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Sample records for ice cube section

  1. IceCube at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D.FoodHydropower,Principal InvestigatorsIceCube at

  2. Cosmic-ray results from IceCube/ Mumbai, 12/12/12 Tom Gaisser for the IceCube Collab. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaisser, Thomas K.

    Cosmic-ray results from IceCube/ IceTop Mumbai, 12/12/12 Tom Gaisser for the IceCube Collab. 1 #12;Mumbai, 12/12/12 Tom Gaisser for the IceCube Collab. 2 events ­ IceTop/deep IceCube Mumbai, 12/12/12 Tom Gaisser for the IceCube Collab

  3. IceCube: Performance, Status, and Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carsten Rott; for the IceCube Collaboration

    2006-11-28

    High-energy neutrinos are uniquely suited to study a large variety of physics as they traverse the universe almost untouched, in contrast to conventional astronomical messengers like photons or cosmic rays which are limited by interactions with radiation and matter at high energies or deflected by ambient magnetic fields. Located at the South Pole, IceCube combined with its predecessor AMANDA comprise the world's largest neutrino telescope. IceCube currently consists of nine strings, each containing 60 digital optical modules, deployed at depths of 1.5 to 2.5km in the ice and an array of 16 surface air-shower stations. IceCube is expected to be completed in early 2011 at which time it will instrument a volume of one km^3 below the IceTop air-shower array covering an area of one km^2. The current IceCube detector performance is described and an outlook given into the large variety of physics that it can address, with an emphasis on the search for ultra-high-energy neutrinos which may shed light on the origins of the highest energy cosmic rays.

  4. IceCube: Performance, Status, and Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rott, C

    2006-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos are uniquely suited to study a large variety of physics as they traverse the universe almost untouched, in contrast to conventional astronomical messengers like photons or cosmic rays which are limited by interactions with radiation and matter at high energies or deflected by ambient magnetic fields. Located at the South Pole, IceCube combined with its predecessor AMANDA comprise the world's largest neutrino telescope. IceCube currently consists of nine strings, each containing 60 digital optical modules, deployed at depths of 1.5 to 2.5km in the ice and an array of 16 surface air-shower stations. IceCube is expected to be completed in early 2011 at which time it will instrument a volume of one km^3 below the IceTop air-shower array covering an area of one km^2. The current IceCube detector performance is described and an outlook given into the large variety of physics that it can address, with an emphasis on the search for ultra-high-energy neutrinos which may shed light on the origins ...

  5. Searching for Cosmic Accelerators via IceCube

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Searching for Cosmic Accelerators via IceCube Searching for Cosmic Accelerators via IceCube Berkeley Lab Researchers Part of an International Hunt November 21, 2013 Lynn Yarris,...

  6. 29April2011JohnLearnedatIceCubeDedication1 IceCube Dedication Symposium, Madison, Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    29April2011JohnLearnedatIceCubeDedication1 IceCube Dedication Symposium, Madison, Wisconsin 29 of Neutrino Studies #12;"Talking to the neighbors" 29April2011JohnLearnedatIceCubeDedication2 "A modest://www.economist.com/PrinterFriendly.cfm?story_id=18526871 Not what this talk is about.... SETI with Neutrinos #12;29April2011JohnLearnedatIceCubeDedication3

  7. Results from IceCube/IceTop Ooty, 17/12/12 Tom Gaisser for the IceCube Collab. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaisser, Thomas K.

    , 17/12/12 Tom Gaisser for the IceCube Collab. 3 #12;Mumbai, 11/12/12 Tom;Mumbai, 11/12/12 Tom Gaisser for the IceCube Collab. 5 DetecMng neutrinos in H of interac,ons IceTop #12;Mumbai, 11/12/12 Tom Gaisser for the IceCube Collab. 6

  8. IceCube: A Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, S.; IceCube Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector The IceCube CollaborationA Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector Spencer R. Klein, forlarge detector is to search for optical Cherenkov radiation

  9. IceCube Project Monthly Report November 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    the current budgets or the budgets modified by the cost performance index. Change Log - IceCube Total Project IceCube array with a detector uptime of 97%, above the internal monthly goal of 95%. #12;Cost design, development, procured materials, and the construction of the infrastructure that supports

  10. Results from IceCube Mumbai, 11/12/12 Tom Gaisser for the IceCube Collab. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaisser, Thomas K.

    Results from IceCube Mumbai, 11/12/12 Tom Gaisser for the IceCube Collab. 1 #12;2 39 Ins>tu>ons ~220 collaborators Mumbai, 11/12/12 Tom Gaisser-10 20 79 2010-11 7 86 Mumbai, 11/12/12 Tom Gaisser

  11. Neutrino Physics with the IceCube Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiryluk, Joanna; IceCube Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    Science, O?ce of Nu- clear Physics, of the U.S. Departmentjkiryluk?lake?louise?lbl NEUTRINO PHYSICS WITH THE ICECUBESNRs). Other IceCube physics topics include searches for

  12. IceCube: The state of the art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teresa Montaruli

    2006-08-09

    In this paper we describe the performance of the 9 instrumented IceCube strings and 16 surface IceTop stations taking data at the Geographical South Pole after 2 deployment seasons. We will focus on the description of the array and on the construction and data analysis status. The expected full array performance is discussed and compared to other results for the relevant physics studies using high energy neutrinos for astrophysical neutrino searches.

  13. IceCube Project Monthly Report -April 2010 Accomplishments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    Water Drill equipment (http://www.icecube.wisc.edu/disposition/index.php) and the site was circulated to solicit interest in the equipment following the end of IceCube construction. · The training at shorter distances. #12; 2 Cost and Schedule Performance ­ The project is 94.7% complete

  14. IceCube: An Instrument for Neutrino Astronomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Halzen, F.; Klein, S.

    2010-06-04

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5,160 optical sensors are embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system, including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems and LEDs for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of Galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams.

  15. Recent vs from IceCube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Spencer R.; IceCube Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    in the Sun and the Earth, look for low-energy (10 MeV)Sun. IceTop has made a preliminary measurement of the cosmic-ray energy

  16. Calibration and Characterization of the IceCube Photomultiplier Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.; al., et

    2010-02-11

    Over 5,000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-inch diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts.

  17. Limits on a muon flux from neutralino annihilations in the Sun with the IceCube 22-string detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Spencer; IceCube Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    neutralino annihilations in the Sun with the IceCube 22-neutralino annihilations in the Sun with the IceCube 22-neutralino annihilations in the Sun has been performed with

  18. IceVeto: Extended PeV neutrino astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere with IceCube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    IceCube, the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the South Pole, recently reported evidence of an astrophysical neutrino flux extending to PeV energies in the Southern Hemisphere. This observation raises the question of how the sensitivity in this energy range could be further increased. In the down-going sector, in IceCube's case the Southern Hemisphere, backgrounds from atmospheric muons and neutrinos pose a challenge to the identification of an astrophysical neutrino flux. The IceCube analysis, that led to the evidence for astrophysical neutrinos, is based on an in-ice veto strategy for background rejection. One possibility available to IceCube is the concept of an extended surface detector, IceVeto, which could allow the rejection of a large fraction of atmospheric backgrounds, primarily for muons from cosmic ray (CR) air showers as well as from neutrinos in the same air showers. Building on the experience of IceTop/IceCube, possibly the most cost-effective and sensitive way to build IceVeto is as an extension of the IceTop detector, with simple photomultiplier based detector modules for CR air shower detection. Initial simulations and estimates indicate that such a veto detector will significantly increase the sensitivity to an astrophysical flux of ?{sub ?} induced muon tracks in the Southern Hemisphere compared to current analyses. Here we present the motivation and capabilities based on initial simulations. Conceptual ideas for a simplified surface array will be discussed briefly.

  19. Search for muon neutrinos from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the IceCube neutrino telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, R.

    2010-01-01

    2009, GCN: The Gamma ray bursts Coordinates Network, http://for muon neutrinos from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the IceCubeMereghetti, S. 2004, in Gamma-ray Bursts: 30 Years of

  20. A radio air shower surface detector as an extension for IceCube and IceTop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Auffenberg; T. Gaisser; K. Helbing; T. Huege; T. Karg; A. Karle

    2007-08-24

    The IceCube neutrino detector is built into the Antarctic ice sheet at the South Pole to measure high energy neutrinos. For this, 4800 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are being deployed at depths between 1450 and 2450 meters into the ice to measure neutrino induced charged particles like muons. IceTop is a surface air shower detector consisting of 160 Cherenkov ice tanks located on top of IceCube. To extend IceTop, a radio air shower detector could be built to significantly increase the sensitivity at higher shower energies and for inclined showers. As air showers induced by cosmic rays are a major part of the muonic background in IceCube, IceTop is not only an air shower detector, but also a veto to reduce the background in IceCube. Air showers are detectable by radio signals with a radio surface detector. The major emission process is the coherent synchrotron radiation emitted by e+ e- shower particles in the Earths magnetic field (geosynchrotron effect). Simulations of the expected radio signals of air showers are shown. The sensitivity and the energy threshold of different antenna field configurations are estimated.

  1. Higher order dark matter annihilations in the Sun and implications for IceCube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Totzauer, Maximilian; Wild, Sebastian E-mail: maximilian.totzauer@mytum.de

    2014-04-01

    Dark matter particles captured in the Sun would annihilate producing a neutrino flux that could be detected at the Earth. In some channels, however, the neutrino flux lies in the MeV range and is thus undetectable at IceCube, namely when the dark matter particles annihilate into e{sup +}e{sup ?}, ?{sup +}?{sup ?} or light quarks. On the other hand, the same interaction that mediates the annihilations into light fermions also leads, via higher order effects, to the production of weak gauge bosons (and in the case of quarks also gluons) that generate a high energy neutrino flux potentially observable at IceCube. We consider in this paper tree level annihilations into a fermion-antifermion pair with the associated emission of one gauge boson and one loop annihilations into two gauge bosons, and we calculate the limits on the scattering cross section of dark matter particles with protons in scenarios where the dark matter particle couples to electrons, muons or light quarks from the non-observation of an excess of neutrino events in the direction of the Sun. We find that the limits on the spin-dependent scattering cross section are, for some scenarios, stronger than the limits from direct detection experiments.

  2. Probing Dark Matter Self-Interaction in the Sun with IceCube-PINGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chian-Shu Chen; Fei-Fan Lee; Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin

    2014-11-20

    We study the capture, annihilation and evaporation of dark matter (DM) inside the Sun. It has been shown that the DM self-interaction can increase the DM number inside the Sun. We demonstrate that this enhancement becomes more significant in the regime of small DM mass, given a fixed DM self-interaction cross section. This leads to the enhancement of neutrino flux from DM annihilation. On the other hand, for DM mass as low as a few GeVs, not only the DM-nuclei scatterings can cause the DM evaporation, DM self-interaction also provides non-negligible contributions to this effect. Consequently, the critical mass for DM evaporation (typically 3 $\\sim$ 4 GeV without the DM self-interaction) can be slightly increased. We discuss the prospect of detecting DM self-interaction in IceCube-PINGU using the annihilation channels $\\chi\\chi \\rightarrow \\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}, \

  3. Sensitivity of IceCube-DeepCore to neutralino dark matter in the MSSM-25

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamish Silverwood; Pat Scott; Matthias Danninger; Christopher Savage; Joakim Edsjö; Jenni Adams; Anthony M Brown; Klas Hultqvist

    2013-04-17

    We analyse the sensitivity of IceCube-DeepCore to annihilation of neutralino dark matter in the solar core, generated within a 25 parameter version of the minimally supersymmetric standard model (MSSM-25). We explore the 25-dimensional parameter space using scanning methods based on importance sampling and using DarkSUSY 5.0.6 to calculate observables. Our scans produced a database of 6.02 million parameter space points with neutralino dark matter consistent with the relic density implied by WMAP 7-year data, as well as with accelerator searches. We performed a model exclusion analysis upon these points using the expected capabilities of the IceCube-DeepCore Neutrino Telescope. We show that IceCube-DeepCore will be sensitive to a number of models that are not accessible to direct detection experiments such as SIMPLE, COUPP and XENON100, indirect detection using Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, nor to current LHC searches.

  4. Sensitivity of IceCube-DeepCore to neutralino dark matter in the MSSM-25

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverwood, Hamish; Adams, Jenni; Brown, Anthony M; Scott, Pat; Danninger, Matthias; Savage, Christopher; Edsjö, Joakim; Hultqvist, Klas E-mail: patscott@physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: savage@physics.utah.edu E-mail: jenni.adams@canterbury.ac.nz E-mail: klas.hultqvist@fysik.su.se

    2013-03-01

    We analyse the sensitivity of IceCube-DeepCore to annihilation of neutralino dark matter in the solar core, generated within a 25 parameter version of the minimally supersymmetric standard model (MSSM-25). We explore the 25-dimensional parameter space using scanning methods based on importance sampling and using DarkSUSY 5.0.6 to calculate observables. Our scans produced a database of 6.02 million parameter space points with neutralino dark matter consistent with the relic density implied by WMAP 7-year data, as well as with accelerator searches. We performed a model exclusion analysis upon these points using the expected capabilities of the IceCube-DeepCore Neutrino Telescope. We show that IceCube-DeepCore will be sensitive to a number of models that are not accessible to direct detection experiments such as SIMPLE, COUPP and XENON100, indirect detection using Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, nor to current LHC searches.

  5. Limits on a muon flux from Kaluza-Klein dark matter annihilations in the Sun from the IceCube 22-string detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, R.

    2010-01-01

    matter annihilations in the Sun from the IceCube 22-stringmatter annihilations in the Sun from the IceCube 22-stringmatter annihilations in the Sun has been performed with the

  6. The IceCube Collaboration:contributions to the 30 th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2007),

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Ackermann, M.

    2007-11-02

    This paper bundles 40 contributions by the IceCube collaboration that were submitted to the 30th International Cosmic Ray Conference ICRC 2007. The articles cover studies on cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrinos, searches for non-localized, extraterrestrial {nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} signals, scans for steady and intermittent neutrino point sources, searches for dark matter candidates, magnetic monopoles and other exotic particles, improvements in analysis techniques, as well as future detector extensions. The IceCube observatory will be finalized in 2011 to form a cubic-kilometer ice-Cherenkov detector at the location of the geographic South Pole. At the present state of construction, IceCube consists of 52 paired IceTop surface tanks and 22 IceCube strings with a total of 1426 Digital Optical Modules deployed at depths up to 2350 m. The observatory also integrates the 19 string AMANDA subdetector, that was completed in 2000 and extends IceCube's reach to lower energies. Before the deployment of IceTop, cosmic air showers were registered with the 30 station SPASE-2 surface array. IceCube's low noise Digital Optical Modules are very reliable, show a uniform response and record waveforms of arriving photons that are resolvable with nanosecond precision over a large dynamic range. Data acquisition, reconstruction and simulation software are running in production mode and the analyses, profiting from the improved data quality and increased overall sensitivity, are well under way.

