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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Ice Crystals Produced by Expansion: Experiments and Application to Aircraft-produced Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of ice crystals as a result of the expansion and cooling of moist air was investigated by laboratory experiment. In particular, the warmest expanded air temperature that produces crystals was sought as a function of the initial ...

T. C. Foster; J. Hallett

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Late Pleistocene Ice Age Scenarios Based on Observational Evidence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice age scenarios for the last glacial-interglacial cycle, based on observations of Boyle and Keigwin concerning the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation and of Barnola et al. concerning atmospheric C02 variations derived from the Vostok ice ...

G. DeBlonde; W. R. Peltier

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Aircraft-produced Ice Particles (APIPs) in Supercooled Clouds and the Probable Mechanism for their Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of studies of aircraft-produced ice particles (APIPs) in supercooled fog over Mono Lake, California. The King Air 200T cloud physics aircraft of the University of Wyoming and three other aircraft (a Piper Aztec, a ...

William L. Woodley; Thomas J. Henderson; Bernard Vonnegut; Glenn Gordon; Robert Breidenthal; Shirley M. Holle

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Aircraft-Produced Ice Particles (APIPs): Additional Results and Further Insights  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents new results from studies of aircraft-produced ice particles (APIPs) in supercooled fog and clouds. Nine aircraft, including a Beech King Air 200T cloud physics aircraft, a Piper Aztec, a Cessna 421-C, two North American T-28s, ...

William L. Woodley; Glenn Gordon; Thomas J. Henderson; Bernard Vonnegut; Daniel Rosenfeld; Andrew Detwiler

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1 1 Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1C 3X5 ABSTRACT Ice collision forces can be determined by energy considerations. A variety of interaction geometry cases are considered. The indentation energy functions for eight different

Daley, Claude

6

ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1 1 Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1C 3X5 ABSTRACT Ice collision forces can be determined by energy considerations. A variety of interaction geometry cases are considered. The indentation energy functions for eight different

Daley, Claude

7

Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice Ice Nature Bulletin No. 661-A january 7, 1978 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation ICE There was a time when ice, cut on frozen ponds and lakes, was transported by fast clipper ships from New England to New Orleans where it was worth its weight in gold. Nowadays this cold brittle colorless substance is commonplace everywhere. Few people, however, know that ice is one of the strangest of all solids; and that, because of its unique properties, life on earth is what it is. Those properties are due to the distinctive structure of a molecule of water, formed of three elemental particles or atoms -- two of hydrogen and one of oxygen -- expressed by the familiar symbol, H2O. The three atoms are held together by two chemical bonds expressed by another symbol, H-O-H. Briefly, the unique properties of water, water vapor, and ice arise from that bonding and the arrangement of electron pairs around the oxygen atom.

8

Bio-based Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids  

This invention relates in general to compositions to remove ice, snow and/or frost ("frozen precipitation") from surfaces and/or to prevent ice from forming on surfaces, and in particular to deicing/anti-icing fluids.

9

Modeling Thermodynamic Ice–Ocean Interactions at the Base of an Ice Shelf  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Models of ocean circulation beneath ice shelves are driven primarily by the heat and freshwater fluxes that are associated with phase changes at the ice–ocean boundary. Their behavior is therefore closely linked to the mathematical description of ...

David M. Holland; Adrian Jenkins

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

The phase diagram of ice: a quasi-harmonic study based on a flexible water model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phase diagram of ice is studied by a quasi-harmonic approximation. The free energy of all experimentally known ice phases has been calculated with the flexible q-TIP4P/F model of water. The only exception is the high pressure ice X, in which the presence of symmetric O-H-O bonds prevents its modeling with this empirical interatomic potential. The simplicity of our approach allows us to study ice phases at state points of the T-P plane that have been omitted in previous simulations using free energy methods based on thermodynamic integration. The effect in the phase diagram of averaging the proton disorder that appears in several ice phases has been studied. It is found particularly relevant for ice III, at least for cell sizes typically used in phase coexistence simulations. New insight into the capability of the employed water model to describe the coexistence of ice phases is presented. We find that the H-ordered ices IX and XIV, as well as the H-disordered ice XII, are particularly stable for this wate...

Ramirez, R; Herrero, C P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Characterization of Ice Crystals in Clouds by Simple Mathematical Expressions Based on Successive Modification of Simple Shapes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The technique based on the concept of successive modification of simple shapes using elementary mathematical functions to represent the shape and size of ice crystals in clouds is discussed. Two hypothetical samples of ice crystals, a single-...

Pao K. Wang

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Modeling Study of Ice Formation in Warm-Based Precipitating Shallow Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of large concentrations of ice particles in the dissipating stage of warm-based precipitating shallow cumulus clouds point to the limitations of scientists’ understanding of the physics of such clouds and the possible role of cloud ...

Jiming Sun; Parisa A. Ariya; Henry G. Leighton; Man Kong Yau

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Aircraft-produced Ice Particles in a Highly Supercooled Altocumulus Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 25 October during the 1986 Project FIRE Intensive Field Observations experiment, a NCAR King Air mission conducted over a ground-based polarization lidar site at Wausau, Wisconsin, sampled a highly supercooled (?28° to ?31°C) altocumulus ...

Kenneth Sassen

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

A New Apparatus for Monitoring Sea Ice Thickness Based on the Magnetostrictive-Delay-Line Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-precision ice thickness observations are required to gain a better understanding of ocean–ice–atmosphere interactions and to validate numerical sea ice models. A new apparatus for monitoring sea ice and snow thickness has been developed, ...

Ruibo Lei; Zhijun Li; Yanfeng Cheng; Xin Wang; Yao Chen

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Ice Initiation by Collision-Freezing in Warm-Based Cumuli  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanical shock of collision between supercooled water drops is explored as a mechanism for the origin of ice in the warm-based cumuli of the central United States. The results of laboratory experiments, using groups of 3-mm diameter ...

Roobert R. Czys

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Simulations of Snow, Ice, and Near-Surface Atmospheric Processes on Ice Station Weddell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 4-month drift of Ice Station Weddell (ISW) produced over 2000 h of nearly continuous measurements in the atmospheric surface layer and in the snow and sea ice in the western Weddell Sea. This paper reports simulations, based on these data, of ...

Edgar L. Andreas; Rachel E. Jordan; Aleksandr P. Makshtas

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Studying Altocumulus with Ice Virga Using Ground-Based Active and Passive Remote Sensors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Studying Altocumulus with Ice Virga Using Ground-Based Studying Altocumulus with Ice Virga Using Ground-Based Active and Passive Remote Sensors Z. Wang Goddard Earth Science and Technology Center University of Maryland, Baltimore County College Park, Maryland Z. Wang, D. N. Whiteman, and B. B. Demoz Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Branch National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland K. Sassen Geophysical Institute University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Introduction Clouds not only play crucial roles in regulating the Earth-atmosphere system energy budget, but also the atmospheric hydrological cycle. The impact of a cloud system strongly depends on the cloud microphysical properties and its vertical extent (Stephens et al. 1990). Although clouds can contain only

18

Numerical Comparison of Two Ice Crystal Formation Mechanisms on Snowfall Enhancement from Ground-Based Aerosol Generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two mechanisms of ice crystal formation, contact freezing and very rapid condensation freezing, were applied to numerical simulations of ground-based seeding with the Guide Model, an orographic cloud model, to study whether different mechanisms ...

Zhidong Li; R. L. Pitter

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

The Post-Shock Chemical Lifetimes of Outflow Tracers and a Possible New Mechanism to Produce Water Ice Mantles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used a coupled time-dependent chemical and dynamical model to investigate the lifetime of the chemical legacy left in the wake of C-type shocks. We concentrate this study on the chemistry of H2O and O2, two molecules which are predicted to have abundances that are significantly affected in shock-heated gas. Two models are presented: (1) a three-stage model of pre-shock, shocked, and post-shock gas; and (2) a Monte-Carlo cloud simulation where we explore the effects of stochastic shock activity on molecular gas over a cloud lifetime. In agreement with previous studies, we find that shock velocities in excess of 10 km s^-1 are required to convert all of the oxygen not locked in CO into H2O before the gas has an opportunity to cool. For pure gas-phase models the lifetime of the high water abundances, or ``H2O legacy'', in the post-shock gas is 4 - 7 x 10^5 years. Through the Monte Carlo cloud simulation we demonstrate that the time-average abundance of H2O is a sensitive function of the frequency of shocks. Thus we predict that the abundance of H2O and other known outflow tracers can be used to trace the history of shock activity in molecular gas. For gas-grain models we find that the abundance of water-ice on grain surfaces can be quite large and is comparable to that observed in molecular clouds. This offers a possible alternative method to create water mantles without resorting to grain surface chemistry: gas heating and chemical modification due to a C-type shock and subsequent depletion of the gas-phase species onto grain mantles.

Edwin A. Bergin; Gary J. Melnick; David A. Neufeld

1998-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

20

Observation and Parameterization of Ablation at the Base of Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parameterizations of turbulent transfer through the oceanic boundary layer beneath an ice shelf are tested using direct measurements of basal ablation. Observations were made in the southwestern part of Ronne Ice Shelf, about 500 km from open ...

Adrian Jenkins; Keith W. Nicholls; Hugh F. J. Corr

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

ICE Raids: Compounding Production, Contradiction, and Capitalism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is just a cheap way of boosting ICE ‘criminal alien’ arrestRegardless of whether or not ICE is motivated by maintainingWorkers in America: Factories and ICE Raids Produce Citizens

Reas, Elizabeth I

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Image Content Engine (ICE)  

SciTech Connect

The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

Brase, J M

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

23

An Analysis of Sierra Nevada Winter Orographic Storms: Ground-based Ice-Crystal Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Systematic observations of the sizes, shapes, and degrees of riming of ice particles falling at a downwind station of a major mountain barrier are presented. The observational station was equipped to measure ice-particle masses from 1 µg to a few ...

Belay B. Demoz; Renyi Zhang; Richard L. Pitter

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Sun, Xiao-Guang (Tempe, AZ)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

Sea Ice Thickness Measurements from a Community-Based Observing Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accelerating retreat of Arctic sea ice in recent years highlights the need for improved monitoring efforts to provide information relevant to decision makers and stakeholders. Satellite data and global circulation models often lack details ...

A. Mahoney; S. Gearheard; T. Oshima; T. Qillaq

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Sea Ice Simulations Based on Fields Generated by the GLAS GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A four-month simulation of the thermodynamic portion of the Parkinson-Washington sea ice model was conducted using atmospheric boundary conditions that were obtained from a pre-computed seasonal simulation of the Goddard Laboratory for ...

Claire L. Parkinson; Gerald F. Herman

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

A Physically Based, Nondimensional Parameter for Discriminating between Locations of Freezing Rain and Ice Pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nondimensional parameter is presented that can he used to help distinguish between conditions favorable for the occurrence of freezing rain and ice pellets. The parameter was derived from the well-established condition that most incidents of ...

Robert R. Czys; Robert W. Scott; K. C. Tang; Ronald W. Przybylinski; Michael E. Sabones

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Global warming and ice ages: I. prospects for physics based modulation of global change  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that large-scale climate changes, mostly due to atmospheric injection of greenhouse gases connected with fossil-fired energy production, should be forestalled by internationally-agreed reductions in, e.g., electricity generation. The potential economic impacts of such limitations are obviously large: greater than or equal to $10{sup 11}/year. We propose that for far smaller - less than 1% - the mean thermal effects of greenhouse gases may be obviated in any of several distinct ways, some of them novel. These suggestions are all based on scatterers that prevent a small fraction of solar radiation from reaching all or part of the Earth. We propose research directed to quite near-term realization of one or more of these inexpensive approaches to cancel the effects of the greenhouse gas injection. While the magnitude of the climatic impact of greenhouse gases is currently uncertain, the prospect of severe failure of the climate, for instance at the onset of the next Ice Age, is undeniable. The proposals in this paper may lead to quite practical methods to reduce or eliminate all climate failures.

Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Hyde, R.

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

A Classical-Theory-Based Parameterization of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Mineral Dust, Soot, and Biological Particles in a Global Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ice nucleation parameterization based on classical nucleation theory, with aerosol-specific parameters derived from experiments, has been implemented into a global climate model—the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)-Oslo. The parameterization ...

Corinna Hoose; Jón Egill Kristjánsson; Jen-Ping Chen; Anupam Hazra

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

ISBN 0-7731-0409-7Support Based Measures Applied to Ice Hockey Scoring Summaries: Extended Version  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Subject Areas: AI Applications, AI in Data Mining, AI in Multimedia We present the Hockey Line Extraction (HLE) Algorithm, which examines ice hockey scoring summaries in an attempt to determine a team’s lines. The players on a hockey team are divided into units called “lines ” that appear together on the ice. While many statistics are available on the Internet for hockey players and teams in the National Hockey League (NHL), accurately identifying current lines for a team is difficult. The HLE algorithm uses single link clustering, support based measures and positional information to identify lines of players. The HLE Algorithm and appropriate visualization techniques have been implemented in the Hockey Lines software that enables users to view relationships between players on a team. 1.

Bradley P. Kram; James A. Hall; Howard J. Hamilton; Bradley P. Kram; James A. Hall; Howard J. Hamilton; Ss A; Bradley P. Kram; James A. Hall; Howard J. Hamilton

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Relationships between tropical cyclone intensity and satellite based indicators of inner core convection: 85 GHz ice scattering signature and lightning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A key component in the maintenance and intensification of tropical cyclones is the transverse circulation, which transports mass and momentum and provides latent heat release via inner core convective updrafts. This study examines these updrafts indirectly, using satellite-borne observations of the scattering of upwelling microwave radiation by precipitation sized ice and satellite-borne observations of lightning. The observations are then compared to tropical cyclone intensity and the resulting relationships are assessed. The size of ice particles is tied to updraft strength, in that stronger updrafts produce more supercooled liquid water, leading to larger graupel through riming. Large graupel and a high supercooled liquid water content are necessary ingredients for charge separation, leading to lightning. Various parameters derived from the inner core ice scattering signature are computed for regions encircling hurricanes and typhoons, and observations of lightning activity or inactivity are analyzed. As expected, increasing ice scattering signature is found to correspond to increasing tropical cyclone intensity. However, the highest correlations do not involve indicators of convective intensity, as they were expected to. Instead, the highest correlations with tropical cyclone intensity result from the ice scattering signature parameters most closely associated with the areal extent of at least moderate precipitation rates. Correlations tend to be of the same sign for both present cyclone intensity at the time of the satellite overpass and subsequent intensity change. Correlations are higher for future cyclone intensity than for either of these. These correlations are much higher for the Atlantic and the Eastern North Pacific than for the Western North Pacific. It is hypothesized that processes involved with the most intense or rapidly intensifying tropical cyclones (more commonly found in the Western North Pacific) are responsible for these differences. The lightning observations are more limited than the microwave observations, because the short amount of time in which lightning can be detected may not adequately represent a particular storms electrical activity. These observations reveal no clear relationships between electrical activity and tropical cyclone intensity. In the examination of case studies, the paradoxical situation of much greater lightning activity in rainbands than in eyewalls is noted.

Cecil, Daniel Joseph

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Reionization on ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The case for substantial far infrared ice emission in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies, expected based on the presence of mid-infrared ice absorption in their spectra and the known far infrared optical properties of ice, is still largely unsupported by direct observation owing to insufficient far infrared spectral coverage. Some marginal supportive evidence is presented here. A clear consequence of far infrared ice emission is the need to extend the range of redshifts considered for submillimeter sources. This is demonstrated via the example of HDF 850.1. The solid phase of the ISM during reionization may be dominated by ice, and this could lead to the presence of reionization sources in submillimeter source catalogs. Submillimeter sources not detected at 24 micron in the GOODS-N field are examined. Two candidate reionization sources are identified at 3.6 micron through possible Gunn-Peterson saturation in the Z band.

C. C. Dudley; M. Imanishi; P. R. Maloney

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

The Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States A. Milbrandt, C. Kinchin, and R. McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical...

34

Global ice sheet modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fish Smother Under Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Smother Under Ice Smother Under Ice A BULLETIN FOR THE CHICAGO PUBLIC SCHOOLS DESIGNED FOR INCLUSION IN THE WEEKLY ANNOUNCEMENT SENT OUT FROM THE OFFICE OF SUPT. WILLIAM H. JOHNSON Clayton F. Smith, President Roberts Mann, Superintendent of Conservation February 1, 1945 Nature Bulletin No. 1 FOREST PRESERVE NOTES Grown-ups, who used to kive on a farm or in a small town, are fond of talking about the old-fashioned winters "when I was a boy" and the winters that grandpa used to tell about. Well, one would have to go back a long, long time to find a winter as severe as this one. FISH SMOTHER UNDER ICE Lakes and streams breathe the same as living things. When they are covered with ice and snow they cannot get air and they much hold their breath until the ice thaws. While they are holding their breath the oxygen in the water is gradually used up by the living things sealed up in it -- fish, plants "bugs", snails, and hosts of microscopic life. If the ice lasts long enough, these living things die one after another as each kind reaches the point where it cannot stand any further oxygen starvation. Sometimes temporary relief is given by rains and melting snow that bring fresh, serated water under the ice, but no method of artificial respiration has been found that works. Sometimes, too, when water plants get enough sunlight through clear ice they produce small amounts of oxygen and delay the suffocation of the fish, etc.; but when snow and cloudy ice cuts off the light this does not happen.

36

Backhand tecniques in ice hockey.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The main objective of this project based multimedia thesis is to show video material of how to use a backhand side of the ice hockey… (more)

Luoma, Matti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Ice Initiation by Aerosol Particles: Measured and Predicted Ice Nuclei Concentrations versus Measured Ice Crystal Concentrations in an Orographic Wave Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The initiation of ice in an isolated orographic wave cloud was compared with expectations based on ice nucleating aerosol concentrations and with predictions from new ice nucleation parameterizations applied in a cloud parcel model. Measurements ...

T. Eidhammer; P. J. DeMott; A. J. Prenni; M. D. Petters; C. H. Twohy; D. C. Rogers; J. Stith; A. Heymsfield; Z. Wang; K. A. Pratt; K. A. Prather; S. M. Murphy; J. H. Seinfeld; R. Subramanian; S. M. Kreidenweis

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

New GE Plant to Produce Thin Film PV Solar Panels Based on NREL Technology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New GE Plant to Produce Thin Film PV Solar Panels Based on NREL New GE Plant to Produce Thin Film PV Solar Panels Based on NREL Technology New GE Plant to Produce Thin Film PV Solar Panels Based on NREL Technology April 22, 2011 - 10:17am Addthis Photo courtesy of General Electric Photo courtesy of General Electric Minh Le Minh Le Program Manager, Solar Program Earlier this month, General Electric announced plans to enter the global marketplace for solar photovoltaic (PV) panels in a big way - and to do it, they will be using technology pioneered at the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). The record-breaking Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) thin film photovoltaic technology GE has chosen for its solar panels was originally developed more than a decade ago by a team of scientists led by NREL's Xuanzhi Wu, and

39

THE SPITZER ICE LEGACY: ICE EVOLUTION FROM CORES TO PROTOSTARS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ices regulate much of the chemistry during star formation and account for up to 80% of the available oxygen and carbon. In this paper, we use the Spitzer c2d Legacy ice survey, complimented with data sets on ices in cloud cores and high-mass protostars, to determine standard ice abundances and to present a coherent picture of the evolution of ices during low- and high-mass star formation. The median ice composition H{sub 2}O:CO:CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 3}OH:NH{sub 3}:CH{sub 4}:XCN is 100:29:29:3:5:5:0.3 and 100:13:13:4:5:2:0.6 toward low- and high-mass protostars, respectively, and 100:31:38:4:-:-:- in cloud cores. In the low-mass sample, the ice abundances with respect to H{sub 2}O of CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, and the component of CO{sub 2} mixed with H{sub 2}O typically vary by ice components, XCN, and CH{sub 3}OH vary by factors 2-10 between the lower and upper quartile. The XCN band correlates with CO, consistent with its OCN{sup -} identification. The origin(s) of the different levels of ice abundance variations are constrained by comparing ice inventories toward different types of protostars and background stars, through ice mapping, analysis of cloud-to-cloud variations, and ice (anti-)correlations. Based on the analysis, the first ice formation phase is driven by hydrogenation of atoms, which results in an H{sub 2}O-dominated ice. At later prestellar times, CO freezes out and variations in CO freezeout levels and the subsequent CO-based chemistry can explain most of the observed ice abundance variations. The last important ice evolution stage is thermal and UV processing around protostars, resulting in CO desorption, ice segregation, and the formation of complex organic molecules. The distribution of cometary ice abundances is consistent with the idea that most cometary ices have a protostellar origin.

Oeberg, Karin I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Boogert, A. C. Adwin [IPAC, NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pontoppidan, Klaus M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van den Broek, Saskia; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bottinelli, Sandrine [Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (CESR), CNRS-UMR 5187, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Blake, Geoffrey A. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

40

Metastable hydronium ions in UV-irradiated ice  

SciTech Connect

We show that the irradiation of UV light (10-11 eV) onto an ice film produces metastable hydronium (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) ions in the ice at low temperatures (53-140 K). Evidence of the presence of metastable hydronium ions was obtained by experiments involving adsorption of methylamine onto UV-irradiated ice films and hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) isotopic exchange reaction. The methylamine adsorption experiments showed that photogenerated H{sub 3}O{sup +} species transferred a proton to the methylamine arriving at the ice surface, thus producing the methyl ammonium ion, which was detected by low energy sputtering method. The H{sub 3}O{sup +} species induced the H/D exchange of water, which was monitored through the detection of water isotopomers on the surface by using the Cs{sup +} reactive ion scattering method. Thermal and temporal stabilities of H{sub 3}O{sup +} and its proton migration activity were examined. The lifetime of the hydronium ions in the amorphized ice was greater than 1 h at {approx}53 K and decreased to {approx}5 min at 140 K. Interestingly, a small portion of hydronium ions survived for an extraordinarily long time in the ice, even at 140 K. The average migration distance of protons released from H{sub 3}O{sup +} in the ice was estimated to be about two water molecules at {approx}54 K and about six molecules at 100 K. These results indicate that UV-generated hydronium ions can be efficiently stabilized in low-temperature ice. Such metastable hydronium ions may play a significant role in the acid-base chemistry of ice particles in interstellar clouds.

Moon, Eui-Seong; Kang, Heon [Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Production of Ice Particles in Clouds Due to Aircraft Penetrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented that the passage of an aircraft through supercooled clouds can produce high concentrations of ice particles (> 1000 L?1 at ?8°C in one case). These Aircraft Produced Ice Particles (APIPs) are characterized, initially, both ...

Arthur L. Rangno; Peter V. Hobbs

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics non-Newtonian model for ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a new three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) non-Newtonian model to study coupled ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics. Most existing ice-sheet numerical models use grid-based Eulerian discretizations, and are usually restricted ... Keywords: Grounding line, Ice sheet, Non-Newtonian fluid, Smoothed particle hydrodynamics

W. Pan, A. M. Tartakovsky, J. J. Monaghan

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

A phase-space model for Pleistocene ice volume  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a phase-space model that simulates Pleistocene ice volume changes based on Earth's orbital parameters. Terminations in the model are triggered by a combination of ice volume and orbital forcing and agree well with age estimates for Late Pleistocene terminations. The average phase at which model terminations begin is approximately 90 +/- 90 degrees before the maxima in all three orbital cycles. The large variability in phase is likely caused by interactions between the three cycles and ice volume. Unlike previous ice volume models, this model produces an orbitally driven increase in 100-kyr power during the mid-Pleistocene transition without any change in model parameters. This supports the hypothesis that Pleistocene variations in the 100-kyr power of glacial cycles could be caused, at least in part, by changes in Earth's orbital parameters, such as amplitude modulation of the 100-kyr eccentricity cycle, rather than changes within the climate system.

Imbrie, John Z; Lisiecki, Lorraine E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

A Parameterization of the Visible Extinction Coefficient of Ice Clouds in Terms of the Ice/Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a parameterization of the visible extinction coefficient of cirrus and frontal ice cloud in terms of the ice/water content. The parameterization is based on the discovery that the ice cloud particle size spectra from a ...

C. Martin R. Platt

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Archimedean Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The striking boundary dependency (the Arctic Circle phenomenon) exhibited in the ice model on the square lattice extends to other planar set-ups. We present these findings for the triangular and the Kagome lattices. Critical connectivity results guarantee that ice configurations can be generated using the simplest and most efficient local actions. Height functions are utilized throughout the analysis. At the end there is a surprise in store: on the remaining Archimedean lattice for which the ice model can be defined, the 3.4.6.4. lattice, the long range behavior is completely different from the other cases.

Kari Eloranta

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

46

Microsoft Word - IceMountainFinal.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tumbled-down boulders, called talus, on Ice Mountain's north- western slope collect ice during the winter. In the summer, cold air flows out of vents in the base of the talus,...

47

Hydrogen ICE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD Hydrogen ICE 1 Conversion Vehicle Specifications Engine: 6.0 L V8 Fuel Capacity: 10.5 GGE Nominal Tank Pressure: 5,000 psi Seatbelt Positions: Five...

48

Ice Fishing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice Fishing Ice Fishing Nature Bulletin No. 327-A January 11, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation ICE FISHING We have a peculiar class of people known as the "Frosty-toed Tribe". As soon as winter comes and the ice permits, they put on all the clothes they own and what they can borrow, pack their automobiles with equipment, and start early in the morning for some inland body of water or a bay along one of the Great Lakes. Usually, two or three go together and they may drive 50 or 100 miles. For hours, even in below zero weather, they huddle around holes cut in the ice, fishing patiently, sustained by hope, hot coffee, and a lot of conversation. Some days a man may catch nothing. Other days he may bring home all the law allows. Sometimes he fishes vainly until almost sundown and then begins to haul them in, all of the same kind and size, as fast as he can re-bait his hook. In the meantime, other anglers have rushed over, cut holes, and are fishing all around him -- usually in vain, because one of the strange things about ice fishing is that, although you may catch fish out of one hole, you may get nothing out of another only a few feet from it, using the same kind of bait at the same depth. There are a lot of hotly contested theories but nobody knows why. After watching and questioning scores of ice fishermen, some of them noted for their prowess, we find that although each has his own secret techniques and favorite spots, good catches seem more a matter of luck than skill. Although they are sluggish and don't fight, fish caught in winter have the firmest flesh and finest flavor. The biggest thrill comes from the skillet.

49

Climate Impacts of Ice Nucleation  

SciTech Connect

Several different ice nucleation parameterizations in two different General Circulation Models are used to understand the effects of ice nucleation on the mean climate state, and the climate effect of aerosol perturbations to ice clouds. The simulations have different ice microphysical states that are consistent with the spread of observations. These different states occur from different parameterizations of the ice cloud nucleation processes, and feature different balances of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. At reasonable efficiencies, consistent with laboratory measurements and constrained by the global radiative balance, black carbon has a small (-0.06 Wm?2) and not statistically significant climate effect. Indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds occur mostly due to increases in homogeneous nucleation fraction as a consequence of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. The resulting ice indirect effects do not seem strongly dependent on the ice micro-physical balance, but are slightly larger for those states with less homogeneous nucleation in the base state. The total ice AIE is estimated at 0.26±0.09 Wm?2 (1? uncertainty). This represents an offset of 20-30% of the simulated total Aerosol Indirect Effect for ice and liquid clouds.

Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Barahona, Donifan; Lohmann, U.; Chen, Chih-Chieh

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

50

Trenton ICES: demonstration of a grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II. Volumes 1 and 2. Preliminary design of ICES system and analysis of community ownership  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary design and evaluation for the system has been carried out. The findings of this study are: (1) it is technically feasible, utilizing commercially available hardware; (2) under utility ownership and operation, it will not be economically competitive with conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings (analysis contained in companion report under separate cover); (3) under utility ownership and operation, no restrictions have been identified that would prevent the project from proceeding; (4) under community ownership, preliminary analysis indicates that thermal energy produced by Trenton ICES will be approximately 12 percent less expensive than thermal energy produced by oil-fired boilers; and (5) a review and update of institutional analyses performed during Phase 2 has identified no factors that would preclude community ownership and operation of the Trenton ICES. The background data produced for the analysis of the Trenton ICES based on utility ownership and operation can, in large part, be used as the bases for a detailed analysis of community ownership.

1978-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

51

Impact of Enthalpy-Based Ensemble Filtering Sea Ice Data Assimilation on Decadal Predictions: Simulation with a Conceptual Pycnocline Prediction Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The non-Gaussian probability distribution of sea ice concentration makes it difficult to directly assimilate sea ice observations into a climate model. Because of the strong impact of the atmospheric and oceanic forcing on the sea ice state, any ...

S. Zhang; M. Winton; A. Rosati; T. Delworth; B. Huang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Ice Storm Database and Ice Severity Maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical icing information has several valuable uses in overhead transmission line ice loading design and research. Previously, this type of information was neither readily available nor easily acquired. This report describes the creation of an electronic ice storm database and regional ice severity maps for the United States.

1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

53

Surface Albedo of the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In three ship-based field experiments, spectral albedos were measured at ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths for open water, grease ice, nilas, young “grey” ice, young grey-white ice, and first-year ice, both with and without snow ...

Richard E. Brandt; Stephen G. Warren; Anthony P. Worby; Thomas C. Grenfell

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Self-Scheduling of a Hydro Producer in a Pool-Based Electricity Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper addresses the self-scheduling of a hydro generating company in a pool-based electricity market. This company comprises several cascaded plants along a river basin. The objective is to maximize the profit of the company from selling energy in the day-ahead market. This paper proposes a 0/1 mixed-integer linear programming model to account, in every plant, for the nonlinear and nonconcave three-dimensional (3-D) relationship between the power produced, the water discharged, and the head of the associated reservoir. Additionally, start-up costs due mainly to the wear and tear are considered. Finally, different realistic case studies are analyzed in detail.

Antonio J. Conejo; Senior Member; José Manuel Arroyo; Javier Contreras; Francisco Apolinar Villamor

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Ice Fall Doctors 5, Changing Route  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking chang to the work of Mount Everest's 'ice fall doctors'....

Loomis, Molly

56

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 1,039,864 1,032,160 1,033,297 1,032,517 1,037,294 1,037,338 1,038,940 1,036,193 1,037,422 1,035,931 1,035,050 1,043,103 1995 1,051,669 1,054,584 1,051,120 1,051,697 1,052,949 1,062,613 1,058,260 1,054,218 1,054,870 1,051,687 1,056,704 1,060,588 1996 1,067,220 1,062,343 1,027,692 1,040,511 1,055,164 1,056,516 1,052,009 1,051,395 1,052,015 1,048,151 1,052,057 1,053,173 1997 1,064,968 1,054,977 1,059,316 1,059,050 1,059,706 1,064,515 1,063,554 1,063,029 1,066,254 1,064,123 1,065,557 1,065,151 1998 1,064,741 1,058,297 1,057,927 1,057,506 1,060,241 1,055,941 1,055,660 1,055,056 1,056,417 1,057,591 1,057,539 1,038,925

57

Measurement of South Pole ice transparency with the IceCube LED calibration system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, approximately 1 km^3 in size, is now complete with 86 strings deployed in the Antarctic ice. IceCube detects the Cherenkov radiation emitted by charged particles passing through or created in the ice. To realize the full potential of the detector, the properties of light propagation in the ice in and around the detector must be well understood. This report presents a new method of fitting the model of light propagation in the ice to a data set of in-situ light source events collected with IceCube. The resulting set of derived parameters, namely the measured values of scattering and absorption coefficients vs. depth, is presented and a comparison of IceCube data with simulations based on the new model is shown.

