simulations slightly overestimate volumetric convective rainfall. Overestimation of simulated convective area by 50% or more in several simulations is somewhat offset by underestimation of mean convective rain rates. Stratiform volumetric rainfall is underestimated by 13% to 53% despite overestimation of stratiform area by up to 65% because stratiform rain rates in every simulation are much lower than observed. Although simulations match the peaked convective radar reflectivity distribution at low levels, they do not reproduce the peaked distributions observed above the melting level. Simulated radar reflectivity aloft in convective regions is too high in most simulations. 29 In stratiform regions, there is a large spread in model results with none resembling 30 observed distributions. Above the melting level, observed radar reflectivity decreases 31 more gradually with height than simulated radar reflectivity. A few simulations produce 32 unrealistically uniform and cold 10.8-?m infrared brightness temperatures, but several 33 simulations produce distributions close to observed. Assumed ice particle size 34 distributions appear to play a larger role than ice water contents in producing incorrect 35 simulated radar reflectivity distributions aloft despite substantial differences in mean 36 graupel and snow water contents across models. 37

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"5302016 7:40:48 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPVA1","M...

  14. Workbook Contents

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    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"5302016 7:40:48 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS2","MCRFPP12","MCRFPFL2","MCRFPNY2","MCRFPPA2","MCRFPVA2","M...

  15. Workbook Contents

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    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"5302016 7:40:47 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPVA1","M...

  16. Workbook Contents

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil ... 7:01:28 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil ...

  17. Workbook Contents

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas ... 7:01:18 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas ...

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Brazil (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NBRDMCF"...

  19. Workbook Contents

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas ... 1:07:58 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas ...

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Withdrawals from Oil Wells ... 1:08:20 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Natural Gas Withdrawals from Oil Wells ...

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power ... 1:03:28 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power ...

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial ... 1:00:55 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial ...

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users Prices ... 8:28:36 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users Prices " ...

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,"Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"4292016 6:42:48 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. LNG Imports from Indonesia ...

  5. Workbook Contents

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users " ...

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Spain (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NSPDMCF"...

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Back to Contents","Data 1: East Coast (PADD 1) Net Receipts of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail" "Sourcekey","MTTNRP11","MCRNRP11","MPEMNP11...

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Japan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0EVENUS-NJADMCF"...

  9. Workbook Contents

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    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Japan (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0EVENUS-NJAMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S....

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Japan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NJADMCF"...

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Chile (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NCIDMCF"...

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil (Light-Sweet, Cushing, Oklahoma)",4,"Daily","726... to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil (Light-Sweet, Cushing, Oklahoma)" "Sourcekey","RCLC1","...

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial ... 6:57:30 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial ...

  14. Light propagation in the South Pole ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dawn; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is located in the ice near the geographic South Pole. Particle showers from neutrino interactions in the ice produce light which is detected by IceCube modules, and the amount and pattern of deposited light are used to reconstruct the properties of the incident neutrino. Since light is scattered and absorbed by ice between the neutrino interaction vertex and the sensor, IceCube event reconstruction depends on understanding the propagation of light through the ice. This paper presents the current status of modeling light propagation in South Pole ice, including the recent observation of an azimuthal anisotropy in the scattering.

  15. Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry Technology available for licensing: Proprietary method and equipment for making an ice slurry coolant to induce...

  16. Resonant vibrational energy transfer in ice Ih

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, L.; Li, F.; Skinner, J. L.

    2014-06-28

    Fascinating anisotropy decay experiments have recently been performed on H{sub 2}O ice Ih by Timmer and Bakker [R. L. A. Timmer, and H. J. Bakker, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 4148 (2010)]. The very fast decay (on the order of 100 fs) is indicative of resonant energy transfer between OH stretches on different molecules. Isotope dilution experiments with deuterium show a dramatic dependence on the hydrogen mole fraction, which confirms the energy transfer picture. Timmer and Bakker have interpreted the experiments with a Frster incoherent hopping model, finding that energy transfer within the first solvation shell dominates the relaxation process. We have developed a microscopic theory of vibrational spectroscopy of water and ice, and herein we use this theory to calculate the anisotropy decay in ice as a function of hydrogen mole fraction. We obtain very good agreement with experiment. Interpretation of our results shows that four nearest-neighbor acceptors dominate the energy transfer, and that while the incoherent hopping picture is qualitatively correct, vibrational energy transport is partially coherent on the relevant timescale.