  7. IceCube: An Instrument for Neutrino Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halzen, F.

    2010-01-01

    detectors: searching for radio waves or for acoustic pulsespredictions 93 . In cold ice, radio-wave attenuation lengthperfect reflector for radio waves. With this reflection,

  8. Limits on a muon flux from neutralino annihilations in the Sun with the IceCube 22-string detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-04-28

    A search for muon neutrinos from neutralino annihilations in the Sun has been performed with the IceCube 22-string neutrino detector using data collected in 104.3 days of live-time in 2007. No excess over the expected atmospheric background has been observed. Upper limits have been obtained on the annihilation rate of captured neutralinos in the Sun and converted to limits on the WIMP-proton cross-sections for WIMP masses in the range 250-5000 GeV. These results are the most stringent limits to date on neutralino annihilation in the Sun.

  9. Probing dark matter self-interaction in the Sun with IceCube-PINGU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chian-Shu; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yen-Hsun E-mail: fflee@mail.nctu.edu.tw E-mail: chris.py99g@g2.nctu.edu.tw

    2014-10-01

    We study the capture, annihilation and evaporation of dark matter (DM) inside the Sun. It has been shown that the DM self-interaction can increase the DM number inside the Sun. We demonstrate that this enhancement becomes more significant in the regime of small DM mass, given a fixed DM self-interaction cross section. This leads to the enhancement of neutrino flux from DM annihilation. On the other hand, for DM mass as low as as a few GeVs, not only the DM-nuclei scatterings can cause the DM evaporation, DM self-interaction also provides non-negligible contributions to this effect. Consequently, the critical mass for DM evaporation (typically 3 ? 4 GeV without the DM self-interaction) can be slightly increased. We discuss the prospect of detecting DM self-interaction in IceCube-PINGU using the annihilation channels ?? ? ?{sup +}?{sup -}, ??-bar as examples. The PINGU sensitivities to DM self-interaction cross section ?{sub ??} are estimated for track and cascade events.

  10. Search for a Lorentz-violating sidereal signal with atmospheric neutrinos in IceCube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube; etal, Abbasi, R,

    2010-11-11

    A search for sidereal modulation in the flux of atmospheric muon neutrinos in IceCube was performed. Such a signal could be an indication of Lorentz-violating physics. Neutrino oscillationmodels, derivable from extensions to the Standard Model, allow for neutrino oscillations that depend on the neutrino's direction of propagation. No such direction-dependent variation was found. Adiscrete Fourier transform method was used to constrain the Lorentz and CPT-violating coefficients in one of these models. Due to the unique high energy reach of IceCube, it was possible to improveconstraints on certain Lorentz-violating oscillations by three orders of magnitude with respect to limits set by other experiments.

  11. IceCube Events from Heavy DM decays through the Right-handed Neutrino Portal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Ko; Yong Tang

    2015-10-21

    The recently observed IceCube PeV events could be due to heavy dark matter (DM) decay. In this paper, we propose a simple DM model with extra $U(1)_X$ gauge symmetry and bridge it with standard model particles through heavy right-handed neutrino. The Dirac fermion DM $\\chi$ with mass ~5 PeV can dominantly decay into a dark Higgs ($\\phi$), the SM Higgs ($h$) and a neutrino ($\

  12. The Flavour Composition of the High-Energy IceCube Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aaron C. Vincent; Sergio Palomares Ruiz; Olga Mena

    2015-05-13

    We present an in-depth analysis of the flavour and spectral composition of the 36 high-energy neutrino events observed after three years of observation by the IceCube neutrino telescope. While known astrophysical sources of HE neutrinos are expected to produce a nearly $(1:1:1)$ flavour ratio (electron : muon : tau) of neutrinos at earth, we show that the best fits based on the events detected above $E_\

  13. On the angular distribution of IceCube high-energy events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcos, R de la Fuente

    2015-01-01

    The detection of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin by the IceCube neutrino observatory in Antarctica has opened a unique window to the cosmos that may help to probe both the distant Universe and our cosmic backyard. The arrival directions of these high-energy events have been interpreted as uniformly distributed on the celestial sphere. Here, we revisit the topic of the putative isotropic angular distribution of these events applying Monte Carlo techniques to investigate a possible anisotropy. A modest evidence for anisotropy is found. An excess of events appears projected towards a section of the Local Void, where the density of galaxies with radial velocities below 3000 km/s is rather low, suggesting that this particular group of somewhat clustered sources are located either very close to the Milky Way or perhaps beyond 40 Mpc. The results of further analyses of the subsample of southern hemisphere events favour an origin at cosmological distances with the arrival directions of ...

  14. ANTARES Constrains a Blazar Origin of Two IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrián-Martínez, S; André, M; Anton, G; Ardid, M; Aubert, J -J; Baret, B; Barrios, J; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bogazzi, C; Bormuth, R; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouwhuis, M C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Carr, J; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Core, L; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; De Rosa, G; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; De Bonis, G; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Dumas, A; Eberl, T; Enzenhöfer, A; Escoffier, S; Fehn, K; Felis, I; Fermani, P; Folger, F; Fusco, L A; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geißelsöder, S; Geyer, K; Giordano, V; Gleixner, A; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Herrero, A; Hößl, J; Hofestädt, J; Hugon, C; James, C W; de Jong, M; Kalekin, O; Katz, U; Kießling, D; Kooijman, P; Kouchner, A; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lambard, E; Lambard, G; Lefèvre, D; Leonora, E; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Martini, S; Mathieu, A; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Palioselitis, D; P?v?la?, G E; Pellegrino, C; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Riccobene, G; Richter, R; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Saldaña, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sánchez-Losa, A; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Schmid, J; Schnabel, J; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Sieger, C; Spies, A; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Tayalati, Y; Trovato, A; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Visser, E; Vivolo, D; Wagner, S; de Wolf, E; Yatkin, K; Yepes, H; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J; :,; Krauß, F; Kadler, M; Mannheim, K; Schulz, R; Trüstedt, J; Wilms, J; Ojha, R; Ros, E; Baumgartner, W; Beuchert, T; Blanchard, J; Bürkel, C; Carpenter, B; Edwards, P G; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsässer, D; Fritsch, U; Gehrels, N; Gräfe, C; Großberger, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; Kappes, A; Kreikenbohm, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Langejahn, M; Leiter, K; Litzinger, E; Lovell, J E J; Müller, C; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Steinbring, T; Stevens, J; Thompson, D J; Tzioumis, A K

    2015-01-01

    The source(s) of the neutrino excess reported by the IceCube Collaboration is unknown. The TANAMI Collaboration recently reported on the multiwavelength emission of six bright, variable blazars which are positionally coincident with two of the most energetic IceCube events. Such objects are prime candidates to be the source of the highest-energy cosmic rays, and thus of associated neutrino emission. We present an analysis of neutrino emission from the six blazars using observations with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The standard methods of the ANTARES candidate list search are applied to six years of data to search for an excess of muons - and hence their neutrino progenitors - from the directions of the six blazars described by the TANAMI Collaboration, and which are possibly associated with two IceCube events. Monte Carlo simulations of the detector response to both signal and background particle fluxes are used to estimate the sensitivity of this analysis for different possible source neutrino spectra. A...

  15. IceCube events and decaying dark matter: hints and constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arman Esmaili; Sin Kyu Kang; Pasquale Dario Serpico

    2015-01-08

    In the light of the new IceCube data on the (yet unidentified) astrophysical neutrino flux in the PeV and sub-PeV range, we present an update on the status of decaying dark matter interpretation of the events. In particular, we develop further the angular distribution analysis and discuss the perspectives for diagnostics. By performing various statistical tests (maximum likelihood, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests) we conclude that currently the data show a mild preference (below the two sigma level) for the angular distribution expected from dark matter decay vs. the isotropic distribution foreseen for a conventional astrophysical flux of extragalactic origin. Also, we briefly develop some general considerations on heavy dark matter model building and on the compatibility of the expected energy spectrum of decay products with the IceCube data, as well as with existing bounds from gamma-rays. Alternatively, assuming that the IceCube data originate from conventional astrophysical sources, we derive bounds on both decaying and annihilating dark matter for various final states. The lower limits on heavy dark matter lifetime improve by up to an order of magnitude with respect to existing constraints, definitively making these events---even if astrophysical in origin---an important tool for astroparticle physics studies.

  16. On the origin of IceCube's PeV neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan, E-mail: cholis@fnal.gov, E-mail: dhooper@fnal.gov [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The IceCube collaboration has recently reported the observation of two events with energies in excess of 1 PeV. While an atmospheric origin of these events cannot be ruled out at this time, this pair of showers may potentially represent the first observation of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. In this paper, we argue that if these events are neutrino-induced, then the neutrinos are very likely to have been produced via photo-meson interactions taking place in the same class of astrophysical objects that are responsible for the acceleration of the ? 10{sup 17} eV cosmic ray spectrum. Among the proposed sources of such cosmic rays, gamma-ray bursts stand out as particularly capable of generating PeV neutrinos at the level implied by IceCube's two events. In contrast, the radiation fields in typical active galactic nuclei models are likely dominated by lower energy (UV) photons, and thus feature higher energy thresholds for pion production, leading to neutrino spectra which peak at EeV rather than PeV energies (models with significant densities of x-ray emission, however, could evade this problem). Cosmogenic neutrinos generated from the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays similarly peak at energies that are much higher than those of the events reported by IceCube.

  17. Search for Transient Astrophysical Neutrino Emission with IceCube-DeepCore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Beiser, E; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Rosendo, E del Pino; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Fösig, C -C; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Richter, S; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sabbatini, L; Sander, H -G; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schimp, M; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schulte, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Teši?, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a search for astrophysical sources of brief transient neutrino emission using IceCube and DeepCore data acquired between May 15th 2012 and April 30th 2013. While the search methods employed in this analysis are similar to those used in previous IceCube point source searches, the data set being examined consists of a sample of predominantly sub-TeV muon neu- trinos from the Northern Sky (-5$^{\\circ}$ method. This search represents a first attempt by IceCube to identify astrophysical neutrino sources in this relatively unexplored energy range. The reconstructed direction and time of arrival of neutrino events is used to search for any significant self-correlation in the dataset. The data revealed no significant source of transient neutrino emission. This result has been used to construct limits at timescales ranging from roughly 1$\\,$s to 10 days for generic soft-spectra transients. We also present limits on a s...

  18. Evaluation of expected solar flare neutrino events in the IceCube observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Wasseige, G; Hanson, K; van Eijndhoven, N; Klein, K -L

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of the eighties and in response to a reported increase in the total neutrino flux in the Homestake experiment in coincidence with a solar flare, solar neutrino detectors have searched for solar flare signals. Neutrinos from the decay of mesons, which are themselves produced in collisions of accelerated protons with the solar atmosphere, would provide a novel window on the underlying physics of the acceleration process. For our studies we focus on the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a cubic kilometer neutrino detector located at the geographical South Pole. Due to its Supernova data acquisition system and its DeepCore component, dedicated to low energy neutrinos, IceCube may be sensitive to solar flare neutrinos and thus permit either a measurement of the signal or the establishment of more stringent upper limits on the solar flare neutrino flux. We present an approach for a time profile analysis based on a stacking method and an evaluation of a possible solar flare signal in IceCube using the Gean...

  19. Distinguishing Neutrino Mass Hierarchies using Dark Matter Annihilation Signals at IceCube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouzbeh Allahverdi; Bhaskar Dutta; Dilip Kumar Ghosh; Bradley Knockel; Ipsita Saha

    2015-06-27

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing neutrino mass hierarchies through the neutrino signal from dark matter annihilation at neutrino telescopes. We consider a simple extension of the standard model where the neutrino masses and mixing angles are obtained via the type-II seesaw mechanism. We show that for a detector with the same capability as the IceCube DeepCore array, multiyear data from DM annihilation at the Galactic Center and inside the Sun can be used to distinguish the normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies.

  20. Limits on Neutrino Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the 40 String IceCube Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IceCube Collaboration; R. Abbasi; Y. Abdou; T. Abu-Zayyad; J. Adams; J. A. Aguilar; M. Ahlers; K. Andeen; J. Auffenberg; X. Bai; M. Baker; S. W. Barwick; R. Bay; J. L. Bazo Alba; K. Beattie; J. J. Beatty; S. Bechet; J. K. Becker; K. -H. Becker; M. L. Benabderrahmane; S. BenZvi; J. Berdermann; P. Berghaus; D. Berley; E. Bernardini; D. Bertrand; D. Z. Besson; D. Bindig; M. Bissok; E. Blaufuss; J. Blumenthal; D. J. Boersma; C. Bohm; D. Bose; S. Böser; O. Botner; J. Braun; A. M. Brown; S. Buitink; M. Carson; D. Chirkin; B. Christy; J. Clem; F. Clevermann; S. Cohen; C. Colnard; D. F. Cowen; M. V. D'Agostino; M. Danninger; J. Daughhetee; J. C. Davis; C. De Clercq; L. Demirörs; O. Depaepe; F. Descamps; P. Desiati; G. de Vries-Uiterweerd; T. DeYoung; J. C. Díaz-Vélez; M. Dierckxsens; J. Dreyer; J. P. Dumm; R. Ehrlich; J. Eisch; R. W. Ellsworth; O. Engdegård; S. Euler; P. A. Evenson; O. Fadiran; A. R. Fazely; A. Fedynitch; T. Feusels; K. Filimonov; C. Finley; T. Fischer-Wasels; M. M. Foerster; B. D. Fox; A. Franckowiak; R. Franke; T. K. Gaisser; J. Gallagher; M. Geisler; L. Gerhardt; L. Gladstone; T. Glüsenkamp; A. Goldschmidt; J. A. Goodman; D. Grant; T. Griesel; A. Groß; S. Grullon; M. Gurtner; C. Ha; A. Hallgren; F. Halzen; K. Han; K. Hanson; D. Heinen; K. Helbing; P. Herquet; S. Hickford; G. C. Hill; K. D. Hoffman; A. Homeier; K. Hoshina; D. Hubert; W. Huelsnitz; J. -P. Hülß; P. O. Hulth; K. Hultqvist; S. Hussain; A. Ishihara; J. Jacobsen; G. S. Japaridze; H. Johansson; J. M. Joseph; K. -H. Kampert; A. Kappes; T. Karg; A. Karle; J. L. Kelley; N. Kemming; P. Kenny; J. Kiryluk; F. Kislat; S. R. Klein; J. -H. Köhne; G. Kohnen; H. Kolanoski; L. Köpke; S. Kopper; D. J. Koskinen; M. Kowalski; T. Kowarik; M. Krasberg; T. Krings; G. Kroll; K. Kuehn; T. Kuwabara; M. Labare; S. Lafebre; K. Laihem; H. Landsman; M. J. Larson; R. Lauer; R. Lehmann; J. Lünemann; J. Madsen; P. Majumdar; A. Marotta; R. Maruyama; K. Mase; H. S. Matis; K. Meagher; M. Merck; P. Mészáros; T. Meures; E. Middell; N. Milke; J. Miller; T. Montaruli; R. Morse; S. M. Movit; R. Nahnhauer; J. W. Nam; U. Naumann; P. Nießen; D. R. Nygren; S. Odrowski; A. Olivas; M. Olivo; A. O'Murchadha; M. Ono; S. Panknin; L. Paul; C. Pérez de los Heros; J. Petrovic; A. Piegsa; D. Pieloth; R. Porrata; J. Posselt; P. B. Price; M. Prikockis; G. T. Przybylski; K. Rawlins; P. Redl; E. Resconi; W. Rhode; M. Ribordy; A. Rizzo; J. P. Rodrigues; P. Roth; F. Rothmaier; C. Rott; T. Ruhe; D. Rutledge; B. Ruzybayev; D. Ryckbosch; H. -G. Sander; M. Santander; S. Sarkar; K. Schatto; T. Schmidt; A. Schoenwald; A. Schukraft; A. Schultes; O. Schulz; M. Schunck; D. Seckel; B. Semburg; S. H. Seo; Y. Sestayo; S. Seunarine; A. Silvestri; A. Slipak; G. M. Spiczak; C. Spiering; M. Stamatikos; T. Stanev; G. Stephens; T. Stezelberger; R. G. Stokstad; S. Stoyanov; E. A. Strahler; T. Straszheim; G. W. Sullivan; Q. Swillens; H. Taavola; I. Taboada; A. Tamburro; O. Tarasova; A. Tepe; S. Ter-Antonyan; S. Tilav; P. A. Toale; S. Toscano; D. Tosi; D. Tur?an; N. van Eijndhoven; J. Vandenbroucke; A. Van Overloop; J. van Santen; M. Vehring; M. Voge; B. Voigt; C. Walck; T. Waldenmaier; M. Wallraff; M. Walter; C. Weaver; C. Wendt; S. Westerhoff; N. Whitehorn; K. Wiebe; C. H. Wiebusch; D. R. Williams; R. Wischnewski; H. Wissing; M. Wolf; K. Woschnagg; C. Xu; X. W. Xu; G. Yodh; S. Yoshida; P. Zarzhitsky