IceCube Collaboration; M. G. Aartsen; R. Abbasi; Y. Abdou; M. Ackermann; J. Adams; J. A. Aguilar; M. Ahlers; D. Altmann; J. Auffenberg; X. Bai; M. Baker; S. W. Barwick; V. Baum; R. Bay; J. J. Beatty; S. Bechet; J. Becker Tjus; K. -H. Becker; M. Bell; M. L. Benabderrahmane; S. BenZvi; J. Berdermann; P. Berghaus; D. Berley; E. Bernardini; A. Bernhard; D. Bertrand; D. Z. Besson; G. Binder; D. Bindig; M. Bissok; E. Blaufuss; J. Blumenthal; D. J. Boersma; S. Bohaichuk; C. Bohm; D. Bose; S. Böser; O. Botner; L. Brayeur; A. M. Brown; R. Bruijn; J. Brunner; S. Buitink; M. Carson; J. Casey; M. Casier; D. Chirkin; B. Christy; K. Clark; F. Clevermann; S. Cohen; D. F. Cowen; A. H. Cruz Silva; M. Danninger; J. Daughhetee; J. C. Davis; C. De Clercq; S. De Ridder; P. Desiati; M. de With; T. DeYoung; J. C. Díaz-Vélez; M. Dunkman; R. Eagan; B. Eberhardt; J. Eisch; R. W. Ellsworth; S. Euler; P. A. Evenson; O. Fadiran; A. R. Fazely; A. Fedynitch; J. Feintzeig; T. Feusels; K. Filimonov; C. Finley; T. Fischer-Wasels; S. Flis; A. Franckowiak; R. Franke; K. Frantzen; T. Fuchs; T. K. Gaisser; J. Gallagher; L. Gerhardt; L. Gladstone; T. Glüsenkamp; A. Goldschmidt; G. Golup; J. A. Goodman; D. Góra; D. Grant; A. Groß; M. Gurtner; C. Ha; A. Haj Ismail; A. Hallgren; F. Halzen; K. Hanson; D. Heereman; P. Heimann; D. Heinen; K. Helbing; R. Hellauer; S. Hickford; G. C. Hill; K. D. Hoffman; R. Hoffmann; A. Homeier; K. Hoshina; W. Huelsnitz; P. O. Hulth; K. Hultqvist; S. Hussain; A. Ishihara; E. Jacobi; J. Jacobsen; G. S. Japaridze; K. Jero; O. Jlelati; B. Kaminsky; A. Kappes; T. Karg; A. Karle; J. L. Kelley; J. Kiryluk; F. Kislat; J. Kläs; S. R. Klein; J. -H. Köhne; G. Kohnen; H. Kolanoski; L. Köpke; C. Kopper; S. Kopper; D. J. Koskinen; M. Kowalski; M. Krasberg; G. Kroll; J. Kunnen; N. Kurahashi; T. Kuwabara; M. Labare; H. Landsman; M. J. Larson; M. Lesiak-Bzdak; J. Leute; J. Lünemann; J. Madsen; R. Maruyama; K. Mase; H. S. Matis; F. McNally; K. Meagher; M. Merck; P. Mészáros; T. Meures; S. Miarecki; E. Middell; N. Milke; J. Miller; L. Mohrmann; T. Montaruli; R. Morse; R. Nahnhauer; U. Naumann; H. Niederhausen; S. C. Nowicki; D. R. Nygren; A. Obertacke; S. Odrowski; A. Olivas; M. Olivo; A. O'Murchadha; L. Paul; J. A. Pepper; C. Pérez de los Heros; C. Pfendner; D. Pieloth; N. Pirk; J. Posselt; P. B. Price; G. T. Przybylski; L. Rädel; K. Rawlins; P. Redl; E. Resconi; W. Rhode; M. Ribordy; M. Richman; B. Riedel; J. P. Rodrigues; C. Rott; T. Ruhe; B. Ruzybayev; D. Ryckbosch; S. M. Saba; T. Salameh; H. -G. Sander; M. Santander; S. Sarkar; K. Schatto; M. Scheel; F. Scheriau; T. Schmidt; M. Schmitz; S. Schoenen; S. Schöneberg; L. Schönherr; A. Schönwald; A. Schukraft; L. Schulte; O. Schulz; D. Seckel; S. H. Seo; Y. Sestayo; S. Seunarine; C. Sheremata; M. W. E. Smith; M. Soiron; D. Soldin; G. M. Spiczak; C. Spiering; M. Stamatikos; T. Stanev; A. Stasik; T. Stezelberger; R. G. Stokstad; A. Stößl; E. A. Strahler; R. Ström; G. W. Sullivan; H. Taavola; I. Taboada; A. Tamburro; S. Ter-Antonyan; S. Tilav; P. A. Toale; S. Toscano; M. Usner; D. van der Drift; N. van Eijndhoven; A. Van Overloop; J. van Santen; M. Vehring; M. Voge; M. Vraeghe; C. Walck; T. Waldenmaier; M. Wallraff; R. Wasserman; Ch. Weaver; M. Wellons; C. Wendt; S. Westerhoff; N. Whitehorn; K. Wiebe; C. H. Wiebusch; D. R. Williams; H. Wissing; M. Wolf; T. R. Wood; C. Xu; D. L. Xu; X. W. Xu; J. P. Yanez; G. Yodh; S. Yoshida; P. Zarzhitsky; J. Ziemann; S. Zierke; A. Zilles; M. Zoll

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

58

Glossary Term - Dry Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deuteron Previous Term (Deuteron) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Electron) Electron Dry Ice A block of dry ice sublimating on a table. Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide...

59

Interannual variability of arctic landfast ice between 1976 and 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of weekly sea ice charts produced by the U.S. National Ice Center from 1976 to 2007 indicates large interannual variations in the averaged winter landfast ice extent around the Arctic Basin. During the 32-year period of the record, ...

Yanling Yu; Harry Stern; Charles Fowler; Florence Fetterer; James Maslanik

60

Snow and Ice Field Handbook for Snowplow Operators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Minnesota Snow and Ice Control Field Handbook for Snowplow Operators Second Revision Manual Number Local Road Research Board #12;#12;Minnesota Snow and Ice Control Field Handbook for Snowplow Operators for an Effective Anti-icing Program, produced by the Utah LTAP Center. Thanks to the following sponsors

Minnesota, University of

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61

Sensitivity of CAM5-Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation to Ice Nucleation Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sensitivity of Arctic clouds and radiation in the Community Atmospheric Model, version 5, to the ice nucleation process is examined by testing a new physically based ice nucleation scheme that links the variation of ice nuclei (IN) number ...

Shaocheng Xie; Xiaohong Liu; Chuanfeng Zhao; Yuying Zhang

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Method of forming clathrate ice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultrasonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. These small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

Hino, Toshiyuki (Tokyo, JP); Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Method of forming calthrate ice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultransonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. Thes small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

Hino, T.; Gorski, A.J.

1985-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

THE FORMATION AND REACTIONS OF OXIDANTS IN WATER ICE .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation investigates the chemistry in water ice of radical species, such as OH and O, produced in radio-frequency discharge. This novel method of studying… (more)

Do, Nhut

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Implication of puck possession on scoring changes in ice hockey.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Much of the conventional wisdom in ice hockey suggests that moving the puck forward,towards the opponent's goal, is the best strategy for producing scoring chances.… (more)

Rollins, Laura

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Evaluating and Constraining Ice Cloud Parameterizations in CAM5 using Aircraft Measurements from the SPARTICUS Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses aircraft measurements of relative humidity and ice crystal size distribution collected in synoptic cirrus during the SPARTICUS (Small PARTicles In CirrUS) field campaign to evaluate and constrain ice cloud parameterizations in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The probability density function (PDF) of ice crystal number concentration (Ni) derived from high frequency (1 Hz) measurements features a strong dependence on ambient temperature. As temperature decreases from -35°C to -62°C, the peak in the PDF shifts from 10-20 L-1 to 200-1000 L-1, while the ice crystal number concentration shows a factor of 6-7 increase. Model simulations are performed with two different insitu ice nucleation schemes. One of the schemes can reproduce a clear increase of Ni with decreasing temperature, by using either an observation based ice nuclei spectrum or a classical theory based spectrum with a relatively low (5%-10%) maximum freezing ratio for dust aerosols. The simulation with the other scheme, which assumes a high maximum freezing ratio (100%), shows much weaker temperature dependence of Ni. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to water vapor deposition and the auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that a value between 0.05 and 0.1 for the water vapor deposition coefficient and 250 um for the critical ice crystal size can produce good agreements between model simulation and the SPARTICUS measurements in terms of ice crystal number concentration and effective radius. The climate impact of perturbing these parameters is also discussed.

Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Minghuai; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mitchell, David; Mishra, Subhashree; Mace, Gerald G.

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

67

Effects of ice number concentration on dynamics of a shallow mixed-phase stratiform cloud  

SciTech Connect

Previous modeling studies have shown a high sensitivity of simulated properties of mixed-phase clouds to ice number concentration, Ni, with many models losing their ability to maintain the liquid phase as Ni increases. Although models differ widely at what Ni the mixed-phase cloud becomes unstable, the transition from a mixed-phase to an ice only cloud in many cases occurs over a narrow range of ice concentration. To gain better understanding of this non-linear model behavior, in this study, we analyze simulations of a mixed-phase stratiform Artic cloud observed on 26 April 2008 during recent Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). The BASE simulation, in which Ni is constrained to match the measured value, produces a long-lived cloud in a quasi steady state similar to that observed. The simulation without the ice (NO_ICE) produces a comparable but slightly thicker cloud because more moisture is kept in the mixed layer due to lack of precipitation. When Ni is quadrupled relative to BASE (HI_ICE), the cloud starts loosing liquid water almost immediately and the liquid water path is reduced by half in less than two hours. The changes in liquid water are accompanied by corresponding reduction in the radiative cooling of the layer and a slow down in the vertical mixing, confirming the important role of interactions among microphysics, radiation and dynamics in this type of clouds. Deviations of BASE and HI_ICE from NO_ICE are used to explore the linearity of the model response to variation in Ni. It is shown that at early stages, changes in liquid and ice water as well as in radiative cooling/heating rates are proportional to the Ni change, while changes in the vertical buoyancy flux are qualitatively different in HI_ICE compared to BASE. Thus, while the positive feedback between the liquid water path and radiative cooling of the cloud layer is essential for glaciation of the cloud at higher Ni, the non-linear (with respect to Ni) reduction in positive buoyancy flux within and below the liquid cloud layer emerges as the process that influences the initial response of the mixed layer dynamics to the appearance of ice and subsequently determines the sustainability of liquid water in the cloud in this case.

Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Korolev, Alexei; Fan, Jiwen

2011-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

68

Retrieval of Ice Cloud Parameters Using a Microwave Imaging Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the radiative transfer theory, the microwave radiance emanating from ice clouds at arbitrary viewing angles is expressed as an analytic function of the cloud ice water path (IWP), the particle effective diameter (De), and the particle ...

Fuzhong Weng; Norman C. Grody

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Cloud Ice Crystal Classification Using a 95-GHz Polarimetric Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two algorithms are presented for ice crystal classification using 95-GHz polarimetric radar observables and air temperature (T). Both are based on a fuzzy logic scheme. Ice crystals are classified as columnar crystals (CC), planar crystals (PC), ...

K. Aydin; J. Singh

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

ice rheology in HadCM3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We present results of an implementation of the Elastic Viscous Plastic (EVP) sea ice dynamics scheme into the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model HadCM3. Although the large-scale simulation of sea ice in HadCM3 is quite good with this model, the lack of a full dynamical model leads to errors in the detailed representation of sea ice and limits our confidence in its future predictions. We find that introducing the EVP scheme results in a worse initial simulation of the sea ice. This paper documents various enhancements made to improve the simulation, resulting in a sea ice simulation that is better than the original HadCM3 scheme overall. Importantly, it is more physically based and provides a more solid foundation for future development. We then consider the interannual variability of the sea ice in the new model and demonstrate improvements over the HadCM3 simulation. 1

W. M. Connolley; A. B. Keen; A. J. Mclaren

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Arctic ice islands  

SciTech Connect

The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Method to produce nanocrystalline powders of oxide-based phosphors for lighting applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Some embodiments of the present invention are directed toward nanocrystalline oxide-based phosphor materials, and methods for making same. Typically, such methods comprise a steric entrapment route for converting precursors into such phosphor material. In some embodiments, the nanocrystalline oxide-based phosphor materials are quantum splitting phosphors. In some or other embodiments, such nanocrystalline oxide based phosphor materials provide reduced scattering, leading to greater efficiency, when used in lighting applications.

Loureiro, Sergio Paulo Martins (Saratoga Springs, NY); Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Williams, Darryl Stephen (Clifton Park, NY); Manoharan, Mohan (Niskayuna, NY); Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

73

Modeling of Antarctic sea ice in a general circulation model  

SciTech Connect

A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model is developed and coupled with the Melbourne University general circulation model to simulate the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic sea ice distributions The model is efficient, rapid to compute, and useful for a range of climate studies. The thermodynamic part of the sea ice model is similar to that developed by Parkinson and Washington, the dynamics contain a simplified ice rheology that resists compression. The thermodynamics is based on energy conservation at the top surface of the ice/snow, the ice/water interface, and the open water area to determine the ice formation, accretion, and ablation. A lead parameterization is introduced with an effective partitioning scheme for freezing between and under the ice floes. The dynamic calculation determines the motion of ice, which is forced with the atmospheric wind, taking account of ice resistance and rafting. The simulated sea ice distribution compares reasonably well with observations. The seasonal cycle of ice extent is well simulated in phase as well as in magnitude. Simulated sea ice thickness and concentration are also in good agreement with observations over most regions and serve to indicate the importance of advection and ocean drift in the determination of the sea ice distribution. 64 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

Wu, Xingren; Budd, W.F. [Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Tasmania (Australia)] [Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, Tasmania (Australia); Simmonds, I. [School of Earth Sciences, Victoria (Australia)] [School of Earth Sciences, Victoria (Australia)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Medical ice slurry production device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL); Oras, John (Des Plaines, IL); Son, HyunJin (Naperville, IL)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

75

ARM - Measurement - Ice nuclei  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice nuclei Small particles around which ice particles form. Categories Cloud Properties...

76

Anemometry in Icing Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of wind measurements in icing conditions is discussed, and wind tunnel calibrations as well as field comparisons are presented for three heated anemometers that use different measuring principles. It is pointed out that ice-free ...

Lasse Makkonen; Pertti Lehtonen; Lauri Helle

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Aging of Accreted Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of annealing in accreted ice has been investigated for artificially grown ice deposits after 100 days of storage in a deep freeze unit. Cross sections of the cylindrical deposits have been cut and replicated soon after growth and ...

F. Prodi; L. Levi

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Off peak ice storage generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to the high costs associated with peak demand charges imposed by most electrical companies today, various means of shifting the peak HVAC load have been identified by the industry. This paper discusses the results of a study based upon a building site located in the high desert of the southwestern United States that evaluated ice storage as a mechanism of operating cost reductions. The discussion addresses both the seasonal and the annual cost and energy impacts of an ice storage system when used in place of an air-to-air heat pump system.

Davis, R.E.; Cerbo, F.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Ice electrode electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Ice electrode electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Ice electrode electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

82

Stability of ferroelectric ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically study the stability conditions of the ferroelectric ice of the Cmc21 structure, which has been considered, for decades, one of the most promising candidates of the low temperature proton-ordered phase of pure ice Ih. It turned out that the Cmc21 structure is stable only with a certain amount of dopant and the true proton-ordered phase of pure ice Ih remains to be found at lower temperature. Implication for spin ice is mentioned.

Iitaka, Toshiaki

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

ICE Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ICE Solar ICE Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name ICE Solar Place Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Sector Solar Product India-based company focused on solar PV engineering, procurement and construction opportunities. Coordinates 17.6726°, 77.5971° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":17.6726,"lon":77.5971,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

84

Role of a Parameterized Ice-Phase Microphysics in an Axisymmetric, Nonhydrostatic Tropical Cyclone Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of an axisymmetric, nonhydrostatic hurricane model are analyzed with emphasis on the role of a parameterized ice-phase microphysics Inclusion of ice processes produces dramatic differences in the structure and evolution of the simulated ...

Stephen J. Lord; Hugh E. Willoughby; Jacqueline M. Piotrowicz

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient ice slurry cooling system depends very strongly on the characteristics of the individual ice particles in the slurry and, in turn, on the method of ice production. Findings from this study provide guidance on the fluidity and handleability of slurry produced by several methods currently under development and already many achieved.

Hayashi, K.; Kasza, K.

2000-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

86

Single Scattering Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of scattering and polarization properties for randomly oriented polyhedral ice crystals are presented based on the geometric optics and the far-field diffraction approximation. Particle shapes range from various hexagonal symmetric ...

Andreas Macke; Johannes Mueller; Ehrhard Raschke

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Multiple sea-ice states and abrupt MOC transitions in a general circulation ocean model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiple sea-ice states and abrupt MOC transitions in a general circulation ocean model Yosef: 25 September 2012 Ã? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 Abstract Sea ice has been suggested, based-called ``sea-ice switch'' mech- anism. An important requirement for this mechanism is that multiple sea-ice

Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

88

An update on land-ice modeling in the CESM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mass loss from land ice, including the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets as well as smaller glacier and ice caps, is making a large and growing contribution to global sea-level rise. Land ice is only beginning to be incorporated in climate models. The goal of the Land Ice Working Group (LIWG) is to develop improved land-ice models and incorporate them in CESM, in order to provide useful, physically-based sea-level predictions. LJWG efforts to date have led to the inclusion of a dynamic ice-sheet model (the Glimmer Community Ice Sheet Model, or Glimmer-CISM) in the Community Earth System Model (CESM), which was released in June 2010. CESM also includes a new surface-mass-balance scheme for ice sheets in the Community Land Model. Initial modeling efforts are focused on the Greenland ice sheet. Preliminary results are promising. In particular, the simulated surface mass balance for Greenland is in good agreement with observations and regional model results. The current model, however, has significant limitations: The land-ice coupling is one-way; we are using a serial version of Glimmer-CISM with the shallow-ice approximation; and there is no ice-ocean coupling. During the next year we plan to implement two-way coupling (including ice-ocean coupling with a dynamic Antarctic ice sheet) with a parallel , higher-order version of Glimmer-CISM. We will also add parameterizations of small glaciers and ice caps. With these model improvements, CESM will be able to simulate all the major contributors to 21st century global sea-level rise. Results of the first round of simulations should be available in time to be included in the Fifth Assessment Report (ARS) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Lipscomb, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

89

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Non-Newtonian model for ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) non-Newtonian model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH, a fully Lagrangian particle method, is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface ?ows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper, SPH is used to study 3D ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios, similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is veri?ed by simulating Poiseuille ?ow, plane shear ?ow with free surface and the propagation of a blob of ice along a horizontal surface. In the laboratory experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous Newtonian ?uid. In the present work, however, the ice is modeled as both viscous Newtonian ?uid and non-Newtonian ?uid, such that the e?ect of non-Newtonian rheology on the dynamics of grounding line was examined. The non-Newtonian constitutive relation is prescribed to be Glen’s law for the creep of polycrystalline ice. A V-shaped bedrock ramp is further introduced to model the real geometry of bedrock slope.

Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model for Ice Sheet and Ice Shelf Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH is a fully Lagrangian particle method. It is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface flows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper SPH is used to study ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from the SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is further verified by simulating the plane shear flow of two immiscible fluids and the propagation of a highly viscous blob of fluid along a horizontal surface. In the experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous newtonian fluid. For consistency, in the described SPH model the ice is also modeled as a viscous newtonian fluid. Typically, ice sheets are modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid, accounting for the changes in the mechanical properties of ice. Implementation of a non-Newtonian rheology in the SPH model is the subject of our ongoing research.

Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

91

Effects of ice particle size vertical inhomogeneity on the passive remote sensing of ice clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar reflectance bi-spectral (SRBS) and infrared split-window (IRSpW) methods are two of the most popular techniques for passive ice cloud property retrievals from multispectral imagers. Ice clouds are usually assumed to be vertically homogeneous in global operational algorithms based on these methods, although significant vertical variations of ice particle size are typically observed in ice clouds. In this study we investigate uncertainties in retrieved optical thickness, effective particle size, and ice water path introduced by a homogeneous cloud assumption in both the SRBS and IRSpW methods, and focus on whether the assumption can lead to significant discrepancies between the two methods. The study simulates the upwelling spectral radiance associated with vertically structured clouds and passes the results through representative SRBS and IRSpW retrieval algorithms. Cloud optical thickness is limited to values for which IRSpW retrievals are possible (optical thickness less than about 7). When the ice cloud is optically thin and yet has a significant ice particle size vertical variation, it is found that both methods tend to underestimate the effective radius and ice water path. The reason for the underestimation is the nonlinear dependence of ice particle scattering properties (extinction and single scattering albedo) on the effective radius. Because the nonlinearity effect is stronger in the IRSpW than the SRBS method, the IRSpW-based IWP tends to be smaller than the SRBS counterpart. When the ice cloud is moderately optically thick and ice particle size increases monotonically towards cloud base, the two methods are in qualitative agreement; in the event that ice particle size decreases towards cloud base, the effective radius and ice water path retrievals based on the SRBS method are substantially larger than those from the IRSpW. The main findings of this study suggest that the homogenous cloud assumption can affect the SRBS and IRSpW methods to different extents and, consequently, can lead to significantly different retrievals. Therefore caution should be taken when comparing and combining the ice cloud property retrievals from these two methods.

Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven; Yang, Ping; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

92

Calmac Ice Storage Test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial ice storage systems. Calmac provided a storage tank equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system. The Calmac ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging was similar to that reported by the manufacturer. Both the measured average and minimum brine temperatures were in close agreement with Calmac's literature values, and the ability to fully charge the tank was relatively unaffected by charging rate and brine flow rate. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was strongly affected by the discharge rate. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. Based on these tests, storage tank selection must depend most strongly on the discharge conditions required to serve the load. This report describes Calmac system performance fully under both charging and discharging conditions. Companion reports describe ISTF test procedures and ice-making efficiency test results that are common to many of the units tested. 11 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs.

Stovall, T.K.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base articles of high fracture toughness and strength  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength are disclosed. The powder mixture includes (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12m[sup 2]g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder. No Drawings

Huckabee, M.L.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

1991-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

94

Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base & articles of high fracture toughness and strength  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The powder mixture includes 9a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon mitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12m.sup.2 g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified articel an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder.

Huckabee, Marvin L. (Marlboro, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA); Neil, Jeffrey T. (Acton, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Parameterizing Turbulent Exchange over Sea Ice in Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment produced 18 000 h of turbulence data from the atmospheric surface layer over sea ice while the ice camp drifted for a year in the Beaufort Gyre. Multiple sites instrumented during ...

Edgar L. Andreas; P. Ola G. Persson; Andrey A. Grachev; Rachel E. Jordan; Thomas W. Horst; Peter S. Guest; Christopher W. Fairall

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Characterization of a Modified Hexagonal Silver Iodide Ice Nucleus Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new ice nucleant aerosol was produced by combustion of a 2% AgI-0.5 mole % Bil3-NH4I-acetone-water solution. The ice nucleating effectiveness of this aerosol is an order of magnitude greater than AgI alone at ?10°C. An X-ray powder analysis ...

Paul T. Scott; William G. Finnegan; Peter C. Sinclair

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream If you have access to liquid nitrogen and the proper safety equipment and training, try this in place of your normal cryogenics demonstration Download...

98

An ice lithography instrument  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

Han, Anpan [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Chervinsky, John [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Branton, Daniel [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Golovchenko, J. A. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Transporting Dry Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Requirements for Shipping Dry Ice IATA PI 904 Source: Reg of the Day from ERCweb 2006 Environmental Resource Center | 919-469-1585 | webmaster@ercweb.com http:...

100

Mobile Ice Nucleus Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

This first year report presents results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to assess the flow and temperature profiles within the mobile ice nucleus spectrometer.

Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Kok, G. L.

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

under a Creative Commons License. Climate of the Past Ice-driven CO2 feedback on ice volume  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The origin of the major ice-sheet variations during the last 2.7 million years is a long-standing mystery. Neither the dominant 41 000-year cycles in ?18O/ice-volume during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene nor the late-Pleistocene oscillations near 100 000 years is a linear (“Milankovitch”) response to summer insolation forcing. Both responses must result from non-linear behavior within the climate system. Greenhouse gases (primarily CO2) are a plausible source of the required non-linearity, but confusion has persisted over whether the gases force ice volume or are a positive feedback. During the last several hundred thousand years, CO2 and ice volume (marine ?18O) have varied in phase at the 41 000-year obliquity cycle and nearly in phase within the ?100 000-year band. This timing rules out greenhouse-gas forcing of a very slow ice response and instead favors ice control of a fast CO2 response. In the schematic model proposed here, ice sheets responded linearly to insolation forcing at the precession and obliquity cycles prior to 0.9 million years ago, but CO2 feedback amplified the ice response at the 41 000-year period by a factor of approximately two. After 0.9 million years ago, with slow polar cooling, ablation weakened. CO2 feedback continued to amplify ice-sheet growth every 41 000 years, but weaker ablation permitted some ice to survive insolation maxima of low intensity. Step-wise growth of these longerlived ice sheets continued until peaks in northern summer insolation produced abrupt deglaciations every ?85 000 to ?115 000 years. Most of the deglacial ice melting resulted from the same CO2/temperature feedback that had built the ice sheets. Several processes have the northern geographic origin, as well as the requisite orbital tempo and phasing, to be candidate mechanisms for ice-sheet control of CO2 and their own feedback. 1

W. F. Ruddiman

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

FINAL REPORT FOR THE DOE/ARM PROJECT TITLED Representation of the Microphysical and Radiative Properties of Ice Clouds in SCMs and GCMs  

SciTech Connect

The broad goal of this research is to improve climate prediction through better representation of cirrus cloud microphysical and radiative properties in global climate models (GCMs). Clouds still represent the greatest source of uncertainty in climate prediction, and the representation of ice clouds is considerably more challenging than liquid water clouds. While about 40% of cloud condensate may be in the form of ice by some estimates, there have been no credible means of representing the ice particle size distribution and mass removal rates from ice clouds in GCMs. Both factors introduce large uncertainties regarding the global net flux, the latter factor alone producing a change of 10 W/m2 in the global net flux due to plausible changes in effective ice particle fallspeed. In addition, the radiative properties of ice crystals themselves are in question. This research provides GCMs with a credible means of representing the full (bimodal) ice particle size distribution (PSD) in ice clouds, including estimates of the small crystal (D < 65 microns) mode of the PSD. It also provides realistic estimates of mass sedimentation rates from ice clouds, which have a strong impact on their ice contents and radiative properties. This can be done through proper analysis of ice cloud microphysical data from ARM and other field campaigns. In addition, this research tests the ice cloud radiation treatment developed under two previous ARM projects by comparing it against laboratory measurements of ice cloud extinction efficiency and by comparing it with explicit theoretical calculations of ice crystal optical properties. The outcome of this project includes two PSD schemes for ice clouds; one appropriate for mid-latitude cirrus clouds and another for tropical anvil cirrus. Cloud temperature and ice water content (IWC) are the inputs for these PSD schemes, which are based on numerous PSD observations. The temperature dependence of the small crystal mode of the PSD for tropical anvils is opposite to that of mid-latitude cirrus, and this results in very different radiative properties for these two types of cirrus at temperatures less than about 50 C for a given ice water path. In addition, the representative PSD fall velocity is strongly influenced by the small crystal mode, and for temperatures less than 52 C, this fall velocity for mid-latitude cirrus is 2-8 times greater than for tropical anvil cirrus. Finally, the treatment of ice cloud optical properties was found to agree with laboratory measurements and exact theory within 15% for any given wavelength, PSD and ice particle shape. This treatment is analytical, formulated in terms of the PSD and ice particle shape properties. It thus provides the means for explicitly coupling the ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties, and can treat any combination of ice particle shape. It is very inexpensive regarding computer time. When these three deliverables were incorporated into the GCM at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) under another project, it was found that the sunlight reflected and the amount of upwelling heat absorbed by cirrus clouds depended strongly on the PSD scheme used (i.e. mid-latitude or tropical anvil). This was largely due to the fall velocities associated with the two PSD schemes, although the PSD shape was also important.

Mitchell, David L.

2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

103

Minimalist Model of Ice Microphysics in Mixed-phase Stratiform Clouds  

SciTech Connect

The question of whether persistent ice crystal precipitation from super cooled layer clouds can be explained by time-dependent, stochastic ice nucleation is explored using an approximate, analytical model, and a large-eddy simulation (LES) cloud model. The updraft velocity in the cloud defines an accumulation zone, where small ice particles cannot fall out until they are large enough, which will increase the residence time of ice particles in the cloud. Ice particles reach a quasi-steady state between growth by vapor deposition and fall speed at cloud base. The analytical model predicts that ice water content (wi) has a 2.5 power law relationship with ice number concentration ni. wi and ni from a LES cloud model with stochastic ice nucleation also confirm the 2.5 power law relationship. The prefactor of the power law is proportional to the ice nucleation rate, and therefore provides a quantitative link to observations of ice microphysical properties.

Yang, F.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

104

Skin supersolidity slipperizing ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistency between theory predictions and measurements and calculations revealed that the skin of ice, containing water molecules with fewer than four neighbours, forms a supersolid phase that is highly polarized, elastic, hydrophobic, with ultra-low density and high thermal stability. The supersolidity of skin sliperizes ice.

Xi Zhang; Yongli Huang; a Zengsheng Ma; Yichun Zhou; Chang Q Sun

2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

105

Comparative ICE genomics: insights into the evolution of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrating and conjugative elements (ICEs) are one of the three principal types of self-transmissible mobile genetic elements in bacteria. ICEs, like plasmids, transfer via conjugation; but unlike plasmids and similar to many phages, these elements integrate into and replicate along with the host chromosome. Members of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs have been isolated from several species of gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, where they have been important vectors for disseminating genes conferring resistance to antibiotics. Here we developed a plasmid-based system to capture and isolate SXT/R391 ICEs for sequencing. Comparative analyses of the genomes of 13 SXT/R391 ICEs derived from diverse hosts and locations revealed that they contain 52 perfectly syntenic and nearly identical core genes that serve as a scaffold capable of mobilizing an array of variable DNA. Furthermore, selection pressure to maintain ICE mobility appears to have restricted insertions of variable DNA into intergenic sites that do not interrupt core functions. The variable genes confer diverse element-specific phenotypes, such as resistance to antibiotics. Functional analysis of a set of deletion mutants revealed that less than half of the conserved core genes are required for ICE mobility; the functions of most of the dispensable core genes are unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that there has been extensive recombination between SXT/R391 ICEs, resulting in re-assortment of their respective variable gene content. Furthermore,

Rachel A. F. Wozniak; Derrick E. Fouts; Matteo Spagnoletti; Mauro M. Colombo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process-based treatment of ice supersaturation and ice-nucleation is implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The new scheme is designed to allow (1) supersaturation with respect to ice, (2) ice nucleation by aerosol particles and (3) ice cloud cover consistent with ice microphysics. The scheme is implemented with a 4-class 2 moment microphysics code and is used to evaluate ice cloud nucleation mechanisms and supersaturation in CAM. The new model is able to reproduce field observations of ice mass and mixed phase cloud occurrence better than previous versions of the model. Simulations indicate heterogeneous freezing and contact nucleation on dust are both potentially important over remote areas of the Arctic. Cloud forcing and hence climate is sensitive to different formulations of the ice microphysics. Arctic radiative fluxes are sensitive to the parameterization of ice clouds. These results indicate that ice clouds are potentially an important part of understanding cloud forcing and potential cloud feedbacks, particularly in the Arctic.

Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Morrison, H.; Park, Sungsu; Conley, Andrew; Klein, Stephen A.; Boyle, James; Mitchell, David; Li, J-L F.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

107

Photophysiology and cellular composition of sea ice algae  

SciTech Connect

The productivity of sea ice algae depends on their physiological capabilities and the environmental conditions within various microhabitats. Pack ice is the dominant form of sea ice, but the photosynthetic activity of associated algae has rarely been studied. Biomass and photosynthetic rates of ice algae of the Weddell-Scotia Sea were investigated during autumn and winter, the period when ice cover grows from its minimum to maximum. Biomass-specific photosynthetic rates typically ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 {mu}g C {center dot} {mu}g chl{sup {minus}1} {center dot} h{sup {minus}1} higher than land-fast ice algae but similar to Antarctic phytoplankton. Primary production in the pack ice during winter may be minor compared to annual phytoplankton production, but could represent a vital seasonal contribution to the Antarctic ecosystem. Nutrient supply may limit the productivity of ice algae. In McMurdo Sound, congelation ice algae appeared to be more nutrient deficient than underlying platelet ice algae based on: lower nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, and protein:carbohydrate; and {sup 14}C-photosynthate distribution to proteins and phospholipids was lower, while distribution to polysaccharides and neutral lipids was higher. Depletion of nitrate led to decreased nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, protein:carbohydrate, and {sup 14}C-photosynthate to proteins. Studied were conducted during the spring bloom; therefore, nutrient limitation may only apply to dense ice algal communities. Growth limiting conditions may be alleviated when algae are released into seawater during the seasonal recession of the ice cover. To continue growth, algae must adapt to the variable light field encountered in a mixed water column. Photoadaptation was studied in surface ice communities and in bottom ice communities.

Lizotte, M.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

A Comprehensive Habit Diagram for Atmospheric Ice Crystals: Confirmation from the Laboratory, AIRS II, and Other Field Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent laboratory experiments and in situ observations have produced results in broad agreement with respect to ice crystal habits in the atmosphere. These studies reveal that the ice crystal habit at ?20°C is platelike, extending to ?40°C, and ...

Matthew P. Bailey; John Hallett

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Ice Cream with a Heart Create a new Clemson Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice Cream with a Heart Contest! Create a new Clemson Ice Cream flavor! Raise money for your favorite charity! Win a free Clemson Ice Cream party for your organization! Enter at www organizations. The contest is called Ice Cream with a Heart and its purpose is to help student organizations

Bolding, M. Chad

110

Arctic Sea ice model sensitivities.  

SciTech Connect

Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Ice Nucleus Concentrations Measured During the 1975 Florida Area Cumulus Experiment (FACE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice nuclei measurements were made aboard a cloud-base aircraft during the 1975 Florida Area Cumulus Experiment. Two techniques were used to obtain the ice nuclei concentrations; membranes were collected and analyzed using the NCAR membrane ...

Joe Wisniewski; Gerhard Langer

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Cirrus Cloud Ice Water Content Radar Algorithm Evaluation Using an Explicit Cloud Microphysical Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of cirrus cloud simulations performed using a model with explicit cloud microphysics is applied to testing ice water content retrieval algorithms based on millimeter-wave radar reflectivity measurements. The simulated ice particle size ...

Kenneth Sassen; Zhien Wang; Vitaly I. Khvorostyanov; Graeme L. Stephens; Angela Bennedetti

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Measurements of the Underside Topography of Sea Ice by Moored Subsea Sonar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A practical technology based on moored subsea instrumentation has been developed to measure the draft of polar pack ice. The technology exploits the complementary capabilities of an ice-profiling sonar designed and built for the application and ...

Humfrey Melling; Paul H. Johnston; David A. Riedel

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Prediction of Vessel Icing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vessel icing from wave-generated spray is a severe hazard to expanded marine operations in high latitudes. Hardships in making observations during operations, combined with differences in vessel type and heading, have resulted in great ...

J. E. Overland; C. H. Pease; R. W. Preisendorfer; A. L. Comiskey

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Global Warming, Soot, Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming, Soot, Ice Speaker(s): James Hansen Date: November 7, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Irreversible "dangerous anthropogenic interference" with the climate system...

117

Sublimation of Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent experiments on the sublimation of single crystals of ice in an atmosphere of air indicate that the sublimation rate is diffusion limited and initially solid prismatic crystals evolve into time-independent shapes similar to confocal ...

Jon Nelson

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF ICE Alexe BOSAK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as ice-nine [K. Vonnegut, Cat's Cradle] #12;Phase diagram of water #12;Phase diagram of water Here we areDIFFRACTION STUDIES OF ICE Alexeï BOSAK European Synchrotron Radiation Facility #12;Ice as the mild threat ice Ih the only ice in the crust #12;Ice as the absolute weapon Ice IX : melting point 45.8°C

Titov, Anatoly

119

Testing an Ice Storage System for Peak Load Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice storage systems allow for the offset of peak building cooling power by allowing the building operator to choose a convenient window for making ice and then using that ice, rather than a traditional cooling system, to provide space cooling. For the past several years, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has tested the Ice Bear 30, a 30 ton-hour system designed to operate independently of the unitary system. This report describes the testing and its results, based on work performed at a field ...

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

120

Contractor SOW Template - ICE | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SOW Template - ICE Contractor SOW Template - ICE Contractor SOW Template - ICE.pdf More Documents & Publications Contractor SOW Template - ICR Statement of Work (SOW) Template...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Anvil characteristics as seen by C-POL during the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Tropical Pacific Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) took place in Darwin, Australia in early 2006. C-band radar data from this experiment were used to characterize tropical anvil areal coverage, height, and thickness during the month-long field campaign. The morphology, evolution, and longevity of the anvil were analyzed as well as the relationship of the anvil to the rest of the precipitating system. In addition, idealized in-cloud radiative heating profiles were created based on the anvil observations. The anvil was separated into mixed (i.e., echo base below 6 km) and ice only categories. The experiment areal average coverage for both types of anvil was between 4-5% of the radar grid. Ice anvil thickness averaged 2.8 km and mixed anvil thickness averaged 6.7 km. No consistent diurnal signal was seen in the anvil, implying that the life cycle of the parent convection was of first order importance in determining the anvil height, thickness, and area. Areal peaks show that mixed anvil typically formed out of the stratiform region. Peak production in ice anvil usually followed the mixed anvil peak by 1-3 hr. Anvil typically lasted 4-10 hr after the initial convective rain area peak. The TWP-ICE experienced three distinct regimes: the active monsoon, dry monsoon, and break periods. During the entire experiment (except the active monsoon period) there was a strong negative correlation between ice anvil thickness and ice anvil height, a strong positive correlation between ice anvil area and thickness, and a greater variance in ice anvil bottom than ice anvil top. Anvil produced during the active regime had the most dramatic in-cloud radiative response with a maximum cooling of 0.45�° K day-1 at 12 km, a maximum heating of 3�° K day-1 at 9 km, and a secondary maximum heating of 1.2�° K day-1 at 5 km.

Frederick, Kaycee Loretta

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

A Bayesian Learning Model in the Agent-based Bilateral Negotiation between the Coal Producers and Electric Power Generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reform of China’s coal sector has changed the traditional relationship of the coal producers and electric power generators, and now most of the coal the coal producers sell to the generators is transacted through electric coal bilateral contracts, ... Keywords: Electric price, Agent, Bayesian Learning

Mingwen Zhang; Zhongfu Tan; Jianbao Zhao; Li Li

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Field demonstration of the ICE 250[trademark] Cleaning System  

SciTech Connect

The ICE 250[trademark] Cleaning System was engineered to convert water into small ice particles for use in cleaning and decontamination applications. Ice crystals are produced in a special icemaker and pressured through a hose-nozzle onto the surface to be cleaned. The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Ice Cleaning Systems, Inc., conducted a test of this system at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 to evaluate the system's cleaning capabilities in an oil field environment. Equipment cleaned included an oil storage tank, a rod pumping unit, a road grader, and a wellhead. Contaminants were unrefined sour crude oil, hydraulic fluid, paraffin, and dirt, occurring separately and as mixtures. In all four demonstration cleaning tasks, the ICE 250 System effectively removed surface contaminant mixtures in a timely manner and left no oily residue. A minimal amount of waste moistur2048s generated, thereby reducing cleanup and disposal costs.

Johnston, J.L.; Jackson, L.M.

1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

124

Field demonstration of the ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System  

SciTech Connect

The ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System was engineered to convert water into small ice particles for use in cleaning and decontamination applications. Ice crystals are produced in a special icemaker and pressured through a hose-nozzle onto the surface to be cleaned. The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Ice Cleaning Systems, Inc., conducted a test of this system at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 to evaluate the system's cleaning capabilities in an oil field environment. Equipment cleaned included an oil storage tank, a rod pumping unit, a road grader, and a wellhead. Contaminants were unrefined sour crude oil, hydraulic fluid, paraffin, and dirt, occurring separately and as mixtures. In all four demonstration cleaning tasks, the ICE 250 System effectively removed surface contaminant mixtures in a timely manner and left no oily residue. A minimal amount of waste moisture was generated, thereby reducing cleanup and disposal costs.

Johnston, J.L.; Jackson, L.M.

1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

125

Classification of Ice Crystal Shapes in Midlatitude Ice Clouds from Three Years of Lidar Observations over the SIRTA Observatory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a study of ice crystal shapes in midlatitude ice clouds inferred from a technique based on the comparison of ray-tracing simulations with lidar depolarization ratio measured at 532 nm. This technique is applied to three years ...

Vincent Noel; Helene Chepfer; Martial Haeffelin; Yohann Morille

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Ice cream headache  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice cream headache Ice cream headache Name: fath Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: What causes an "ice cream headache"? Are they dangerous? What would happen if I induced an ice cream headache when I had a regular headache? Replies: This is really a neat question. I am certainly no expert on headaches, but it has a lot to do blood circulation in the sinuses and around and within the brain. Why do some people get them easily and other seem resistant? The cold might restrict blood flow which is the basis for the problem. An Ice cream headache can be turned "on" or "off" by adjusting the rate of consumption, Slurpees work best, so really cold stuff enhances the effect. Are there stages: cold sensation, lingering headache, subsiding headache, warming, etc? Does the cold actually create similar headache "conditions" or does the brain confused cause it cannot directly feel pain? The difference in people is probably due to differences in arteriole branching and general circulation. In my experience smokers get worse headaches than nonsmokers of the same age. Do you find a similar trend? I am trying to stimulate discussion!

127

Modeling Sea Ice as a Granular Material, Including the Dilatancy Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamic sea ice model based on granular material rheology is presented. The sea ice model is coupled to both a mixed layer ocean model and a one-layer thermodynamic atmospheric model, which allows for an ice albedo feedback. Land is represented ...

L-B. Tremblay; L. A. Mysak

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ice properties of single-layer stratocumulus during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice properties of single-layer stratocumulus during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: 2 opportunity to study poorly understood ice formation processes in mixed-phase stratocumulus. Using, were not significant sources of ice based on parameterizations from existing studies. After surveying

129

Recent Great Lakes Ice Trends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of ice observations made by cooperative observers from shoreline stations reveals significant changes in the ice season on the North American Great Lakes over the past 35years. Although the dataset is highly inhomogeneous and year-to-...

Howard P. Hanson; Claire S. Hanson; Brenda H. Yoo

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

ARM - Measurement - Ice water content  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice water content The concentration (massvol) of ice water particles in a cloud....

131

Ice maker safety control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a refrigeration apparatus including an evaporator, a defrost heater for defrosting the evaporator, a defrost thermostat having a switch for de-energizing the defrost heater at a preselected high temperature of the evaporator, and an ice making apparatus having a mold, a mold heater, and a control circuit controllably energized the mold heater, a safety control for the ice making apparatus is described comprising: means for thermally coupling the defrost thermostat with the mold; and means electrically connecting the defrost thermostat switch with the control circuit for de-energizing the mold heater at a preselected high temperature of the mold to prevent overheating thereof.

Linstromberg, W.J.

1988-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

132

Dry Ice vs. Pipette Experiment Description  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dry Ice vs. Pipette Experiment Description Dry ice (solid) is put into the bulb of a pipette, plastic pipette 1 ice cube sized piece of dry ice Butter knife (or some object to break dry ice) Gloves (surgical gloves will not work, they must protect hands from dry ice) Safety glasses for demonstrator

133

Piling aids gravity in ice resistance  

SciTech Connect

The design and construction of foundations for offshore drilling platforms are described. To allow the base contact areas and ballast requirements to be minimized, thus allowing minimization of ice forces, a combined shallow mat and pile or spud founded system is proposed.

Bea, R.G.; Nour-Omid, S.; Coull, T.B.; Potter, R.E.; Bivens, H.R.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Kinetic Energy Analysis of a microburst-Producing Thunderstorm Based on JAWS Dual-Doppler Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dual-Doppler data collected from 1646 to 1648 MDT 14 July 1982 in Colorado are used to study the kinetic energy budget of a microburst-producing thunderstorm during its mature stage. Values of each term in the kinetic energy budget equation are ...

Yeong-jer Lin; John A. Coover

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Ice–Ice Collisions: An Ice Multiplication Process in Atmospheric Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice in atmospheric clouds undergoes complex physical processes, interacting especially with radiation, which leads to serious impacts on global climate. After their primary production, atmospheric ice crystals multiply extensively by secondary ...

J.-I. Yano; V. T. J. Phillips

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Using Satellite Data to Reduce Spatial Extent of Diagnosed Icing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overprediction of the spatial extent of aircraft icing is a major problem in forecaster products based on numerical model output. Dependence on relative humidity fields, which are inherently broad and smooth, is the cause of this difficulty. ...

Gregory Thompson; Randy Bullock; Thomas F. Lee

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

The Effect of Stochastic Cloud Structure on the Icing Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current understanding of the icing process through collisions between a surface and supercooled cloud droplets is based upon two factors. First, for a given temperature, when the cloud liquid water content, W, exceeds a critical value, wc (the ...

A. R. Jameson; A. B. Kostinski

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Hail ice impact on composite structures at glancing angles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investigation of high velocity ice impacts on woven carbon/and ice sphere. .by trailing ice fragments. ..

Funai, Sho

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Research on a novel method diagnosis and maintenance for key produce plant based on MAS and NN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the development of the electrical power market, the maintenance automation has become an intrinsic need to increase the overall economic efficiency of hydropower plants. A Multi-Agent System (MAS) based model for the predictive maintenance system ...

Weijin Jiang; Xiaohong Lin

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Development of critical surface diagnostic based on the ion acoustic decay instability in laser produced high density plasma  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a large angle, UV collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic for high density, hot plasma relevant to laser fusion. The CTS measured the basic parameters of the plasma waves (frequency, wave number), or the spectral density function for selected wave vectors of plasma waves, which were excited by the IADI (ion acoustic parametric decay instability). It is a good diagnostic tool for a local electron temperature measurement. The electron temperature was estimated by measuring either ion acoustic wave or electron plasma wave in the laser intensity window of 1produced high density plasma.

Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Drake, R.P.; Seka, W.; Craxton, R.S.; Estabrook, K.G.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

The control of ice storage systems  

SciTech Connect

The tradeoffs between chiller and tank capacity for different load profiles and two storage strategies are evaluated in this article. Air-conditioning systems that employ ice storage incorporate equipment that produces ice during one period and melts it in another period to provide cooling for the building. In designing such systems, there are two basic strategies to consider: full-load and partial-load. In a full-load strategy, the entire daytime cooling energy is met using only cooling supplied by the ice storage tank. In a partial-load strategy, the chiller and the storage are used simultaneously to meet the load. With a full-load strategy, the tank capacity must be sufficient to meet the entire energy requirement, and the chiller capacity must be sufficient to recharge the tank during the night-time. In a partial-load strategy, a smaller chiller and tank than that for a full-load strategy are required, and there are many combinations of the two that will meet a given building load. The design and sizing of the components of an ice storage system depend not only on the desired strategy and total daily cooling energy but also on other factors. The maximum load dictates the amount of cooling required at any time. The cooling rate provided by an ice filled tank is not constant, but decreases as the ice inventory drops, and the time that the maximum load occurs is important. Thus, there is an interaction between the building load profile and tank size. In addition, the flow rate of the circulating fluid through the tank and the cooling coil may limit the supply air temperatures that may be reached. Thus, the circulating fluid flow rate must be sufficient to provide the desired rates of cooling to the building. The challenge to the design engineer is to size the components to meet the building load at all times at the lowest system cost. Effective designs must acknowledge the dynamic performance of the ice storage system.

Carey, C.W. [Amana Corp., IA (United States); Mitchell, J.W.; Beckman, W.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Surface Melting over Ice Shelves and Ice Sheets as Assessed from Modeled Surface Air Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Summer surface melting plays an important role in the evolution of ice shelves and their progenitor ice sheets. To explore the magnitude of surface melt occurring over modern ice shelves and ice sheets in a climate scenario forced by ...

Jeremy G. Fyke; Lionel Carter; Andrew Mackintosh; Andrew J. Weaver; Katrin J. Meissner

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

The Spitzer ice legacy: Ice evolution from cores to protostars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ices regulate much of the chemistry during star formation and account for up to 80% of the available oxygen and carbon. In this paper, we use the Spitzer c2d ice survey, complimented with data sets on ices in cloud cores and high-mass protostars, to determine standard ice abundances and to present a coherent picture of the evolution of ices during low- and high-mass star formation. The median ice composition H2O:CO:CO2:CH3OH:NH3:CH4:XCN is 100:29:29:3:5:5:0.3 and 100:13:13:4:5:2:0.6 toward low- and high-mass protostars, respectively, and 100:31:38:4:-:-:- in cloud cores. In the low-mass sample, the ice abundances with respect to H2O of CH4, NH3, and the component of CO2 mixed with H2O typically vary by ice components, XCN and CH3OH vary by factors 2-10 between the lower and upper quartile. The XCN band correlates with CO, consistent with its OCN- identification. The origin(s) of the different levels of ice abundance variations are cons...

Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Broek, Saskia van den; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Baltimore Aircoil Company (BAC) ice storage test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial ice storage systems. Baltimore Aircoil Company (BAC) provided a storage tank equipped with coils designed for use with a liquid overfeed refrigeration system. Separate coils were also supplied for use with a secondary fluid system. The BAC ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. System performance was satisfactory under both charging and discharging conditions. During the liquid-overfeed ice build cycle, the evaporator temperature closely matched the manufacturer's literature. The measured average brine temperatures were slightly higher than those given in the BAC literature (i.e., the BAC report is conservative). During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature remains nearly constant below 35{degree}F, rising only after most of the ice has been melted. The discharge performance was relatively unaffected by discharge rates or tank inlet temperatures. Based on these tests, a storage tank sized solely according to the latent ice storage capacity is capable of providing a relatively constant temperature to the load throughout most of the discharge cycle. This report describes BAC system performance fully under both charging and discharging conditions. Companion reports describe ISTF test procedures and ice-making efficiency test results that are common to many of the units tested. 10 refs., 30 figs., 7 tabs.

Stovall, T.K.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Modeling of Ice Accretion on Wires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A time-dependent numerical model of ice accretion on wires, such as overhead conductors, is presented. Simulations of atmospheric icing are made with the model in order to examine the dependence of the accreted ice amount on atmospheric ...

Lasse Makkonen

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) Summary The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate...

149

Virtual Floe Ice Drift Forecast Model Intercomparison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both sea ice forecast models and methods to measure their skill are needed for operational sea ice forecasting. Two simple sea ice models are described and tested here. Four different measures of skill are also tested. The forecasts from the ...

Robert W. Grumbine

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Essays on the Impact of Presidential and Media-Based Usage of Anxiety-Producing Rhetoric on Dynamic Issue Attention  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The intention of the project is to determine whether political elites have to discuss an issue using a specific emotional tone before the public and other political elites consider that issue a problem. Research has not yet demonstrated under what conditions elite rhetorical cues can heighten issue attention. Past studies have suggested that an increase in the absolute intensity of elite issue discussion can heighten perceptions of an issue as a problem. The problem with this notion is that within that absolute issue discussion, elites might simply be repeatedly saying conditions related to an issue are stable. They might also be presenting basic factual background information about an issue, a type of discussion unlikely to capture the interest of many in the political system. There has to be a specific type of cue that elites can offer to compel others in the political system to reconsider their outlook on issue salience. Derived from dual systems theories of emotion, the dissertation predicts that issue discussion that heightens feelings of anxiety increases the likelihood of an altered outlook on issue salience. To evaluate this prediction, time series statistical techniques are employed. The time series models evaluate whether prior change in the level of anxietybased cues by the president and the media predict changes in the level of attention the public offers to that issue. The same types of models evaluate whether this form of issue discussion by the president predicts issue dynamics of the media, and vice-versa. The several issues studied are crime, health care, poverty, and the environment. Information spanning thirty years is collected from presidential papers, general and ideological media newspaper coverage, and multiple public survey organizations. The findings suggest anxiety-based issue discussion does have the potential to guide issue attention. Prior changes in anxiety-based cues do predict future levels of attention the public provides to issues. A positive shift in anxiety cues by elites appears to have the capacity to increase public attention to issues. This increase though appears to be very small and abbreviated, suggesting limited effects. Elites do not appear to influence each other through anxiety cues.

Olds, Christopher Paul

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Theory of amorphous ices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use large-deviation theory to study nonequilibrium transitions between amorphous solids and liquid in an atomistic model of supercooled water. Along with nonequilibrium transitions between the ergodic liquid and two distinct amorphous solids, we establish coexistence between the two amorphous solids, a finding that is consistent with experiment. The phase diagram we predict includes a nonequilibrium triple point where the two amorphous phases and the liquid coexist. While the amorphous solids are long-lived and slowly-aging glasses, their melting leads quickly to the formation of ice. This irreversible behavior is demonstrated in our theoretical treatment and compared with experiment.

David T Limmer; David Chandler

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

152

BISICLES Captures Details of Retreating Antarctic Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BISICLES Captures Details of Retreating Antarctic Ice BISICLES Captures Details of Retreating Antarctic Ice March 30, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper, Math & Computer Science...

153

Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments  

SciTech Connect

Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

Jeffery, Nicole [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hunke, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turner, Adrian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

154

Wind-electric ice making investigation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The village power group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been researching the most practical and cost-effective means for producing ice from off-grid wind-electric power systems since 1993. The first phase of the project demonstrated that commercial vapor-compression ice makers could operate effectively when powered by a variable speed permanent magnet wind generator. In the second phase of the project, steady-state and dynamic numerical models of these systems were developed and experimentally validated. The third phase of the project was thorough steady-state and dynamic testing of a commercial 1.1 ton ice maker unit powered by a commercial 12 kW wind turbine alternator on an NREL dynamometer test stand. With the data from phases 1--3 an economic feasibility analysis was performed. It is hoped that continued development, and eventually commercialization, of this concept will take place in the private sector in the form of small business partnerships.

Holz, R.; Drouilhet, S.; Gevorgian, V.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

ARM - Measurement - Cloud ice particle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ice particle ice particle ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud ice particle Particles made of ice found in clouds. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Field Campaign Instruments REPLICATOR : Balloon-borne Ice Crystal Replicator CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CVI-AIR : Counterflow Virtual Impactor LEARJET : Lear Jet PARTIMG : Particle imager UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments

156

Thermal desorption of CH4 retained in CO2 ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO2 ices are known to exist in different astrophysical environments. In spite of this, its physical properties (structure, density, refractive index) have not been as widely studied as those of water ice. It would be of great value to study the adsorption properties of this ice in conditions related to astrophysical environments. In this paper, we explore the possibility that CO2 traps relevant molecules in astrophysical environments at temperatures higher than expected from their characteristic sublimation point. To fulfil this aim we have carried out desorption experiments under High Vacuum conditions based on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance and additionally monitored with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. From our results, the presence of CH4 in the solid phase above the sublimation temperature in some astrophysical scenarios could be explained by the presence of several retaining mechanisms related to the structure of CO2 ice.

R. Luna; C. Millan; M. Domingo; M. A. Satorre

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

157

An Experimental Study of the Production of Ice Crystals by a Twin-Turboprop Aircraft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Wyoming King Air (KA) research aircraft was used in controlled, in situ experiments to determine whether or not, and under what cloud and aircraft operating conditions, a twin-turboprop aircraft would itself produce ice crystals ...

Robert D. Kelly; Gabor Vali

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Direct Assimilation of AMSR-E Brightness Temperatures for Estimating Sea Ice Concentration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a method to directly assimilate brightness temperatures from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) to produce ice concentration analyses within a three-dimensional variational data ...

K. Andrea Scott; Mark Buehner; Alain Caya; Tom Carrieres

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Dynamics of ice shelf rift propagation and iceberg calving inferred from geodetic and seismic observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2. Ice Shelves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. Ice Rheology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.vi Calving Glaciers and Ice

Bassis, Jeremy N.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Global Distribution of Ice Cloud Particle Shape and Roughness from PARASOL Satellite Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy balance of the Earth is regulated in part by ice clouds, which both reflect shortwave solar radiation and absorb infrared radiation from the Earth. These clouds appear frequently worldwide, with up to 70% coverage in tropical regions. The microphysics of ice clouds determines their radiative properties, and is important for accurately predicting the role of ice clouds in Earth’s energy balance. However, describing the microphysics of ice clouds remains a challenging problem, especially with regard to the shape of ice particles and the degree of ice particle surface roughening. In-situ studies have found evidence for ice surface roughness and have found many complex ice geometries; however, these studies are limited spatially and temporally. An approach which allows large-scale analysis is to retrieve these properties via theoretical modeling using satellite observations of polarized reflectance from ice clouds, since polarized reflectance is sensitive to the shape and roughness of ice particles. The theoretical model requires the scattering properties of simulated ice particles. These properties are obtained for 10 different ice shapes and 17 different levels of surface roughness. Simulations are performed for 3 different effective ice particle diameters: 30, 60 and 90 ?m. Overall, the retrieved shape is dominated by the compact aggregate of columns. Although the exact composition of shapes varies from month to month, the compact aggregate of columns remains the most commonly retrieved shape. The retrieved roughness varies from moderately rough at ? = 0.1 to severely rough at ? = 0.5. Retrieved roughness varies more than shape, and smooth surfaced ice is most prominent in January. Tropical regions tend to have ice particles that are more roughened, while the midlatitudes and polar regions tend to have more smooth ice. In almost all cases, roughened ice represents > 60% of the total retrievals. The asymmetry parameter inferred from the retrieval of ice particle shape and roughness has a mean value near 0.77, with only small differences based on assumed ice effective diameter. The median value of the asymmetry parameter has a nearly constant value of approximately 0.75.

Cole, Benjamin

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Passive solar roof ice melter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An elongated passive solar roof ice melter is placed on top of accumulated ice and snow including an ice dam along the lower edge of a roof of a heated building and is held against longitudinal movement with respect to itself. The melter includes a bottom wall having an upper surface highly absorbent to radiant solar energy; a first window situated at right angles with respect to the bottom wall, and a reflecting wall connecting the opposite side edges of the bottom wall and the first window. The reflecting wall has a surface facing the bottom wall and the window which is highly reflective to radiant solar energy. Radiant solar energy passes through the first window and either strikes the highly absorbent upper surface of the bottom wall or first strikes the reflecting wall to be reflected down to the upper surface of the bottom wall. The heat generated thereby melts through the ice below the bottom wall causing the ice dam to be removed between the bottom wall and the top of the roof and immediately adjacent to the ice melter along the roof. Water dammed up by the ice dam can then flow down through this break in the dam and drain out harmlessly onto the ground. This prevents dammed water from seeping back under the shingles and into the house to damage the interior of the house.

Deutz, R.T.

1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

162

Forecast Verification of the Polar Ice Prediction System (PIPS) Sea Ice Concentration Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Ice Center relies upon a coupled ice–ocean model called the Polar Ice Prediction System (PIPS) to provide guidance for its 24–120-h sea ice forecasts. Here forecast skill assessments of the sea ice concentration (C) fields from PIPS ...

Michael L. Van Woert; Cheng-Zhi Zou; Walter N. Meier; Philip D. Hovey; Ruth H. Preller; Pamela G. Posey

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Solving the energy dilemma at Seven Bridges Ice Arena  

SciTech Connect

Seven Bridges Ice Arena with three ice skating rinks is among the largest ice skating facilities in the US. A complete fitness center, pro shop, second level observation gallery, restaurant, aerobics room, dance studio and children`s play room round out the 120,000 ft{sup 2} (11,215 m{sup 2}) world class facility. The Olympic Hockey League ice rink has seating for 800 spectators; and the National Hockey League ice rink has 1,200 spectator seats. The collegiate ice sheet has participant seating only. When building the one-year-old facility, the management initially solicited HVAC design/build system plans based on the usual Package Roof Top (RTU) heat/cool units or split system parameters. Such a plan could have been a disaster because high energy costs have contributed directly to the closing of 20 rinks in the Chicago area. This article describes a HVAC system that would take advantage of every Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECO) possible to ensure the economic well being of this property. This included a plan that uses the refrigeration for both cooling and heating, which eliminated the need for commercial packaged units.

Louria, D. [Air Comfort Corp., Broadview, IL (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Ice_slurry_fact_sheet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

new approach to saving stroke and cardiac arrest victims by using a specially engineered ice slurry to cool organs. The technology is also being investigated as a way to improve...

165

Melting of Ice under Pressure  

SciTech Connect

The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

An Inverse Method for Tracking Ice Motion in the Marginal Ice Zone Using Sequential Satellite Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method for tracking ice motion and estimating ocean surface currents from sequential satellite images is presented. It is particularly suited for the marginal ice zone. A simple ice advection model, driven by wind and surface currents, is ...

Mark Buehner; Keith R. Thompson; Ingrid Peterson

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Ice structures, patterns, and processes: A view across the ice-fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We look ahead from the frontiers of research on ice dynamics in its broadest sense; on the structures of ice, the patterns or morphologies it may assume, and the physical and chemical processes in which it is involved. We highlight open questions in the various fields of ice research in nature; ranging from terrestrial and oceanic ice on Earth, to ice in the atmosphere, to ice on other solar system bodies and in interstellar space.

Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Escribano, Rafael; Finney, John L; Grothe, Hinrich; Gutiérrez, Pedro J; Haapala, Jari; Kuhs, Werner F; Pettersson, Jan B C; Price, Stephen D; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio; Stokes, Debbie J; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Thomson, Erik S; Trinks, Hauke; Uras-Aytemiz, Nevin; 10.1103/RevModPhys.84.885

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Effects of Surface Roughness and Surface Energy on Ice Adhesion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice adheres to steel surfaces when the environment temperature is low. In many cases, ice formation on surfaces is unwanted; therefore, anti-icing techniques ...