  17. Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as vehicles using gasoline-powered internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arizona Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","District of Columbia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  14. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  16. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Jersey Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  14. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  16. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Vermont Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wisconsin Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  4. The New ICE Age | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The New ICE Age The New ICE Age Provides overview of internal combustion engine powertrain developments for the heavy truck market deer12_gruden.pdf (1.84 MB) More Documents & Publications The New ICE Age The New ICE Age Roadmapping Engine Technology for Post-2020 Heavy Duty Vehicles

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Contents","Data 1: U.S., PAD Districts, and States" "Sourcekey","8NA8O0NUSC","8NA8O0R10C","8NA8O0SDEC","8NA8O0SFLC","8NA8O0SGAC","8NA8O0SMDC","8NA8O0SN...

  6. Development of an ultrasonic pulse-echo (UPE) technique for aircraft icing studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang; Hu, Hui; Chen, Wen-Li; Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-02-18

    Aircraft operating in some cold weather conditions face the risk of icing. Icing poses a threat to flight safety and its management is expensive. Removing light frost on a clear day from a medium-size business jet can cost $300, heavy wet snow removal can cost $3,000 and removal of accumulated frozen/freezing rain can cost close to $10,000. Understanding conditions that lead to severe icing events is important and challenging. When an aircraft or rotorcraft flies in a cold climate, some of the super cooled droplets impinging on exposed aircraft surfaces may flow along the surface prior to freezing and give various forms and shapes of ice. The runback behavior of a water film on an aircraft affects the morphology of ice accretion and the rate of formation. In this study, we report the recent progress to develop an Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo (UPE) technique to provide real-time thickness distribution measurements of surface water flows driven by boundary layer airflows for aircraft icing studies. A series of initial experimental investigations are conducted in an ice wind tunnel employing an array of ultrasonic transducers placed underneath the surface of a flat plate. The water runback behavior on the plate is evaluated by measuring the thickness profile variation of the water film along the surface by using the UPE technique under various wind speed and flow rate conditions.

  7. Changes in the firn structure of the western Greenland Ice Sheet caused by recent warming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    de la Peña, S.; Howat, I. M.; Nienow, P. W.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Price, S. F.; Mair, D.; Noël, B.; Sole, A. J.

    2015-06-11

    Atmospheric warming over the Greenland Ice Sheet during the last 2 decades has increased the amount of surface meltwater production, resulting in the migration of melt and percolation regimes to higher altitudes and an increase in the amount of ice content from refrozen meltwater found in the firn above the superimposed ice zone. Here we present field and airborne radar observations of buried ice layers within the near-surface (0–20 m) firn in western Greenland, obtained from campaigns between 1998 and 2014. We find a sharp increase in firn-ice content in the form of thick widespread layers in the percolation zone,more » which decreases the capacity of the firn to store meltwater. The estimated total annual ice content retained in the near-surface firn in areas with positive surface mass balance west of the ice divide in Greenland reached a maximum of 74 ± 25 Gt in 2012, compared to the 1958–1999 average of 13 ± 2 Gt, while the percolation zone area more than doubled between 2003 and 2012. Increased melt and column densification resulted in surface lowering averaging –0.80 ± 0.39 m yr⁻¹ between 1800 and 2800 m in the accumulation zone of western Greenland. Since 2007, modeled annual melt and refreezing rates in the percolation zone at elevations below 2100 m surpass the annual snowfall from the previous year, implying that mass gain in the region is retained after melt in the form of refrozen meltwater. If current melt trends over high elevation regions continue, subsequent changes in firn structure will have implications for the hydrology of the ice sheet and related abrupt seasonal densification could become increasingly significant for altimetry-derived ice sheet mass balance estimates.« less

  8. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E.

    1996-04-01

    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  9. Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) Summary The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate change and projecting the impacts of high-latitude change on regions throughout the globe. COSIM researchers develop, test and apply ocean and ice models in support of DOE Climate Change Research and the broader international climate science community. Additional research includes developing a set of next-generation ocean and ice

  10. Experimental investigation of ice slurry flow pressure drop in horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Pressure drop behaviour of ice slurry based on ethanol-water mixture in circular horizontal tubes has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethyl alcohol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The pressure drop tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 30% depending on test conditions. Results from flow tests reveal much higher pressure drop for higher ice concentrations and higher velocities in comparison to the single phase flow. However for ice concentrations of 15% and higher, certain velocity exists at which ice slurry pressure drop is same or even lower than for single phase flow. It seems that higher ice concentration delay flow pattern transition moment (from laminar to turbulent) toward higher velocities. In addition experimental results for pressure drop were compared to the analytical results, based on Poiseulle and Buckingham-Reiner models for laminar flow, Blasius, Darby and Melson, Dodge and Metzner, Steffe and Tomita for turbulent region and general correlation of Kitanovski which is valid for both flow regimes. For laminar flow and low buoyancy numbers Buckingham-Reiner method gives good agreement with experimental results while for turbulent flow best fit is provided with Dodge-Metzner and Tomita methods. Furthermore, for transport purposes it has been shown that ice mass fraction of 20% offers best ratio of ice slurry transport capability and required pumping power. (author)

  11. Highway De-icing Snowmelt Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    De-icing Snowmelt Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Highway De-icing Snowmelt Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Highway De-icing...