    2011-03-09

    IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if GRBs are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above $10^{18}$ eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from $p \\gamma$-interactions in the prompt phase of the GRB fireball, and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence.

  1. Spectral analysis of the high-energy IceCube neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Mena, Olga

    2015-01-01

    A full energy and flavor-dependent analysis of the three-year high-energy IceCube neutrino events is presented. By means of multi-dimensional fits, we derive the current preferred values of the high-energy neutrino flavor ratios, the normalization and spectral index of the astrophysical fluxes, and the expected atmospheric background events, including a prompt component. A crucial assumption resides on the choice of the energy interval used for the analyses, which significantly biases the results. When restricting ourselves to the $\\sim$30 TeV - 3 PeV energy range, which contains all the observed IceCube events, we find that the inclusion of the spectral information improves the fit to the canonical flavor composition at Earth, ($1:1:1$)$_\\oplus$, with respect to a single-energy bin analysis. Increasing both the minimum and the maximum deposited energies has dramatic effects on the reconstructed flavor ratios as well as on the spectral index. Imposing a higher threshold of 60 TeV yields a slightly harder spec...

  2. Possible Interpretations of IceCube High-Energy Neutrino Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chee Sheng Fong; Hisakazu Minakata; Boris Panes; Renata Zukanovich Funchal

    2015-03-08

    We discuss possible interpretations of the 37 high energy neutrino events observed by the IceCube experiment in the South Pole. We examine the possibility to explain the observed neutrino spectrum exclusively by the decays of a heavy long-lived particle of mass in the PeV range. We compare this with the standard scenario, namely, a single power-law spectrum related to neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and a viable hybrid situation where the spectrum is a product of two components: a power-law and the long-lived particle decays. We present a simple extension of the Standard Model that could account for the heavy particle decays that are needed in order to explain the data. We show that the current data equally supports all above scenarios and try to evaluate the exposure needed in order to falsify them in the future.

  3. Limits on a muon flux from Kaluza-Klein dark matter annihilations in the Sun from the IceCube 22-string detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.; al., et

    2009-10-23

    A search for muon neutrinos from Kaluza-Klein dark matter annihilations in the Sun has been performed with the 22-string configuration of the IceCube neutrino detector using data collected in 104.3 days of live-time in 2007. No excess over the expected atmospheric background has been observed. Upper limits have been obtained on the annihilation rate of captured lightest Kaluza-Klein particle (LKP) WIMPs in the Sun and converted to limits on the LKP-proton cross-sections for LKP masses in the range 250 - 3000 GeV. These results are the most stringent limits to date on LKP annihilation in the Sun.

  4. "Ice cubes" in the center of the Milky Way - Water ice and hydrocarbons in the central parsec

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moultaka, Jihane; Muzic, Koralka

    2015-01-01

    The close environment of the central supermassive black hole of our Galaxy is studied thoroughly since decades in order to shed light on the behavior of the central regions of galaxies in general and of active galaxies in particular. The Galactic Center has shown a wealth of structures on different scales with a complicated mixture of early- and late-type stars, ionized and molecular gas, dust and winds. Here we aim at studying the distribution of water ices and hydrocarbons in the central parsec as well as along the line of sight. This study is made possible thanks to L-band spectroscopy. This spectral band, from 2.8 to 4.2$\\mu m$, hosts important signatures of the circumstellar medium and interstellar dense and diffuse media among which deep absorption features are attributed to water ices and hydrocarbons. We observed the Galactic Center in the L-band of ISAAC spectrograph located on UT1/VLT ESO telescope. By mapping the central half parsec using 27 slit positions, we were able to build the first data cube...

  5. The direct detection of boosted dark matter at high energies and PeV events at IceCube

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Gandhi, R.; Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL; Gupta, A.

    2015-03-13

    We study the possibility of detecting dark matter directly via a small but energetic component that is allowed within present-day constraints. Drawing closely upon the fact that neutral current neutrino nucleon interactions are indistinguishable from DM-nucleon interactions at low energies, we extend this feature to high energies for a small, non-thermal but highly energetic population of DM particle ?, created via the decay of a significantly more massive and long-lived non-thermal relic ?, which forms the bulk of DM. If ? interacts with nucleons, its cross-section, like the neutrino-nucleus coherent cross-section, can rise sharply with energy leading to deep inelasticmore »scattering, similar to neutral current neutrino-nucleon interactions at high energies. Thus, its direct detection may be possible via cascades in very large neutrino detectors. As a specific example, we apply this notion to the recently reported three ultra-high energy PeV cascade events clustered around 1 – 2 PeV at IceCube (IC). We discuss the features which may help discriminate this scenario from one in which only astrophysical neutrinos constitute the event sample in detectors like IC.« less

  6. Multimessenger search for sources of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos: Initial results for LIGO-Virgo and IceCube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aartsen, M.?G.

    We report the results of a multimessenger search for coincident signals from the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave observatories and the partially completed IceCube high-energy neutrino detector, including periods of joint ...

  7. Analysis of the cumulative neutrino flux from Fermi-LAT blazar populations using 3 years of IceCube data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glüsenkamp, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of a diffuse neutrino flux up to PeV energies raises the question of which populations of astrophysical sources contribute to this diffuse signal. One extragalactic candidate source population to produce high-energy neutrinos are Blazars. We present results from a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from Blazar populations selected with the 2nd Fermi-LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) using an IceCube data set that has been optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to previous searches with IceCube, the investigated populations contain up to hundreds of sources, the biggest one being the entire Blazar sample measured by the Fermi-LAT. No significant neutrino signal was found from any of these populations. Some implications of this non-observation for the origin of the observed PeV diffuse signal will be discussed.

  8. Simulation of a Hybrid Optical/Radio/Acoustic Extension to IceCube for EeV Neutrino Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Besson; S. Böser; R. Nahnhauer; P. B. Price; J. A. Vandenbroucke; for the IceCube Collaboration

    2005-12-25

    Astrophysical neutrinos at $\\sim$EeV energies promise to be an interesting source for astrophysics and particle physics. Detecting the predicted cosmogenic (``GZK'') neutrinos at 10$^{16}$ - 10$^{20}$ eV would test models of cosmic ray production at these energies and probe particle physics at $\\sim$100 TeV center-of-mass energy. While IceCube could detect $\\sim$1 GZK event per year, it is necessary to detect 10 or more events per year in order to study temporal, angular, and spectral distributions. The IceCube observatory may be able to achieve such event rates with an extension including optical, radio, and acoustic receivers. We present results from simulating such a hybrid detector.

  9. Are both BL Lacs and pulsar wind nebulae the astrophysical counterparts of IceCube neutrino events?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Padovani; E. Resconi

    2014-06-10

    IceCube has recently reported the discovery of high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin, opening up the PeV (10^15 eV) sky. Because of their large positional uncertainties, these events have not yet been associated to any astrophysical source. We have found plausible astronomical counterparts in the GeV -- TeV bands by looking for sources in the available large area high-energy gamma-ray catalogues within the error circles of the IceCube events. We then built the spectral energy distribution of these sources and compared it with the energy and flux of the corresponding neutrino. Likely counterparts include mostly BL Lacs and two Galactic pulsar wind nebulae. On the one hand many objects, including the starburst galaxy NGC 253 and Centaurus A, despite being spatially coincident with neutrino events, are too weak to be reconciled with the neutrino flux. On the other hand, various GeV powerful objects cannot be assessed as possible counterparts due to their lack of TeV data. The definitive association between high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and our candidates will be significantly helped by new TeV observations but will be confirmed or disproved only by further IceCube data. Either way, this will have momentous implications for blazar jets, high-energy astrophysics, and cosmic-ray and neutrino astronomy.

  10. Implications of Fermi-LAT observations on the origin of IceCube neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Zhuo [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhao, Xiaohong, E-mail: wang_b@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: zhaoxh@ynao.ac.cn, E-mail: zhuo.li@pku.edu.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China)

    2014-11-01

    The IceCube (IC) collaboration recently reported the detection of TeV-PeV extraterrestrial neutrinos whose origin is yet unknown. By the photon-neutrino connection in pp and p? interactions, we use the Fermi-LAT observations to constrain the origin of the IC detected neutrinos. We find that Galactic origins, i.e., the diffuse Galactic neutrinos due to cosmic ray (CR) propagation in the Milky Way, and the neutrinos from the Galactic point sources, may not produce the IC neutrino flux, thus these neutrinos should be of extragalactic origin. Moreover, the extragalactic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may not account for the IC neutrino flux, the jets of active galactic nuclei may not produce the IC neutrino spectrum, but the starburst galaxies (SBGs) may be promising sources. As suggested by the consistency between the IC detected neutrino flux and the Waxman-Bahcall bound, GRBs in SBGs may be the sources of both the ultrahigh energy, ?> 10{sup 19}eV, CRs and the 1–100 PeV CRs that produce the IC detected TeV-PeV neutrinos.

  11. Neutrino Data from IceCube and its Predecessor at the South Pole, the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Abbasi, R.

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory for astrophysics with parts buried below the surface of the ice at the South Pole and an air-shower detector array exposed above. The international group of sponsors, led by the National Science Foundation (NSF), that designed and implemented the experiment intends for IceCube to operate and provide data for 20 years. IceCube records the interactions produced by astrophysical neutrinos with energies above 100 GeV, observing the Cherenkov radiation from charged particles produced in neutrino interactions. Its goal is to discover the sources of high-energy cosmic rays. These sources may be active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or massive, collapsed stars where black holes have formed.[Taken from http://www.icecube.wisc.edu/] The data from IceCube's predecessor experiment and detector, AMANDA, IceCube’s predecessor detector and experiment is also available at this website. AMANDA pioneered neutrino detection in ice. Over a period of years in the 1990s, detecting “strings” were buried and activated and by 2000, AMANDA was successfully recording an average of 1,000 neutrino events per year. This site also makes available many images and video from the two experiments.

  12. Search for high-energy muon neutrinos from the"naked-eye" GRB080319B with the IceCube neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IceCube Collaboration; R. Abbasi

    2009-02-01

    We report on a search with the IceCube detector for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRB080319B, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever observed. The fireball model predicts that a mean of 0.12 events should be detected by IceCube for a bulk Lorentz boost of the jet of 300. In both the direct on-time window of 66 s and an extended window of about 300 s around the GRB, there was no excess found above the background. The 90% C.L. upper limit on the number of track-like events from the GRB is 2.7, corresponding to a muon neutrino fluence limit of 9.0 x 10{sup -3} erg cm{sup -2} in the energy range between 145 TeV and 2.1 PeV, which contains 90% of the expected events.

  13. SEARCH FOR HIGH-ENERGY MUON NEUTRINOS FROM THE 'NAKED-EYE' GRB 080319B WITH THE IceCube NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J. L. Bazo; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.

    2009-08-20

    We report on a search with the IceCube detector for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRB 080319B, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever observed. The fireball model predicts that a mean of 0.1 events should be detected by IceCube for a bulk Lorentz boost of the jet of 300. In both the direct on-time window of 66 s and an extended window of about 300 s around the GRB, no excess was found above background. The 90% CL upper limit on the number of track-like events from the GRB is 2.7, corresponding to a muon neutrino fluence limit of 9.5 x 10{sup -3} erg cm{sup -2} in the energy range between 120 TeV and 2.2 PeV, which contains 90% of the expected events.

  14. Searches for extended and point-like neutrino sources with four years of IceCube data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aartsen, M. G. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA, 5005 Australia (Australia); Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J. A. [Département de physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, Université de Genève, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ahrens, M. [Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D. [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Auffenberg, J. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [Physics Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Beatty, J. J. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Tjus, J. Becker [Fakultät für Physik and Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Berley, D. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2014-12-01

    We present results on searches for point-like sources of neutrinos using four years of IceCube data, including the first year of data from the completed 86 string detector. The total livetime of the combined data set is 1373 days. For an E {sup –2} spectrum, the observed 90% C.L. flux upper limits are ?10{sup –12} TeV{sup –1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} for energies between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in the northern sky and ?10{sup –11} TeV{sup –1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} for energies between 100 TeV and 100 PeV in the southern sky. This represents a 40% improvement compared to previous publications, resulting from both the additional year of data and the introduction of improved reconstructions. In addition, we present the first results from an all-sky search for extended sources of neutrinos. We update the results of searches for neutrino emission from stacked catalogs of sources and test five new catalogs; two of Galactic supernova remnants and three of active galactic nuclei. In all cases, the data are compatible with the background-only hypothesis, and upper limits on the flux of muon neutrinos are reported for the sources considered.