169

ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures ICE-ICR SOP.pdf More Documents & Publications External Independent Review (EIR) Standard Operating...

170

Temporal Variability of the Energy Balance of Thick Arctic Pack Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temporal variability of the six terms of the energy balance equation for a slab of ice 3 m thick is calculated based on 45 yr of surface meteorological observations from the drifting ice stations of the former Soviet Union. The equation ...

R. W. Lindsay

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Adaptation of an Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model for the Study of Circulation beneath Ice Shelves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Much of the Antarctic coastline comprises large, floating ice shelves, beneath which waters from the open ocean circulate. The interaction of the seawater with the base of these ice shelves has a bearing both on the rate at which Antarctic Bottom ...

David M. Holland; Adrian Jenkins

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

A Model for Predicting Ice Accretion and Ablation in Water Bodies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model is presented for computing ice growth and ablation. Downward long- and shortwave radiation is computed for variable cloud amount and base. Surface albedo depends on snow cover and age of the snow or ice. Thermal inertia of the snow and ...

Maurice Danard; Mark Gray; Goz Lyv

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Hydrographic Preconditioning for Seasonal Sea Ice Anomalies in the Labrador Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the hydrographic processes involved in setting the maximum wintertime sea ice (SI) extent in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The analysis is based on an ocean and sea ice state estimate covering the summer-to-summer 1996/...

Ian Fenty; Patrick Heimbach

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Surface Melt Area and Water Balance Modeling on the Greenland Ice Sheet 1995–2005  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SnowModel, a physically based snow-evolution modeling system that includes four submodels—MicroMet, EnBal, SnowPack, and SnowTran-3D—was used to simulate variations in Greenland [including the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS)] surface snow and ice melt,...

Sebastian H. Mernild; Glen E. Liston; Christopher A. Hiemstra; Konrad Steffen

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Ross Ice Shelf in situ radio-frequency ice attenuation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have measured the in situ average electric field attenuation length for radio-frequency signals broadcast vertically through the Ross Ice Shelf. We chose a location, Moore Embayment, south of Minna Bluff, known for its high reflectivity at the ice-sea interface. We confirmed specular reflection and used the return pulses to measure the average attenuation length from 75-1250 MHz over the round-trip distance of 1155 m. We find the average electric field attenuation length to vary from 500 m at 75 MHz to 300 m at 1250 MHz, with an experimental uncertainty of 55 to 15 m. We discuss the implications for neutrino telescopes that use the radio technique and include the Ross Ice Shelf as part of their sensitive volume.

Taylor Barrella; Steven Barwick; David Saltzberg

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

176

Parameterization of the scattering and absorption properties of individual ice crystals  

SciTech Connect

We present parameterizations of the single-scattering properties for individual ice crystals of various habits based on the results computed from the accurate light scattering calculations. The projected area, volume, and single-scattering properties of ice crystals with various shapes and sizes are computed for 56 narrow spectral bands covering 0.2-5 {mu}m. The ice crystal habits considered in this study are hexagonal plates, solid and hollow columns, planar and spatial bullet rosette, and aggregates that are commonly observed in cirrus clouds. Using the observational relationships between the aspect ratios and the sizes of ice crystals, we can define the three-dimensional structure of these ice crystal habits with respect to their maximum dimensions for light scattering calculations. The volume and projected area of ice crystals, expressed in terms of the diameters of the corresponding equivalent spheres, are first parameterized by employing the ice crystal maximum dimensions. Further, various analytical expressions as functions of the effective dimensions of ice crystals have been developed to parameterize the extinction and absorption efficiencies, asymmetry factor, and the truncation of the forward peak energy in the phase function. The present parameterization scheme provides an efficient approach to obtain the basic scattering and absorption properties of nonspherical ice crystals. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

Yang, Ping [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Liou, K. N. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Wyser, Klaus [Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Mitchell, David [Atmospheric Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada (United States)] [Atmospheric Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada (United States)

2000-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

177

Ice Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ice Energy Ice Energy Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ice Energy Name Ice Energy Address 9351 Eastman Park Drive Place Windsor, Colorado Zip 80550 Sector Renewable energy Product Energy Storage Year founded 2003 Number of employees 51-200 Phone number 970-545-3630 Website http://www.ice-energy.com/ Coordinates 40.4651775°, -104.882° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.4651775,"lon":-104.882,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

178

Performance of a stand-alone wind-electric ice maker for remote villages  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two ice makers in the 1.1 metric tons per 24 hours (1.2 tons per day) size range were tested to determine their performance when directly coupled to a variable-frequency wind turbine generator. Initial tests were conducted using a dynamometer to simulate to wind to evaluate whether previously determined potential problems were significant and to define basic performance parameters. Field testing in Norman, Oklahoma, was completed to determine the performance of one of the ice makers under real wind conditions. As expected, the ice makers produced more ice at a higher speed than rated, and less ice at a lower speed. Due to the large start-up torque requirement of reciprocating compressors, the ice making system experienced a large start-up current and corresponding voltage drop which required a larger wind turbine that expected to provide the necessary current and voltage. Performance curves for ice production and power consumption are presented. A spreadsheet model was constructed to predict ice production at a user-defined site given the wind conditions for that location. Future work should include long-term performance tests and research on reducing the large start-up currents the system experiences when first coming on line.

Davis, H.C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Brandemuehl, M.J. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Joint Center for Energy Management; Bergey, M.L.S. [Bergey Windpower Co., Norman, OK (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Relative Dispersion of Ice Crystals in Seeded Cumuli  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relative dispersion of ice crystals was measured in 30 seeded cumulus clouds. A quasi-instantaneous, vertical area source of ice was generated by releasing dry-ice pellets from an airplane. The ice concentration distribution and relative ...

Jeffrey C. Weil; R. Paul Lawson; Alfred R. Rodi

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Rheology of Discrete Failure Regimes of Anisotropic Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rheological model of sea ice is presented that incorporates the orientational distribution of ice thickness in leads embedded in isotropic floe ice. Sea ice internal stress is determined by coulombic, ridging and tensile failure at orientations ...

Alexander V. Wilchinsky; Daniel L. Feltham

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

NTRM Producer Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NTRM ® Producer Information. An NTRM ® (NIST Traceable Reference Material) is a commercially produced reference ...

2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

182

Study of Ice Cloud Properties from Synergetic Use of Satellite Observations and Modeling Capabilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dissertation first investigates the single-scattering properties of inhomogeneous ice crystals containing air bubbles. Specifically, a combination of the ray-tracing technique and the Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the scattering of light by randomly oriented large hexagonal ice crystals containing spherical or spheroidal air bubbles. The effect of the air bubbles within ice crystals is to smooth the phase functions, diminish the 22° and 46° halo peaks, and reduce the backscatter in comparison with the case of bubble-free ice crystals. Cloud reflectance look-up tables were generated at the wavelengths of 0.65 ?m and 2.13 ?m to examine the impact of accounting for air bubbles in ice crystal morphology on the retrieval of ice cloud optical thickness and effective particle size. To investigate the effect of the representation of aggregates on electromagnetic scattering calculations, an algorithm is developed to efficiently specify the geometries of aggregates and to compute some of their geometric parameters such as the projected area. Based on in situ observations, aggregates are defined as clusters of hexagonal plates with a chain-like overall shape. An aggregate model is developed with 10 ensemble members, each consisting of between 4-12 hexagonal plates. The scattering properties of an individual aggregate ice particle are computed using the discrete dipole approximation or an Improved Geometric Optics Method, depending upon the size parameter. The aggregate model provides an accurate and computationally efficient way to represent all aggregates occurring within ice clouds. We developed an algorithm to determine an appropriate ice cloud model for application to satellite-based retrieval of ice cloud properties. Collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data are used to retrieve the optical thicknesses of ice clouds as a function of scattering angle in the nine MISR viewing directions. The difference between cloud optical thickness and its averaged value over the nine viewing angles can be used to validate the ice cloud models. Using the data obtained on 2 July 2009, an appropriate ice cloud model is determined. With the presence of all the uncertainties in the current operational satellite-based retrievals of ice cloud properties, this ice cloud model has excellent performance in terms of consistency in cloud property retrievals with the nine MISR viewing angles.

Xie, Yu

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Modeling Sea Ice Transport Using Incremental Remapping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea ice models contain transport equations for the area, volume, and energy of ice and snow in various thickness categories. These equations typically are solved with first-order-accurate upwind schemes, which are very diffusive; with second-...

William H. Lipscomb; Elizabeth C. Hunke

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Quantum Ice : a quantum Monte Carlo study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice states, in which frustrated interactions lead to a macroscopic ground-state degeneracy, occur in water ice, in problems of frustrated charge order on the pyrochlore lattice, and in the family of rare-earth magnets collectively known as spin ice. Of particular interest at the moment are "quantum spin ice" materials, where large quantum fluctuations may permit tunnelling between a macroscopic number of different classical ground states. Here we use zero-temperature quantum Monte Carlo simulations to show how such tunnelling can lift the degeneracy of a spin or charge ice, stabilising a unique "quantum ice" ground state --- a quantum liquid with excitations described by the Maxwell action of 3+1-dimensional quantum electrodynamics. We further identify a competing ordered "squiggle" state, and show how both squiggle and quantum ice states might be distinguished in neutron scattering experiments on a spin ice material.

Nic Shannon; Olga Sikora; Frank Pollmann; Karlo Penc; Peter Fulde

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

185

Why Sequence Lake Vostok accretion ice?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequence Lake Vostok accretion ice? Lake Vostok is the largest known subglacial lake in central Antarctica, though it's been buried under 4 kilometers (nearly 2.5 miles) of ice for...

186

Icing Conditions Encountered by a Research Aircraft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characteristics of clouds which have led to airframe icing on an instrumented Beechcraft Super King Air are summarized. The icing encounters occurred at altitudes from 0–8000 m MSL, in summer and winter, in stratiform and cumuliform clouds, ...

Wayne R. Sand; William A. Cooper; Marcia K. Politovich; Donald L. Veal

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of California. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers Thomasconditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of areaction of reactant gases (1). A number of strategies exist

Dursch, Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Ice Crystal Replication with Common Plastic Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Use of common plastics, i.e., polystyrene, Plexiglas (polymethyl methacrylate) and Lexan (polycarbonate), was investigated for ice crystal replication. The results suggest that all common plastics tested are usable for ice crystal replication ...

Tsuneya Takahashi; Norihiko Fukuta

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Airplane Instrument to Detect Ice Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple instrument that detects ice particles has been developed for use in airplane studies of thunderstorms. Although sophisticated instruments are available for imaging atmospheric ice particles, the spatial resolution of the particle ...

J. J. Jones; C. Grotbeck; B. Vonnegut

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Light Scattering by Single Natural Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the South Pole Ice Crystal Experiment, angular scattering intensities (ASIs) of single ice crystals formed in natural conditions were measured for the first time with the polar nephelometer instrument. The microphysical properties of the ...

Valery Shcherbakov; Jean-François Gayet; Brad Baker; Paul Lawson

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Sound Scattering from Sea Ice: Aspects Relevant to Ice-Draft Profiling by Sonar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate discrimination between thin ice and open water using sonar is an important practical concern for the calibration of ice-draft observations and for the use of ice-profiling sonar in climate-related studies of sea ice. To guide improvement ...

Humfrey Melling

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

ICE™ and ICE/T™: tools to assist in compiler design and implementation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ICE (Intermediate Code Engine) and ICE/T (ICE/Translator) are compiler back ends that execute on a Java Virtual Machine (JVM). They allow the student to complete a working compiler quickly and can execute on any platform that supplies a JVM. ICE is a ... Keywords: back-end, compiler, project, translator

Truman Parks Boyer; Mohsen Chitsaz

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Gas isotopes in ice reveal a vegetated central Greenland during ice sheet invasion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the ground surface as snow- drift and the ice sheet during a growing phase, with a mixing ratio of the localGas isotopes in ice reveal a vegetated central Greenland during ice sheet invasion R. Souchez,1 J prevailing during build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) are not yet established. Here we use results from

Chappellaz, Jérôme

194

Global simulations of ice nucleation and ice supersaturation with an improved cloud scheme in the Community  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and supersaturation in CAM. The new model is able to reproduce field observations of ice mass and mixed phase cloudGlobal simulations of ice nucleation and ice supersaturation with an improved cloud scheme; accepted 3 June 2010; published 28 September 2010. [1] A processbased treatment of ice supersaturation

Gettelman, Andrew

195

Application in Advanced Laparoscopic Procedures: Medical Ice...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications Homeland Security Applications Biomedical Applications Medical Ice Slurry Coolants for Inducing Targeted-OrganTissue Protective Cooling Technology...

196

A Numerical Model for Prediction of Road Temperature and Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical model for the prediction of road temperature and ice has been tested on data from a Danish road station. The model is based on the solution of the equation of heat conduction in the ground and the surface energy-balance equation.

Bent H. Sass

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Aerosols and Ice Particle Size in Tropical Cumulonimbus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A retrieval of ice crystal size near the tops of active deep cumulonimbus clouds (Cb) throughout the Tropics over a 12-yr period is presented based on radiances from the 3.7-?m channel of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). ...

Steven C. Sherwood

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Experimental investigation of ice slurry flow pressure drop in horizontal tubes  

SciTech Connect

Pressure drop behaviour of ice slurry based on ethanol-water mixture in circular horizontal tubes has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethyl alcohol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The pressure drop tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 30% depending on test conditions. Results from flow tests reveal much higher pressure drop for higher ice concentrations and higher velocities in comparison to the single phase flow. However for ice concentrations of 15% and higher, certain velocity exists at which ice slurry pressure drop is same or even lower than for single phase flow. It seems that higher ice concentration delay flow pattern transition moment (from laminar to turbulent) toward higher velocities. In addition experimental results for pressure drop were compared to the analytical results, based on Poiseulle and Buckingham-Reiner models for laminar flow, Blasius, Darby and Melson, Dodge and Metzner, Steffe and Tomita for turbulent region and general correlation of Kitanovski which is valid for both flow regimes. For laminar flow and low buoyancy numbers Buckingham-Reiner method gives good agreement with experimental results while for turbulent flow best fit is provided with Dodge-Metzner and Tomita methods. Furthermore, for transport purposes it has been shown that ice mass fraction of 20% offers best ratio of ice slurry transport capability and required pumping power. (author)

Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

SPECIALREPORT95-18 Structural Ice Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

described in this review are not limited to confluence ice situations. A second phase of the work unit will examine and select confluences with known ice problems for detailed analysis. A third phase will combineSPECIALREPORT95-18 Structural Ice Control Review of Existing Methods Andrew M. Tuthill July 1995

200

Objectively Analyzed Air–Sea Heat Fluxes for the Global Ice-Free Oceans (1981–2005)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 25-yr (1981–2005) time series of daily latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ice-free oceans has been produced by synthesizing surface meteorology obtained from satellite remote sensing and atmospheric model reanalyses outputs. The ...

Lisan Yu; Robert A. Weller

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Development of a pressurized low-temperature tablet press for a carbon dioxide flash frozen ice confection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This document details the conception, design, and testing of a series of prototype powder-pelletizing devices for use with an ice confection powder produced using a CO2 spray freezing process. The device must function at ...

Lopez, David M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Modern Records of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and a 2000-year Ice-core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) » Ice Cores Carbon Dioxide (CO2) » Ice Cores Modern Records of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record from Law Dome, Antarctica Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations over the last 2000 years, emphasizing large data bases each representing many currently active stations. Records since about 1960 (depending on location) have been obtained from samples of ambient-air at remote stations, which represent changing global atmospheric concentrations rather than influences of local sources. The longer (2000-year) record is from the Law Dome ice core in Antarctica. The ice-core record has been merged with modern annual data from Cape Grim, Tasmania to provide a 2000-year record ending with the most recent data. A

203

Modern Records of Atmospheric Methane (CH4) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(CH4) » Ice Cores (CH4) » Ice Cores Modern Records of Atmospheric Methane (CH4) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record from Law Dome, Antarctica Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric methane (CH4) over the last 2000 years, emphasizing large data bases each representing currently active stations. Records in recent decades (time period depending on location) have been obtained from samples of ambient-air at remote locations, which represent global atmospheric conditions rather than influences of local sources. The longer (2000-year) record is from the Law Dome ice core in Antarctica. The ice-core record has been merged with modern annual data from Cape Grim, Tasmania to provide a 2000-year record ending with the most recent data. A spline function has

204

ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

205

Triple frequency radar reflectivity signatures of snow: Observations and comparisons to theoretical ice particle scattering models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An observation-based study is presented that utilizes aircraft data from the 2003 Wakasa Bay AMSR Precipitation Validation Campaign to assess recent advances in the modeling of microwave scattering properties of non-spherical ice particles in the ...

Mark S. Kulie; Michael J. Hiley; Ralf Bennartz; Stefan Kneifel; Simone Tanelli

206

Toward the Improvement of Aircraft-Icing Forecasts for the Continental United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated procedure is developed for detecting and forecasting atmospheric conditions conductive to aircraft icing over the continental United States. The procedure uses gridded output from the Nested-Grid Model, and is based on the manual ...

Paul Schultz; Marcia K. Politovich

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

A Mathematical Model of the Ocean Boundary Layer under Drifting Melting ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model of the ocean boundary layer under drifting melting ice is formulated, verified, and applied. The model is based on the conservation equations for heat, salt, and momentum and uses turbulence models to achieve closure. Novel ...

U. Svensson; A. Omstedt

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

The Effects of Mountain Lee Waves on the Transport of Liquid Propane-Generated Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of rawinsonde balloon ascent rates, low-elevation aircraft, and ground-based tracer sampling measurements are presented. These data indicate that mountain-induced gravity waves have a significant impact on the transport of ice ...

David W. Reynolds

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Variability of Microphysical Parameters in High-Altitude Ice Clouds: Results of the Remote Sensing Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The remote sensing method for retrieving vertical profiles of microphysical parameters in ice clouds from ground-based measurements taken by the Doppler radar and IR radiometer was applied to several cloud cases observed during different field ...

Sergey Y. Matrosov

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Development of a GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager Solar Channel Radiance Simulator for Ice Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of an ice cloud radiance simulator for the anticipated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) solar channels. The simulator is based on the discrete ...

Shouguo Ding; Ping Yang; Bryan A. Baum; Andrew Heidinger; Thomas Greenwald

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Including Surface Kinetic Effects in Simple Models of Ice Vapor Diffusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for kinetically-limited vapor growth and aspect ratio evolution of atmospheric single ice crystals is presented. The method is based on the adaptive habit model of Chen and Lamb (1994), but is modified to include the deposition ...

Chengzhu Zhang; Jerry Y. Harrington

212

Global ice cloud observations: radiative properties and statistics from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice clouds occur quite frequently, yet so much about these clouds is unknown. In recent years, numerous investigations and field campaigns have been focused on the study of ice clouds, all with the ultimate goal of gaining a better understanding of microphysical and optical properties, as well as determining the radiative impact. Perhaps one of the most recognized instruments used for such research is the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), carried aboard the NASA EOS satellites Terra and Aqua. The present research aims to support ongoing efforts in the field of ice cloud research by use of observations obtained from Terra and Aqua MODIS. First, a technique is developed to infer ice cloud optical depth from the MODIS cirrus reflectance parameter. This technique is based on a previous method developed by Meyer et al. (2004). The applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated with retrievals from level-2 and -3 MODIS data. The technique is also evaluated with the operational MODIS cloud retrieval product and a method based on airborne ice cloud observations. From this technique, an archive of daily optical depth retrievals is constructed. Using simple statistics, the global spatial and temporal distributions of ice clouds are determined. Research has found that Aqua MODIS observes more frequent ice clouds and larger optical depths and ice water paths than does Terra MODIS. Finally, an analysis of the time series of daily optical depth values revealed that ice clouds at high latitudes, which are most likely associated with synoptic scale weather sytems, persist long enough to move with the upper level winds. Tropical ice clouds, however, dissipate more rapidly, and are in all likelihood associated with deep convective cells.

Meyer, Kerry Glynne

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Subsurface Ice and Brine Sampling Using an Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher for Life Detection and Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is growing evidence for ice and fluids near the surface of Mars with potential discharge of brines, which may preserve a record of past life on the planet. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for such records. The required technology studies are underway in the McMurdo Dry valleys, Antarctica, which is serving as a Mars analog. The ice layer on Lake Vida in the dry valleys is estimated to be 20-meter thick where below 16-m depth there is a mix of ice and brine, which has never been sampled directly due to logistical constraints. A novel light weight, low power ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC) mechanism was developed that overcomes the need for high axial loads required by drilling via conventional techniques. The USDC was modified to produce an Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that is being developed to core down to the 20-m depth for in situ analysis and sample collection. Coring ice at-20 o C as in Lake Vida suggests that it is a greater challenge and current efforts are focused on the problems of ice core cutting, ice chip handling and potential ice melt (and refreezing) during drilling. An analytical model and a prototype are being developed with an effort to

Y. Bar-cohen; S. Sherrit; Z. Chang; L. Wessel; X. Bao; P. T. Doran; C. H. Fritsen; F. Kenig; C. P. Mckay; A. Murray; T. Peterson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

FEM analysis of in-flight ice break-up  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a fracture mechanics framework, this paper presents a finite element method to simulate the break-up of ice accreted on the wings of aircraft. The fully automated ice break-up module is integrated in FENSAP-ICE [1,2], which is an in-flight ice ... Keywords: Finite element methods, Fracture mechanics, Ice break-up, Ice shedding, In-flight icing, Multi-physics phenomenon

Shiping Zhang; Oubai El Kerdi; Rooh A. Khurram; Wagdi G. Habashi

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Minimizing Discomfort during the injection of Radiesse™ with the use of either local anesthetic or ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comite SL, Storwick GS. Ice minimizes discomfort associatedeither local anesthetic or ice Stephen Comite MD 1 , Alexisinvolves the use of an ice cube for anesthesia. Ice has been

Comite, Stephen; Greene, Alexis; Cieszynski, Sabina A; Zaroovabeli, Pauline; Marks, Karen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter ($15 to $60 per 1000 gallons), with treatment costs accounting for 13 â?? 23% of the overall cost. Results from this project suggest that produced water is a potential large source of cooling water, but treatment and transportation costs for this water are large.

Chad Knutson; Seyed Dastgheib; Yaning Yang; Ali Ashraf; Cole Duckworth; Priscilla Sinata; Ivan Sugiyono; Mark Shannon; Charles Werth

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

217

Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

J. Francfort; D. Karner

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) teamed with Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Arizona Public Service (APS) to develop the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant that produces and compresses hydrogen on site through an electrolysis process by operating a PEM fuel cell in reverse; natural gas is also compressed onsite. The Pilot Plant dispenses 100% hydrogen, 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG), and 100% CNG via a credit card billing system at pressures up to 5,000 psi. Thirty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles (including Daimler Chrysler, Ford and General Motors vehicles) are operating on 100% hydrogen and 15 to 50% H/CNG blends. Since the Pilot Plant started operating in June 2002, they hydrogen and H/CNG ICE vehicels have accumulated 250,000 test miles.

J. Francfort (INEEL)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

2, 4378, 2006 Ice-driven CO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- dred thousand years, CO2 and ice volume (marine 18 O) have varied in phase both at the 41 000-yearCPD 2, 43­78, 2006 Ice-driven CO2 feedback on ice volume W. F. Ruddiman Title Page Abstract Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Climate of the Past Ice-driven CO2 feedback on ice

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earth, Space Sciences » Earth, Space Sciences » Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the role of ocean and ice in high-latitude climate change and projecting the impacts of high-latitude change on regions throughout the globe. Get Expertise Phil Jones COSIM Email Matthew Hecht COSIM Email Elizabeth Hunke COSIM Email Mat Maltrud COSIM Email Bill Lipscomb COSIM Email Scott Elliott COSIM Email Todd Ringler COSIM Email We are also developing a set of next-generation ocean and ice models with variable resolution horizontal grids to focus resolution on regions of interest or regions where specific processes (like eddies) need to be resolved. Summary The COSIM project develops advanced ocean and ice models for evaluating the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Dependence of Sea Ice Yield-Curve Shape on Ice Thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this note, the authors discuss the contribution that frictional sliding of ice floes (or floe aggregates) past each other and pressure ridging make to the plastic yield curve of sea ice. Using results from a previous study that explicitly ...

Alexander V. Wilchinsky; Daniel L. Feltham

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A Thermodynamic Coupled Ice-Ocean Model of the Marginal Ice Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled ice-ocean model for thermodynamic growth of sea ice suitable for coupling with a similar dynamic model is considered. The model is balanced locally in that no horizontal (or vertical) advection or diffusion of properties are considered. ...

Lars Petter Røed

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Assessment of Aircraft Icing Potential and Maximum Icing Altitude from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A satellite product that displays regions of aircraft icing potential, along with corresponding cloud-top heights, has been developed using data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager and sounder. The icing ...

Gary P. Ellrod; Andrew A. Bailey

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Automated Ice-Tethered Profilers for Seawater Observations under Pack Ice in All Seasons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated, easily deployed Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP) instrument system, developed for deployment on perennial sea ice in the polar oceans to measure changes in upper ocean water properties in all seasons, is described, and representative ...

R. Krishfield; J. Toole; A. Proshutinsky; M-L. Timmermans

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Ice Accretion on Wires and Anti-Icing Induced by Joule Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study concerns both the formation of ice accreted around wires due to rotation from gravitational and aerodynamic forces, and the anti-icing induced by the Joule effect. The experiments have been carried out in an instrumented wind tunnel ...

P. Personne; J-F. Gayet

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Siple Coast Ice Streams in a General Antarctic Ice Sheet Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an earlier paper by Verbitsky and Saltzman, a vertically integrated, high-resolution, nonlinearly viscous, nonisothermal ice sheet model was presented to calculate the “present-day” equilibrium regime of the Antarctic ice sheet. Steady-state ...

Mikhail Verbitsky

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

IceT users' guide and reference.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (IceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. In addition to providing accelerated rendering for a standard display, IceT provides the unique ability to generate images for tiled displays. The overall resolution of the display may be several times larger than any viewport that may be rendered by a single machine. This document is an overview of the user interface to IceT.

Moreland, Kenneth D.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

IceT users' guide and reference.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (IceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. In addition to providing accelerated rendering for a standard display, IceT provides the unique ability to generate images for tiled displays. The overall resolution of the display may be several times larger than any viewport that may be rendered by a single machine. This document is an overview of the user interface to IceT.

Moreland, Kenneth D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Ice in Clouds Experiment–Layer Clouds. Part II: Testing Characteristics of Heterogeneous Ice Formation in Lee Wave Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heterogeneous ice nucleation is a source of uncertainty in models that represent ice clouds. The primary goal of the Ice in Clouds Experiment–Layer Clouds (ICE-L) field campaign was to determine if a link can be demonstrated between ice ...

P. R. Field; A. J. Heymsfield; B. J. Shipway; P. J. DeMott; K. A. Pratt; D. C. Rogers; J. Stith; K. A. Prather

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Microparticulate Ice Slurry For Renal Hypothermia: Laparoscopic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MICROPARTICULATE ICE SLURRY FOR RENAL HYPOTHERMIA : LAPAROSCOPIC PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY IN A PORCINE MODEL Sergey Shikanov a * , Mark Wille a , Michael Large a , Aria Razmaria a ,...

231

Development of ice self-release mechanisms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study reports the results of a series of experiments that investigated a thermal storage technology whereby slush ice is grown on a submerged cold surface, and the resultant growth of slush ice releases without auxiliary thermal or mechanical means. The process investigated consists of growing slush ice from an electrolyte solution of low molarity. The cold surface (substrate) upon which the slush ice forms is submerged in the bulk solution. As the buoyancy force on the ice crystals exceeds the adhesion of the slush ice to the cold surface, the slush ice is forced from the substrate and floats away to the top of the solution. The results of this study reveal the relative insensitivity of the growth rate of ice crystals to solution initial bulk concentration over the range of values tested and to concentration of electrolyte during accumulation of ice crystals. The critical parameter appears to be substrate temperature, which cannot be less than {approximately}2{degrees}C below the freezing point temperature of the solution, because apparent adhesion increases rapidly with decreasing substrate temperature. 1 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Stewart, W.E. Jr. (Missouri Univ., Independence, MO (USA). Energy Research Lab.)

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Sea ice mapping method for seawinds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—A sea ice mapping algorithm for SeaWinds is developed that incorporates statistical and spatial a priori information in a modified maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework. Spatial a priori data are incorporated in the loss terms of a Bayes risk formulation. Conditional distributions and priors for sea ice and ocean statistics are represented as empirical histograms that are forced to conform to a set of expected histograms via principal component filtering. Tuning parameters for the algorithm allow adjustments in the algorithm’s performance. Results of the algorithm exhibit high correlation with the Remund–Long sea ice mapping algorithm for SeaWinds and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager National Aeronautics and Space Administration Team 30 % ice edge, and are verified with RADARSAT-1 ScanSAR imagery. The resulting sea ice maps exhibit high edge detail, preserve polynyas and ice bodies disjoint from the primary ice sheet, and thus are suitable for use with wind retrieval and sea ice studies. Principles employed in the algorithm may be of interest in other classification studies. Index Terms—Bayes method, maximum a posteriori (MAP), principal components, QuikSCAT, scatterometer, sea ice extent, SeaWinds. I.

Hyrum S. Anderson; Student Member; David G. Long; Senior Member

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Dynamics of colloidal particles in ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) to probe the dynamics of colloidal particles in polycrystalline ice. During freezing, the dendritic ice morphology and rejection of particles from the ice created regions of high-particle-density, where some of the colloids were forced into contact and formed disordered aggregates. We find that the particles in these high density regions underwent ballistic motion coupled with both stretched and compressed exponential decays of the intensity autocorrelation function, and that the particles' characteristic velocity increased with temperature. We explain this behavior in terms of ice grain boundary migration.

Melissa Spannuth; S. G. J. Mochrie; S. S. L. Peppin; J. S. Wettlaufer

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

Ice hockey players' perceived legitimacy of aggression.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recent incidents of aggressive and violent behavior in professional ice hockey have caused many in and out of the sport world to again question the… (more)

Visek, Amanda J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Scouting technical skills in ice hockey.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The main objective was to create an effective scouting tool to evaluate technical skills of an ice hockey player. The purpose was to provide an… (more)

Räihä, Tuukka

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Guide for organizing ice hockey events.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Purpose of making a Guide for Organizing Ice Hockey Events was to create an easy following guide for students at Vierumäki and other people… (more)

Maclean, Ross

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice ...  

Emergency Responders More Time • Video: Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy with Ice Slurry as Coolant in the Porcine Model License Status: Available for ...

238

A Simplified Ice–Ocean Coupled Model for the Antarctic Ice Melt Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Antarctic Ocean, sea ice melts mostly by warming of the ocean mixed layer through heat input (mainly solar radiation) in open water areas. A simplified ice–upper ocean coupled model is proposed in which sea ice melts only by the ocean heat ...