  12. Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Potassium chloride-bearing ice VII and ice planet dynamics Authors: Frank, Mark R. ; Scott, Henry P. ; Aarestad, Elizabeth ; Prakapenka, Vitali B. 1 ; UC) 2 ; NIU) 2 + ...

  13. Microsoft Word - IceMountainFinal.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Mountain, in Hampshire County, West Virginia, is marked by a highway historical marker ... Ice Mountain is still open to visitors for guided hikes. Just contact Steve and Terry Lynn ...

  14. Ice in Arctic Mixed-phase Stratocumulus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Nuclei Recycling in the Maintenance of Cloud Ice in Arctic Mixed-phase Stratocumulus For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.gov...

  15. Understanding Ice Supersaturation, Particle Growth, and Number Concentration in Cirrus Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O.; Yang, P.

    2008-12-10

    Many factors control the ice supersaturation and microphysical properties in cirrus clouds. We explore the effects of dynamic forcing, ice nucleation mechanisms, and ice crystal growth rate on the evolution and distribution of water vapor and cloud properties in cirrus clouds using a detailed microphysical model and remote sensing measurements obtained at the Department of Energys Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility located near Lamont, OK. To help understand dynamic scales important in cirrus formation, we force the model using both large-scale forcing derived using ARM variational analysis, and mean mesoscale velocity derived from radar Doppler velocity measurements. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation processes are explored, where we have implemented a rigorous classical theory heterogeneous nucleation scheme to compare with empirical representations. We evaluate model simulations by examining both bulk cloud properties and distributions of measured radar reflectivity, lidar extinction, and water vapor profiles, as well as retrieved cloud microphysical properties. This approach allows for independent verification of both the large and small particle modes of the particle size distribution. Our results suggest that mesoscale variability is the primary mechanism needed to reproduce observed quantities, while nucleation mechanism is secondary. Slow ice crystal growth tends to overestimate the number of small ice crystals, but does not seem to influence bulk properties such as ice water path and cloud thickness. The most realistic simulations as compared with observations are forced using mesoscale waves, include fast ice crystal growth, and initiate ice by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Ice crystal number concentrations on the order of 10-100 L-1 produce results consistent with both lidar and radar observations during a cirrus event observed on 7 December 1999, which has an optical depth range typical of

  16. Paleotopography of glacial-age ice sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, R.L.

    1995-01-27

    This is technical comment and response to the subject of paleotophography of glacial age ice sheets. The model presented by Peltier reconstructing the paleotopography of glacial age ice sheets has implications for atmospheric general circulation models of ice age climate. In addition, the model suggests that the glacial-age Antarctic Ice Sheet was significantly larger than today`s. The commentor, Edwards, suggests there is a discrepancy between data from Papua New Guinea and the model results.

  17. Modeling the impediment of methane ebullition bubbles by seasonal lake ice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greene, S.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Archer, D.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K.

    2014-07-15

    Microbial methane (CH4) ebullition (bubbling) from anoxic lake sediments comprises a globally significant flux to the atmosphere, but ebullition bubbles in temperate and polar lakes can be trapped by winter ice cover and later released during spring thaw. This "ice-bubble storage" (IBS) constitutes a novel mode of CH4 emission. Before bubbles are encapsulated by downward-growing ice, some of their CH4 dissolves into the lake water, where it may be subject to oxidation. We present field characterization and a model of the annual CH4 cycle in Goldstream Lake, a thermokarst (thaw) lake in interior Alaska. We find that summertime ebullition dominatesmore » annual CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Eighty percent of CH4 in bubbles trapped by ice dissolves into the lake water column in winter, and about half of that is oxidized. The ice growth rate and the magnitude of the CH4 ebullition flux are important controlling factors of bubble dissolution. Seven percent of annual ebullition CH4 is trapped as IBS and later emitted as ice melts. In a future warmer climate, there will likely be less seasonal ice cover, less IBS, less CH4 dissolution from trapped bubbles, and greater CH4 emissions from northern lakes.« less

  18. Modeling the impediment of methane ebullition bubbles by seasonal lake ice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greene, S.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Archer, D.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K.