  15. Multimessenger Search for Sources of Gravitational Waves and High-Energy Neutrinos: Results for Initial LIGO-Virgo and IceCube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aartsen, M G; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Classen, L; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eichmann, B; Eisch, J; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hellwig, D; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Jurkovic, M; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Kelley, J L; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Koob, A; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kriesten, A; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Larsen, D T; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Macías, O; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Paul, L; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Rees, I; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rodrigues, J P; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sander, H -G; Sandroos, J; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Teši?, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wichary, C; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; :,; Aasi, J; Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J S; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Augustus, H; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a multimessenger search for coincident signals from the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave observatories and the partially completed IceCube high-energy neutrino detector, including periods of joint operation between 2007-2010. These include parts of the 2005-2007 run and the 2009-2010 run for LIGO-Virgo, and IceCube's observation periods with 22, 59 and 79 strings. We find no significant coincident events, and use the search results to derive upper limits on the rate of joint sources for a range of source emission parameters. For the optimistic assumption of gravitational-wave emission energy of $10^{-2}$ M$_\\odot$c$^2$ at $\\sim 150$ Hz with $\\sim 60$ ms duration, and high-energy neutrino emission of $10^{51}$ erg comparable to the isotropic gamma-ray energy of gamma-ray bursts, we limit the source rate below $1.6 \\times 10^{-2}$ Mpc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$. We also examine how combining information from gravitational waves and neutrinos will aid discovery in the advanced gravitational-wave d...

  16. pMSSM Dark Matter Searches on Ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotta, R.C.; /SLAC; Howe, K.T.K.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We explore the capability of the IceCube/Deepcore array to discover signal neutrinos resulting from the annihilations of Supersymmetric WIMPS that may be captured in the solar core. In this analysis, we use a previously generated set of {approx} 70k model points in the 19-dimensional parameter space of the pMSSM which satisfy existing experimental and theoretical constraints. Our calculations employ a realistic estimate of the IceCube/DeepCore effective area that has been modeled by the IceCube collaboration. We find that a large fraction of the pMSSM models are shown to have significant signal rates in the anticipated IceCube/DeepCore 1825 day dataset, including some prospects for an early discovery. Many models where the LSP only constitutes a small fraction of the total dark matter relic density are found to have observable rates. We investigate in detail the dependence of the signal neutrino fluxes on the LSP mass, weak eigenstate composition, annihilation products and thermal relic density, as well as on the spin-independent and spin-dependent scattering cross sections. Lastly, We compare the model coverage of IceCube/DeepCore to that obtainable in near-future direct detection experiments and to pMSSM searches at the 7 TeV LHC.

  17. Light propagation in the South Pole ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dawn; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is located in the ice near the geographic South Pole. Particle showers from neutrino interactions in the ice produce light which is detected by IceCube modules, and the amount and pattern of deposited light are used to reconstruct the properties of the incident neutrino. Since light is scattered and absorbed by ice between the neutrino interaction vertex and the sensor, IceCube event reconstruction depends on understanding the propagation of light through the ice. This paper presents the current status of modeling light propagation in South Pole ice, including the recent observation of an azimuthal anisotropy in the scattering.

  18. SIGMOD 2002 CubeExplorer: Online Exploration of Data Cubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Guozhu

    of available cube-based OLAP products, users may still encounter challenges on e#11;ectiveness and e developed techniques, including iceberg cube computation, cube-based feature extraction, and gradient in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant NSERC-A3723

  19. Recent vs from IceCube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Spencer R.; IceCube Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    searches for ? from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and from Weaklytransient ? sources. Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are perhaps the

  20. Multidimensional Cube Packing Y. Kohayakawa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu

    -dimen- sional cubes and (an unlimited quantity of) d-dimensional unit-capacity cubes, called bins, find´istica -- Universidade de S~ao Paulo. Rua do Mat~ao, 1010 -- 05508­090 -- S~ao Paulo­SP -- Brazil, {yoshi­ SP -- Brazil, fkm@ic.unicamp.br. § Verity, Inc., 892 Ross Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94089, USA, pragh

  1. Cube Test Analysis of the Statistical Behavior of CubeHash and Skein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Cube Test Analysis of the Statistical Behavior of CubeHash and Skein Alan Kaminsky # May 6, 2010 CubeHash and Skein to try to find nonrandom behavior. Cube tests were used to probe each algorithm test data were calculated on a 40­core hybrid SMP cluster parallel computer. The cube test data were

  2. Ramsey numbers of cubes versus cliques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conlon, David

    The cube graph Q[subscript n] is the skeleton of the n-dimensional cube. It is an n-regular graph on 2[superscript n] vertices. The Ramsey number r(Q[subscript n] ;K[subscript s]) is the minimum N such that every graph of ...

  3. IceCube Project Monthly Report November 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    divided by the historical cost performance index, 4 Budgeted contingency is: Variance or a currently by the middle of December. Cost and Schedule Performance ­ The project is 65.0% complete versus the plan of 65 completed to date including design, development, procured materials, and the construction

  4. IceCube: An Instrument for Neutrino Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halzen, F.

    2010-01-01

    such as quasars or gamma-ray bursts unfortunately point tosky with neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts and active galacticor MeV photons in gamma-ray-burst fireballs. Neutral and

  5. Novae as Tevatrons: Prospects for CTA and IceCube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzger, Brian D; Vurm, Indrek; Beloborodov, Andrei; Bartos, Imre; Vlasov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of novae as sources of ~GeV gamma-rays highlights the key role of shocks and relativistic particle acceleration in these transient systems. Although there is evidence for a spectral cut-off above energies ~1-100 GeV at particular epochs in some novae, the maximum particle energy achieved in these accelerators has remained an open question. The high densities of the nova ejecta (~10 orders of magnitude larger than in supernova remnants) render the gas far upstream of the shock neutral and shielded from ionizing radiation. The amplification of the magnetic field needed for diffusive shock acceleration requires ionized gas, thus confining the acceleration process to a narrow photo-ionized layer immediately ahead of the shock. Based on the growth rate in this layer of the hybrid non-resonant cosmic ray current-driven instability (considering also ion-neutral damping), we quantify the maximum particle energy, Emax, across the range of shock velocities and upstream densities of interest. We find value...

  6. IceCube: An Instrument for Neutrino Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halzen, F.

    2010-01-01

    The preheat system: 4 car-wash-style heaters and 12 “of 35 high-efficiency, car-wash-style heaters that deliver

  7. Searching for Cosmic Accelerators via IceCube

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque| StanfordOffice ofTorushigh-powerSearch ResponseSearching

  8. 1. Some unit cubes are assembled to form a larger cube. Then some, but not all, of the faces of the large cube are painted. After the paint has dried, the large cube is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Karl

    , of the faces of the large cube are painted. After the paint has dried, the large cube is disassembled and it is discovered that 218 of the unit cubes have some paint on them. What is the size of the large cube? (Konhauser

  9. Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smiljanic, R

    2014-01-01

    Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

  10. CubeSat attitude control using micronewton electrospray thruster actuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Loo, Mark David

    2014-01-01

    Micronewton electrospray thrusters are a promising new actuator for CubeSat attitude control. Electrospray thrusters have advantages over current state of the art CubeSat attitude actuators in mass, volume, and their ability ...

  11. Convexity in partial cubes: the hull number Marie Albenque1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felsner, Stefan

    that the combinatorial optimization problem of de- termining the hull number of a partial cube is NP-complete. This makesConvexity in partial cubes: the hull number Marie Albenque1 and Kolja Knauer2 1 LIX UMR 7161 partial cubes the minimal graph class for which NP-completeness of this problem is known and improves some

  12. Iced Coffee Iced Chai Tea Latte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iced Coffee Iced Chai Tea Latte Iced Americano Iced Cappuccino Iced Latte Iced Mocha Iced White the Cooler Canned Soda Bottled Water Arizona Teas Energy Drinks Red Bull, SF Red Bull & Bing Jones Sodas $0.50 Listed prices do not include applicable sales tax. #12;Brewed Coffee Cafe au Lait Hot Tea Chai Tea Latte

  13. Web Cube: a Programming Model for Reliable Web Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Web Cube: a Programming Model for Reliable Web Applications I.S.W.B. Prasetya, T.E.J. Vos, S UU-CS-2005-002 www.cs.uu.nl #12;Web Cube: a Programming Model for Reliable Web Applications I@cs.uu.nl, tanja@iti.upv.es, doaitse@cs.uu.nl, bela@cs.ui.ac.id Abstract Web Cube is a server side programming

  14. On -conversion in the -cube and the combination with abbreviations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamareddine, Fairouz

    :A:B)C ! B x := C]. The exceptions to this are: some AUTOMATH- languages (see NGV 94]), the -cube extended

  15. Interstellar Ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boogert, A C A

    2003-01-01

    Currently ~36 different absorption bands have been detected in the infrared spectra of cold, dense interstellar and circumstellar environments. These are attributed to the vibrational transitions of ~17 different molecules frozen on dust grains. We review identification issues and summarize the techniques required to extract information on the physical and chemical evolution of these ices. Both laboratory simulations and line of sight studies are essential. Examples are given for ice bands observed toward high mass protostars, fields stars and recent work on ices in disks surrounding low mass protostars. A number of clear trends have emerged in recent years. One prominent ice component consists of an intimate mixture between H2O, CH3OH and CO2 molecules. Apparently a stable balance exists between low temperature hydrogenation and oxidation reactions on grain surfaces. In contrast, an equally prominent ice component, consisting almost entirely of CO, must have accreted directly from the gas phase. Thermal proc...

  16. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dartois, E; Boduch, P; Brunetto, R; Chabot, M; Domaracka, A; Ding, J J; Kamalou, O; Lv, X Y; Rothard, H; da Silveira, E F; Thomas, J C

    2015-01-01

    Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic ...

  17. Web-Based Interactive Visualization of Data Cubes Xusheng Wang Ping Chen Wei Ding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Wei

    Web-Based Interactive Visualization of Data Cubes Xusheng Wang Ping Chen Wei Ding Department graphics can help improving this process. Recently, we developed a Web-based interactive data cube Cube, Information Visualization, Web-based Graphics 1. Introduction Data cube is an aggregation

  18. On a new measure on infinite dimensional unite cube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilgar Sh. Jabbarov

    2015-01-24

    In the article a new measure in infinite dimensional unite cube different from the Haar or product measures is constructed. Some differences between introduced measure and the product measure are discussed.

  19. Dynamic instabilities imparted by CubeSat deployable solar panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Eric David

    2014-01-01

    In this work, multibody dynamics simulation was used to investigate the effects of solar panel deployment on CubeSat attitude dynamics. Nominal and partial/asymmetric deployments were simulated for four different solar ...

  20. Algorithms for Solving Rubik's Cubes Erik D. Demaine1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demaine, Erik

    seconds blindfold) [1]. It is the basis for cube art, a form of pop art made from many carefully unsolved to elegant design, being part of the perma- nent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York [18

  1. Iced Coffee Iced Yerba Mate "Tea"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iced Coffee Iced Yerba Mate "Tea" Iced Yerba Mate Latte Iced Chai Tea Latte Original, Green Tea Canned Soda Xing Tea Bottled Water Arizona Teas Energy Drinks Red Bull, SF Red Bull & Bing Jones Sodas $0 Cafe au Lait Hot Tea Yerba Mate "Tea" Yerba Mate Latte Chai Tea Latte - Original, Green Tea, or Sugar

  2. Freezing of parallel hard cubes with rounded edges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthieu Marechal; Urs Zimmermann; Hartmut Löwen

    2012-02-09

    The freezing transition in a classical three-dimensional system of parallel hard cubes with rounded edges is studied by computer simulation and fundamental-measure density functional theory. By switching the rounding parameter s from zero to one, one can smoothly interpolate between cubes with sharp edges and hard spheres. The equilibrium phase diagram of rounded parallel hard cubes is computed as a function of their volume fraction and the rounding parameter s. The second order freezing transition known for oriented cubes at s = 0 is found to be persistent up to s = 0.65. The fluid freezes into a simple-cubic crystal which exhibits a large vacancy concentration. Upon a further increase of s, the continuous freezing is replaced by a first-order transition into either a sheared simple cubic lattice or a deformed face-centered cubic lattice with two possible unit cells: body-centered orthorhombic or base-centered monoclinic. In principle, a system of parallel cubes could be realized in experiments on colloids using advanced synthesis techniques and a combination of external fields.

  3. Finding a Hamiltonian Path in a Cube with Specified Turns is Hard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Zachary Ryan

    We prove the NP-completeness of finding a Hamiltonian path in an N × N × N cube graph with turns exactly at specified lengths along the path. This result establishes NP-completeness of Snake Cube puzzles: folding a chain ...

  4. Une architecture oriente service Web pour la constitution de mini-cubes SOLAP pour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Une architecture orientée service Web pour la constitution de mini-cubes SOLAP pour clients mobiles sur les architectures orientées services et les technologies des services Web, pour adapter les cubes- tures and Web services technologies, designed to adapt SOLAP data cubes to the requirements

  5. A Proposed Method for CubeSat Mission Risk Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lightsey, Glenn

    A Proposed Method for CubeSat Mission Risk Analysis Katharine Brumbaugh Ph.D. Student, Aerospace organizations · To be flown on interplanetary trajectory · Risk Management never truly applied until ARMADILLO Force photo by Lou Hernandez 4/24/2013 #12;Steps of a Detailed Risk Management Plan Main Step Sub

  6. The Software Invention Cube: a Classification Scheme for Software Inventions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klint, Paul

    The Software Invention Cube: a Classification Scheme for Software Inventions Jan A. Bergstra.science.uva.nl/~janb and Paul Klint Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica (CWI), Software Engineering Department and Informatics system aims at protecting inventions. The requirement that a software invention should make `a technical

  7. Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development and Marine Ice Sheet Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM2) Development...

  8. First Evidence For Atmospheric Neutrino-Induced Cascades with the IceCube Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Agostino, Michelangelo

    2009-01-01

    49] P. Meszaros. Gamma-Ray Bursts. Rept. Prog. Phys. , 69:Revealing the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection with TeVcascades from gamma-ray bursts with AMANDA. Astrophys. J. ,

  9. First Observation of PeV-Energy Neutrinos with IceCube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aartsen, M. G.; Besson, David Zeke

    2013-07-08

    are extracted from each waveform and stored as ‘‘hits.’’ To remove hits from coincident noise, a two-staged cleaning based on the spa- tial separation and the time interval between hits is applied. Data from the DeepCore strings are discarded to main- tain...

  10. First Evidence For Atmospheric Neutrino-Induced Cascades with the IceCube Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Agostino, Michelangelo

    2009-01-01

    and cumulative distribution (right) for an energy cut of 15and sum of event weights (right) for an energy cut of 5and cumulative distribution (right) for an energy cut of 10

  11. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Sensor development and calibration for acoustic neutrino detection in ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karg, Timo; Laihem, Karim; Semburg, Benjamin; Tosi, Delia

    2009-01-01

    A promising approach to measure the expected low flux of cosmic neutrinos at the highest energies (E > 1 EeV) is acoustic detection. There are different in-situ test installations worldwide in water and ice to measure the acoustic properties of the medium with regard to the feasibility of acoustic neutrino detection. The parameters of interest include attenuation length, sound speed profile, background noise level and transient backgrounds. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) has been deployed in the upper 500 m of drill holes for the IceCube neutrino observatory at the geographic South Pole. In-situ calibration of sensors under the combined influence of low temperature, high ambient pressure, and ice-sensor acoustic coupling is difficult. We discuss laboratory calibrations in water and ice. Two new laboratory facilities, the Aachen Acoustic Laboratory (AAL) and the Wuppertal Water Tank Test Facility, have been set up. They offer large volumes of bubble free ice (3 m^3) and water (11 m^3) for the devel...