Kay I. Ohshima; Sohey Nihashi

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Air–Ice–Ocean Momentum Exchange. Part 1:Energy Transfer between Waves and Ice Floes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy exchange between ocean surface waves and ice floes in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) involves the scattering and attenuation of wave energy and the excitation of oscillation modes of the ice floes, as open ocean waves propagate into the ...

W. Perrie; Y. Hu

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Effects of Stochastic Ice Strength Perturbation on Arctic Finite Element Sea Ice Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ice strength parameter P* is a key parameter in dynamic/thermodynamic sea ice models that cannot be measured directly. Stochastically perturbing P* in the Finite Element Sea Ice–Ocean Model (FESOM) of the Alfred Wegener Institute aims at ...

Stephan Juricke; Peter Lemke; Ralph Timmermann; Thomas Rackow

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Origin of Ice in Mountain Cap Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice crystal development in relatively simple layer clouds was studied using airborne instrumentation. The patterns in the development of ice in those clouds suggest that the ice originates in association with the initial condensation process, ...

William A. Cooper; Gabor Vali

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

The Origin and Concentration of Ice Crystals in Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice crystals in supercooled clouds may form upon ice nuclei, or they may arise through secondary processes. Two of these secondary ice “multiplication” mechanisms are discussed in some detail: the rime-splintering process and the mechanical ...

S. C. Mossop

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

A Novel and Low Cost Sea Ice Mass Balance Buoy.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The understanding of sea ice mass balance processes requires continuous monitoring of the seasonal evolution of the ice thickness. While autonomous ice mass balance buoys (IMB buoys) deployed over the past two decades have contributed to our ...

Keith Jackson; Jeremy Wilkinson; Ted Maksym; Justin Beckers; Christian Haas; David Meldrum; David Mackenzie

244

Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EASE-Grid weekly snow cover and sea ice extent version 3.USA, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Digital media, 2005.climate forcing via snow and ice albedos, Proc. Natl. Acad.

Menon, Surabi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Transporting & Shipping Hazardous Materials at LBNL: Dry Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Ice Dry ice is regulated as a hazardous material if shipped by air or water. Contact Shipping for any shipments that include dry ice (x5094, x4388, or shipping@lbl.gov)....

246

A Bulk Microphysics Parameterization with Multiple Ice Precipitation Categories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A single-moment bulk microphysics scheme with multiple ice precipitation categories is described. It has 2 liquid hydrometeor categories (cloud droplets and rain) and 10 ice categories that are characterized by habit, size, and density—two ice ...

Jerry M. Straka; Edward R. Mansell

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

A Heat Balance for the Bering Sea Ice Edge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed oceanographic, meteorological and sea ice observations were obtained from the Bering Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the February–March 1983 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX West). These data have been used in estimating a mean ...

Peter J. Hendricks; Robin D. Muench; Gilbert R. Stegen

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Atmospheric Icing Climatologies of Two New England Mountains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric icing climatologies of two New England mountaintops with different elevations are compared: Mount Mansfield in northern Vermont and Mount Washington in New Hampshire. Atmospheric icing, as measured with Rosemount ice detectors, is ...

Charles C. Ryerson

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

ADWICE: Advanced Diagnosis and Warning System for Aircraft Icing Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the design of the Advanced Diagnosis and Warning System for Aircraft Icing Environments (ADWICE) and presents results for two different icing weather situations with typical icing conditions. ADWICE has been in development ...

A. Tafferner; T. Hauf; C. Leifeld; T. Hafner; H. Leykauf; U. Voigt

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Intercomparison of In-Flight Icing Algorithms. Part I: WISP94 Real-Time Icing Prediction and Evaluation Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the Federal Aviation Administration’s Icing Forecasting Improvement Program is to conduct research on icing conditions both in flight and on the ground. This paper describes a portion of the in-flight aircraft icing prediction ...

Gregory Thompson; Roelof T. Bruintjes; Barbara G. Brown; Frank Hage

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Assessment of Superstructure Ice Protection as Applied to Offshore Oil Operations Safety Ice Protection Technologies, Safety Enhancements, and Development Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. COVER: Ice protection technologies—clockwise from upper left (reprinted with permission): 1. Feltwick Anti-Icing Grate from Innovative Dynamics Inc. 2. Ocean Bounty semi-submersible iced in Cook Inlet

Charles C. Ryerson April; Vacca Heater From Vacca Inc; Charles C. Ryerson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

under a Creative Commons License. Climate of the Past Modelling the Early Weichselian Eurasian Ice Sheets: role of ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. During the last glaciation, a marine ice sheet repeatedly appeared in Eurasia. The floating part of this ice sheet was essential to its rapid extension over the seas. During the earliest stage (90 kyr BP), large ice-dammed lakes formed south of the ice sheet. These lakes are believed to have cooled the climate at the margin of the ice. Using an ice sheet model, we investigated the role of ice shelves during the inception and the influence of ice-dammed lakes on the ice sheet evolution. Inception in Barents sea seems due to thickening of a large ice shelf. We observe a substantial impact of the lakes on the evolution of the ice sheets. Reduced summer ablation enhances ice extent and thickness, and the deglaciation is delayed by 2000 years. 1

V. Peyaud; C. Ritz; G. Krinner

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Chairs: Ice, Ishikawa, Khounsary, Padmore, Shen Topic Speaker  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chairs: Ice, Ishikawa, Khounsary, Padmore, Shen Topic Speaker Affiliation Session 1 8:30-10 Chair: G. Ice Maskless patterning Enzo Di Fabrizo Elettra, Trieste, Italy Possible...

254

ICE Press Office U.S. Department of Homeland Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICE Press Office U.S. Department of Homeland Security December 19, 2003 Contact: SEVP Fact Sheet) at (202) 353-3049. www.ice.gov #12;

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

255

SISIPHUS: Scalable Ice-Sheet Solvers and Infrastructure for Petascale...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SISIPHUS: Scalable Ice-Sheet Solvers and Infrastructure for Petascale, High-Resolution, Unstructured Simulations SISIPHUS: Scalable Ice-Sheet Solvers and Infrastructure for...

256

Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vostok Ice Core Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core graphics Graphics data Data Investigators J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciologie...

257

ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) ICRICE SOPSep 2013Final.pdf More Documents & Publications...

258

Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Siple Station Ice Core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Siple Station Ice Core Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Siple Station Ice Core graphics Graphics data Data Investigators A. Neftel, H. Friedli, E. Moor, H. Ltscher, H....

259

Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy with Ice Slurry as Coolant in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| Help | PrivacySecurity Notice Home > Capabilities > Biomedical Applications > Medical Ice Slurry Coolants > Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy with Ice Slurry as Coolant in the...

260

Observing Climate with Satellites Are We on Thin Ice?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observing Climate with Satellites Are We on Thin Ice? A glacial-melt stream on the top of the Greenland ice sheet in late summer. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Ice hockey instructor's guide for EC Dornbirner Bulldogs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this thesis was to build an ice hockey instructor´s manual for Austrian ice hockey club EC Dornbirner Bulldogs. The manual consists of… (more)

Suomalainen, Juhani

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer of a fuel cell from differential scanning calorimetry Title Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer of a fuel cell from differential scanning calorimetry Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Dursch, Thomas J., Monica A. Ciontea, Gregory J. Trigub, Clayton J. Radke, and Adam Z. Weber Journal International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Volume 60 Pagination 450 - 458 Date Published 5/2013 ISSN 00179310 Keywords crystallization, differential scanning calorimetry, gas-diffusion layer, Heat Transfer, kinetics, melt, nonisothermal crystallization, nucleation, polyesters, polymer crystallization, solidification Abstract Non-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the fibrous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell is investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Non-isothermal ice-crystallization rates and ice-crystallization temperatures are obtained from heat-flow measurements in a water-saturated commercial GDL at cooling rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 K/min. Our previously developed isothermal ice-crystallization rate expression is extended to non-isothermal crystallization to predict ice-crystallization kinetics in a GDL at various cooling rates. Agreement between DSC experimental results and theory is good. Both show that as the cooling rate increases, ice-crystallization rates increase and crystallization temperatures decrease monotonically. Importantly, we find that the cooling rate during crystallization has a negligible effect on the crystallization rate when crystallization times are much faster than the time to decrease the sample temperature by the subcooling. Based on this finding, we propose a pseudo-isothermal method for obtaining non-isothermal crystallization kinetics using isothermal crystallization kinetics evaluated at the non-isothermal crystallization temperature.

263

Maintenance of the Sea-Ice Edge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled global climate model is used to evaluate processes that determine the equilibrium location of the sea-ice edge and its climatological annual cycle. The extent to which the wintertime ice edge departs from a symmetric ring around either ...

C. M. Bitz; M. M. Holland; E. C. Hunke; R. E. Moritz

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Ice Fall Doctors 6, Long Conversation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ang Nima and Ang Kami discuss different elements of their lives as Ice Fall Doctors: what they like about the job; safety; what their wives think of the work; religion and how it keeps them safe in the ice; spirits in the Icefall and the surrounding...

Loomis, Molly

265

Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Modeling Linear Kinematic Features in Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea ice deformation is localized in narrow zones of high strain rate that extend hundreds of kilometers, for example, across the Arctic Basin. This paper demonstrates that these failure zones may be modeled with a viscous–plastic sea ice model, ...

Jennifer K. Hutchings; Petra Heil; William D. Hibler III

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

ON THE FORMATION OF CO{sub 2} AND OTHER INTERSTELLAR ICES  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the formation and evolution of interstellar dust-grain ices under dark-cloud conditions, with a particular emphasis on CO{sub 2}. We use a three-phase model (gas/surface/mantle) to simulate the coupled gas-grain chemistry, allowing the distinction of the chemically active surface from the ice layers preserved in the mantle beneath. The model includes a treatment of the competition between barrier-mediated surface reactions and thermal-hopping processes. The results show excellent agreement with the observed behavior of CO{sub 2}, CO, and water ice in the interstellar medium. The reaction of the OH radical with CO is found to be efficient enough to account for CO{sub 2} ice production in dark clouds. At low visual extinctions, with dust temperatures {approx}>12 K, CO{sub 2} is formed by direct diffusion and reaction of CO with OH; we associate the resultant CO{sub 2}-rich ice with the observational polar CO{sub 2} signature. CH{sub 4} ice is well correlated with this component. At higher extinctions, with lower dust temperatures, CO is relatively immobile and thus abundant; however, the reaction of H and O atop a CO molecule allows OH and CO to meet rapidly enough to produce a CO:CO{sub 2} ratio in the range {approx}2-4, which we associate with apolar signatures. We suggest that the observational apolar CO{sub 2}/CO ice signatures in dark clouds result from a strongly segregated CO:H{sub 2}O ice, in which CO{sub 2} resides almost exclusively within the CO component. Observed visual-extinction thresholds for CO{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}O are well reproduced by depth-dependent models. Methanol formation is found to be strongly sensitive to dynamical timescales and dust temperatures.

Garrod, R. T. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Pauly, T., E-mail: rgarrod@astro.cornell.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of arctic mixed-phase clouds Avramov, Alexander The Pennsylvania State University Category: Modeling Mixed-phase arctic stratus clouds are the predominant cloud type in the Arctic . Perhaps one of the most intriguing of their features is that they tend to have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Despite the fact that this situation is colloidally unstable, these cloud systems are quite long lived - from a few days to over a couple of weeks. Previous studies have suggested that this longevity may be due to a paucity of ice nucleating aerosols (ice nuclei, or IN) in the Arctic. Such studies have shown that small changes in IN concentrations can cause large changes in the amount of liquid water within a mixed-phase stratus deck. We use the Regional

269

ARM - PI Product - Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsLarge Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water ProductsLarge Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content Site(s) SGP TWP General Description Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the

270

Comparison of Model-Produced and Observed Microwave Radiances and Estimation of Background Error Covariances for Hydrometeor Variables within Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A radiative transfer model was updated to better simulate Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I)–observed brightness temperatures in areas of high ice concentration. The difference between the lowest observed and model-produced brightness ...

Clark Amerault; Xiaolei Zou

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Magnetic Monopoles in Spin Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrically charged particles, such as the electron, are ubiquitous. By contrast, no elementary particles with a net magnetic charge have ever been observed, despite intensive and prolonged searches. We pursue an alternative strategy, namely that of realising them not as elementary but rather as emergent particles, i.e., as manifestations of the correlations present in a strongly interacting many-body system. The most prominent examples of emergent quasiparticles are the ones with fractional electric charge e/3 in quantum Hall physics. Here we show that magnetic monopoles do emerge in a class of exotic magnets known collectively as spin ice: the dipole moment of the underlying electronic degrees of freedom fractionalises into monopoles. This enables us to account for a mysterious phase transition observed experimentally in spin ice in a magnetic field, which is a liquid-gas transition of the magnetic monopoles. These monopoles can also be detected by other means, e.g., in an experiment modelled after the celebrated Stanford magnetic monopole search.

Claudio Castelnovo; Roderich Moessner; Shivaji L. Sondhi

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

272

Recovery mechanisms of Arctic summer sea ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] We examine the recovery of Arctic sea ice from prescribed ice?free summer conditions in simulations of 21st century climate in an atmosphere–ocean general circulation model. We find that ice extent recovers typically within two years. The excess oceanic heat that had built up during the ice?free summer is rapidly returned to the atmosphere during the following autumn and winter, and then leaves the Arctic partly through increased longwave emission at the top of the atmosphere and partly through reduced atmospheric heat advection from lower latitudes. Oceanic heat transport does not contribute significantly to the loss of the excess heat. Our results suggest that anomalous loss of Arctic sea ice during asinglesummerisreversible,astheice–albedo feedback is alleviated by large?scale recovery mechanisms. Hence, hysteretic threshold behavior (or a “tipping point”) is unlikely to occur during the decline of Arctic summer sea?

unknown authors

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds  

SciTech Connect

PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

274

Wind Turbines Under Atmospheric Icing Conditions - Ice Accretion Modeling, Aerodynamics, and Control Strategies for Mitigating Performance Degradation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a combined engineering methodology of ice accretion, airfoil data, and rotor performance analysis of wind turbines subject to moderate atmospheric icing conditions.… (more)

Brillembourg, Dwight

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Plants producing DHA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CSIRO researchers published results in November 2012 showing that the long-chain n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be produced in land plants in commercially valuable quantities. Plants producing DHA inform Magazine algae algal AOCS bi

276

The Mesoscale and Microscale Structure of a Severe Ice Pellet Storm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 1–2 February 1992 a major storm produced a prolonged period (6 h) of ice pellets over St. John's, Newfoundland. At least two key features contributed to the prolonged duration. First, a subsaturated region within an inversion led to a ...

John M. Hanesiak; Ronald E. Stewart

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core Modern Records of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and a 2000-year Ice-core Record from Law Dome, Antarctica Introduction This page provides an introduction and links to records of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) over the last 2000 years, emphasizing large data bases each representing currently active stations. Records in recent decades (time period depending on location) have been obtained from samples of ambient-air at remote locations, which represent changing global atmospheric conditions rather than influences of local sources. The longer (2000-year) record is from the Law Dome ice core in Antarctica. The ice-core record has been merged with modern annual data from Cape Grim, Tasmania to provide a 2000-year time series of annual values. A spline function has been fit to the data to provide a continuous time series of

278

The correlation between molecular motions and heat capacity in normal ice and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The heat capacities of ice and water at ambient pressure are reexamined to build an intrinsic correlation between H2O molecular motions and the heat capacity. Based on the evolution of H2O molecular motions, a satisfactory description of the heat capacity of ice and water is provided. The heat capacity of ice is related not only to H2O molecular vibrations, but also to the molecular rotations. In water, all H2O molecular vibrations, rotations and translations contribute to the heat capacity. The molecular translational motions are found to be the main contribution to the large heat capacity of water. The results provide a deep insight into the nature of water and ice at ambient pressure.

Ke, Hai Bo; Wang, Wei Hua

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Scaling relation for the bond length, mass density, and packing order of water ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The packing order of molecules and the distance between adjacent oxygen atoms (dOO) in water and ice are most basic yet puzzling. Here we present a scaling solution for this purpose based only on the mass density (gcm-3), (Equation) where dL is the length ({\\AA}) of the O:H van der Waals bond and dH the H-O polar-covalent bond projecting on the O---O line. Validated by the measured proton symmetrization of compressed ice, dOO of water and ice, and dOO expansion at water surface, this solution confirms that the fluctuated, tetrahedrally-coordinated structure is unique for water ice.

Chang Q Sun

2013-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

280

Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Ice Machines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ice Machines Ice Machines Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Ice Machines October 8, 2013 - 2:25pm Addthis Vary capacity size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Type of Ice Cube Machine Ice Making Head Self-Contained Remote Condensing Unit Ice Making Head Type of Condenser Air Cooled Water Cooled Air Cooled Ice Harvest Rate (lbs. ice per 24 hrs.) lbs. per 24 hrs. 500 lbs. per 24 hrs. Energy Consumption (per 100 lbs. of ice) kWh 5.5 kWh Quantity of ice machines to be purchased 1 Energy Cost $/kWh 0.06 $/kWh Annual Hours of Operation hrs. 3000 hrs. Calculate Reset OUTPUT SECTION Performance per Ice Cube Machine Your

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Determining Greenland Ice Sheet sensitivity to regional climate change: one-way coupling of a 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

responsible almost 40% of the ice sheet’s total dischargeCurrently, no coupled Greenland Ice Sheet model experimentaccelerated melting of Greenland ice sheet, Science, v. 313,

Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Laboratory Measurements and Model Sensitivity Studies of Dust Deposition Ice Nucleation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigated the ice nucleating properties of mineral dust particles to understand the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties to two different representations of contact angle in the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT). These contact angle representations are based on two sets of laboratory deposition ice nucleation measurements: Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles of 100, 300 and 500 nm sizes were tested at three different temperatures (-25, -30 and -35 C), and 400 nm ATD and kaolinite dust species were tested at two different temperatures (-30 and -35 C). These measurements were used to derive the onset relative humidity with respect to ice (RH{sub ice}) required to activate 1% of dust particles as ice nuclei, from which the onset single contact angles were then calculated based on CNT. For the probability density function (PDF) representation, parameters of the log-normal contact angle distribution were determined by fitting CNT-predicted activated fraction to the measurements at different RH{sub ice}. Results show that onset single contact angles vary from {approx}18 to 24 degrees, while the PDF parameters are sensitive to the measurement conditions (i.e. temperature and dust size). Cloud modeling simulations were performed to understand the sensitivity of cloud properties (i.e. ice number concentration, ice water content, and cloud initiation times) to the representation of contact angle and PDF distribution parameters. The model simulations show that cloud properties are sensitive to onset single contact angles and PDF distribution parameters. The comparison of our experimental results with other studies shows that under similar measurement conditions the onset single contact angles are consistent within {+-}2.0 degrees, while our derived PDF parameters have larger discrepancies.

Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Fan, Jiwen; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

283

JBluIce-EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography.  

SciTech Connect

The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline component. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallographic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallography.

Stepanov, S.; Makarov, O.; Hilgart, M.; Pothineni, S.; Urakhchin, A.; Devarapalli, S.; Yoder, D.; Becker, M.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Nagarajan, V.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F. (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Michigan)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Square ice, alternating sign matrices and classical orthogonal polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The six-vertex model with Domain Wall Boundary Conditions, or square ice, is considered for particular values of its parameters, corresponding to 1-, 2-, and 3-enumerations of Alternating Sign Matrices (ASMs). Using Hankel determinant representations for the partition function and the boundary correlator of homogeneous square ice, it is shown how the ordinary and refined enumerations can be derived in a very simple and straightforward way. The derivation is based on the standard relationship between Hankel determinants and orthogonal polynomials. For the particular sets of parameters corresponding to 1-, 2-, and 3-enumerations of ASMs, the Hankel determinant can be naturally related to Continuous Hahn, Meixner-Pollaczek, and Continuous Dual Hahn polynomials, respectively. This observation allows for a unified and simplified treatment of ASMs enumerations. In particular, along the lines of the proposed approach, we provide a complete solution to the long standing problem of the refined 3-enumeration of AMSs.

F. Colomo; A. G. Pronko

2004-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

285

KETENE FORMATION IN INTERSTELLAR ICES: A LABORATORY STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO, ethenone) in polar and apolar ices was studied with in situ 0.8 MeV proton irradiation, far-UV photolysis, and infrared spectroscopic analyses at 10-20 K. Using isotopically enriched reagents, unequivocal evidence was obtained for ketene synthesis in H{sub 2}O-rich and CO{sub 2}-rich ices, and several reaction products were identified. Results from scavenging experiments suggested that ketene was formed by free-radical pathways, as opposed to acid-base processes or redox reactions. Finally, we use our results to draw conclusions about the formation and stability of ketene in the interstellar medium.

Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark J., E-mail: Reggie.Hudson@NASA.gov [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

286

Microphysical and Radiative Effects of Ice Clouds on Tropical Equilibrium States: A Two-Dimensional Cloud-Resolving Modeling Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microphysical and radiative effects of ice clouds on tropical equilibrium states are investigated based on three two-dimensional cloud-resolving simulations imposed by zero vertical velocity and time-invariant zonal wind and sea surface ...

Fan Ping; Zhexian Luo; Xiaofan Li

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Spectrally Consistent Scattering, Absorption, and Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at Wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 ?m  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A data library is developed containing the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of ice particles in the spectral range from 0.2 to 100 ?m. The properties are computed based on a combination of the Amsterdam discrete dipole ...

Ping Yang; Lei Bi; Bryan A. Baum; Kuo-Nan Liou; George W. Kattawar; Michael I. Mishchenko; Benjamin Cole

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Liquid and Ice Cloud Microphysics in the CSU General Circulation Model. Part 1: Model Description and Simulated Microphysical Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microphysical processes responsible for the formation and dissipation of water and ice clouds have been incorporated into the Colorado State University General Circulation Model in order to 1) yield a more physically based representation of the ...

Laura D. Fowler; David A. Randall; Steven A. Rutledge

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Learning to predict ice accretion on electric power lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice accretion on power transmission and distribution lines is one of the major causes of power grid outages in northern regions. While such icing events are rare, they are very costly. Thus, it would be useful to predict how much ice will accumulate. ... Keywords: Ice accretion, Machine learning, NWP, SVM regression

Ashkan Zarnani; Petr Musilek; Xiaoyu Shi; Xiaodi Ke; Hua He; Russell Greiner

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Lollipops and Ice Fishing: Molecular Rulers Used to Probe ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lollipops and Ice Fishing: Molecular Rulers Used to Probe Nanopores. For Immediate Release: April 27, 2010. ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

291

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows, and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. The results of Phase 1 work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems. One potential disadvantage of an ice-slurry district cooling system is the introduction of ice into equipment not so designed, such as air handlers at end user locations. A prototypic ice slurry distribution loop will demonstrate a cooling network which will provide ice slurry to an end user but sends ice free water into the actual heat transfer.

Winters, P.J.

1991-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

292

Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or phase space. In this work we con- sider the trajectory of sea ice in the ice thickness phase space. We175 Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications Geophysical Is the Trajectory of Arctic Sea Ice? Harry L. Stern and Ronald W. Lindsay Polar Science Center, Applied Physics

Lindsay, Ron

293

3, 435467, 2007 Gas age-ice age  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the ice phase (using volcanic horizons) and in the gas phase (using rapid methane variations). We useCPD 3, 435­467, 2007 Gas age-ice age differences along the EPICA cores L. Loulergue et al. Title of the Past New constraints on the gas age-ice age difference along the EPICA ice cores, 0­50 kyr L. Loulergue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

Global Ice and Land Climate Studies Using Scatterometer Image Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in sea ice, and canopy leaf density--as well as by the phase state of water (meltwater on sea ice1 Global Ice and Land Climate Studies Using Scatterometer Image Data David G. Long Brigham Young CA 91109 ben@pacific.jpl.nasa.gov Sasan.Saatchi@jpl.nasa.gov Cheryl Bertoia U. S. National Ice Center

Long, David G.

295

Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

296

The existence of memory effect on hydrogen ordering in ice: The effect makes ice attractive  

SciTech Connect

The existence of ferroelectric ice XI with ordered hydrogen in space becomes of interest in astronomy and physical chemistry because of the strong electrostatic force. However, the influence was believed to be limited because it forms in a narrow temperature range. From neutron diffraction experiments, we found that small hydrogen-ordered domains exist at significantly higher temperature and the domains induce the growth of 'bulk' ice XI. The small ordered domain is named 'memory' of hydrogen ordered ice because it is the residual structure of ice XI. Since the memory exists up to at least 111 K, most of ices in the solar system are hydrogen ordered and may have ferroelectricity. The small hydrogen-ordered domains govern the cosmochemical properties of ice and evolution of icy grains in the universe.

Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Neutron spectroscopy of high-density amorphous ice.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vibrational spectra of high-density amorphous ice (hda-ice) for H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O samples were measured by inelastic neutron scattering. The measured spectra of hda-ice are closer to those for high-pressure phase ice-VI, but not for low-density ice-Ih. This result suggests that similar to ice-VI the structure of hda-ice should consist of two interpenetrating hydrogen-bonded networks having no hydrogen bonds between themselves.

Kolesnikov, A. I.

1998-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

298

Neutrino Data from the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA), the Predecessor of IceCube at the South Pole  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

IceCube is a neutrino observatory for astrophysics with parts buried below the surface of the ice at the South Pole and an air-shower detector array exposed above. The international group of sponsors, led by the National Science Foundation (NSF), that designed and implemented the experiment intends for IceCube to operate and provide data for 20 years. Beginning in 2011, IceCube will record the interactions produced by astrophysical neutrinos with energies above 100 GeV, observing the Cherenkov radiation from charged particles produced in neutrino interactions. Its goal is to discover the sources of high-energy cosmic rays. These sources may be active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or massive, collapsed stars where black holes have formed.[Taken from http://www.icecube.wisc.edu/] The data currently available are from AMANDA, IceCube’s predecessor detector and experiment. AMANDA pioneered neutrino detection in ice. Over a period of years in the 1990s, detecting “strings” were buried and activated and by 2000, AMANDA was successfully recording an average of 1,000 neutrino events per year. IceCube will be a bigger and better version of AMANDA. Collected data have to be analyzed and processed, including a challenging process known as event reconstruction. The publicly available data are released after the main analyses are completed and results are published by the international AMANDA/IceCube Collaboration. The first set of data are from 2000 – 2006 and contain 6595 neutrino events.

Abbasi, R. et al

299

ICES Training programme The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) offers courses led by high-profile scientists and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: +45 3338 6700 Fax: +45 3393 4215 info@ices.dk You can find more information about: ICES HQ here Hotels tuition fee. Organization The course is organized by the ICES Secretariat as part of the ICES Training

300

HDO INFRARED DETECTION SENSITIVITY AND D/H ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE IN AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE ICE  

SciTech Connect

The sensitivity of the OD stretching band as a probe to detect HDO in astrophysical ice is discussed based on IR laboratory spectra of HDO molecules embedded in H{sub 2}O ice. This band is extremely broad and tends to disappear into the absorption continuum of H{sub 2}O for low-temperature amorphous samples. Detectable HDO/H{sub 2}O ratios with this technique may range from a few percent for amorphous samples to a few per thousand in crystalline ice. These relatively high upper limits and the appreciable dependence of the band shape on temperature, which would complicate the interpretation of data from many lines of sight, decisively limit the usefulness of the technique for HDO detection in astronomical observations. The process of isotopic H/D exchange in mixed ice of H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O is also studied through the evolution of the OD band in IR spectra. Isotopic exchange starts at {approx}120 K and is greatly accelerated at 150 K, as crystallization proceeds in the ice. Annealed amorphous samples prove to be more favorable for isotope exchange than samples directly formed in crystalline phase. The annealing process seems to favor a polycrystalline ice morphology with a higher defect activity. These morphology differences can be of relevance for deuterium fractionation in astronomical environments.

Galvez, Oscar; Mate, Belen; Herrero, VIctor J.; Escribano, Rafael [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A ``triple sea-ice state'' mechanism for the abrupt warming and synchronous ice sheet collapses during Heinrich events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

changes. This weak coupling can lead to a ``nonlinear phase locking'' of the different ice sheets whichA ``triple sea-ice state'' mechanism for the abrupt warming and synchronous ice sheet collapses. [1] Abrupt, switch-like, changes in sea ice cover are proposed as a mechanism for the large

Sayag, Roiy

302

Aircraft Measurements of Icing in Supercooled and Water Droplet/Ice Crystal Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Icing measurements were carried out in Spain during the Precipitation Enhancement Project experiment in 1979, with an instrumented DC-7 aircraft.

M. Bain; J. F. Gayet

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

THE EFFECT OF H{sub 2}O ON ICE PHOTOCHEMISTRY  

SciTech Connect

UV irradiation of simple ices is proposed to efficiently produce complex organic species during star formation and planet formation. Through a series of laboratory experiments, we investigate the effects of the H{sub 2}O concentration, the dominant ice constituent in space, on the photochemistry of more volatile species, especially CH{sub 4}, in ice mixtures. In the experiments, thin ({approx}40 ML) ice mixtures, kept at 20-60 K, are irradiated under ultra-high vacuum conditions with a broadband UV hydrogen discharge lamp. Photodestruction cross sections of volatile species (CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}) and production efficiencies of new species (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}CO, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 3}CHO, and CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH) in water-containing ice mixtures are determined using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy during irradiation and during a subsequent slow warm-up. The four major effects of increasing the H{sub 2}O concentration are: (1) an increase of the destruction efficiency of the volatile mixture constituent by up to an order of magnitude due to a reduction of back reactions following photodissociation, (2) a shift to products rich in oxygen, e.g., CH{sub 3}OH and H{sub 2}CO, (3) trapping of up to a factor of 5 more of the formed radicals in the ice, and (4) a disproportional increase in the diffusion barrier for the OH radical compared with the CH{sub 3} and HCO radicals. The radical diffusion temperature dependencies are consistent with calculated H{sub 2}O-radical bond strengths. All the listed effects are potentially important for the production of complex organics in H{sub 2}O-rich icy grain mantles around protostars and should thus be taken into account when modeling ice chemistry.

Oeberg, Karin I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 42, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Linnartz, Harold [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Andersson, Stefan [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, P.O. Box 4760, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Influence of dipole interaction on lattice dynamics of crystalline ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Born effective charges of component atoms and phonon spectra of a tetrahedrally coordinated crystalline ice are calculated from the first principles method based on density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation with the projected augmented wave method. Phonon dispersion relations in a 3×1×1 supercell were evaluated from Hellmann-Feynman forces with the direct method. This calculation is an additional work to the direct method in calculating the phonon spectra which does not take into account the polarization charges arising from dipole interaction of molecules of water in ice. The calculated Born effective polarization charges from linear response theory are supplied as the correction terms to the dynamical matrix in order to further investigate the LO-TO splitting of the polar modes of ice crystal at k = 0 which has long been speculated for this system especially in the region between 28 and 37 meV both in the theoretical and experimental studies. Our results clearly show the evidence of splitting of longitudinal and transverse optic modes at the k = 0-point in agreement with some experimental findings.