    2014-12-08

    Microbial methane (CH4) ebullition (bubbling) from anoxic lake sediments comprises a globally significant flux to the atmosphere, but ebullition bubbles in temperate and polar lakes can be trapped by winter ice cover and later released during spring thaw. This "ice-bubble storage" (IBS) constitutes a novel mode of CH4 emission. Before bubbles are encapsulated by downward-growing ice, some of their CH4 dissolves into the lake water, where it may be subject to oxidation. We present field characterization and a model of the annual CH4 cycle in Goldstream Lake, a thermokarst (thaw) lake in interior Alaska. We find that summertime ebullition dominatesmore » annual CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Eighty percent of CH4 in bubbles trapped by ice dissolves into the lake water column in winter, and about half of that is oxidized. The ice growth rate and the magnitude of the CH4 ebullition flux are important controlling factors of bubble dissolution. Seven percent of annual ebullition CH4 is trapped as IBS and later emitted as ice melts. In a future warmer climate, there will likely be less seasonal ice cover, less IBS, less CH4 dissolution from trapped bubbles, and greater CH4 emissions from northern lakes.« less

  19. Laboratory Investigation of Contact Freezing and the Aerosol to Ice Crystal Transformation Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, Raymond A.

    2014-10-28

    This project has been focused on the following objectives: 1. Investigations of the physical processes governing immersion versus contact nucleation, specifically surface-induced crystallization; 2. Development of a quadrupole particle trap with full thermodynamic control over the temperature range 0 to –40 °C and precisely controlled water vapor saturation ratios for continuous, single-particle measurement of the aerosol to ice crystal transformation process for realistic ice nuclei; 3. Understanding the role of ice nucleation in determining the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds, within a framework that allows bridging between laboratory and field measurements.

  20. Medical ice slurry production device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  1. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water ... in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas ...

  2. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 2: Rain Microphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben; Williams, Christopher R.

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observations and retrievals from a scanning polarimetric radar, co-located UHF and VHF vertical profilers, and a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in an attempt to explain published results showing a low bias in simulated stratiform rainfall. Despite different forcing methodologies, similar precipitation microphysics errors appear in CRMs and LAMs with differences that depend on the details of the bulk microphysics scheme used. One-moment schemes produce too many small raindrops, which biases Doppler velocities low, but produces rain water contents (RWCs) that are similar to observed. Two-moment rain schemes with a gamma shape parameter (?) of 0 produce excessive size sorting, which leads to larger Doppler velocities than those produced in one-moment schemes, but lower RWCs than observed. Two moment schemes also produce a convective median volume diameter distribution that is too broad relative to observations and thus, may have issues balancing raindrop formation, collision coalescence, and raindrop breakup. Assuming a ? of 2.5 rather than 0 for the raindrop size distribution improves one-moment scheme biases, and allowing ? to have values greater than 0 may improve two-moment schemes. Under-predicted stratiform rain rates are associated with under-predicted ice water contents at the melting level rather than excessive rain evaporation, in turn likely associated with convective detrainment that is too high in the troposphere and mesoscale circulations that are too weak. In addition to stronger convective updrafts than observed, limited domain size prevents a large, well-developed stratiform region from developing in CRMs, while a dry bias in ECMWF analyses does the same to the LAMs.

  3. In-Situ Microphysics from the MPACE IOP (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Our best estimates of the bulk microphysical properties such as ice water content (IWC), liquid water content (LWC), effective radius of ice crystals defined following Fu (1996) ...

  4. The effect of planets beyond the ice line on the accretion of volatiles by habitable-zone rocky planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintana, Elisa V. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Lissauer, Jack J., E-mail: elisa.quintana@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division 245-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Models of planet formation have shown that giant planets have a large impact on the number, masses, and orbits of terrestrial planets that form. In addition, they play an important role in delivering volatiles from material that formed exterior to the snow line (the region in the disk beyond which water ice can condense) to the inner region of the disk where terrestrial planets can maintain liquid water on their surfaces. We present simulations of the late stages of terrestrial planet formation from a disk of protoplanets around a solar-type star and we include a massive planet (from 1 M {sub ?} to 1 M {sub J}) in Jupiter's orbit at ?5.2 AU in all but one set of simulations. Two initial disk models are examined with the same mass distribution and total initial water content, but with different distributions of water content. We compare the accretion rates and final water mass fraction of the planets that form. Remarkably, all of the planets that formed in our simulations without giant planets were water-rich, showing that giant planet companions are not required to deliver volatiles to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone. In contrast, an outer planet at least several times the mass of Earth may be needed to clear distant regions of debris truncating the epoch of frequent large impacts. Observations of exoplanets from radial velocity surveys suggest that outer Jupiter-like planets may be scarce, therefore, the results presented here suggest that there may be more habitable planets residing in our galaxy than previously thought.