  13. Phase Behavior of a Family of Truncated Hard Cubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anjan P. Gantapara; Joost de Graaf; René van Roij; Marjolein Dijkstra

    2014-12-08

    In continuation of our work in [A.P. Gantapara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 015501 (2013)], we investigate here the thermodynamic phase behavior of a family of truncated hard cubes, for which the shape evolves smoothly from a cube via a cuboctahedron to an octahedron. We used Monte Carlo simulations and free-energy calculations to establish the full phase diagram. This phase diagram exhibits a remarkable richness in crystal and mesophase structures, depending sensitively on the precise particle shape. In addition, we examined in detail the nature of the plastic crystal (rotator) phases that appear for intermediate densities and levels of truncation. Our results allow us to probe the relation between phase behavior and building-block shape and to further the understanding of rotator phases. Furthermore, the phase diagram presented here should prove instrumental for guiding future experimental studies on similarly-haped nanoparticles and the creation of new materials.

  14. E cubed Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the NationalDynetek Europe GmbH Jump to:OpenMolicubed

  15. Cube-corner reflectors with interference dielectric coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, A L; Murashkin, V V; Akent'ev, A S; Karaseva, E A

    2013-09-30

    The cube-corner reflectors (CCRs) with a special interference dielectric coating intended for ring retroreflector systems of space vehicles with uniaxial orientation are considered. The diffraction patterns of radiation reflected from the CCRs with different face coatings are studied. It is shown that the choice of the angle between the faces, the size and the coating of CCR faces allow essential variation in the diffraction pattern, thereby providing its optimisation for solving different navigation problems. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

  16. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  17. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  18. Section 1

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HHV high heating value ICE internal combustion engine IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LH 2 liquid hydrogen LHV low heating value LNG liquefied natural gas LNGV...

  19. Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. B. Price

    2005-06-27

    Two classes of natural solid media (glacial ice and salt domes) are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >1e18 eV. Though insensitive to 1e11 to 1e16 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because, due to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced very far apart. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size 0.2 cm at -51 degrees C, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 km and 25 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, respectively, and the absorption length is calculated to be 9 km at frequencies above 100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 km and 1.4 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 30,000 km and 3300 km at 10 kHz and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor.

  20. 25 People x 4 Days + 1 Manual = Team Belgium’s E-Cube

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    No, it's not an Ikea manual; it's the instructions for how to construct Team Belgium's "E-Cube" home for the 2011 Solar Decathlon.

  1. Power Cube Pvt Ltd PCPL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) |Texas:Pottawattamie County,River, Wyoming:Wyoming:County,Cube

  2. Divide-and-Approximate: A Novel Constraint Push Strategy for Iceberg Cube Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ke

    the full cube then discarding unsatisfying cells suffers from the fact that the full cube is too large computes all cells v, corresponding to GROUP BY partitions, that satisfy a given constraint on aggregated behaviors of the tuples in a GROUP BY partition. The number of cells often is so large that the result

  3. IAA-CU-13-11-06 Using independent combinations of CubeSat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    IAA-CU-13-11-06 Using independent combinations of CubeSat solar panels as sun sensors. Using solar panels on 5 of 6 sides of the NUTS CubeSat, we have a lot of atti- tude determinating information readily available during much of the periodical orbit. Using three or more solar panels

  4. Acoustic noise in deep ice and environmental conditions at the South Pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timo Karg; for the IceCube Collaboration

    2008-11-07

    To study the acoustic properties of the Antarctic ice the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was installed in the upper part of drill holes for the IceCube neutrino observatory. An important parameter for the design of a future acoustic neutrino telescope is the acoustic background noise in the ice and its spatial and temporal variations. We study the absolute noise level depth profile from SPATS data and discuss systematic uncertainties. The measured noise is very stable over one year of data taking, and we estimate the absolute noise level to be < 10 mPa in the frequency range from 10 kHz to 50 kHz at depths below 200 m. This noise level is of the same order of magnitude as observed by ocean based acoustic neutrino detection projects in good weather conditions.

  5. Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article: Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 89, 023014 (2014) Effect of contact angle on the orientation, stability, and assembly of dense floating cubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    cubes was measured to be 85°. The contact angle of the cubes was increased by painting the cubes with a commercially available superhydrophobic paint to reach an advancing contact angle of 150°. Depending benefitted the field of naval architecture by enabling the design of ships that can float stably under

  7. Arctic Sea ice model sensitivities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana Stefanova

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  8. The biweight enumerator and the subconstituent algebra of the n-cube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Bill

    [4]. We give a new proof of these identities using the Terwilliger algebra of the n-cube. Further, we-negative coefficients. For unrestricted codes, a char- acterization of the positive semidefinite cone of the Terwilliger

  9. Thermal mass performance in residential construction : an energy analysis using a cube model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledwith, Alison C. (Alison Catherine)

    2012-01-01

    Given the pervasiveness of energy efficiency concerns in the built environment, this research aims to answer key questions regarding the performance of thermal mass construction. The work presents the Cube Model, a simplified ...

  10. Ice Bear® Storage Module | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ice Bear Storage Module Ice Bear Storage Module Thermal Energy Storage for Light Commercial Refrigerant-Based Air Conditioning Units The Ice Bear storage technology was...

  11. Improving Estimation Accuracy of Aggregate Queries on Data Cubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of estimation of a target database from summary databases derived from a base data cube. We show that such estimates can be derived by choosing a primary database which uses a proxy database to estimate the results. This technique is common in statistics, but an important issue we are addressing is the accuracy of these estimates. Specifically, given multiple primary and multiple proxy databases, that share the same summary measure, the problem is how to select the primary and proxy databases that will generate the most accurate target database estimation possible. We propose an algorithmic approach for determining the steps to select or compute the source databases from multiple summary databases, which makes use of the principles of information entropy. We show that the source databases with the largest number of cells in common provide the more accurate estimates. We prove that this is consistent with maximizing the entropy. We provide some experimental results on the accuracy of the target database estimation in order to verify our results.

  12. SEARCH FOR TIME-INDEPENDENT NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM ASTROPHYSICAL SOURCES WITH 3 yr OF IceCube DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aartsen, M. G.; Besson, David Zeke

    2013-12-03

    The Astrophysical Journal, 779:132 (17pp), 2013 December 20 doi:10.1088/0004-637X/779/2/132 C© 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. SEARCH FOR TIME-INDEPENDENT NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM ASTROPHYSICAL.... Becker Tjus15, K.-H. Becker16, M. L. Benabderrahmane4, S. BenZvi2, P. Berghaus4, D. Berley17, E. Bernardini4, A. Bernhard18, D. Z. Besson19, G. Binder11,20, D. Bindig16, M. Bissok21, E. Blaufuss17, J. Blumenthal21, D. J. Boersma22, S. Bohaichuk23, C. Bohm...

  13. The IceCube Collaboration:contributions to the 30 th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2007),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackermann, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    variety of sources (gamma-ray bursts, active galac- ticgalactic nuclei or gamma-ray bursts [1, 2]. Instead ofnuclei (AGN) and gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are potential

  14. Searches for high-energy neutrino emission in the Galaxy with the combined IceCube-AMANDA detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, R.; Besson, David Zeke

    2013-01-03

    sources of cosmic rays in the Galaxy are the remnants of supernovae (both shell-type and pulsar wind nebulae), the jets of microquasars, and the collective winds of massive stars (Hillas 2005; Tavani et al. 2009; Corbel & Fermi-LAT Collaboration 2010...; Aharonian et al. 2007; Ohm et al. 2010; Marcowith et al. 2008). Due to the large amount of energy released in a supernova explosion (?1051 erg), supernova remnants are prime candidates for sources of Galactic cosmic rays. In microquasars, the kinetic energy...

  15. The IceCube Data Acquisition Software: Lessons Learned during Distributed, Collaborative, Multi-Disciplined Software Development.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beattie, Keith

    2008-01-01

    et. al. , “Manifesto for Agile Software Development” http://Icecube Data Acquisition Software: Lessons Learned DuringMulti-Disciplined Software Development K S Beattie 1 , C T

  16. Deploying quantum light sources on nanosatellites II: lessons and perspectives on CubeSat spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Bedington; Edward Truong-Cao; Tan Yue Chuan; Cliff Cheng; Kadir Durak; James Anthony Grieve; Jesper Larsen; Daniel Oi; Alexander Ling

    2015-08-28

    To enable space-based quantum key distribution proposals the Centre for Quantum Technologies is developing a source of entangled photons ruggedized to survive deployment in space and greatly miniaturised so that it conforms to the strict form factor and power requirements of a 1U CubeSat. The Small Photon Entangling Quantum System is an integrated instrument where the pump, photon pair source and detectors are combined within a single optical tray and electronics package that is no larger than 10 cm x 10 cm x 3 cm. This footprint enables the instrument to be placed onboard nanosatellites or the CubeLab structure aboard the International Space Station. We will discuss the challenges and future prospects of CubeSat-based missions.

  17. Deploying quantum light sources on nanosatellites II: lessons and perspectives on CubeSat spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedington, Robert; Chuan, Tan Yue; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Grieve, James Anthony; Larsen, Jesper; Oi, Daniel; Ling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    To enable space-based quantum key distribution proposals the Centre for Quantum Technologies is developing a source of entangled photons ruggedized to survive deployment in space and greatly miniaturised so that it conforms to the strict form factor and power requirements of a 1U CubeSat. The Small Photon Entangling Quantum System is an integrated instrument where the pump, photon pair source and detectors are combined within a single optical tray and electronics package that is no larger than 10 cm x 10 cm x 3 cm. This footprint enables the instrument to be placed onboard nanosatellites or the CubeLab structure aboard the International Space Station. We will discuss the challenges and future prospects of CubeSat-based missions.

  18. Hidden force floating ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q. Sun

    2015-01-17

    Because of the segmental specific-heat disparity of the hydrogen bond (O:H-O) and the Coulomb repulsion between oxygen ions, cooling elongates the O:H-O bond at freezing by stretching its containing angle and shortening the H-O bond with an association of larger O:H elongation, which makes ice less dense than water, allowing it to float.

  19. Ice Storm Supercomputer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    "A new Idaho National Laboratory supercomputer is helping scientists create more realistic simulations of nuclear fuel. Dubbed 'Ice Storm,' this 2048-processor machine allows researchers to model and predict the complex physics behind nuclear reactor behavior. And with a new visualization lab, the team can see the results of its simulations on the big screen." For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. SECTION I

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Section I, Page 53 (1) An unmanufactured construction material mined or produced in the United States; (2) A construction material manufactured in the United States, if- (i) The...

  1. Section B

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    124 B-i PART I - THE SCHEDULE SECTION B - SUPPLIES OR SERVICES AND PRICESCOSTS TABLE OF CONTENTS B.1 TYPE OF CONTRACT - ITEMS BEING ACQUIRED ......

  2. Strip2CubeFace user%3CU%2B2019%3Es manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forden, Geoffrey Ethan

    2013-03-01

    Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) software for producing linked virtual tours based on 360 degree panoramas are becoming more and more available. However, the best current products for taking the images, stitching them into 360 degree panoramas, and then linking them together into complex virtual tours require different and incompatible input and output formats. This program is designed to bridge the gap between the iPix Interactive Studio export format, which consists of a single JPEG with the six faces of a cube connected horizontally, with the six individual JPEGs needed to be imported into Panotour Pro software. This report describes how to use the software program Strip2CubeFace, which takes the cube-strip JPEG exported from iPix Studio and coverts it into six JPEGs representing the six cube faces that Panotour Pro imports. As such, it represents a necessary link between the two COTS software programs key to making virtual tours quickly and easily. It becomes one member of the suite of software programs known as %E2%80%9CRaPP-TOURS%E2%80%9D or Rapid Processing of PanoTours Software necessary to simulate managed access and other permission requesting arms control-type training exercises.

  3. Resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy of benzene,,water...9: Expanding the cube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zwier, Timothy S.

    Resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy of benzene­,,water...9: Expanding the cube Christopher J the hydrogen-bonding topologies of three isomers of benzene­ water 9. Isomers I and II, with R2PI transitions shifted, respectively, by 77 and 63 cm 1 from the benzene monomer, have similar intensities in the R2PI

  4. Buoyancy-driven heat transfer and flow between a wetted heat source and an isothermal cube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, D.J.; Peck, M.K.; White, R.F.; Mahoney, K.J. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes flow visualization and heat transfer experiments conducted with a heat source inside an isothermal cube filled with a saturated or near-saturated gas/vapor mixture. The mixture was formed by vaporizing liquid from the surface of the heat source, and allowing it to condense on the surfaces of the cube, which was initially filled with a noncondensing gas. Visualization studies showed that for air and ethanol below 35C, and for air and water, the flow patterns were similar with the hot plume rising from the source. For air and ethanol above 35C the flow pattern reversed with the hot plume flowing downward. For temperatures spanning 35C, which is the zero buoyancy temperature for the ethanol/water azeotrope and air, no distinct pattern was observed. Using water, liquid droplets fell like rain throughout the cube. Using ethanol, a fog of droplets moved with the fluid flow. Heat transfer experiments were made with water and air, and conductances between plate and cube of around 580 W{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}K{sup {minus}1} measured. Agreement between the similarity theory developed for saturated gas/vapor mixtures, and correlations for single component fluids only, was very good. Together with qualitative support from the visualization experiments, the theory developed in a earlier paper deriving a similarity relationship between single fluids and gas/vapor mixtures has been validated.