W. A. Adeagbo; P. Entel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Nailing Down Ice in a Cloud Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nailing Down Ice in a Cloud Model Nailing Down Ice in a Cloud Model For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight A research team led by scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory identified specific strengths and weaknesses of four different ice cloud retrieval algorithms. Their comparisons tested the ability of the algorithms to obtain cloud properties from radar and lidar observational measurements. The team noted the sometimes large variances in heating/cooling measurements compared to the observed data. Identifying specific weaknesses will help scientists improve our understanding of cloud properties in the atmosphere, which can be used for climate model development and evaluation. "Measuring the effective size and mass of ice crystals impacts our understanding

306

PSU BEN & JERRY'S STUDENT ICE CREAM CATERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIY Sundae Student Sundae Party Do you want it delivered? We will bring your order right to your door. This is a complete DIY Ice Cream Sundae Extravaganza, just for PSU students! Pick 3 flavors and 3 toppings, we

307

Aggregation of Ice Crystals in Cirrus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are given from analysis of the aggregation of thick plate, columnar, and bullet rosette ice crystals in cirrus. Data were obtained from PMS 2D-C images, oil coated slides, and aircraft meteorological measurements. Crystal size ranged from ...

Masahiro Kajikawa; Andrew J. Heymsfield

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Ice Crystal Production by Mountain Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented for a process of ice crystal generation in supercooled orographic clouds in contact with snow-covered mountain surfaces. Comparisons of the crystal concentrations at the surface with aircraft sampling indicate that the “...

David C. Rogers; Gabor Vali

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Radar and Radiation Properties of Ice Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors derive relations of the equivalent radar reflectivity Ze and extinction coefficient ? of ice clouds and confirm the theory by in situ aircraft observations during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional ...

David Atlas; Sergey Y. Matrosov; Andrew J. Heymsfield; Ming-Dah Chou; David B. Wolff

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

GELISOLS GEOCHEMISTRY OF SNOW AND ICE ... - Springer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

and poses a serious risk to dam stability (Richardson and Reynolds, 2000b). Average rates of subsidence due to melting of buried ice in the moraine dam at Imja.

311

Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

ANITA collaboration; P. W. Gorham; S. W. Barwick; J. J. Beatty; D. Z. Besson; W. R. Binns; C. Chen; P. Chen; J. M. Clem; A. Connolly; P. F. Dowkontt; M. A. DuVernois; R. C. Field; D. Goldstein; A. Goodhue; C. Hast; C. L. Hebert; S. Hoover; M. H. Israel; J. Kowalski; J. G. Learned; K. M. Liewer; J. T. Link; E. Lusczek; S. Matsuno; B. Mercurio; C. Miki; P. Miocinovic; J. Nam; C. J. Naudet; J. Ng; R. Nichol; K. Palladino; K. Reil; A. Romero-Wolf; M. Rosen; D. Saltzberg; D. Seckel; G. S. Varner; D. Walz; F. Wu

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

312

Aircraft Icing Caused by Large Supercooled Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characteristic of aircraft icing environments containing large supercooled droplets are described. Substantial loss in rate of climb capability can result from less than 10 minutes duration in conditions where fewer than 0.1–1 cm?3 of ...

Marcia K. Politovich

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Aircraft Icing Conditions in Northeast Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The in-flight icing environment in northeastern Colorado is described through remote and in situ measurements. Four field efforts in the winters of 1990 through 1994 were conducted in the area, and comprehensive datasets from research aircraft, ...

Marcia K. Politovich; Tiffany A. O. Bernstein

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers  

SciTech Connect

Under sub-freezing conditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) drastically reducing cell performance. Although a number of strategies exist to prevent ice formation, there is little fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of freezing within PEMFC components. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to elucidate the effects of hydrophobicity (Teflon® loading) and water saturation on the rate of ice formation within three commercial GDLs. We find that as the Teflon® loading increases, the crystallization temperature decreases due to a change in internal ice/substrate contact angle, as well as the attainable level of water saturation. Classical nucleation theory predicts the correct trend in freezing temperature with Teflon® loading.

Dursch, Thomas; Radke, Clayton J.; Weber, Adam Z.

2010-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

315

Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first observations of the Askaryan effect in ice: coherent impulsive radio Cherenkov radiation from the charge asymmetry in an electromagnetic (EM) shower. Such radiation has been observed in silica sand and rock salt, but this is the first direct observation from an EM shower in ice. These measurements are important since the majority of experiments to date that rely on the effect for ultra-high energy neutrino detection are being performed using ice as the target medium. As part of the complete validation process for the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, we performed an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in June 2006 using a 7.5 metric ton ice target, yielding results fully consistent with theoretical expectations.

Gorham, P.W.

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

316

Process and system for producing high-density pellets from a gaseous medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and system for producing pellets of high density carbon dioxide or other gases utilize a chamber containing a plurality of cell-like freezing compartments within which ice is to be formed. A gas desired to be frozen into ice is introduced into the chamber while the internal pressure of the chamber is maintained at a level which is below the equilibrium triple pressure of the gas. The temperature of the freezing compartments is lowered to a temperature which is below the equilibrium vapor pressure temperature of the gas at the chamber pressure so that the gas condenses into ice within the compartments. The temperature of the freezing compartments is thereafter raised so that the ice is thereby released from and falls out of the compartments as pellets for collection.

Foster, Christopher A. (Clinton, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

First Results from IceCube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IceCube is a 1 km$^3$ neutrino observatory being built to study neutrino production in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants, and a host of other astrophysical sources. High-energy neutrinos may signal the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. IceCube will also study many particle-physics topics: searches for WIMP annihilation in the Earth or the Sun, and for signatures of supersymmetry in neutrino interactions, studies of neutrino properties, including searches for extra dimensions, and searches for exotica such as magnetic monopoles or Q-balls. IceCube will also study the cosmic-ray composition. In January, 2005, 60 digital optical modules (DOMs) were deployed in the South Polar ice at depths ranging from 1450 to 2450 meters, and 8 ice-tanks, each containing 2 DOMs were deployed as part of a surface air-shower array. All 76 DOMs are collecting high-quality data. After discussing the IceCube physics program and hardware, I will present some initial results with the first DOMs.

Spencer R. Klein; for the IceCube Collaboration

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

318

Spatial patterns of ice storm disturbance in the forested landscape of Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas and Oklahoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large-extent ice storms have received relatively little attention from researchers. This research investigates the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the spatial patterns of ice storm disturbance on a forested landscape. This investigation provides a landscape-level perspective on the impacts of ice storm disturbance, clarifies the effects on ecosystem dynamics, and will aid future forest management plans. The study was conducted in Ouachita National Forest (ONF) in west-central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma and examined approximately 6000 km2 of forest between 150 and 800 m elevation. Normalized Difference Vegeation Index (NDVI) difference values were calculated using two Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes to identify NDVI changes that potentially were associated with ice storm damage to the forests. Forty-six geolocated field sites were used to determine the relationship of NDVI difference to actual forest damage caused by the ice storm by counting the number of downed tree boles intersecting a 100 m transect. These field sites encompassed a broad range of each of the physical variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect), forest type, and degree of damage. The linear regression model determined the relationship between NDVI difference and ice storm damage. Elevation, slope, and aspect were calculated based on individual pixels from the DEM. Categories of forest damage were based on NDVI difference values. A chi-square test of correspondence and Cramer’s V test were then used to analyze relationships of damage to abiotic and biotic variables. The strong, negative relationship observed in the linear regression model suggested that NDVI was representative of ice storm damage in the study area. The chi-square test of correspondence indicated the abiotic and biotic variables all had associations with NDVI difference results (pice storm damage followed closely by slope and aspect. Moderate elevations, moderate slopes, and windward aspects received the highest percentage of major storm damage. Forest type displayed a weak relationship with the extent of damage. The topographic patterns of ice storm damage are similar to patterns found in previous research. Topography influenced spatial patterns of ice storm damage. Elevation, slope, and aspect were all found to be important variables influencing the degree of ice storm damage. Knowledge concerning these spatial patterns is critical for future studies of ecosystem dynamics and forest management practices.

Isaacs, Rachel E.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Force criterion prediction of damage for carbon/epoxy composite panels impacted by high velocity ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H, Kedward, K. T. Modeling Hail Ice Impacts and PredictingInvestigation of High Velocity Ice Impacts on Woven Carbon/Analysis Correlation of Hail Ice Impacting Composite

Rhymer, Jennifer D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Melting Ice and Tangled Nets: Litigation and Conservation Policy in the US, Australia, and Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Melting Ice and Tangled Nets: Litigation and Conservationare heavily dependent on sea ice for their survival, both asvulnerable to the receding sea ice boundaries predicted to

Shaffer, Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Report on Produced Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September 2009 Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices Page 3 Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 7 Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................................................. 11 1.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................... 11 1.2 Background ................................................................................................................... 11 1.3 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 11

322

Coal markets squeeze producers  

SciTech Connect

Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

Ryan, M.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Ice-Tethered Profiler Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen under Permanent Ice Cover in the Arctic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four ice-tethered profilers (ITPs), deployed between 2006 and 2009, have provided year-round dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements from the surface mixed layer to 760-m depth under the permanent sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. These ITPs drifted ...

M.-L. Timmermans; R. Krishfield; S. Laney; J. Toole

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

The Icing of an Unheated, Nonrotating Cylinder. Part II. Icing Wind Tunnel Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental investigation of icing on non-rotating cylinders, under both wet and dry conditions was undertaken. Airspeeds of 30, 61 and 122 m s?1 appropriate to aircraft icing, liquid water contents of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 g m?3 and temperatures ...

E. P. Lozowski; J. R. Stallabrass; P. F. Hearty

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Arctic Sea Ice Retreat in 2007 Follows Thinning Trend  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The minimum of Arctic sea ice extent in the summer of 2007 was unprecedented in the historical record. A coupled ice–ocean model is used to determine the state of the ice and ocean over the past 29 yr to investigate the causes of this ice extent minimum within a historical perspective. It is found that even though the 2007 ice extent was strongly anomalous, the loss in total ice mass was not. Rather, the 2007 ice mass loss is largely consistent with a steady decrease in ice thickness that began in 1987. Since then, the simulated mean September ice thickness within the Arctic Ocean has declined from 3.7 to 2.6 m at a rate of ?0.57 m decade ?1. Both the area coverage of thin ice at the beginning of the melt season and the total volume of ice lost in the summer have been steadily increasing. The combined impact of these two trends caused a large reduction in the September mean ice concentration in the Arctic Ocean. This created conditions during the summer of 2007 that allowed persistent winds to push the remaining ice from the Pacific side to the Atlantic side of the basin and more than usual into the Greenland Sea. This exposed large areas of open water, resulting in the record ice extent anomaly. 1.

R. W. Lindsay; J. Zhang; A. Schweiger; M. Steele; H. Stern

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Synoptic Aerial Surveys and Abundance Estimates for Ice-associated Seals in US and Russian Waters Michael Cameron, Peter Boveng, Erin Moreland and Jay Ver Hoef  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synoptic Aerial Surveys and Abundance Estimates for Ice-associated Seals in US and Russian Waters synoptic aerial surveys of the eastern Bering Sea in tandem with Russian researchers employed to survey. Testing a ship-based Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) for surveying the Bering Sea pack ice. AFSC Quarterly

327

Sea Ice Brightness Temperature as a Function of Ice Thickness, Part II: Computed curves for thermodynamically modelled ice profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice thickness is an important variable for climate scientists and is still an unsolved problem for satellite remote sensing specialists. There has been some success detecting the thickness of thin ice from microwave radiometers, and with this in mind this study attempts to model the thickness-radiance relation of sea ice at frequencies employed by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) radiometer and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR): between 1.4 and 89 GHz. In the first part of the study, the salinity of the ice was determined by a pair of empirical relationships, while the temperature was determined by a thermodynamic model. Because the thermodynamic model can be used as a simple ice growth model, in this, second part, the salinities are determined by the growth model. Because the model uses two, constant-weather scenarios representing two extremes ("fall freeze-up" and "winter cold snap"), brine expulsion is modelled with a single correction-step founded on mass conservation. The growt...

Mills, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

CYANATE ION IN COMPACT AMORPHOUS WATER ICE  

SciTech Connect

The 4.62 {mu}m infrared (2164.5 cm{sup -1}) absorption band, observed in ice mantels toward many young stellar objects, has been mostly attributed to the {nu}{sub 3} (CN stretch) band of OCN{sup -} ions. We present in this work a spectroscopic study of OCN{sup -} ions embedded in compact amorphous ice in a range of concentrations and temperatures relevant to astronomical observations together with quantum mechanical calculations of the {nu}{sub 3} band of OCN{sup -} in various H{sub 2}O environments. The ice samples containing the ions are prepared through hyperquenching of liquid droplets of K{sup +}OCN{sup -} solutions on a substrate at 14 K. The {nu}{sub 3} OCN{sup -} band appears as a broad feature peaking at 4.64 {mu}m with a secondary maximum at 4.54 {mu}m and is much weaker than the corresponding peak in the liquid solution or in the solid salt. A similar weakening is observed for other OCN{sup -} absorption peaks at 7.66 {mu}m (2{nu}{sub 2}) and 8.20 {mu}m ({nu}{sub 1}). The theoretical calculations for the {nu}{sub 3} vibration lead to a range of frequencies spanning the experimentally observed width. This frequency spread could help explain the pronounced drop in the band intensity in the ice. The OCN{sup -} {nu}{sub 3} band in the present compact ices is also broader and much weaker than that reported in the literature for OCN{sup -} ions obtained by variously processing porous ice samples containing suitable neutral precursors. The results of this study indicate that the astronomical detection of OCN{sup -} in ice mantels could be significantly impaired if the ion is embedded in a compact water network.

Mate, Belen; Herrero, Victor J.; Rodriguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Moreno, Miguel A.; Escribano, Rafael [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Torre, Delia [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28050 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Pedro C. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica I, Universidad Complutense, Unidad Asociada UCM-CSIC, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

329

Predicting Land-Ice Retreat and Sea-Level Rise with the Community Earth System Model  

SciTech Connect

Coastal stakeholders need defensible predictions of 21st century sea-level rise (SLR). IPCC assessments suggest 21st century SLR of {approx}0.5 m under aggressive emission scenarios. Semi-empirical models project SLR of {approx}1 m or more by 2100. Although some sea-level contributions are fairly well constrained by models, others are highly uncertain. Recent studies suggest a potential large contribution ({approx}0.5 m/century) from the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet, linked to changes in Southern Ocean wind stress. To assess the likelihood of fast retreat of marine ice sheets, we need coupled ice-sheet/ocean models that do not yet exist (but are well under way). CESM is uniquely positioned to provide integrated, physics based sea-level predictions.

Lipscomb, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

330

Method for producing iron-based catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Diehl, J. Rodney (Pittsburgh, PA); Kathrein, Hendrik (McMurray, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fluid Migration During Ice/Rock Planetesimal Differentiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Much speculation on extraterrestrial life has focused on finding environments where water is present. Heating of smaller icy bodies may create and sustain a possible liquid layer below the surface. If liquid water was sustained for geologically significant times (> 108 years) within the ubiquitous small bodies in the outer solar system, the opportunities for development of simple life are much greater. The lifetime of the liquid water layer will depend on several factors, including the rate of rock/water reaction, which will depend on the rate at which water can be segregated from a melting ice/rock core. For the liquid water phase to migrate toward the surface, the denser rock phase must compact. The primary question that this thesis will answer is how fast melt water can segregate from the core of an ice-rich planetesimal. To answer this question we treat the core as two phase flow problem: a compacting viscous “solid” (ice/rock mixture) and a segregating liquid (melt water). The model developed here is based on the approach derived to study a different partially molten solid: in the viscously deforming partially molten upper mantle. We model a planetesimal core that initially a uniform equal mixture of solid ice and rock. We assume chondritic levels of radiogenic heating as the only heat source, and numerically solve for the evolution of solid and melt velocities and the distribution of melt fraction (“porosity”) during the first few million years after accretion. From a suite of numerical models, we have determined that the meltwater is segregated out of the core as fast as it is created, except in the case of very fast melting times (0.75 My vs. 0.62 My), and small ore radius (~25 to 150 km, depending on the viscosity of the ice/rock mixture in the solid core). In these latter cases, segregation is slower than migration and a high water fraction develops in the core. Heat released by water-rock reactions (not included in this model) will tend to drive up melting rates in all cases, which may favor this latter endmember.

Raney, Robert 1987-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

DIFFERENCE IN THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN H{sub 2}O AND CO{sub 2} ICES IN M 82 FOUND WITH AKARI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With AKARI, we obtain the spatially resolved near-infrared (NIR) (2.5-5.0 {mu}m) spectra for the nearby starburst galaxy M 82. These spectra clearly show absorption features due to interstellar ices. Based on the spectra, we created the column density maps of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} ices. As a result, we find that the spatial distribution of H{sub 2}O ice is significantly different from that of CO{sub 2} ice; H{sub 2}O ice is widely distributed, while CO{sub 2} ice is concentrated near the galactic center. Our result reveals for the first time variations in CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice abundance ratio on a galactic scale, suggesting that an ice-forming interstellar environment changes within a galaxy. We discuss the cause of the spatial variations in the ice abundance ratio, utilizing spectral information on the hydrogen recombination Br{alpha} and Br{beta} lines and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3.3 {mu}m emission appearing in the AKARI NIR spectra.

Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimonishi, Takashi [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Suzuki, Toyoaki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Minh, Young Chol, E-mail: yamagishi@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

333

WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H ice-perhaps mixed with ammonia-that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the {approx}20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schaller, E. L., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [NASA Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, Palmdale, CA 93550 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

SURVIVAL OF AMORPHOUS WATER ICE ON CENTAURS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Centaurs are believed to be Kuiper Belt objects in transition between Jupiter and Neptune before possibly becoming Jupiter family comets. Some indirect observational evidence is consistent with the presence of amorphous water ice in Centaurs. Some of them also display a cometary activity, probably triggered by the crystallization of the amorphous water ice, as suggested by Jewitt and this work. Indeed, we investigate the survival of amorphous water ice against crystallization, using a fully three-dimensional thermal evolution model. Simulations are performed for varying heliocentric distances and obliquities. They suggest that crystallization can be triggered as far as 16 AU, though amorphous ice can survive beyond 10 AU. The phase transition is an efficient source of outgassing up to 10-12 AU, which is broadly consistent with the observations of the active Centaurs. The most extreme case is 167P/CINEOS, which barely crystallizes in our simulations. However, amorphous ice can be preserved inside Centaurs in many heliocentric distance-obliquity combinations, below a {approx}5-10 m crystallized crust. We also find that outgassing due to crystallization cannot be sustained for a time longer than 10{sup 4}-10{sup 4} years, leading to the hypothesis that active Centaurs might have recently suffered from orbital changes. This could be supported by both observations (although limited) and dynamical studies.

Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie, E-mail: aguilbert@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Process for producing hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing hydrogen by an electrolysis of water with an aqueous solution of an alkali hydroxide is provided. It is to use an electrolytic cell prepared by bonding a gas and liquid permeable anode on one surface of a cation-exchange membrane of a fluorinated polymer and a gas and liquid permeable cathode on the other surface of the membrane. An economical metal can be used as the substance for the electrolytic cell. Hydrogen can be produced at a low voltage in stable for a long time.

Oda, Y.; Morimoto, T.; Suzuki, K.

1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

336

Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In light of the rapid recent retreat of Arctic sea ice, a number of studies have discussed the possibility of a critical threshold (or "tipping point") beyond which the ice-albedo feedback causes the ice cover to melt away in an irreversible process. The focus has typically been centered on the annual minimum (September) ice cover, which is often seen as particularly susceptible to destabilization by the ice-albedo feedback. Here we examine the central physical processes associated with the transition from ice-covered to ice-free Arctic Ocean conditions. We show that while the ice-albedo feedback promotes the existence of multiple ice cover states, the stabilizing thermodynamic effects of sea ice mitigate this when the Arctic Ocean is ice-covered during a sufficiently large fraction of the year. These results suggest that critical threshold behavior is unlikely during the approach from current perennial sea ice conditions to seasonally ice-free conditions. In a further warmed climate, however, we find that a ...

Eisenman, I; 10.1073/pnas.0806887106

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Surface Wave Propagation in Shallow Water beneath an Inhomogeneous Ice Cover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scattering of flexural–gravity waves in a layer of shallow fluid beneath an ice cover with irregularities is investigated. The irregularities considered are the ice edges, cracks, areas of finely broken ice, and ice ridges. Even this ...

A. V. Marchenko; K. I. Voliak

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Web-Ice: Integrated Data Collection and Analysis for Macromolecular Crystallography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Blu-Ice. Figure 7: SSRL Web-Ice interface displaying theTable 1: Programs used by Web-Ice for data analysis. ProgramWeb-Ice: Integrated Data Collection and Analysis for

Gonzalez, Ana

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Quantification of the effects of shattering on airborne ice particle measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice particle shattering poses a serious problem to airborne characterization microstructure of ice clouds. Shattered ice fragments may contaminate particle measurements resulting in artificially high concentrations of small ice. The ubiquitous ...

A. V. Korolev; E. F. Emery; J. W. Strapp; S. G. Cober; G. A. Isaac

340

Quantification of the Effects of Shattering on Airborne Ice Particle Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice particle shattering poses a serious problem to the airborne characterization of ice cloud microstructure. Shattered ice fragments may contaminate particle measurements, resulting in artificially high concentrations of small ice. The ubiquitous ...

A. V. Korolev; E. F. Emery; J. W. Strapp; S. G. Cober; G. A. Isaac

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Relative Stability of Carbide and Intermetallic Phases in Nickel-Base ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ice, can alter the basic structure and distribution of these thereby producing variations in the properties of the alloy. exposures also increase the possibility.

342

Intertemporal Computable Equilibrium System (ICES) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intertemporal Computable Equilibrium System (ICES) Intertemporal Computable Equilibrium System (ICES) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Intertemporal Computable Equilibrium System (ICES) Agency/Company /Organization: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei Sector: Climate, Energy Complexity/Ease of Use: Moderate Website: www.feem.it/getpage.aspx?id=138&sez=Research&padre=18&sub=75&idsub=102 Related Tools Ex Ante Appraisal Carbon-Balance Tool (EX-ACT) General Equilibrium Model for Economy - Energy - Environment (GEM-E3) DNE21+ ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS A recursive dynamic general equilibrium model developed with the main but not exclusive purpose of assessing the final welfare implication of climate change impacts on world economies. In addition to climate-change impact

343

Ice Towing Tank | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ice Towing Tank Ice Towing Tank Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Ice Towing Tank Overseeing Organization University of Iowa Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tow Tank Length(m) 21.2 Beam(m) 5.0 Depth(m) 1.3 Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features Specialized for cold regions research, room temperature can be decreased to -10°F Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities Yes Maximum Velocity(m/s) 0.5 Length of Effective Tow(m) 15.0 Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume None Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Cameras Yes Description of Camera Types Underwater Available Sensors Acoustics, Thermal, Turbulence, Velocity Data Generation Capability

344

Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

345

A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A TWP-ICE High-Level Cloud Case Study Mace, Gerald University of Utah Category: Field Campaigns The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP ICE) was conducted near...

346

Application of Ice Nucleation Kinetics in Orographic Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice nucleation by silver iodide-sodium iodide aerosol particles has been characterized in the Colorado State University isothermal cloud chamber using the techniques of chemical kinetics. Two separate mechanisms of condensation-freezing ice ...

Rochelle R. Blumenstein; Robert M. Rauber; Lewis O. Grant; William G. Finnegan

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Atmospheric Ice Crystals over the Antarctic Plateau in Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Falling ice crystals were collected daily on a gridded glass slide at South Pole Station, Antarctica, during the Antarctic winter of 1992 and were photographed through a microscope. Nine types of ice crystals are identified, which fall into three ...

Von P. Walden; Stephen G. Warren; Elizabeth Tuttle

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The mystery of ice crystal multiplication in a laboratory experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper addresses the problem of the large discrepancies between ice crystal concentrations in clouds and the number of ice nuclei in nearby clear air reported in published papers. Such discrepancies cannot always be explained, even by taking ...

Gianni Santachiara; Franco Belosi; Franco Prodi

349

An Improved Filter Technique for Ice Nucleus Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

No satisfactory standard field method has been established for the measurement of ice nucleus concentrations, although the filter technique is a promising candidate if the tendency for ice nucleus concentrations to decrease as the sample volume ...

Chi-Fan Shih; Takeshi Ohtake

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Production of Ice in Tropospheric Clouds: A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice in the troposphere affects a variety of processes, including the formation of precipitation, and cloud lifetime, albedo, dynamics, and electrification. A lack of understanding of the ways in which ice is created and multiplied hampers ...

Will Cantrell; Andrew Heymsfield

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Simulated Atmospheric Rime Icing of Some Wind Speed Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four commercially available wind speed sensors have been tested in an icing wind tunnel to determine the relative susceptibility of each to atmospheric icing and to determine the influence of ire accumulations upon the operation and accuracy of ...

E. M. Gates; W. C. Thompson

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Estimating Intensity of Atmospheric Ice Accretion on Stationary Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of various atmospheric parameters in determining atmospheric ice accretion intensity on structures near the ground is examined theoretically, with an emphasis on glaze formation. Methods are presented for calculating the icing rate on ...

Lasse Makkonen

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Laboratory Measurements of Light Scattering by Single Levitated Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have measured the differential light-scattering cross sections and phase functions of single vapor-grown hexagonal ice particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. The ice particles, grown at temperatures ?5° > T > ?10°C, were ...

Neil J. Bacon; Brian D. Swanson

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer of a Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell Title Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer...

355

Modeling the Effect of Ice Nuclei on ARM Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Upper-Tropospheric Ice Water Content in TWP-ICE Xiping Zeng, Wei-Kuo Tao, Minghua Zhang, and Shaochen Xie March 31, 2009 Papers Published Recently * Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, M. Zhang,...

356

SEAS Recognition Ceremony -May 10, 2009 Goggin Ice Arena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page 1 SEAS Recognition Ceremony - May 10, 2009 Goggin Ice Arena Main Arena - Ceremony Location Oak Card Distribution, Student & Faculty Processional Line Up. Students: Upon arriving at Goggin Ice Arena

Dollar, Anna

357

Impacts of Ice Clouds on GPS Radio Occultation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mathematical solutions accounting for the effects of liquid and ice clouds on the propagation of the GPS radio signals are first derived. The percentage contribution of ice water content (IWC) to the total refractivity increases linearly with the ...

X. Zou; S. Yang; P. S. Ray

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Scattering Phase Function of Bullet Rosette Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice crystals in cirrus frequently exhibit the shape of a bullet rosette composed of multiple bullets that radiate from a junction center. The scattering phase function of these ice crystals, pertinent to the radiation budget of cirrus, may differ ...

Jean Iaquinta; Harumi Isaka; Pascal Personne

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Current Icing Potential: Algorithm Description and Comparison with Aircraft Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The “current icing potential” (CIP) algorithm combines satellite, radar, surface, lightning, and pilot-report observations with model output to create a detailed three-dimensional hourly diagnosis of the potential for the existence of icing and ...

Ben C. Bernstein; Frank McDonough; Marcia K. Politovich; Barbara G. Brown; Thomas P. Ratvasky; Dean R. Miller; Cory A. Wolff; Gary Cunning

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Aircraft Icing Measurements in East Coast Winter Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of the aircraft icing environments of East Coast winter storms have been made from 3 1 flights duringthe second Canadian Atlantic Storms Program. Microphysical parameters have been summarized and are compared to common icing intensity ...

Stewart G. Cober; George A. Isaac; J. W. Strapp

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Prediction of Vessel Icing for Near-Freezing Sea Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The operational NOAA categorical vessel icing algorithm is evaluated with regard to advances in understanding of the icing process and forecasting experience. When sea temperatures are <2–3°C above the saltwater freezing point there is the ...

James E. Overland

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Changes in Ice Storm Impacts over Time: 1886–2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice storms have a variety of negative effects on society. Through an analysis of newspaper accounts of nine exceptional ice storms, the most widespread and longest lasting impact is the loss of electrical power. Power outages also cause secondary ...

David A. Call

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Improving 30-Day Great Lakes Ice Cover Outlooks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prediction of Great Lakes ice cover is important for winter operations and planning activities. Current 30-day forecasts use accumulated freezing degree-days (AFDDs) to identify similar historical events and associated ice cover. The authors ...

Raymond Assel; Sheldon Drobot; Thomas E. Croley II

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Evolutionary Optimization of an Ice Accretion Forecasting System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to model and forecast accretion of ice on structures is very important for many industrial sectors. For example, studies conducted by the power transmission industry indicate that the majority of failures are caused by icing on ...

Pawel Pytlak; Petr Musilek; Edward Lozowski; Dan Arnold

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Water-Cooled Ice Machines, Purchasing Specifications for Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice Makers. b) Measured in accordance with ARI Standard 810-2003. Does not include condenser water use. Buying Energy-Efficient Water-Cooled Ice Machines Several types of...

366

A New Horizontal Gradient, Continuous Flow, Ice Thermal Diffusion Chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A continuous-flow, horizontal gradient, ice thermal diffusion chamber has been developed and tested for heterogeneous ice nucleation of aerosol particles under accurately controlled supersaturations and supercooling in the absence of a substrate. ...

E. M. Tomlinson; N. Fukuta

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The Sublimation of Dry Ice Pellets Used for Cloud Seeding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical model has been developed to investigate the sublimation rate of cylindrical dry ice pellets in clear and cloudy air. Experiments conducted in the University of Alberta FROST icing-wind tunnel were used to make comparisons with the ...

B. Kochtubajda; E. P. Lozowski

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Antarctic Sea Ice Extent Variability and Its Global Connectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study statistically evaluates the relationship between Antarctic sea ice extent and global climate variability. Temporal cross correlations between detrended Antarctic sea ice edge (SIE) anomaly and various climate indices are calculated. ...

Xiaojun Yuan; Douglas G. Martinson

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Observations of Thermohaline Convection adjacent to Brunt Ice Shelf  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations were made of ocean microstructure and horizontal currents adjacent to Brunt Ice Shelf in the southeastern Weddell Sea. Periods of in situ supercooled water extending as deep as 65 m were associated with ice nucleation and frazil ...

Ilker Fer; Keith Makinson; Keith W. Nicholls

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Aircraft Observations of Ice Crystal Evolution in an Altostratus Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations from a Lagrangian spiral descent within altostratus cloud associated with a cold front were used to study the evolution of ice particle spectra by following populations of ice crystals as they fell through the cloud. The flight track ...

Paul R. Field

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Wave-induced Roll Motion beneath an Ice Cover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pair of gravity waves propagating at oblique angles along the sea-ice interface in a viscous, rotating ocean is studied theoretically. The motion is described by a Lagrangian formulation. Two theoretical models of the ice cover are considered. ...

Arne Melsom

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Electric Ice Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on AddThis.com... Sept. 14, 2013

373

The phase diagram of ice Ih, II, and III: a quasi-harmonic study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phase diagram of ice Ih, II, and III is studied by a quasi-harmonic approximation. The results of this approach are compared to phase diagrams previously derived by thermodynamic integration using path integral and classical simulations, as well as to experimental data. The studied models are based on both flexible (q-TIP4P/F) and rigid (TIP4P/2005, TIP4PQ/2005) descriptions of the water molecule. Many aspects of the simulated phase diagrams are reasonably reproduced by the quasi-harmonic approximation. Advantages of this simple approach are that it is free from the statistical errors inherent to computer simulations, both classical and quantum limits are easily accessible, and the error of the approximation is expected to decrease in the zero temperature limit. We find that the calculated phase diagram of ice Ih, II, and III depends strongly on the hydrogen disorder of ice III, at least for cell sizes typically used in phase coexistence simulations. Either ice II (in the classical limit) or ice III (in t...