  5. Microwave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, Greenland

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pettersen, Claire; Bennartz, Ralf; Kulie, Mark S.; Merrelli, Aronne J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.

    2016-04-15

    Multi-instrument, ground-based measurements provide unique and comprehensive data sets of the atmosphere for a specific location over long periods of time and resulting data compliment past and existing global satellite observations. This paper explores the effect of ice hydrometeors on ground-based, high-frequency passive microwave measurements and attempts to isolate an ice signature for summer seasons at Summit, Greenland, from 2010 to 2013. Data from a combination of passive microwave, cloud radar, radiosonde, and ceilometer were examined to isolate the ice signature at microwave wavelengths. By limiting the study to a cloud liquid water path of 40 gm–2 or less, themore » cloud radar can identify cases where the precipitation was dominated by ice. These cases were examined using liquid water and gas microwave absorption models, and brightness temperatures were calculated for the high-frequency microwave channels: 90, 150, and 225 GHz. By comparing the measured brightness temperatures from the microwave radiometers and the calculated brightness temperature using only gas and liquid contributions, any residual brightness temperature difference is due to emission and scattering of microwave radiation from the ice hydrometeors in the column. The ice signature in the 90, 150, and 225 GHz channels for the Summit Station summer months was isolated. As a result, this measured ice signature was then compared to an equivalent brightness temperature difference calculated with a radiative transfer model including microwave single-scattering properties for several ice habits. Initial model results compare well against the 4 years of summer season isolated ice signature in the high-frequency microwave channels.« less

  6. Evaluating and Constraining Ice Cloud Parameterizations in CAM5 using Aircraft Measurements from the SPARTICUS Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Minghuai; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mitchell, David; Mishra, Subhashree; Mace, Gerald G.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses aircraft measurements of relative humidity and ice crystal size distribution collected in synoptic cirrus during the SPARTICUS (Small PARTicles In CirrUS) field campaign to evaluate and constrain ice cloud parameterizations in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The probability density function (PDF) of ice crystal number concentration (Ni) derived from high frequency (1 Hz) measurements features a strong dependence on ambient temperature. As temperature decreases from -35C to -62C, the peak in the PDF shifts from 10-20 L-1 to 200-1000 L-1, while the ice crystal number concentration shows a factor of 6-7 increase. Model simulations are performed with two different insitu ice nucleation schemes. One of the schemes can reproduce a clear increase of Ni with decreasing temperature, by using either an observation based ice nuclei spectrum or a classical theory based spectrum with a relatively low (5%-10%) maximum freezing ratio for dust aerosols. The simulation with the other scheme, which assumes a high maximum freezing ratio (100%), shows much weaker temperature dependence of Ni. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to water vapor deposition and the auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that a value between 0.05 and 0.1 for the water vapor deposition coefficient and 250 um for the critical ice crystal size can produce good agreements between model simulation and the SPARTICUS measurements in terms of ice crystal number concentration and effective radius. The climate impact of perturbing these parameters is also discussed.

  7. Microsoft Word - contents

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GJO-2001-272-TAR MAC-GWDUR 1.1 UMTRA Ground Water Project Site Observational Work Plan for the Durango, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site January 2002 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office Grand Junction, Colorado Project Number UGW 511-0006-10-000 Document Number U0143200 Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-96GJ87335 This page intentionally left blank Document Number U0143200 Contents DOE/Grand Junction Office Site Observational Work Plan -Durango, Colorado January

  8. From fire to ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adcock, P.W.

    1995-06-01

    Absorption chillers are heat-operate refrigeration without harmful environmental emissions (CFCs, HCFCS, and HFCS). The machine uses either steam or a gas-fired burner as the energy source and utilizes endothermic evaporation to provide refrigeration to an external process fluid, usually chilled water. In the United States, absorption chillers are used in regions where the cost of electricity is high relative to natural gas. Absorption chillers are also used in applications where steam is readily available or in areas where seasonal load peaks cause utilities to subsidize gas cooling. This paper will describe the history of absorption, the basic absorption refrigeration cycle and some advanced high efficiency cycles. Practical applications of absorption refrigeration to commercial end uses will also be discussed.

  9. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  10. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.