  5. Development of R-Cubed Manipulation Language The design of an RCML 2.0 system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachi, Susumu

    Development of R-Cubed Manipulation Language The design of an RCML 2.0 system Dairoku Sekiguchi called RCML 2.0. In RCML 2.0, we introduced a language RXID 2.0 for defining Graphical User Interface (GUI), which is used for controlling the remote robot into the system. Both RCML 2.0 and RXID 2.0

  6. NetCube: A Scalable Tool for Fast Data Mining and Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be able to model its customer base well, and the better it is able to do that, the more insights it can, through an interactive query process, request count information from the database, possibly drilling this, our paper proposes a new viewpoint on the computation of DataCubes, one that advocates the use

  7. NetCube: A Scalable Tool for Fast Data Mining and Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be able to model its customer base well, and the better it is able to do that, the more insights it can, through an interactive query process, request count information from the database, possibly drilling paper proposes a new viewpoint on the computation of DataCubes, one that advocates the use of models

  8. Process Cubes: Slicing, Dicing, Rolling Up and Drilling Down Event Data for Process Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Aalst, Wil

    Process Cubes: Slicing, Dicing, Rolling Up and Drilling Down Event Data for Process Mining Wil M and associated operations such as slice, dice, roll-up, and drill-down. How- ever, there are also significant, roll-up, and drill-down process mining results efficiently. Key words: OLAP, Process Mining, Big Data

  9. A Workflows Roadmap for the Geosciences NSF EarthCube Workflows Community Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gil, Yolanda

    A Workflows Roadmap for the Geosciences NSF EarthCube Workflows Community Group September 15, 2012 to addressing those challenges. The group was asked to produce a roadmap for workflows in geosciences. Three to create a roadmap in their area. NSF guidance for the roadmap was to structure it in the following ten

  10. New conjunctive CubeSat and balloon measurements to quantify rapid energetic electron precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    New conjunctive CubeSat and balloon measurements to quantify rapid energetic electron precipitation precipitation into the atmosphere can contribute significant losses to the outer radiation belt. In particular, rapid narrow precipitation features termed precipitation bands have been hypothesized to be an integral

  11. Climate Impacts of Ice Nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Barahona, Donifan; Lohmann, U.; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2012-10-27

    Several different ice nucleation parameterizations in two different General Circulation Models are used to understand the effects of ice nucleation on the mean climate state, and the climate effect of aerosol perturbations to ice clouds. The simulations have different ice microphysical states that are consistent with the spread of observations. These different states occur from different parameterizations of the ice cloud nucleation processes, and feature different balances of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. At reasonable efficiencies, consistent with laboratory measurements and constrained by the global radiative balance, black carbon has a small (-0.06 Wm?2) and not statistically significant climate effect. Indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols on cirrus clouds occur mostly due to increases in homogeneous nucleation fraction as a consequence of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. The resulting ice indirect effects do not seem strongly dependent on the ice micro-physical balance, but are slightly larger for those states with less homogeneous nucleation in the base state. The total ice AIE is estimated at 0.26±0.09 Wm?2 (1? uncertainty). This represents an offset of 20-30% of the simulated total Aerosol Indirect Effect for ice and liquid clouds.

  12. A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jezek, K. C.; Perovich, D. K.; Golden, K. M.; Luther, C.; Barber, D. G.; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Grenfell, T. C.; Jordan, A. K.; Mobley, C. D.; Nghiem, S. V.; Onstott, R. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper highlights the interrelationship of research completed by a team of investigators and presented in the several individual papers comprising this Special Section on the Office of Naval Research (ONR), Arlington, VA, Sponsored Sea Ice...

  13. Section CC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ID GFSI GFSI Due Contract Section GF0028 DOE-RL will approve and execute all real estate actions to acquire, utilize, and dispose of real property assets. As required...

  14. Section J

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    M-1 Section J Appendix M Key Design, Licensing and Site Management M&O Milestone Chart Activity Planned Date Develop and Submit CD-2 (25%-30%) 082009 Submission of Construction...

  15. ARM - Ice Cores

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstps DocumentationAtlanticENAField ParticipantsField Campaign StatisticsPastIce Cores

  16. Section J

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1ResearchUniversityPreparedAwardsAchievementSectionSectionL-1

  17. Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry Technology available for licensing: Proprietary method and equipment for making an ice slurry coolant to induce...

  18. Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffery, Nicole; Hunke, Elizabeth; Elliott, Scott; Turner, Adrian

    2012-06-18

    Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

  19. MEAT, POULTRY, Still contains ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    MEAT, POULTRY, SEAFOOD Still contains ice crystals and feels as cold, and ground meats Refreeze Discard Poultry and ground poultry Refreeze Discard Variety meats may safely re-freeze foods that s:ll contain ice crystals or that have been

  20. Parallel Multilevel Methods for Implicit Solution of Shallow Water Equations with Nonsmooth Topography on the Cubed-sphere $

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan

    Topography on the Cubed-sphere $ Chao Yanga,b , Xiao-Chuan Caia aDepartment of Computer Science, University012300. Email addresses: chao.yang@colorado.edu (Chao Yang), cai@cs.colorado.edu (Xiao-Chuan Cai

  1. Cube Engineering GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar EnergyLawler,CoalConcordiaConsumerLEDS TierCristalino EnergiaCrystalsol

  2. Winter Driving Tips Driving in Ice & Snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capogna, Luca

    Winter Driving Tips Driving in Ice & Snow: When you must drive, clear the ice and snow from your in ice and snow, other drivers will be traveling cautiously. Don't disrupt the flow of traffic by driving handle better in ice and snow, but they do not have flawless traction, and skids can occur unexpectedly

  3. Efficient gas sensitivity in mixed bismuth ferrite micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waghmare, Shivaji D.; Jadhav, Vijaykumar V.; Gore, Shaym K.; Yoon, Seog-Joon; Ambade, Swapnil B.; Lokhande, B.J.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Micro (cubes) structure embedded in nano (plates) of bismuth ferrite was prepared by a chemical method. ? These structures were characterized by XRD and SEM. ? LPG, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4} gases were exposed. ? Properties related to gas sensors were measured and reported. -- Abstract: Mixed micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures of bismuth ferrite (BFO) have been synthesized by a simple and cost-effective wet-chemical method. Structural, morphological and phase confirmation characteristics are measured using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. The digital FE-SEM photo-images of BFO sample confirmed an incubation of discrete micro-cubes into thin and regularly placed large number of nano-plates. The bismuth ferrite, with mixed structures, films show considerable performance when used in liquefied petroleum (LPG), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ammonium (NH{sub 3}) gas sensors application. Different chemical entities in LPG have made it more efficient with higher sensitivity, recovery and response times compared to CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. Furthermore, effect of palladium surface treatment on the gas sensitivity and the charge transfer resistances of BFO mixed structures is investigated and reported.

  4. SECTION J

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTION J APPENDIX A ADVANCE UNDERSTANDING ON HUMAN

  5. SECTION J

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTION J APPENDIX A ADVANCE UNDERSTANDING ON HUMAND-1

  6. SECTION J

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTION J APPENDIX A ADVANCE UNDERSTANDING ON HUMAND-1

  7. Ice thickness measurements by Raman scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pershin, Sergey M; Klinkov, Vladimir K; Yulmetov, Renat N; Bunkin, Alexey F

    2014-01-01

    A compact Raman LIDAR system with a spectrograph was used for express ice thickness measurements. The difference between the Raman spectra of ice and liquid water is employed to locate the ice-water interface while elastic scattering was used for air-ice surface detection. This approach yields an error of only 2 mm for an 80-mm-thick ice sample, indicating that it is promising express noncontact thickness measurements technique in field experiments.

  8. Method of forming calthrate ice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hino, T.; Gorski, A.J.

    1985-09-30

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultransonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. Thes small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  9. Method of forming clathrate ice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hino, Toshiyuki (Tokyo, JP); Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultrasonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. These small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  10. Section Number:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES Pursuant to the contract clause entitled, "Laws,

  11. SECTION J

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTION J APPENDIX A ADVANCE UNDERSTANDING ON HUMAND-1 J-F-1

  12. SECTION J

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTION J APPENDIX A ADVANCE UNDERSTANDING ON HUMAND-1J-1

  13. SECTION J

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTION J APPENDIX A ADVANCE UNDERSTANDING ON HUMAND-1J-1K-1

  14. An experimental and theoretical study of the ice accretion process during artificial and natural icing conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, Mark Samuel

    1986-01-01

    Real-time measurements of ice growth during artificial and natural icing conditions were conducted using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. This technique allows ice thickness to be measured with an accuracy of ?0.5 mm; ...

  15. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-11-14

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  16. Electrothermal Icing Protection of Aerosurfaces Using Conductive Polymer Nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschhorn, Samuel T.

    Ice protection systems (IPS) are critical components for many aerospace flight vehicles, including commercial transports and unmanned aerial systems (UAS), and can include anti-icing, de-icing, ice sensing, etc. Here, an ...

  17. Coherent radar ice thickness measurements over the Greenland ice sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gogineni, S. Prasad; Tammana, Dilip; Braaten, David A.; Leuschen, C.; Legarsky, J.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Stiles, J.; Allen, C.; Jezek, K.; Akins, T. L.

    2001-12-27

    averaged over a distance covered by aircraft in 1 s (-130 m).) tt(X, g = -d) = Sice(t: T, x). (6) The value t = - can be interpreted as the time when S ice(t, x) represents the wave energy due to scattering specifically from depth d, as opposed... of the Greenland ice sheet produced by Mark Fahnestock (Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland, College Park) and Ron Kwok (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasa- dena). The helpful suggestions and comments of two...

  18. Parallel algorithms for the maxima problem using an N-cube processor configuration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffman, Sarah Wilson

    1989-01-01

    for the Four-Dimensional Maxima Problem 27 3. 5 Extension to Higher Dimensions 4 . ALGORITHM MODIFICATIONS 34 43 4. 1 Modifications for Duplicate Coordinate Values 43 4. 2 Adjustments for less than N Processors . . 44 5. CONCLUSIONS APPENDIX A... is an integer then i(b) integer (0 & i, i(b) & N - 1) whose binary representation differs only in position b from that of i (0 & b & n- 1 ) . For example, let i = 0001 and b = 2, then i(b) 0101. In the n-cube, every processor Pi is connected to processor Pi...

  19. Rubber friction on ice and snow surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skouvaklis, Gerasimos

    2011-06-28

    The friction of rubber on ice and snow surfaces is complex. Deeper scientific understanding is important for optimising performance of tyres in winter. Rubber, ice and snow systems exhibit frictional behaviour which ...

  20. Thermal Storage with Ice Harvesting Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knebel, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Application of Harvesting Ice Storage Systems. Thermal storage systems are becoming widely accepted techniques for utility load management. This paper discusses the principles of ice harvesting equipment and their application to the multi...

  1. The convective desalination of sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rees Jones, David

    2014-07-01

    in the interstices of an ice matrix. My focus is on one of the processes by which the salt content of sea ice decreases, namely convective desalination, which is also often called gravity drainage by geophysicists. Modelling convective desalination requires...

  2. Electrical properties of saline ices and ice-silicate mixtures: geophysical and astrobiological consequences (Invited)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillman, David E.

    MR22A-05 Electrical properties of saline ices and ice-silicate mixtures: geophysical) electrical-properties measurements of laboratory- produced saline ice, salt hydrates, and ice of interior properties, and habitability. The electrical properties of saline H2O are controlled by the binary

  3. Medical ice slurry production device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL); Oras, John (Des Plaines, IL); Son, HyunJin (Naperville, IL)

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  4. Feasibility of acoustic neutrino detection in ice: First results from the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Böser; C. Bohm; F. Descamps; J. Fischer; A. Hallgren; R. Heller; S. Hundertmark; K. Krieger; R. Nahnhauer; M. Pohl; P. B. Price; K. -H. Sulanke; D. Tosi; J. Vandenbroucke

    2007-08-15

    Astrophysical neutrinos in the EeV range (particularly those generated by the interaction of cosmic rays with the cosmic microwave background) promise to be a valuable tool to study astrophysics and particle physics at the highest energies. Much could be learned from temporal, spectral, and angular distributions of ~100 events, which could be collected by a detector with ~100 km^3 effective volume in a few years. Scaling the optical Cherenkov technique to this scale is prohibitive. However, using the thick ice sheet available at the South Pole, the radio and acoustic techniques promise to provide sufficient sensitivity with sparse instrumentation. The best strategy may be a hybrid approach combining all three techniques. A new array of acoustic transmitters and sensors, the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup, was installed in three IceCube holes in January 2007. The purpose of SPATS is to measure the attenuation length, background noise, and sound speed for 10-100 kHz acoustic waves. Favorable results would pave the way for a large hybrid array. SPATS is the first array to study the possibility of acoustic neutrino detection in ice, the medium expected to be best for the purpose. First results from SPATS are presented.

  5. Hyperbolic Conservation Laws on Three-Dimensional Cubed-Sphere Grids: A Parallel Solution-Adaptive Simulation Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Sterck, Hans

    Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 bUniversity of Toronto and scalable parallel, cubed-sphere grid numerical framework is described for solution of hyperbolic scalability on thousands of computing cores. Crucial elements of the proposed approach are: unstructured

  6. Laboratory investigations of irradiated acetonitrile-containing ices on an interstellar dust analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulgalil, Ali G. M.; Marchione, Demian; Rosu-Finsen, Alexander; Collings, Mark P.; McCoustra, Martin R. S.

    2012-07-15

    Reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy is used to study the impact of low-energy electron irradiation of acetonitrile-containing ices, under conditions close to those in the dense star-forming regions in the interstellar medium. Both the incident electron energy and the surface coverage were varied. The experiments reveal that solid acetonitrile is desorbed from its ultrathin solid films with a cross section of the order of 10{sup -17} cm{sup 2}. Evidence is presented for a significantly larger desorption cross section for acetonitrile molecules at the water-ice interface, similar to that previously observed for the benzene-water system.

  7. Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Surface configuration, ice thick- ness, volume and bedrockconstruction of the ice thick- ness grids. between flightof the physical ice thick- ness, rather than an “ice-

  8. Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

  9. FAFCO Ice Storage test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1993-11-01

    The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial ice storage systems. FAFCO provided a storage tank equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system. The FAFCO ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging showed the ability to freeze the tank fully, storing from 150 to 200 ton-h. However, the charging rate showed significant variations during the latter portion of the charge cycle. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was strongly affected by the discharge rate and tank state of charge. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. Based on these tests, storage tank selection must depend on both charge and discharge conditions. This report describes FAFCO system performance fully under both charging and discharging conditions. While the test results reported here are accurate for the prototype 1990 FAFCO Model 200, currently available FAFCO models incorporate significant design enhancements beyond the Model 200. At least one major modification was instituted as a direct result of the ISTF tests. Such design improvements were one of EPRI`s primary goals in founding the ISTF.

  10. Geol 795 Paleoceanography Ice Sheet Dynamics and Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barranco, Joseph

    Geol 795 ­ Paleoceanography Ice Sheet Dynamics and Climate Change Class Meetings: Tuesday 9 of articles related ice sheet dynamics and the role of ice sheets in past, present, and future climate change ice sheet dynamics and the role of ice sheets in climate change. We will discuss effective ways

  11. IceT users' guide and reference.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    The Image Composition Engine for Tiles (IceT) is a high-performance sort-last parallel rendering library. In addition to providing accelerated rendering for a standard display, IceT provides the unique ability to generate images for tiled displays. The overall resolution of the display may be several times larger than any viewport that may be rendered by a single machine. This document is an overview of the user interface to IceT.

  12. In situ cosmogenic radiocarbon production and 2-D ice flow line modeling for an Antarctic blue ice area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    In situ cosmogenic radiocarbon production and 2-D ice flow line modeling for an Antarctic blue ice; accepted 12 April 2012; published 24 May 2012. [1] Radiocarbon measurements at ice margin sites and blue and 2-D ice flow line modeling for an Antarctic blue ice area, J. Geophys. Res., 117, F02029, doi:10

  13. BISICLES Captures Details of Retreating Antarctic Ice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    software framework, and linked them to the existing Community Ice Sheet Model code (CISM). With AMR, researchers can now model dynamic points of interest at extremely high...