Ramirez, R; Herrero, C P; 10.1063/1.4757064

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Ice Ball Impact Testing of Roofing Materials - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2010. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Ice Ball Impact Testing of ...

375

Using Ice to Make Nature Inspired Hybrid Materials - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Surface Properties of Biomaterials. Presentation Title, Using Ice to Make Nature ...

376

Current Research on Medical Slurry Cooling: Medical Ice Slurry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications Homeland Security Applications Biomedical Applications Medical Ice Slurry Coolants for Inducing Targeted-OrganTissue Protective Cooling Technology...

377

Technology Description: Medical Ice Slurry Coolants for Inducing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications Homeland Security Applications Biomedical Applications Medical Ice Slurry Coolants for Inducing Targeted-OrganTissue Protective Cooling Technology...

378

Performance Analysis of a Multiprocessor Coupled Ice–Ocean Model for the Baltic Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM) a 3D coupled ice–ocean model for the Baltic Sea has been developed to simulate physical processes on timescales of hours to decades. The model code is based on the global ocean GCM ...

H. E. Markus Meier; Torgny Faxén

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

A Numerical Study of Sea Ice and Ocean Circulation in the Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sea-ice model based bulk-viscous plastic dynamics and 3-layer thermodynamics is coupled to a multilevel primitive equation model of the Arctic Ocean and Greenland Sea. The combined model is forced by inflow through the Faeroe-Shetland Channel ...

Albert J. Semtner Jr.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Microphysical and Optical Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at South Pole Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In early February 2001 (during the austral summer), over 900 000 digital images of ice crystals were recorded at the South Pole using two ground-based cloud particle imagers (CPIs). Of these, 721 572 crystals >50 ?m were classified into crystal ...

R. Paul Lawson; Brad A. Baker; Patrick Zmarzly; Darren O’Connor; Qixu Mo; Jean-Francois Gayet; Valery Shcherbakov

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Search method for coincident events from LIGO and IceCube detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a coincidence search method for astronomical events using gravitational wave detectors in conjunction with other astronomical observations. We illustrate our method for the specific case of the LIGO gravitational wave detector and the IceCube neutrino detector. LIGO trigger-events and IceCube events which occur within a given time window are selected as time-coincident events. Then the spatial overlap of the reconstructed event directions is evaluated using an unbinned maximum likelihood method. Our method was tested with Monte Carlo simulations based on realistic LIGO and IceCube event distributions. We estimated a typical false alarm rate for the analysis to be 1 event per 435 years. This is significantly smaller than the false alarm rates of the ndividual detectors.

Yoichi Aso; Zsuzsa Marka; Chad Finley; John Dwyer; Kei Kotake; Szabolcs Marka

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

1964-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance Reconstruction. Part III: Marine Ice Loss and Total Mass Balance (1840–2010)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greenland ice sheet mass loss to the marine environment occurs by some combination of iceberg calving and underwater melting (referred to here as marine ice loss, LM). This study quantifies the relation between LM and meltwater runoff (R) at the ...

Jason E. Box; William Colgan

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Estimation of Thin Ice Thickness and Detection of Fast Ice from SSM/I Data in the Antarctic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antarctic coastal polynyas are important areas of high sea ice production and dense water formation, and thus their detection including an estimate of thin ice thickness is essential. In this paper, the authors propose an algorithm that estimates ...

Takeshi Tamura; Kay I. Ohshima; Thorsten Markus; Donald J. Cavalieri; Sohey Nihashi; Naohiko Hirasawa

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Greenland ice sheet mass balance reconstruction. Part III: marine ice loss and total mass balance (1840-2010)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greenland ice sheet mass loss to the marine environment occurs by some combination of iceberg calving and underwater melting (referred to here as marine ice loss, LM). This study quantifies the relation between LM and meltwater runoff (R) at the ...

Jason E. Box; William Colgan

386

Modeling the fracture of ice sheets on parallel computers.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate the complex fracture of ice and understand its role within larger ice sheet simulations and global climate change. At the present time, ice fracture is not explicitly considered within ice sheet models due in part to large computational costs associated with the accurate modeling of this complex phenomena. However, fracture not only plays an extremely important role in regional behavior but also influences ice dynamics over much larger zones in ways that are currently not well understood. Dramatic illustrations of fracture-induced phenomena most notably include the recent collapse of ice shelves in Antarctica (e.g. partial collapse of the Wilkins shelf in March of 2008 and the diminishing extent of the Larsen B shelf from 1998 to 2002). Other fracture examples include ice calving (fracture of icebergs) which is presently approximated in simplistic ways within ice sheet models, and the draining of supraglacial lakes through a complex network of cracks, a so called ice sheet plumbing system, that is believed to cause accelerated ice sheet flows due essentially to lubrication of the contact surface with the ground. These dramatic changes are emblematic of the ongoing change in the Earth's polar regions and highlight the important role of fracturing ice. To model ice fracture, a simulation capability will be designed centered around extended finite elements and solved by specialized multigrid methods on parallel computers. In addition, appropriate dynamic load balancing techniques will be employed to ensure an approximate equal amount of work for each processor.

Waisman, Haim (Columbia University); Bell, Robin (Columbia University); Keyes, David (Columbia University); Boman, Erik Gunnar; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Is the Missing Ultra-Red Material Colorless Ice?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extremely red colors of some transneptunian objects and Centaurs are not seen among the Jupiter family comets which supposedly derive from them. Could this mismatch result from sublimation loss of colorless ice? Radiative transfer models show that mixtures of volatile ice and nonvolatile organics could be extremely red, but become progressively darker and less red as the ice sublimates away.

Grundy, W M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Is the Missing Ultra-Red Material Colorless Ice?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extremely red colors of some transneptunian objects and Centaurs are not seen among the Jupiter family comets which supposedly derive from them. Could this mismatch result from sublimation loss of colorless ice? Radiative transfer models show that mixtures of volatile ice and nonvolatile organics could be extremely red, but become progressively darker and less red as the ice sublimates away.

W. M. Grundy

2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

389

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows; and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. Previous research (Phase 1) conducted by CBI under DOE Contract FG01-86CE26564 has shown a friction reducing effect of ice crystals in water flow. The results of this work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems.

Winters, P.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Modeling Landfast Sea Ice by Adding Tensile Strength  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Landfast ice is sea ice that forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is either attached to the shore or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of ...

Christof König Beatty; David M. Holland

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

AIM-94-0800 Effect of Initial Ice Roughness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ice accretion phase. Using5close-up photography and videography Hansman has studied the initial phase of ice accretion. At warm temperatures, a runback zone aft of the rough zone is observed. WaterAIM-94-0800 Effect of Initial Ice Roughness on Airfoil Aerodynamics M. Bragg, M. Kerho and M

Bragg, Michael B.

392

Dynamics of Ice Nucleation on Water Repellent Surfaces Azar Alizadeh,*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for nonicing applications. 1. INTRODUCTION Ice accretion on surfaces of aircraft, wind turbine blades, oil on surfaces with various wettabilities during and subsequent to single water droplet impact. We use surface wetting and icing phase transition events. Our methodology provides insights into multiple ice

Dhinojwala, Ali

393

Forecast of Icing Events at a Wind Farm in Sweden  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a method to identify icing events using a physical icing model, driven by atmospheric data from the WRF model, and applies it to a wind park in Sweden. Observed wind park icing events were identified by deviation from an ...

Neil Davis; Andrea N. Hahmann; Niels-Erik Clausen; Mark Žagar

394

Effective Radius of Ice Particles in Cirrus and Contrails  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the ratio C between the volume mean radius and the effective radius of ice particles in cirrus and contrails. The volume mean radius is proportional to the third root of the ratio between ice water content and number of ice ...

U. Schumann; B. Mayer; K. Gierens; S. Unterstrasser; P. Jessberger; A. Petzold; C. Voigt; J-F. Gayet

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Long-Term Ice Variability in Arctic Marginal Seas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Examination of records of fast ice thickness (1936–2000) and ice extent (1900–2000) in the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, and Chukchi Seas provide evidence that long-term ice thickness and extent trends are small and generally not statistically ...

Igor V. Polyakov; Genrikh V. Alekseev; Roman V. Bekryaev; Uma S. Bhatt; Roger Colony; Mark A. Johnson; Valerii P. Karklin; David Walsh; Alexander V. Yulin

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Definition: Independent Power Producer | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Producer Producer Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Independent Power Producer Any entity that owns or operates an electricity generating facility that is not included in an electric utility's rate base. This term includes, but is not limited to, cogenerators and small power producers and all other nonutility electricity producers, such as exempt wholesale generators, who sell electricity.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An Independent Power Producer is an entity, which is not a public utility, but which owns facilities to generate electric power for sale to utilities and end users. NUGs may be privately held facilities, corporations, cooperatives such as rural solar or wind energy producers, and non-energy industrial concerns capable of feeding excess energy into

397

Produced Conversion Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical conversion coatings are commonly applied to Mg alloys as paint bases and in some cases as stand-alone protection. Traditional conversion coatings ...

398

Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants: ProMIS/Project No.: DE-NT0005343  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

seyed Dastgheib seyed Dastgheib Principal Investigator Illinois State Geological Survey 615 E. Peabody Drive Champaign, Illinois 61820-6235 217-265-6274 dastgheib@isgs.uius.edu Reuse of PRoduced WateR fRom co 2 enhanced oil RecoveRy, coal-Bed methane, and mine Pool WateR By coal-Based PoWeR Plants: PRomis /PRoject no. : de-nt0005343 Background Coal-fired power plants are the second largest users of freshwater in the United States. In Illinois, the thermoelectric power sector accounts for approximately 84 percent of the estimated 14 billion gallons per day of freshwater withdrawals and one-third of the state's 1 billion gallons per day of freshwater consumption. Illinois electric power generation capacity is projected to expand 30 percent by 2030, increasing water consumption by

399

Tracking of Ice Edges and Ice Floes by Wavelet Analysis of SAR Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates the use of wavelet transforms in the tracking of sequential ice features in the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, especially in situations where feature correlation techniques fail to yield reasonable results. ...

Antony K. Liu; Seelye Martin; Ronald Kwok

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Snow Depth on Arctic Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow depth and density were measured at Soviet drifting stations on multiyear Arctic sea ice. Measurements were made daily at fixed stakes at the weather station and once- or thrice-monthly at 10-m intervals on a line beginning about 500 m from ...

Stephen G. Warren; Ignatius G. Rigor; Norbert Untersteiner; Vladimir F. Radionov; Nikolay N. Bryazgin; Yevgeniy I. Aleksandrov; Roger Colony

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Arctic Sea Ice Albedo from AVHRR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal cycle of surface albedo of sea ice in the Arctic is estimated from measurements made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the polar-orbiting satellites NOAA-10 and NOAA-11. The albedos of 145 200-km-square ...

R. W. Lindsay; D. A. Rothrock

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Visual simulation of ice crystal growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The beautiful, branching structure of ice is one of the most striking visual phenomena of the winter landscape. Yet there is little study about modeling this effect in computer graphics. In this paper, we present a novel approach for visual simulation ...

Theodore Kim; Ming C. Lin

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field studies in support of the Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP) were conducted in the Colorado Front Range area from 1 February to 31 March 1990(WISP90) and from 15 January to 5 April 1991 (WISP91). The main goals of the project are to ...

Roy Rasmussen; Marcia Politovich; Wayne Sand; Greg Stossmeister; Ben Bernstein; Kim Elmore; John Marwitz; John McGinley; John Smart; Ed Westwater; B. Boba Stankov; Roger Pielke; Steve Rutledge; Doug Wesley; Nick Powell; Don Burrows

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Technical Review Report for the Application for Contents Amendment for Shipping Isentropic Compression Experiment (ICE) Apparatus in 9977 Packaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the review of Application for Contents Amendment for Shipping Isentropic Compression Experiment (ICE) Apparatus in 9977 Packaging, prepared by Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRPT) of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, -- the Submittal -- at the request of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Agency's (NNSA) Albuquerque Facility Operations Division, for the shipment of the ICE apparatus from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The ICE apparatus consists of a stainless steel assembly containing about 8 grams of {sup 239}Pu or its dose equivalent as noted in Table 1, Comparison of 9977 Content C.1 and the ICE Radioactive Contents, of the Submittal. The ICE target is mounted on the transport container assembly base. A Viton{sup R} O-ring seals the transport container base to the transport container body. Another Viton{sup R} O-ring seals the transport container handle to the transport container body. The ICE apparatus weighs less than 30 pounds and has less than 0.6 watts decay heat rate. For the Model 9977 Package, the maximum payload weight is 100 pounds and the maximum decay heat rate is 19 watts. Thus, the maximum payload weight and the maximum decay heat rate for the Model 9977 Package easily bound those for the ICE apparatus. This Addendum supplements the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), Revision 2, for the Model 9977 Package and Addendum 1, Revision 2, to Revision 2 of the Model 9977 Package SARP. The ICE apparatus is considered as part of Content Envelope C.6, Samples and Sources, under the submittal for the Model 9978 Package SARP currently under review. The Staff at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recommends that the Submittal be approved by the DOE-Headquarters Certifying Official (EM-60), and incorporated into a subsequent revision to the current Certificate of Compliance (CoC), to the Model 9977-96 Packaging.

West, M

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

405

Dynamics and energetics of the cloudy boundary layer in simulations of off-ice flow in the marginal ice zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

kinetic energy even in the present case where very strong surface heat fluxes occur. Ice-phase. Inclusion of the ice phase significantly affected the radiative budget as compared to purely liquid clouds, illustrating the importance of ice-phase­radiative couplings for accurate simulations of arctic clouds

Harrington, Jerry Y.

406

Optimization of a Sea Ice Model Using Basinwide Observations of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness, Extent, and Velocity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stand-alone sea ice model is tuned and validated using satellite-derived, basinwide observations of sea ice thickness, extent, and velocity from the years 1993 to 2001. This is the first time that basin-scale measurements of sea ice thickness ...

Paul A. Miller; Seymour W. Laxon; Daniel L. Feltham; Douglas J. Cresswell

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

An Investigation of Laboratory-Grown "Ice Spikes"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the formation of 10-50 mm long ``ice spikes'' that sometimes appear on the free surface of water when it solidifies. By freezing water under different conditions, we measured the probability of ice spike formation as a function of: 1) the air temperature in the freezing chamber, 2) air motion in the freezing chamber (which promotes evaporative cooling), 3) the quantity of dissolved salts in the water, and 4) the size, shape, and composing material of the freezing vessel. We found that the probability of ice spike formation is greatest when the air temperature is near -7 C, the water is pure, and the air in the freezing chamber is moving. Even small quantities of dissolved solids greatly reduce the probability of ice spike formation. Under optimal conditions, approximately half the ice cubes in an ordinary ice cube tray will form ice spikes. Guided by these observations, we have examined the Bally-Dorsey model for the formation of ice spikes. In this model, the density change during solidification forces supercooled water up through a hollow ice tube, where it freezes around the rim to lengthen the tube. We propose that any dissolved solids in the water will tend to concentrate at the tip of a growing ice spike and inhibit its growth. This can qualitatively explain the observation that ice spikes do not readily form using water containing even small quantities of dissolved solids.

K. G. Libbrecht; K. Lui

2003-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

408

Limits on Neutrino Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the 40 String IceCube Detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if GRBs are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above $10^{18}$ eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from $p \\gamma$-interactions in the prompt phase of the GRB fireball, and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence.

IceCube Collaboration; R. Abbasi; Y. Abdou; T. Abu-Zayyad; J. Adams; J. A. Aguilar; M. Ahlers; K. Andeen; J. Auffenberg; X. Bai; M. Baker; S. W. Barwick; R. Bay; J. L. Bazo Alba; K. Beattie; J. J. Beatty; S. Bechet; J. K. Becker; K. -H. Becker; M. L. Benabderrahmane; S. BenZvi; J. Berdermann; P. Berghaus; D. Berley; E. Bernardini; D. Bertrand; D. Z. Besson; D. Bindig; M. Bissok; E. Blaufuss; J. Blumenthal; D. J. Boersma; C. Bohm; D. Bose; S. Böser; O. Botner; J. Braun; A. M. Brown; S. Buitink; M. Carson; D. Chirkin; B. Christy; J. Clem; F. Clevermann; S. Cohen; C. Colnard; D. F. Cowen; M. V. D'Agostino; M. Danninger; J. Daughhetee; J. C. Davis; C. De Clercq; L. Demirörs; O. Depaepe; F. Descamps; P. Desiati; G. de Vries-Uiterweerd; T. DeYoung; J. C. Díaz-Vélez; M. Dierckxsens; J. Dreyer; J. P. Dumm; R. Ehrlich; J. Eisch; R. W. Ellsworth; O. Engdegård; S. Euler; P. A. Evenson; O. Fadiran; A. R. Fazely; A. Fedynitch; T. Feusels; K. Filimonov; C. Finley; T. Fischer-Wasels; M. M. Foerster; B. D. Fox; A. Franckowiak; R. Franke; T. K. Gaisser; J. Gallagher; M. Geisler; L. Gerhardt; L. Gladstone; T. Glüsenkamp; A. Goldschmidt; J. A. Goodman; D. Grant; T. Griesel; A. Groß; S. Grullon; M. Gurtner; C. Ha; A. Hallgren; F. Halzen; K. Han; K. Hanson; D. Heinen; K. Helbing; P. Herquet; S. Hickford; G. C. Hill; K. D. Hoffman; A. Homeier; K. Hoshina; D. Hubert; W. Huelsnitz; J. -P. Hülß; P. O. Hulth; K. Hultqvist; S. Hussain; A. Ishihara; J. Jacobsen; G. S. Japaridze; H. Johansson; J. M. Joseph; K. -H. Kampert; A. Kappes; T. Karg; A. Karle; J. L. Kelley; N. Kemming; P. Kenny; J. Kiryluk; F. Kislat; S. R. Klein; J. -H. Köhne; G. Kohnen; H. Kolanoski; L. Köpke; S. Kopper; D. J. Koskinen; M. Kowalski; T. Kowarik; M. Krasberg; T. Krings; G. Kroll; K. Kuehn; T. Kuwabara; M. Labare; S. Lafebre; K. Laihem; H. Landsman; M. J. Larson; R. Lauer; R. Lehmann; J. Lünemann; J. Madsen; P. Majumdar; A. Marotta; R. Maruyama; K. Mase; H. S. Matis; K. Meagher; M. Merck; P. Mészáros; T. Meures; E. Middell; N. Milke; J. Miller; T. Montaruli; R. Morse; S. M. Movit; R. Nahnhauer; J. W. Nam; U. Naumann; P. Nießen; D. R. Nygren; S. Odrowski; A. Olivas; M. Olivo; A. O'Murchadha; M. Ono; S. Panknin; L. Paul; C. Pérez de los Heros; J. Petrovic; A. Piegsa; D. Pieloth; R. Porrata; J. Posselt; P. B. Price; M. Prikockis; G. T. Przybylski; K. Rawlins; P. Redl; E. Resconi; W. Rhode; M. Ribordy; A. Rizzo; J. P. Rodrigues; P. Roth; F. Rothmaier; C. Rott; T. Ruhe; D. Rutledge; B. Ruzybayev; D. Ryckbosch; H. -G. Sander; M. Santander; S. Sarkar; K. Schatto; T. Schmidt; A. Schoenwald; A. Schukraft; A. Schultes; O. Schulz; M. Schunck; D. Seckel; B. Semburg; S. H. Seo; Y. Sestayo; S. Seunarine; A. Silvestri; A. Slipak; G. M. Spiczak; C. Spiering; M. Stamatikos; T. Stanev; G. Stephens; T. Stezelberger; R. G. Stokstad; S. Stoyanov; E. A. Strahler; T. Straszheim; G. W. Sullivan; Q. Swillens; H. Taavola; I. Taboada; A. Tamburro; O. Tarasova; A. Tepe; S. Ter-Antonyan; S. Tilav; P. A. Toale; S. Toscano; D. Tosi; D. Tur?an; N. van Eijndhoven; J. Vandenbroucke; A. Van Overloop; J. van Santen; M. Vehring; M. Voge; B. Voigt; C. Walck; T. Waldenmaier; M. Wallraff; M. Walter; C. Weaver; C. Wendt; S. Westerhoff; N. Whitehorn; K. Wiebe; C. H. Wiebusch; D. R. Williams; R. Wischnewski; H. Wissing; M. Wolf; K. Woschnagg; C. Xu; X. W. Xu; G. Yodh; S. Yoshida; P. Zarzhitsky

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

409

ADAPTIVE OPTICS OBSERVATIONS OF 3 {mu}m WATER ICE IN SILHOUETTE DISKS IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER AND M43  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the near-infrared images and spectra of four silhouette disks in the Orion Nebula Cluster (M42) and M43 using the Subaru Adaptive Optics system. While d053-717 and d141-1952 show no water ice feature at 3.1 {mu}m, a moderately deep ({tau}{sub ice} {approx} 0.7) water ice absorption is detected toward d132-1832 and d216-0939. Taking into account the water ice so far detected in the silhouette disks, the critical inclination angle to produce a water ice absorption feature is confirmed to be 65 Degree-Sign -75 Degree-Sign . As for d216-0939, the crystallized water ice profile is exactly the same as in the previous observations taken 3.63 years ago. If the water ice material is located at 30 AU, then the observations suggest it is uniform at a scale of about 3.5 AU.

Terada, Hiroshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Minowa, Yosuke; Hayano, Yutaka; Oya, Shin; Hattori, Masayuki; Takami, Hideki [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Tokunaga, Alan T. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Watanabe, Makoto [Department of Cosmosciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiko [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Ito, Meguru [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Iye, Masanori, E-mail: terada@subaru.naoj.org [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Richardson, Donald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Simulation of Ultra High Energy Neutrino Interactions in Ice and Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CORSIKA program, usually used to simulate extensive cosmic ray air showers, has been adapted to work in a water or ice medium. The adapted CORSIKA code was used to simulate hadronic showers produced by neutrino interactions. The simulated showers have been used to study the spatial distribution of the deposited energy in the showers. This allows a more precise determination of the acoustic signals produced by ultra high energy neutrinos than has been possible previously. The properties of the acoustic signals generated by such showers are described.

Bevan, S; Perkin, J; Ralph, S; Rhodes, C; Thompson, L; Sloan, T; Waters, D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Simulation of Ultra High Energy Neutrino Interactions in Ice and Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CORSIKA program, usually used to simulate extensive cosmic ray air showers, has been adapted to work in a water or ice medium. The adapted CORSIKA code was used to simulate hadronic showers produced by neutrino interactions. The simulated showers have been used to study the spatial distribution of the deposited energy in the showers. This allows a more precise determination of the acoustic signals produced by ultra high energy neutrinos than has been possible previously. The properties of the acoustic signals generated by such showers are described.

S. Bevan; S. Danaher; J. Perkin; S. Ralph; C. Rhodes; L. Thompson; T. Sloan; D. Waters

2007-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

413

Molecular origin of the difference in the HOH bend of the IR spectra between liquid water and ice  

SciTech Connect

The intensity of the HOH bend in the IR spectrum of ice is significantly smaller than the corresponding one in liquid water. This difference in the IR intensities of the HOH bend in the two systems is investigated using MD simulations with the flexible, polarizable, ab-initio based TTM3-F model for water, a potential that correctly reproduces the experimentally observed increase of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice from the water monomer value. We have identified two factors that are responsible for the difference in the intensity of the HOH bend in liquid water and ice: (i) the decrease of the intensity of the HOH bend in ice caused by the strong anti-correlation between the permanent dipole moment of a molecule and the induced dipole moment of a neighboring hydrogen bond acceptor molecule and (ii) the weakening of this anti-correlation by the disordered hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The presence of the anti-correlation in ice is further confirmed by ab initio electronic structure calculations of water pentamer clusters extracted from the trajectories of the MD simulations for ice and liquid water.

Imoto, Sho; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Saito, Shinji

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

414

Ab-initio study of structure and dynamical properties of crystalline ice. Phase Transitions 78 179  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated the structural and dynamical properties of a tetrahedrally coordinated crystalline ice from first principles based on density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation with the projected augmented wave method. First, we report the structural behaviour of ice at finite temperatures based on the analysis of radial distribution functions obtained by molecular dynamics simulations. The results show how the ordering of the hydrogen bonding breaks down in the tetrahedral network of ice with entropy increase in agreement with the neutron diffraction data. We also calculated the phonon spectra of ice in a 3 × 1 × 1 supercell by using the direct method. So far, due to the direct method used in this calculation, the phonon spectra is obtained without taking into account the effect of polarization arising from dipole-dipole interactions of water molecules which is expected to yield the splitting of longitudinal and transverse optic modes at the ?-point. The calculated longitudinal acoustic velocities from the initial slopes of the acoustic mode is in a reasonable agreement with the neutron scatering data. The analysis of the vibrational density of states shows the existence of a boson peak at low energy of translational region a characteristic common to amorphous systems.

W. A. Adeagbo; A. Zayak; P. Entel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

System for treating produced water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

Sullivan, Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Lynn (Austin, TX); Kinney, Kerry (Austin, TX); Bowman, Robert S. (Lemitar, NM); Kwon, Soondong (Kyungbuk, KR)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

416

SOFT X-RAY IRRADIATION OF PURE CARBON MONOXIDE INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGUES  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing evidence for the existence of large organic molecules in the interstellar and circumstellar medium. Very few among such species are readily formed in conventional gas-phase chemistry under typical conditions of interstellar clouds. Attention has therefore focused on interstellar ices as a potential source of these relatively complex species. Laboratory experiments show that irradiation of interstellar ice analogues by fast particles or ultraviolet radiation can induce significant chemical complexity. However, stars are sources of intense X-rays at almost every stage of their formation and evolution. Such radiation may thus provide chemical changes in regions where ultraviolet radiation is severely inhibited. After H{sub 2}O, CO is often the most abundant component of icy grain mantles in dense interstellar clouds and circumstellar disks. In this work we present irradiation of a pure carbon monoxide ice using a soft X-ray spectrum peaked at 0.3 keV. Analysis of irradiated samples shows formation of CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}O, C{sub 3}O{sub 2}, C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}O, and CO{sub 3}/C{sub 5}. Comparison of X-rays and ultraviolet irradiation experiments, of the same energy dose, shows that X-rays are more efficient than ultraviolet radiation in producing new species. With the exception of CO{sub 2}, X-ray photolysis induces formation of a larger number of products with higher abundances, e.g., C{sub 3}O{sub 2} column density is about one order of magnitude higher in the X-ray experiment. To our knowledge this is the first report on X-ray photolysis of CO ices. The present results show that X-ray irradiation represents an efficient photo-chemical way to convert simple ices to more complex species.

Ciaravella, A.; Candia, R.; Collura, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy); Jimenez-Escobar, A.; Munoz Caro, G. M. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Cecchi-Pestellini, C. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Strada n.54, Loc. Poggio dei Pini, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Giarrusso, S. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Barbera, M., E-mail: aciaravella@astropa.unipa.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche and Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, Sezione di Astronomia, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

417

Major Energy Producers  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

206(92) 206(92) Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 January 1994 Elk. I nergy Information dministration This publication and other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. All telephone orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents McPherson Square Bookstore U.S. Government Printing Office 1510 H Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20402 Washington, DC 20005 (202)783-3238 (202)653-2050 FAX (202)512-2233 FAX (202)376-5055 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., eastern time, M-F 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., eastern time, M-F All mail orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office P.O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 Complimentary subscriptions and single issues are available to certain groups of subscribers, such as

418

Searching for sterile neutrinos in ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oscillation interpretation of the results from the LSND, MiniBooNE and some other experiments requires existence of sterile neutrino with mass $\\sim 1$ eV and mixing with the active neutrinos $|U_{\\mu 0}|^2 \\sim (0.02 - 0.04)$. It has been realized some time ago that existence of such a neutrino affects significantly the fluxes of atmospheric neutrinos in the TeV range which can be tested by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. In view of the first IceCube data release we have revisited the oscillations of high energy atmospheric neutrinos in the presence of one sterile neutrino. Properties of the oscillation probabilities are studied in details for various mixing schemes both analytically and numerically. The energy spectra and angular distributions of the $\

Soebur Razzaque; A. Yu. Smirnov

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

419

ICE Cleaning Test Report.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

16 16 FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE ICE 250 TM CLEANING SYSTEM AT THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN OILFIELD TESTING CENTER CASPER, WYOMING August 18-19, 1999 Date Published: October 5, 1999 J.L. Johnston L.M. Jackson PREPARED FOR THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY/ROCKY MOUNTAIN OILFIELD TESTING CENTER Work Performed Under Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) CRADA No. 99-009 TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract.............................................................................................................................................1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................1 Product Description ...........................................................................................................................1

420

Why could ice ages be unpredictable?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is commonly accepted that the variations of Earth's orbit and obliquity control the timing of Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Evidence comes from power spectrum analysis of palaeoclimate records and from inspection of the timing of glacial and deglacial transitions. However, we do not know how tight this control is. Is it, for example, conceivable that random climatic fluctuations could cause a delay in deglaciation, bad enough to skip a full precession or obliquity cycle and subsequently modify the sequence of ice ages? To address this question, seven previously published conceptual models of ice ages are analysed by reference to the notion of generalised synchronisation. Insight is being gained by comparing the effects of the astronomical forcing with idealised forcings composed of only one or two periodic components. In general, the richness of the astronomical forcing allows for synchronisation over a wider range of parameters, compared to periodic forcing. Hence, glacial cycles may conceivably have remained paced by the astronomical forcing throughout the Pleistocene. However, all the models examined here also show a range of parameters for which the structural stability of the ice age dynamics is weak. This means that small variations in parameters or random fluctuations may cause significant shifts in the succession of ice ages if the system were effectively in that parameter range. Whether or not the system has strong structural stability depends on the amplitude of the effects associated with the astronomical forcing, which significantly differ across the different models studied here. The possibility of synchronisation on eccentricity is also discussed and it is shown that a high Rayleigh number on eccentricity, as recently found in observations, is no guarantee of reliable synchronisation.

Michel Crucifix

2013-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

On water ice formation in interstellar clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model is proposed for the formation of water ice mantles on grains in interstellar clouds. This occurs by direct accretion of monomers from the gas, be they formed by gas or surface reactions. The model predicts the existence of a threshold in interstellar light extinction, A(v), which is mainly determined by the adsorption energy of water molecules on the grain material; for hydrocarbon material, chemical simulation places this energy between 0.5 and 2 kcal/mole, which sets the visible exctinction threshold at a few magnitudes, as observed. Once the threshold is crossed, all available water molecules in the gas are quickly adsorbed, forming an ice mantle, because the grain cools down and the adsorption energy on ice is higher than on bare grain. The model also predicts that the thickness of the mantle, and, hence, the optical thickness at 3 mu, grow linearly with A(v), as observed, with a slope which depends upon the total amount of water in the gas. Chemical simulation was also used to determine the adsorption sites and energies of O and OH on hydrocarbons, and study the dynamics of formation of water molecules by surface reactions with gaseous H atoms, as well as their chances of sticking in situ.

Renaud Papoular

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

422

ICE LINES IN CIRCUMBINARY PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I examine the position of the ice line in circumbinary disks heated by steady mass accretion and stellar irradiation and compare with the critical semimajor axis, interior to which planetary orbits are unstable. There is a critical binary separation, dependent on the binary parameters and disk properties, for which binaries with separations larger than this critical value have ice lines that lie interior to the boundary of stability. For an equal-mass binary comprised of 1 M{sub Sun} components, this critical separation is Almost-Equal-To 1.04 AU, and scales weakly with mass accretion rate and Rosseland mean opacity ({proportional_to}[ M-dot {kappa}{sub R}]{sup 2/9}). Assuming a steady mass accretion rate of M-dot {approx}10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a Rosseland mean opacity of {kappa}{sub R} {approx} 1 cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}, I show that {approx}> 80% of all binary systems with component masses M{sub *} {approx}ice lines that lie interior to the critical semimajor axis. This suggests that rocky planets should not form in these systems, a prediction which can be tested by looking for planets around binaries with separations larger than the critical separation with Kepler (difficult) and with microlensing.

Clanton, Christian, E-mail: clanton@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Genetically Engineered Ethanol Producing Microorganisms ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Genetically Engineered Ethanol Producing Microorganisms. Battelle ...

424

NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-20 SUMMARY OF GREAT LAKES WEATHER AND ICE CONDITIONS,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling Phase 3.2.2 Ice Formation and Breakup Phases 3.2.3 The Ice Cycle on Lake Superior 3.2.4 The IceNOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-20 SUMMARY OF GREAT LAKES WEATHER AND ICE CONDITIONS, WINTER of this NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories publication. ii #12;LANDSAT fake color image of ice cover

425

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

426

STATEMENT OF WORK (SOW) TEMPLATE FOR ICE SUPPORT CONTRACTOR  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ICE SUPPORT CONTRACTOR ICE SUPPORT CONTRACTOR The template presented below is a Statement of Work (SOW) for services of an ICE Support Contractor for assisting OECM in conducting an ICE. Project and review specific information should be incorporated. Explanatory text appears in italics, while information that should be selected appears in >. The format and contents of this SOW is not compulsory, and the use is at the discretion of the OECM Analysts, tailored as appropriate for the desired contractor support activities. If no contractor support is required, this appendix is not used. Statement of Work for Independent Cost Estimate (ICE) > <ICE (i.e., Alternative Selection and Cost Range (CD-1), Establish

427

Orbital ice: An exact Coulomb phase on the diamond lattice  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the existence of an orbital Coulomb phase as the exact ground state of a p-orbital exchange Hamiltonian on the diamond lattice. The Coulomb phase is an emergent state characterized by algebraic dipolar correlations and a gauge structure resulting from local constraints (ice rules) of the underlying lattice models. For most ice models on the pyrochlore lattice, these local constraints are a direct consequence of minimizing the energy of each individual tetrahedron. On the contrary, the orbital ice rules are emergent phenomena resulting from the quantum orbital dynamics. We show that the orbital ice model exhibits an emergent geometrical frustration by mapping the degenerate quantum orbital ground states to the spin-ice states obeying the 2-in-2-out constraints on the pyrochlore lattice. We also discuss possible realization of the orbital ice model in optical lattices with p-band fermionic cold atoms.

Chern Giawei [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Wu Congjun [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Investigation of Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of Ice Crystal Shapes Using Multi-resolution Techniques Investigation of Ice Crystal Shapes Using Multi-resolution Techniques McFarquhar, Greg University of Illinois Better knowledge of small-scale features from ice crystals are needed to determine their effects on radiation and hence to improve the treatment of clouds in climate models. With the Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) it is now possible to capture ice crystal images with 2.3 μm resolution and 256 gray scales of illumination, providing an unprecedented wealth of information to utilize in the ongoing quest to understand the small scale structure of ice crystals. In this study, we applied wavelet and fractal analysis to CPI images of ice crystals collected in cirrus by the University of North Dakota Citation during the Intensive Observation Period at the Southern

429

Ice Age Epochs and the Sun's Path Through the Galaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a calculation of the Sun's motion through the Milky Way Galaxy over the last 500 million years. The integration is based upon estimates of the Sun's current position and speed from measurements with Hipparcos and upon a realistic model for the Galactic gravitational potential. We estimate the times of the Sun's past spiral arm crossings for a range in assumed values of the spiral pattern angular speed. We find that for a difference between the mean solar and pattern speed of Omega_Sun - Omega_p = 11.9 +/- 0.7 km/s/kpc the Sun has traversed four spiral arms at times that appear to correspond well with long duration cold periods on Earth. This supports the idea that extended exposure to the higher cosmic ray flux associated with spiral arms can lead to increased cloud cover and long ice age epochs on Earth.

D. R. Gies; J. W. Helsel

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

430

Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 , A.E. Pantoja 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 ice show daily oscillations consistent with heating by solar radiation. We present and solve a heat for solar power absorption based on Monte Carlo scatter­ ing simulations of penetrating photons. We observe

431

Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave Measurements G. Liu Department of Meteorology Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida Introduction A better...

432

LIMITS TO ICE ON ASTEROIDS (24) THEMIS AND (65) CYBELE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present optical spectra of (24) Themis and (65) Cybele, two large main-belt asteroids on which exposed water ice has recently been reported. No emission lines, expected from resonance fluorescence in gas sublimated from the ice, were detected. Derived limits to the production rates of water are {approx}ice because the measured albedos of Themis and Cybele are low ({approx}0.05-0.07). We also rule out models in which a large fraction of the surface is occupied by low-albedo ('dirty') water ice because dirty ice would be warm and would sublimate strongly enough for gaseous products to have been detected. If ice exists on these bodies it must be relatively clean (albedo {approx}>0.3) and confined to a fraction of the Earth-facing surface {approx}ice. If the ice is even more reflective (albedo {approx}>0.6), then the timescale for sublimation of an optically thick layer can rival the {approx}10{sup 3} yr interval between impacts with bodies this size. In this sense, exposure by impact may be a quasi steady-state feature of ice-containing asteroids at 3 AU.

Jewitt, David; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Ice-templated Porous Ceramic Structures for Energy Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied the ice-templating method for filters and battery electrode applications with the hierarchical pore structure. The porous Si structure was ...

435

Microstructural Characterization of Snow and Ice - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Recent Advances in Structural Characterization of Materials. Presentation Title, Microstructural Characterization of Snow and Ice. Author(s), I. Baker ...

436

Molecular Hydrogen Formation on Ice Under Interstellar Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results of experiments on the formation of molecular hydrogen on low density and high density amorphous ice surfaces are analyzed using a rate equation model. The activation energy barriers for the relevant diffusion and desorption processes are obtained. The more porous morphology of the low density ice gives rise to a broader spectrum of energy barriers compared to the high density ice. Inserting these parameters into the rate equation model under steady state conditions we evaluate the production rate of molecular hydrogen on ice-coated interstellar dust grains.

Hagai B. Perets; Ofer Biham; Giulio Manico; Valerio Pirronello; Joe Roser; Sol Swords; Gianfranco Vidali

2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

437

Rapid Cooling Using Ice Slurries for Industrial and Medical ...  

Because of the high energy content of ice slurry, its cooling capacity is many times greater than that of single-phase fluids. ... Wind Energy; Partners (27)

438

Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Jim Francfort (INEEL) Don Karner (ETA) 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar - San Antonio Session 5B - Hydrogen DOE - Advanced Vehicle Testing...

439

Development of ice hockey in Bosnia and Hertzegovina.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thesis explains general situation of ice hockey in Bosnia and Herzegovina, what is the current state of hockey and how did it came to the… (more)

Hasovic, Ermin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Dynamic implementation in organizing an ice hockey tournament.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this thesis is to follow, describe and evaluate the phases of organizing internationally recognized ice hockey tournament. The authors were following the… (more)

Ijäs, Juhani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Teaching game sense in ice-hockey junior organization.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of making a manual for Heinolan Kiekko junior ice-hockey club was to provide a tool for coaches everyday work in the field. The… (more)

Juurikkala, Markus

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Evaluation of icing design criteria for lattice towers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Atmospheric icing is a major design factor for guyed lattice masts and transmission lines in Canada and many others countries with cold climate. Tall and… (more)

Korotkov, Oleksiy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

A Novel and Low-Cost Sea Ice Mass Balance Buoy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The understanding of sea ice mass balance processes requires continuous monitoring of the seasonal evolution of the ice thickness. While autonomous ice mass balance (IMB) buoys deployed over the past two decades have contributed to scientists' ...

Keith Jackson; Jeremy Wilkinson; Ted Maksym; David Meldrum; Justin Beckers; Christian Haas; David Mackenzie

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Efficient flowline simulations of ice-shelf/ocean interactions: Sensitivity studies with a fully coupled model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermodynamic flowline and plume models for the ice-shelf/ocean system simplify the ice and ocean dynamics sufficiently to allow extensive exploration of parameters affecting ice-sheet stability while including key physical processes. Comparison ...

Ryan T. Walker; David M. Holland; Byron R. Parizek; Richard B. Alley; Sophie M. J. Nowicki; Adrian Jenkins

445

Development of a Sea Ice Model for Use in Zonally Averaged Energy Balance Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sea ice model for use in zonally averaged energy balance climate models is presented which includes the following processes: surface melting, basal freezing and melting, lateral melting from ice-flee water or growth of new ice in leads, ...

L. D. Danny Harvey

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Comparison of PARASOL Observations with Polarized Reflectances Simulated Using Different Ice Habit Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Insufficient knowledge of the habit distribution and the degree of surface roughness of ice crystals within ice clouds is a source of uncertainty in the forward light scattering and radiative transfer simulations of ice clouds used in downstream ...

Benjamin H. Cole; Ping Yang; Bryan A. Baum; Jerome Riedi; Laurent C.-Labonnote; Francois Thieuleux; Steven Platnick

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Modeling the High-Frequency Component of Arctic Sea Ice Drift and Deformation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Buoy observations of sea ice drift show that sea ice motion and deformation contain substantial high-frequency variability at subdaily timescales. However, numerical simulations of the sea ice dynamics normally do not include processes on such ...

Petra Heil; William D. Hibler III

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Ice, Snow and Water: impacts of climate change on California and Himalayan Asia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sustainability BRIEFING NOTE  Ice, Snow  and Water: impacts light absorption of snow and ice as pollutants darken theAsian region of snow, ice, water, and mountains, with huge

Fenner, R. A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Suppression of ICE and Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial Cells by Extracellular Matrix  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Suppression of ICE and Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial Cellsmodulate the expression of ICE remain to be elucidated, asdo the in vivo substrates for ICE or related enzymes and the

Boudreau, Nancy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Web-Ice: Integrated Data Collection and Analysis for Macromolecular Crystallography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

results. A summary list is also available in Blu-Ice.Figure 7: SSRL Web-Ice interface displaying the summarizedTable 1: Programs used by Web-Ice for data analysis. Program

Gonzalez, Ana

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

A QUANTUM MECHANICAL APPROACH TO THE VELOCITY OF DISLOCATIONS IN ICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~, A. ~ Higashi, A. , Physics of Ice, edited by N. Riehl, B.THE VELOCITY OF DISLOCATIONS IN ICE RECEIVED LAWRENCE A. R.the velocity of dislocations in ice ref. (3,4) with which we

Forouhi, A.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Using Ice to Mimic Nacre: From Structural Materials to Artificial Bone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Ice to Mimic Nacre: From Structural Materials tohere how the physics of ice formation can be used to developphenomenon, the freezing of sea ice, which occurs at the

Deville, Sylvain; Saiz, Eduardo; Nalla, Ravi K.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Modeled winter sea ice variability and the North Atlantic Oscillation: a multi-century perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

leading mode in a coupled sea ice-ocen model. J Clim 16:009-0550-7 Modeled winter sea ice variability and the Northrelationship between winter sea ice vari- ability and the

Strong, Courtenay; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. : Role of a parameterized ice-phase mi- crophysics in anof contact nucleation in ice phase initiation in clouds, J.simulated, process of ice phase initiation due to freezing

Sednev, I.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: Sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. : Role of a parameterized ice-phase micro- physics in anconcentration (N i ) for ice phase in experiments with icei L ?1 Table 8. Composite ice phase effective radius (R ei )

Sednev, I.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Retrieval of Ice Cloud Parameters Using the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm is developed to derive cloud ice water path (IWP) and ice particle effective diameters De from the advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU) measurements. In the algorithm, both IWP and De are related to the ice particle scattering ...

Limin Zhao; Fuzhong Weng

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Web-Ice: Integrated Data Collection and Analysis for Macromolecular Crystallography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Blu-Ice. Figure 7: SSRL Web-Ice interface displaying theRadiation Laboratory (SSRL), and subsequently adapted forsystems — Blu-Ice / DCSS at SSRL (McPhillips et al. , 2002)

Gonzalez, Ana

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Ice Loads on a Lattice Tower Estimated by Weather Station Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric ice loads are a major design criterion of tall structures in cold regions. In this paper the possibility to derive the design ice loads using analysis of meteorological observations made routinely at a weather station is studied. Ice ...

Eva Sundin; Lasse Makkonen

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Detection of Atmospheric Muon Neutrinos with the IceCube 9-String Detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutrinos with the IceCube 9-String Detector A. Achterberg,Neutrinos with the IceCube 9-String Detector The IceCube17 me- ters apart in strings of 60. Strings are arranged on

Achterberg, A.; IceCube Collaboration

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Amplified Inception of European Little Ice Age by Sea Ice–Ocean–Atmosphere Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The inception of the Little Ice Age (~1400–1700 AD) is believed to have been driven by an interplay of external forcing and climate system internal variability. While the hemispheric signal seems to have been dominated by solar irradiance and ...

Flavio Lehner; Andreas Born; Christoph C. Raible; Thomas F. Stocker

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Amplified inception of European Little Ice Age by sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The inception of the Little Ice Age (~1400-1700 AD) is believed to have been driven by an interplay of external forcing and climate system-internal variability. While the hemispheric signal seems to have been dominated by solar irradiance and ...

Flavio Lehner; Andreas Born; Christoph C. Raible; Thomas F. Stocker

462

Produced water associated with the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary: Produced water associated with the oil and gas (O&G) industry annually introduces hundreds of billions of gallons of brackish wastewa- ter in the U.S. alone. Most produced water is highly saline companies pay to have this contaminated produced water trucked to reinjection sites for disposal--an expen

463

Heat recovery anti-icing system  

SciTech Connect

A heat recovery anti-icing system is disclosed. The heat recovery system includes a blower which removes air from the air flow path of a combustion turbine power generating system and circulates the air through a heat exchanger located in the exhaust stack of the combustion turbine. The heated air circulating through the heat exchanger is returned to an inlet filter compartment in the air flow path so as to maintain the temperature of the air in the inlet filter compartment at an elevated level.

Cummins, J.R.

1982-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

464

Ice Volume and Subglacial Topography for Western Canadian Glaciers from Mass Balance Fields, Thinning Rates, and a Bed Stress Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described to estimate the thickness of glacier ice using information derived from the measured ice extent, surface topography, surface mass balance, and rate of thinning or thickening of the ice column. Shear stress beneath an ice ...

Garry K. C. Clarke; Faron S. Anslow; Alexander H. Jarosch; Valentina Radi?; Brian Menounos; Tobias Bolch; Etienne Berthier

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Limits on a muon flux from neutralino annihilations in the Sun with the IceCube 22-string detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Sun with the IceCube 22-string detector R. Abbasi, 24 Y.in the Sun with the IceCube 22-string detector The IceCubeperformed with the IceCube 22-string neutrino detector using

Klein, Spencer; IceCube Collaboration

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Isotope effect in the photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) by Lyman-{alpha} radiation  

SciTech Connect

The photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K by Lyman-{alpha} radiation (10.2 eV) has been studied using transmission infrared spectroscopy. An isotope effect in the decomposition of the CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice has been discovered, favoring {sup 12}CO{sub 2} photodecomposition over {sup 13}CO{sub 2} by about 10%. The effect is caused by electronic energy transfer from the excited CO{sub 2} molecule to the ice matrix, which favors quenching of the heavier electronically-excited {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule over {sup 12}CO{sub 2}. The effect is similar to the Menzel-Gomer-Redhead isotope effect in desorption from adsorbed molecules on surfaces when electronically excited. An enhancement of the rate of formation of lattice-trapped CO and CO{sub 3} species is observed for the photolysis of the {sup 12}CO{sub 2} molecule compared to the {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice. Only 0.5% of the primary photoexcitation results in O-CO bond dissociation to produce trapped-CO and trapped-CO{sub 3} product molecules and the majority of the electronically-excited CO{sub 2} molecules return to the ground state. Here either vibrational relaxation occurs (majority process) or desorption of CO{sub 2} occurs (minority process) from highly vibrationally-excited CO{sub 2} molecules in the ice. The observation of the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope effect in the Lyman-{alpha} induced photodecomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) suggests that over astronomical time scales the isotope enrichment effect may distort historical information derived from isotope ratios in space wherever photochemistry can occur.

Yuan Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2013-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

467

Testa Produce | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Testa Produce Testa Produce Jump to: navigation, search Name Testa Produce Facility Testa Produce Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Testa Produce Developer Testa Produce Energy Purchaser Testa Produce Location Chicago IL Coordinates 41.81065982°, -87.65433311° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.81065982,"lon":-87.65433311,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

468

Validation of ice skating protocol to predict aerobic power in hockey players.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Validation ofan Ice Skating Protocol to Predict Aerobic Power in Hockey Players In assessing the physiological capacity of ice hockey players, researchers have often reported… (more)

Petrella, Nicholas J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Prevalence and intent of aggressive behaviors in elite women's ice hockey.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There has been a substantial amount of research on aggression in men's ice hockey. Although there is some research on aggression in women's ice hockey,… (more)

Shapcott, Kim M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Lunar South Pole ice as heat sink for Lunar cryofuel production system  

SciTech Connect

Recent Clementine bistatic radar data suggest that water ice may be present in a {open_quotes}forever shaded{close_quotes} depression or crater at the South Pole of the Moon. The ice is a feedstock for the electrolysis production of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen rocket fuels for a transportation system on the moon and for leaving and descending on to the moon. The ice also provides a convective heat sink critical to the practical implementation of high throughput electric power generators and refrigerators that liquefy and cool the oxygen and hydrogen into cryogenic rocket fuel. This brief analysis shows that about a hundred tonnes of hardware delivered to the lunar surface can produce tens of thousands of tonnes of rocket fuel per year, on the moon. And it makes the point that if convective cooling is used instead of radiative cooling, then power and processing systems can be used that exist and have been tested already. This shortens the time by an order of magnitude to develop lunar operations. Quick deployment of a chemical cryofuel energy source is a key factor in the economics of lunar development.

Zuppero, A.; Stanley, M.; Modro, S.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Whitman, P. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Lunar south pole ice as heat sink for lunar cryofuel production system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent Clementine bistatic radar data suggest that water ice may be present in a ``forever shaded`` depression or crater at the South Pole of the Moon. The ice is a feedstock for the electrolysis production of cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen rocket fuel for a transportation system on the moon and for leaving and descending on the moon. The ice also provides a convective heat sink critical to the practical implementation of high throughput electric power generators and refrigerators that liquefy and cool the oxyen and hydrogen into cryogenic rocket fuel. This brief analysis shows that about a hundred tonnes of hardware delivered to the lunar surface can produce tens of thousands of tonnes of rocket fuel per year, on the moon. And it makes the point that if convective cooling is used instead of radiative cooling, then power and processing systems can be used that exist and have been tested already. This shortens the time by an order of magnitude to develop lunar operations. Quick deployment of a chemical cryofuel energy source is a key factor in the economics of lunar development. {copyright}American Institute of Physics 1995

Zuppero, A.; Stanley, M.; Modro, S.M. [PO Box 1625, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Whitman, P. [University of Southwestern Louisiana, Physics Dept., Center for Accessible Resources, Box 4210, Lafayette, Louisiana 70504 (United States)

1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

472

An Objective Method for Measuring Surface Ice Accretion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An off-the-shelf ice detection system used primarily on aircraft was tested in a climatic chamber, and then in the field to evaluate its ability to estimate the amount of ice simultaneously accreting on various-sized cylinders. The climatic ...

Paul Tattelman

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

A Markov Model for Seasonal Forecast of Antarctic Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear Markov model has been developed to simulated and predict the short-term climate change in the Antarctic, with particular emphasis on sea ice variability. Seven atmospheric variables along with sea ice were chosen to define the state of ...

Dake Chen; Xiaojun Yuan

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Radar Backscattering of Microwaves by Spongy Ice Spheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radar backscattering cross section of a spongy ice hailstone—a mixture of ice and liquid water—depends on its size, shape and dielectric function. There are two types of theories of the effective dielectric function of two-component mixtures: ...

Craig F. Bohren; Louis J. Battan

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Observation of Ice Crystal Formation in Lower Arctic Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clear sky ice crystals or diamond dust displays are observed in polar regions, both remote and populated; when the temperature falls to ?20°C and where abundant sources of water vapor are present. In remote areas of the Arctic, these ice crystals ...

Takeshi Ohtake; Kolf Jayaweera; Ken-Ichi Sakurai

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Numerical Simulation of Dry Ice Cloud Seeding Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of a two-dimensional, time-dependent cloud model to describe the effects of dry ice cloud seeding is demonstrated. A conservation equation and associated auxiliary equations for the mixing ratio of dry ice (CO2) are presented. The ...

Fred J. Kopp; Harold D. Orville; Richard D. Farley; John H. Hirsch

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Anchored Clathrate Waters Bind Antifreeze Proteins to Ice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca{sup 2+}-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP{vert_ellipsis}ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the 'anchored clathrate' mechanism of AFP action.

C Garnham; R Campbell; P Davies

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

478

Third international workshop on ice storage for cooling applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The third international workshop on ice storage for cooling applications which was informal and interactive in nature, was open to persons interested in all ice-growing technologies and in ice storage, both seasonal and diurnal. Presentations were made on some 20 topics, ranging from freezers in Alaska to ice cooling of commercial jet aircraft. Workshop tours included visits to ice-storage systems at Commonwealth Edison's facilities in Bolingbrook and Des Plaines Valley, the A.C. Neilsen builing in Northbrook, and the new State of Illinois Center in Chicago. The first workshop in the present series considered the future of ice storage and predicted applications in the agricultural sector, desalinization, and commercial ice production. Progress has been rapid in the intervening two years, and an important topic at the third workshop was the possible use of ''warm ices'' (clathrate hydrates) for energy storage. This report consists primarily of abstracts of presentations made at the workshop. Persons wishing to obtain further information about particular papers should contact the speakers directly; speakers' addresses and telephone numbers are listed in this report.

Gorski, A.J. (comp.)

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Laboratory and Wind Tunnel Evaluations of the Rosemount Icing Detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Rosemount model 871FA ice detector was evaluated during a number of laboratory and wind tunnel studies. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the sensitivity of the detector to a variety of icing conditions and to determine its ...

Darrel Baumgardner; Alfred Rodi

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

An informed source separation of astrophysical ice analogs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analysis of astrophysical ices and the determination of the compounds that are present in the molecular clouds play a fundamental role in order to predict the future evolution of the cloud, e.g., its transformation to protostellar bodies or the appearance ... Keywords: Astrophysical ices, Bayesian analysis, Blind source separation, Ensemble learning, Independent component analysis, Positiveness, Priors

Jorge Igual; Raul Llinares

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ice produced based" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Pressurized Icing Tunnel for Graupel, Hail and Secondary Raindrop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The closed-circuit icing wind tunnel with pressure control serves for experiments on the growth and melting of ice particles, such as graupel and hailstones, and the observation of shedding of rain-sized drops by growing and melting hailstones. ...

Roland List; G. B. Lesins; F. García-García; D. B. McDonald

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Temperature Dependence of Static Charging in Ice Growing by Riming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Charge transfer between colliding ice particles is measured using a wind tunnel inside a cold room. A cylinder growing by riming in a wind tunnel was used as a target for collisions between 5 and 6 m s?1 with ice spheres of 100-µm diameter. The ...

Eldo E. Avila; Guillermo G. Aguirre Varela; Giorgio M. Caranti

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

The Melting of Ice in Cold Stratified Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the melting of ice in cold water vertically stratified with salt. The study extends previous investigations of ice melting in cold water at uniform salinity and in warm water with a salinity gradient. We find, in agreement with the ...

Herbert E. Huppert; Edward G. Josberger

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

A Reformulated Three-Layer Sea Ice Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model is presented that provides an efficient approximation to sea ice thermodynamics for climate studies. Semtner’s three-layer framework is used, but the brine content of the upper ice is represented with a variable heat capacity as is done ...

Michael Winton

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Wave-Induced Drift Force in the Marginal Ice Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind waves are commonly ignored when modeling the ice motion in the marginal ice zone. In order to estimate the importance of the wave forcing, an expression for the second-order wave-induced drift force on a floe exposed to a full directional ...

Diane Masson

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

An Indirect Effect of Ice Nuclei on Atmospheric Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM) with observed large-scale forcing is used to study how ice nuclei (IN) affect the net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). In all the numerical experiments carried out, the cloud ice ...

Xiping Zeng; Wei-Kuo Tao; Minghua Zhang; Arthur Y. Hou; Shaocheng Xie; Stephen Lang; Xiaowen Li; David O’C. Starr; Xiaofan Li; Joanne Simpson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

Gorski, A.J.; Schertz, W.W.

1980-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

488

EPRI Freezing Rain Ice Mapping Project: Region 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To ensure reliable electric service, accurate predictions of ice loads are needed for the design and evaluation of new and existing transmission lines. This report presents ice load maps for the states of North and South Dakota and documents the methodology used to generate them.

1997-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

489

Fire in the Ice, Spring 2005  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marine Multi-Component Marine Multi-Component Seismology ............................ 1 Discovery of Possible Gas Hydrate Features ................... 5 Monitoring Station Update ..... 8 Announcements .................. 10 * Research Cruise Completed * Advisory Committee Meeting * Hot Ice Project Reports * Norway ICGH Meeting * Simulator Publicly Released * TOUGH-Fx/HYDRATE V 2.4 * AAPG Committee to Meet Spotlight on Research ........ 12 Scott Dallimore CONTACT POINT Ray Boswell National Energy Technology Laboratory (304) 285-4541 (304) 285-4216 fax Ray.Boswell@netl.doe.gov The Fire in the Ice Newsletter is also available online at our website www.netl.doe.gov/scngo/ NaturalGas/hydrates/index.html T H E N A T I O N A L E N E R G Y T E C H N O L O G Y L A B O R A T O R Y M E T H A N E H Y D R A T E N E W S L E T T E R Vol. 5, Iss. 2 â—‹ â—‹ â—‹ â—‹ â—‹

490

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Potential data storage and computational advances could follow August 27, 2013 Potential data storage and computational advances could follow A 3-D depiction of the honeycomb artificial spin ice topography after the annealing and cooling protocols. The light and dark colors represent the north and south magnetic poles of the islands. Image by Ian Gilbert, U. of I. Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email Siv Schwink U. Illinois (217) 300-2201 Email "The emergence of magnetic monopoles in spin ice systems is a particular case of what physicists call fractionalization, or deconfinement of

491

Microparticulate ICE slurry for renal hypothermia: laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model.  

SciTech Connect

Previously, we described the feasibility of renal hypothermia using microparticulate ice slurry during laparoscopy. In the present study, we compared surface cooling with the ice slurry versus near-frozen saline or warm ischemia (WI) during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a porcine model. We used a single-kidney porcine model. Animals in 5 equal groups (n = 6 each) underwent right laparoscopic complete nephrectomy. In Phase I, left LPN was performed under 90 minutes of ischemia and 90-minute renal cooling with either slurry (Slurry group 1) or saline (Saline group 1). No cooling was applied in the WI group. In Phase II, to simulate more extreme condition, ischemia time was extended to 120 minutes and cooling shortened to 10 minutes (Slurry group 2 and Saline group 2). The study endpoints were renal and core temperature during the surgery and serum creatinine at baseline and days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after the procedure. The ice slurry was easily produced and delivered. Nadir renal temperature (mean {+-} SD) was 8 {+-} 4 C in Slurry group 1 vs. 22.5 {+-} 3 C in Saline group 1 (P < .0001). Renal rewarming to 30 C occurred after 61 {+-} 7 minutes in Slurry group 2 vs. 24 {+-} 6 minutes in Saline group 2 (P < .0001). Core temperature decreased on average to 35 C in the Saline groups compared with 37 C in the Slurry groups (P < .0001). Serum creatinine did not differ between the Saline and Slurry groups in Phases I and II at any time point. Ice slurry provides superior renal cooling compared with near-frozen saline during LPN without associated core hypothermia.

Shikanov, S; Wille, M; Large, M; Razmaria, A; Lifshitz, D; Chang, A; Wu, Y; Kasza, K; Shalhav, A (Nuclear Engineering Division); (University of Chicago Medical Center)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Ice emission and the redshifts of submillimeter sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations at submillimeter wavelengths have revealed a population of sources thought to be at relatively large redshifts. The position of the 850 $\\mu$m passband on the Rayleigh-Jeans portion of the Planck function leads to a maximum redshift estimate of $z\\sim$4.5 since sources will not retain their redshift independent brightness close to the peak of the Planck function and thus drop out of surveys. Here we review evidence that ice absorption is present in the spectra of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies which are often taken as analogs for the 850 $\\mu$m source population. We consider the implication of this absorption for ice induced spectral structure at far infrared wavelengths and present marginal astronomical evidence that amorphous ice may have a feature similar to crystalline ice near 150 $\\mu$m. Recent corroborative laboratory evidence is supportive of this conclusion. It is argued that early metal enrichment by pair instability SN may lead to a high ice content relative to refractory dust at high redshift and a fairly robust detection of ice emission in a $z=6.42$ quasar is presented. It is further shown that ice emission is needed to understand the 450 $\\mu$m sources observed in the GOODS-N field. We are thus encouraged to apply far infrared ice emission models to the available observations of HDF 850.1, the brightest submillimeter source in the {\\it Hubble Deep Field}. We suggest that a redshift as large as 13 may need to be considered for this source, nearly a factor of three above the usual top estimate. Inclusion of the possibility of far infrared ice emission in the spectral energy distributions of model sources generally broadens the range of redshifts to be considered for submillimeter sources compared to models without ice emission.

C. C. Dudley; M. Imanishi; P. R. Maloney

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

493

The ice-limit of Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we describe gauge invariant multi-quark states generalising the path integral framework developed by Parrinello, Jona-Lasinio and Zwanziger to amend the Faddeev-Popov approach. This allows us to produce states such that, in a limit which we call the ice-limit, fermions are dressed with glue exclusively from the fundamental modular region associated with Coulomb gauge. The limit can be taken analytically without difficulties, avoiding the Gribov problem. This is llustrated by an unambiguous construction of gauge invariant mesonic states for which we simulate the static quark--antiquark potential.

Thomas Heinzl; Anton Ilderton; Kurt Langfeld; Martin Lavelle; David McMullan

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

494

Estimating the Sea Ice Compressive Strength from Satellite-Derived Sea Ice Drift and NCEP Reanalysis Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-derived sea ice drift maps and sea level pressure from reanalysis data are used to infer upper and lower bounds on the large-scale compressive strength of Arctic sea ice. To this end, the two datasets are searched for special situations ...

L-B. Tremblay; M. Hakakian

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

495