  14. The Next ICE Age | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications The Next ICE Age Fuel Modification t Facilitate Future Combustion Regimes? Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies...

  15. The Stability of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biasutti, Michela

    , distribution and seasonality · Solid Earth: · Geothermal heatflux Abrupt Climate Change Studies Symposium 21 Rebound (GIA) GPS stations measure vertical deformation of solid Earth as ice

  16. Relationships between Water Wettability and Ice Adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meuler, Adam J.

    Ice formation and accretion may hinder the operation of many systems critical to national infrastructure, including airplanes, power lines, windmills, ships, and telecommunications equipment. Yet despite the pervasiveness ...

  17. Viscosity of interfacial water regulates ice nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Kaiyong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qiaolan; Zhang, Yifan; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Xu, Shun; Zhou, Xin; Cui, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun Song, Yanlin

    2014-03-10

    Ice formation on solid surfaces is an important phenomenon in many fields, such as cloud formation and atmospheric icing, and a key factor for applications in preventing freezing. Here, we report temperature-dependent nucleation rates of ice for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The results show that hydrophilic surface presents a lower ice nucleation rate. We develop a strategy to extract the thermodynamic parameters, J{sub 0} and ?, in the context of classical nucleation theory. From the extracted J{sub 0} and ?, we reveal the dominant role played by interfacial water. The results provide an insight into freezing mechanism on solid surfaces.

  18. Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming Forecasts Mathematics Of Ice To Aid Global Warming forecasts of how global warming will affect polar icepacks. See also: Earth & Climate q Global Warming q the effects of climate warming, and its presence greatly reduces solar heating of the polar oceans." "Sea ice

  19. Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar reflectivity for clouds consisting of nonspherical ice particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar reflectivity for clouds consisting investigates the relationship between ice water content (IWC) and equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) at 94 GHz. Baum, and A. J. Heymsfield (2008), Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar

  20. A New Approach for Exploring Ice Sheets and Sub-Ice Geology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristoffersen, Yngve

    A New Approach for Exploring Ice Sheets and Sub-Ice Geology Active seismic measurements were geology driven by ice flow [Smith et al., 2007] and the long record of seismic exploration of subglacial sur- veys because of the considerable logistical effort necessary for seismic data acquisition

  1. Satellite SAR Remote Sensing of Great Lakes Ice Cover, Part 2. Ice Classification and Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (look-up table) for different ice types. The library is used in the computer classifica- tion (freshwater) ice types using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory C-band scatterometer, together with surface data set, composed of over 20 variations of different ice types measured at incident angles from 0

  2. ARKTOS: An intelligent system for SAR sea ice image classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soh, L. K.; Tsatsoulis, Costas; Gineris, D.; Bertoia, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present an intelligent system for satellite sea ice image analysis named Advanced Reasoning using Knowledge for T ping Of Sea ice (ARKTOS). ARKTOS performs fully automated analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sea ice images by mimicking...

  3. Self-Assembly and Chain-Folding in Hybrid Coil-Coil-Cube Triblock Oligomers of Polyethylene-b-Poly(ethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Self-Assembly and Chain-Folding in Hybrid Coil-Coil-Cube Triblock Oligomers of Polyethylene-defined oligomeric polyethylene-block-poly(ethylene oxide)- block-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PE

  4. Flow laws for glacier ice: comparison of numerical predictions and field measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Veen, Cornelis J.; Whillans, I. M.

    1990-10-05

    Ice flow along the 20 km long strain network up-stream of the Dye 3 bore hole in Greenland is studied in detail. By solving the force—balance equations and using selected flow laws, stresses and strain-rates are calculated throughout the section...

  5. A direct evidence of vibrationally delocalized response at ice surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Morita, Akihiro

    2014-11-14

    Surface-specific vibrational spectroscopic responses at isotope diluted ice and amorphous ice are investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. The intense response specific to the ordinary crystal ice surface is predicted to be significantly suppressed in the isotopically diluted and amorphous ices, demonstrating the vibrational delocalization at the ordinary ice surface. The collective vibration at the ice surface is also analyzed with varying temperature by the MD simulation.

  6. ARM - TWP-ICE Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, AlaskaManus Site-Inactive TWP Related Links Facilities andTWP-ICE Maps

  7. Search for high-energy muon neutrinos from the "naked-eye" GRB080319B with the IceCube neutrino telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, R.; IceCube Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    muon neutrinos from the “naked-eye” GRB 080319B with themuon neutrinos from the “naked-eye” GRB080319B with theof 5.3 even visible to the naked eye for a short period of

  8. Search for high-energy muon neutrinos from the "naked-eye" GRB080319B with the IceCube neutrino telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, R.; IceCube Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever observed.cosmic high-energy neutrinos, gamma-ray-burst, GRB 080319BLong duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to

  9. Limits on a muon flux from Kaluza-Klein dark matter annihilations in the Sun from the IceCube 22-string detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, R.

    2010-01-01

    of the Sun as a function of neutrino energy, see Fig. 2.high energy neutrinos from the direction of the Sun. Despiteand energy losses of the neutrinos on their way out of the Sun,

  10. Radar attenuation and temperature within the Greenland Ice Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    on obliquely propagating radio waves, IEEE Trans. Geosci.dielectric attenuation of radio waves through ice is alsoattenuation of radio waves through ice is also temperature

  11. ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) ICRICE SOPSep 2013Final.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  12. Rapid development of an ice sheet climate application using the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Rapid development of an ice sheet climate application using the components-based approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid development of an ice...

  13. Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet Complex systems influence melting of Greenland ice sheet International research team's field work shows that, well, things...

  14. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  15. Ice Cover on the Great Lakes NATIONALOCEANIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : In the shallow waters where whitefish spawn, ice cover protects their eggs from destructive wind and wave action://coastwatch.glerl.noaa.gov/glsea/cur/glsea_cur.png #12;GLERL Research Forecast capability The capability to forecast and predict ice cover is important for recreational safety and rescue efforts as well as for navigation, weather forecasting, adapting to lake level

  16. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  17. Grain boundary networks in high-performance, heteroepitaxial, YBCO films on polycrystalline, cube-textured metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Field, Dr. David [Washington State University; Held, R. [Institute of Physics, Augsburg University, Augsburg, Germany; Mannhart, J. [Institute of Physics, Augsburg University, Augsburg, Germany

    2011-01-01

    Grain boundaries (GBs) in high-temperature superconductors suppress the critical current density (Jc) dramatically [1-3]. The Jc drops exponentially when GB-misorientation exceeds 4 [3]. To reduce the number of high-angle GBs, fabrication of biaxially-textured, superconducting wires via epitaxial growth on cube-textured metals has been widely investigated [4-6]. Such wires have exhibited very high-Jc in applied magnetic fields despite having a majority of GBs with total misorientations greater than 4 . Here we show that GB networks in these wires have numerous GBs with out-of-plane misorientations > 4 and few boundaries having in-plane misorientations > 4 . The high performance can be explained if the Jc is determined primarily by in-plane misorientations. This supposition was confirmed by in-field transport measurements on artificially fabricated bicrystals of superconductors having only out-of-plane misorientations. Atomic resolution imaging of bicrystals with out-of-plane misorientations show that superconducting ab-planes are continuous across such GBs in contrast to GBs with in-plane misorientations.

  18. Radiostratigraphy and age structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    is 3.15, equivalent to a radio-wave velocity in ice of 168.9to be vertical) that a radio wave travels through ice during?t is where v ice is the radio-wave velocity in ice, ?z ¼ v

  19. Crystalline water ice on the Kuiper belt object (50000) Quaoar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jewitt, David C.

    .............................................................. Crystalline water ice on the Kuiper the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate. Crystallinity indicates that the ice has been heated to at least 110 K. Both ammonia hydrate and crystalline water ice should be destroyed by energetic particle

  20. Molecular simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation. I. Controlling ice nucleation through surface hydrophilicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen J. Cox; Shawn M. Kathmann; Ben Slater; Angelos Michaelides

    2015-05-29

    Ice formation is one of the most common and important processes on earth and almost always occurs at the surface of a material. A basic understanding of how the physicochemical properties of a material's surface affect its ability to form ice has remained elusive. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to directly probe heterogeneous ice nucleation at a hexagonal surface of a nanoparticle of varying hydrophilicity. Surprisingly, we find that structurally identical surfaces can both inhibit and promote ice formation and analogous to a chemical catalyst, it is found that an optimal interaction between the surface and the water exists for promoting ice nucleation. We use our microscopic understanding of the mechanism to design a modified surface in silico with enhanced ice nucleating ability.

  1. A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model for Ice Sheet and Ice Shelf Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

    2012-02-08

    Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH is a fully Lagrangian particle method. It is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface flows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper SPH is used to study ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from the SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is further verified by simulating the plane shear flow of two immiscible fluids and the propagation of a highly viscous blob of fluid along a horizontal surface. In the experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous newtonian fluid. For consistency, in the described SPH model the ice is also modeled as a viscous newtonian fluid. Typically, ice sheets are modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid, accounting for the changes in the mechanical properties of ice. Implementation of a non-Newtonian rheology in the SPH model is the subject of our ongoing research.

  2. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Non-Newtonian model for ice-sheet and ice-shelf dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Monaghan, Joseph J.

    2013-06-01

    Mathematical modeling of ice sheets is complicated by the non-linearity of the governing equations and boundary conditions. Standard grid-based methods require complex front tracking techniques and have limited capability to handle large material deformations and abrupt changes in bottom topography. As a consequence, numerical methods are usually restricted to shallow ice sheet and ice shelf approximations. We propose a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) non-Newtonian model for coupled ice sheet and ice shelf dynamics. SPH, a fully Lagrangian particle method, is highly scalable and its Lagrangian nature and meshless discretization are well suited to the simulation of free surface ?ows, large material deformation, and material fragmentation. In this paper, SPH is used to study 3D ice sheet/ice shelf behavior, and the dynamics of the grounding line. The steady state position of the grounding line obtained from SPH simulations is in good agreement with laboratory observations for a wide range of simulated bedrock slopes, and density ratios, similar to those of ice and sea water. The numerical accuracy of the SPH algorithm is veri?ed by simulating Poiseuille ?ow, plane shear ?ow with free surface and the propagation of a blob of ice along a horizontal surface. In the laboratory experiment, the ice was represented with a viscous Newtonian ?uid. In the present work, however, the ice is modeled as both viscous Newtonian ?uid and non-Newtonian ?uid, such that the e?ect of non-Newtonian rheology on the dynamics of grounding line was examined. The non-Newtonian constitutive relation is prescribed to be Glen’s law for the creep of polycrystalline ice. A V-shaped bedrock ramp is further introduced to model the real geometry of bedrock slope.

  3. Do blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range show the West Antarctic ice sheet survived the last interglacial?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range show the West Antarctic ice sheet survived the last in revised form 10 January 2011 Accepted 28 January 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Blue-ice moraine cosmogenic isotope data on blue-ice moraines in the Heritage Range, West Antarctica. The age of the moraines

  4. Inter-annual sea-ice dynamics and micro-algal biomass in winter pack ice of Marguerite Bay, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank

    in this region (Stammerjohn et al., 2003; Stammerjohn and Smith, 1996). Changes in mesoscale ice dynamics

  5. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenman, Ian

    the southern ice edge, especially on the western side. The sea ice force balance analysis shows that sea ice air from northerly winds and ice motion away from the coast. South of St Lawrence Island, winds drive is important both climatically and economically. Understanding the processes that control the temporal

  6. Communication: On the stability of ice 0, ice i, and I{sub h}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quigley, D.; Alfè, D.; Slater, B.

    2014-10-28

    Using ab initio methods, we examine the stability of ice 0, a recently proposed tetragonal form of ice implicated in the homogeneous freezing of water [J. Russo, F. Romano, and H. Tanaka, Nat. Mater. 13, 670 (2014)]. Vibrational frequencies are computed across the complete Brillouin Zone using Density Functional Theory (DFT), to confirm mechanical stability and quantify the free energy of ice 0 relative to ice I{sub h}. The robustness of this result is tested via dispersion corrected semi-local and hybrid DFT, and Quantum Monte-Carlo calculation of lattice energies. Results indicate that popular molecular models only slightly overestimate the stability of ice zero. In addition, we study all possible realisations of proton disorder within the ice zero unit cell, and identify the ground state as ferroelectric. Comparisons are made to other low density metastable forms of ice, suggesting that the ice i structure [C. J. Fennel and J. D. Gezelter, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 1, 662 (2005)] may be equally relevant to ice formation.

  7. Weakening of ice by magnesium perchlorate hydrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenferink, Hendrik J., 1985-

    2012-01-01

    I show that perchlorate hydrates, which have been indirectly detected at high Martian circumpolar latitudes by the Phoenix Mars Lander, have a dramatic effect upon the rheological behavior of polycrystalline water ice under ...

  8. Largest Ice-Bank Promotes Load Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brarmann, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    conservation measures were incorporated in the design of the new research facility, the ice-bank system has been the most cost-effective of the load management projects at Union Oil....

  9. Widespread Excess Ice in Arcadia Planitia, Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bramson, Ali M; Putzig, Nathaniel E; Sutton, Sarah; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Brothers, T Charles; Holt, John W

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of subsurface water ice on Mars is a key constraint on past climate, while the volumetric concentration of buried ice (pore-filling versus excess) provides information about the process that led to its deposition. We investigate the subsurface of Arcadia Planitia by measuring the depth of terraces in simple impact craters and mapping a widespread subsurface reflection in radar sounding data. Assuming that the contrast in material strengths responsible for the terracing is the same dielectric interface that causes the radar reflection, we can combine these data to estimate the dielectric constant of the overlying material. We compare these results to a three-component dielectric mixing model to constrain composition. Our results indicate a widespread, decameters-thick layer that is excess water ice ~10^4 km^3 in volume. The accumulation and long-term preservation of this ice is a challenge for current Martian climate models.

  10. Spreading of oil spilled under ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapa, P.D.; Chowdhury, T. )

    1990-12-01

    A new set of equations is presented to describe the process of oil spreading under ice in clam waters. These equations consider the gravity (buoyancy)-inertia phase, the gravity (buoyancy)-viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy-surface-tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to the termination of spreading is presented. Laboratory experiments were conducted using both real ice covers in a cold room and artificial ice covers. The experiments included different ice-cover roughnesses from smooth to rough, oils of different viscosities, and a variety of discharge conditions. The experimental data show close agreement with the theory. These equations can be used during cleanup or environmental impact assessment to estimate the area of an oil slick with respect to time.

  11. Glaciers and Ice Sheets Mapping Orbiter concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jezek, Kenneth; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Freeman, Anthony; Curlander, John; Paden, John D.; Allen, Christopher Thomas

    2006-05-13

    We describe a concept for a spaceborne radar system designed to measure the surface and basal topography of terrestrial ice sheets and to determine the physical properties of the glacier bed. Our primary objective is to ...

  12. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  13. On the correlation between ice water content and ice crystal size and its application to radiative transfer and general circulation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    On the correlation between ice water content and ice crystal size and its application to radiative analysis involving ice water content (IWC) and mean effective ice crystal size (De) intended, K. N., Y. Gu, Q. Yue, and G. McFarguhar (2008), On the correlation between ice water content and ice

  14. Ice chemistry in starless molecular cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalvans, Juris

    2015-01-01

    Starless molecular cores are natural laboratories for interstellar molecular chemistry research. The chemistry of ices in such objects was investigated with a three-phase (gas, surface, and mantle) model. We considered the center part of five starless cores, with their physical conditions derived from observations. The ice chemistry of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and complex organic molecules (COMs) was analyzed. We found that an ice-depth dimension, measured, e.g., in monolayers, is essential for modeling of chemistry in interstellar ices. Particularly, the H2O:CO:CO2:N2:NH3 ice abundance ratio regulates the production and destruction of minor species. It is suggested that photodesorption during core collapse period is responsible for high abundance of interstellar H2O2 and O2H, and other species synthesized on the surface. The calculated abundances of COMs in ice were compared to observed gas-phase values. Smaller activation barriers for CO and H2CO hydrogenation may help explain the production of a number of...

  15. Technology demonstration of Ka-band digitally-beamformed radar for ice topography mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadowy, G; Heavey, B; Moller, D; Rignot, E; Zawadzki, M; Rengarajan, S

    2007-01-01

    Beamformed Radar for Ice Topography Mapping Gregory Sadowy,Glacier and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer) is aGLISTIN will collect ice topography measurements over a wide

  16. Assimilation of Ice Concentration in an IceOcean Model R. W. LINDSAY AND J. ZHANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    of the actual fields. The simulated ice thickness can then be used to determine the major modes of variability of the ice thickness and the physical processes that are important in their formation. The simulations from concentration measured by satellites is subject to errors (Kwok 2002), particularly during the summer when

  17. ICED'09/148 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED'09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    , marketing, and psychology. Quantitative models from these disciplines can be integrated into a design for teaching product design and for designing products taking into account market and policy environments alongICED'09/148 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED'09 24 - 27 AUGUST 2009, STANFORD

  18. Heat transfer in ice hockey halls: measurements, energy analysis and analytical ice pad temperature profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrantelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We consider heat transfer processes in an ice hockey hall, during operating conditions, with a bottom-up approach based upon on-site measurements. Detailed temperature data of both the ice pad and the air above the ice rink are used for a heat balance calculation in the steady-state regime, which quantifies the impact of each single heat source. We solve the heat equation in the ice slab in transient regime, and obtain a general analytical formula for the temperature profile. This solution is then applied to the resurfacing process by using our measurements as (time-dependent) boundary conditions (b.c.), and compared to an analogous numerical computation with good agreement. Our analytical formula is given with implicit initial condition and b.c., therefore it can be used not only in ice halls, but in a large variety of engineering applications.

  19. Heat transfer in ice hockey halls: measurements, energy analysis and analytical ice pad temperature profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Ferrantelli; Klaus Viljanen

    2015-06-30

    We consider heat transfer processes in an ice hockey hall, during operating conditions, with a bottom-up approach based upon on-site measurements. Detailed temperature data of both the ice pad and the air above the ice rink are used for a heat balance calculation in the steady-state regime, which quantifies the impact of each single heat source. We solve the heat equation in the ice slab in transient regime, and obtain a general analytical formula for the temperature profile. This solution is then applied to the resurfacing process by using our measurements as (time-dependent) boundary conditions (b.c.), and compared to an analogous numerical computation with good agreement. Our analytical formula is given with implicit initial condition and b.c., therefore it can be used not only in ice halls, but in a large variety of engineering applications.

  20. The Role of Snow and Ice in the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, Roger G.

    2007-12-19

    Global snow and ice cover (the 'cryosphere') plays a major role in global climate and hydrology through a range of complex interactions and feedbacks, the best known of which is the ice - albedo feedback. Snow and ice cover undergo marked seasonal and long term changes in extent and thickness. The perennial elements - the major ice sheets and permafrost - play a role in present-day regional and local climate and hydrology, but the large seasonal variations in snow cover and sea ice are of importance on continental to hemispheric scales. The characteristics of these variations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and evidence for recent trends in snow and ice extent are discussed.

  1. The Role of Snow and Ice in the Climate System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Barry, Roger G.

    2009-09-01

    Global snow and ice cover (the 'cryosphere') plays a major role in global climate and hydrology through a range of complex interactions and feedbacks, the best known of which is the ice - albedo feedback. Snow and ice cover undergo marked seasonal and long term changes in extent and thickness. The perennial elements - the major ice sheets and permafrost - play a role in present-day regional and local climate and hydrology, but the large seasonal variations in snow cover and sea ice are of importance on continental to hemispheric scales. The characteristics of these variations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and evidence for recent trends in snow and ice extent are discussed.

  2. Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) - A Science-Oriented, University 3U CubeSat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, James P; Caspi, Amir; Chamberlin, Phillip C; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Rick; Li, Xinlin; Palo, Scott; Solomon, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3-Unit (3U) CubeSat developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado, Boulder (CU). Over 40 students contributed to the project with professional mentorship and technical contributions from professors in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at CU and from LASP scientists and engineers. The scientific objective of MinXSS is to study processes in the dynamic Sun, from quiet-Sun to solar flares, and to further understand how these changes in the Sun influence the Earth's atmosphere by providing unique spectral measurements of solar soft x-rays (SXRs). The enabling technology providing the advanced solar SXR spectral measurements is the Amptek X123, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) silicon drift detector (SDD). The Amptek X123 has a low mass (~324 g after modification), modest power consumption (~2.5 W), and small volume (2.7" x 3.9" x 1.0"), making it ideal for a CubeSat. This paper provides an overvi...

  3. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schaller, E. L., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [NASA Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, Palmdale, CA 93550 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice-perhaps mixed with ammonia-that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the {approx}20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  4. Fast Numerical Method for Growth and Retreat of Subsurface Ice on Mars Norbert Schorghofer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    ice, retreat of pore ice, retreat of an ice sheet, and retreat of pore ice due to geothermal heating is the vertical spatial resolution and D the diffusion coefficient. The vertical grid spacing needs to be finer

  5. 14655 Section D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D Contract No. DE-AC06-05RL14655 A000 PART I - THE SCHEDULE SECTION D PACKAGING AND MARKING TABLE OF CONTENTS D.1 PACKAGING......

  6. Special Section on RFID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engels, Daniel W.

    The eight articles in this special section describe state-of-the-art technologies and tools and one application of RFID.

  7. Lesson 35, Section 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesson 34, Section 6.5. Application Problems Using Rational Equations. Define a Variable; Develop A Plan; Write an Equation; Solve and Answer the Question.

  8. Turbulent heat exchange between water and ice at an evolving ice-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramudu, Eshwan; Olson, Peter; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    We conduct laboratory experiments on the time evolution of an ice layer cooled from below and subjected to a turbulent shear flow of warm water from above. Our study is motivated by observations of warm water intrusion into the ocean cavity under Antarctic ice shelves, accelerating the melting of their basal surfaces. The strength of the applied turbulent shear flow in our experiments is represented in terms of its Reynolds number $\\textit{Re}$, which is varied over the range $2.0\\times10^3 \\le \\textit{Re} \\le 1.0\\times10^4$. Depending on the water temperature, partial transient melting of the ice occurs at the lower end of this range of $\\textit{Re}$ and complete transient melting of the ice occurs at the higher end. Following these episodes of transient melting, the ice reforms at a rate that is independent of $\\textit{Re}$. We fit our experimental measurements of ice thickness and temperature to a one-dimensional model for the evolution of the ice thickness in which the turbulent heat transfer is parameter...

  9. Equations of state of ice VI and ice VII at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bezacier, Lucile; Hanfland, Michael; Journaux, Baptiste; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Cardon, Hervé; Daniel, Isabelle

    2014-09-14

    High-pressure H{sub 2}O polymorphs among which ice VI and ice VII are abundant in the interiors of large icy satellites and exo-planets. Knowledge of the elastic properties of these pure H{sub 2}O ices at high-temperature and high-pressure is thus crucial to decipher the internal structure of icy bodies. In this study we assess for the first time the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relations of both polycrystalline pure ice VI and ice VII at high pressures and temperatures from 1 to 9 GPa and 300 to 450 K, respectively, by using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PVT data are adjusted to a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and give V{sub 0} = 14.17(2) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 14.05(23) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 14.6(14) × 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VI and V{sub 0} = 12.49(1) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 20.15(16) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 11.6(5) × 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VII.

  10. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Andrew Shepherd, 1 * Erikand models of surface mass balance and glacial isostaticThis Ice Sheet Mass Balance Exercise (IMBIE) was facilitated

  11. Optimization of Ice Thermal Storage Systems Design for HVAC Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nassif, N.; Hall, C.; Freelnad, D.

    2013-01-01

    energy cost. A tool for optimal ice storage design is developed, considering the charging and discharge times and optimal sizing of ice thermal storage system. Detailed simulation studies using real office building located near Orlando, FL including...

  12. Cirrus cloud formation and the role of heterogeneous ice nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Froyd, Karl D.

    2013-01-01

    Composition, size, and phase are key properties that define the ability of an aerosol particle to initiate ice in cirrus clouds. Properties of cirrus ice nuclei (IN) have not been well constrained due to a lack of systematic ...

  13. Energy conservation in ice skating rinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, B.K.; McAvoy, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    An economic and energy analysis of ice rinks was made to examine the areas in which energy could be profitably conserved. The areas where new equipment could make a major reduction in energy use are: the use of waste heat for space heating, the installation of a low emissivity false ceiling to reduce radiant heat, the use of a load cycling controller to reduce refrigeration costs, and the installation of more efficient lighting systems. Changes in rink operating procedure that could cut energy use are: higher refrigerant temperatures, thinner ice, the use of colder resurfacing water, turning the compressors and pumps off at night, and reducing ventilation.

  14. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Ice Machines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and federal efficiency requirements for water-cooled ice machines.

  15. Sectional device handling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candee, Clark B. (Monroeville, PA)

    1988-07-12

    Apparatus for remotely handling a device in an irradiated underwater environment includes a plurality of tubular sections interconnected end-to-end to form a handling structure, the bottom section being adapted for connection to the device. A support section is connected to the top tubular section and is adapted to be suspended from an overhead crane. Each section is flanged at its opposite ends. Axially retractable bolts in each bottom flange are threadedly engageable with holes in the top flange of an adjacent section, each bolt being biased to its retracted position and retained in place on the bottom flange. Guide pins on each top flange cooperate with mating holes on adjacent bottom flanges to guide movement of the parts to the proper interconnection orientation. Each section carries two hydraulic line segments provided with quick-connect/disconnect fittings at their opposite ends for connection to the segments of adjacent tubular sections upon interconnection thereof to form control lines which are connectable to the device and to an associated control console.

  16. Parameterization of meander-belt elements in high-resolution three-dimensional seismic data using the GeoTime cube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    the meander belt in the up- and downstream direction. High-resolution three-dimensional seismic (3D HRS) data caused by post-depositional processes. A method called GeoTime cube is presented that over- comes study of a fluvio-estuarine reservoir from Suriname demonstrates how fluvial point bars, channel fills

  17. Operation and Control of Full Ice-storage System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Q.; Liu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In a dividing time ice-storage system, the refrigerator does not operate during power's on-peak period, and all the cooling is supplied by the ice stored in off-peak period, so that the use of electricity can be maintained. When the ice is thawing...

  18. Ice Simulation Using GPGPU Shadi Alawneh and Dennis Peters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Dennis

    is to increase the understanding of interactions between ice and steel structures such as ships and oil rigsIce Simulation Using GPGPU Shadi Alawneh and Dennis Peters Electrical and Computer Engineering.alawneh, dpeters}@mun.ca Abstract-- Simulation of the behaviour of a ship operating in pack ice

  19. Hyper-Real-Time Ice Simulation and Modeling Using GPGPU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Dennis

    Hyper-Real-Time Ice Simulation and Modeling Using GPGPU By c Shadi Alawneh, B. Eng., M. Eng's, Newfoundland Title: Hyper-Real-Time Ice Simulation and Modeling Using GPGPU Author: Shadi Alawneh, B. Eng operating in pack ice is a computationally in- tensive process to which General Purpose Computing

  20. Introduction Microorganisms in sea ice function ecologically in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frank

    where pelagic and sea ice habitats are intrinsically coupled (Laws 1985, Garrison 1991, Eicken 1992, Knox 1994, Garrison & Mathot 1996, Arrigo et al. 1997, Brierley & Thomas 2002). For instance, sea ice algae - primarily diatoms and phototrophic flagellates (e.g. Garrison 1991) - are inocula for ice

  1. Decadal scale variations in ice flow along Whillans Ice Stream and its tributaries, West Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stearns, Leigh; Jezek, Kenneth C.; van der Veen, Cornelis J.

    2005-01-05

    We investigate velocity changes occurring along Whillans Ice Stream (WIS) by comparing velocities derived from repeat aerial photographs acquired in 1985–89 (average date of 1987) to interferometric satellite radar (InSAR) ...

  2. Decadal-scale variations in ice flow along Whillans Ice Stream and its tributaries, West Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stearns, Leigh; Jezek, K.A.; van der Veen, Cornelis J.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate velocity changes occurring along Whillans Ice Stream (WIS) by comparing velocities derived from repeat aerial photographs acquired in 1985–89 (average date of 1987) to interferometric satellite radar (InSAR) ...

  3. Focused synthetic aperture radar processing of ice-sounder data collected over the Greenland ice sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legarsky, J.; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Akins, T. L.

    2001-10-01

    We developed a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing algorithm for airborne/spaceborne ice-sounding radar systems and applied it to data collected in Greenland. By using focused SAR (phase-corrected coherent averaging), we improved along...

  4. Prediction of lake ice in the Netherlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    by HARMONIE ·Flake driven by ECMWF ensembles ·Conclusions and Outlook #12;Lake workshop sept 2012 Motivation Operational Observations ECMWF model #12;Lake workshop sept 2012 h D Air Water Ice ·Surface energy ·Radiative fluxes (Qs, Ql, absorbed solar radiation) ·Turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat fluxes

  5. Ice-volcano interactions Eyjafjallajkull volcano, Iceland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    Ice-volcano interactions in Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland Eyjólfur Magnússon1, Magnús Tumi Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland 2. Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland 3. Icelandic Coast Guard SPIRIT workshop 29&30 April 2010, Toulouse Picture by Eyjólfur

  6. Operations of a Radioisotope-based Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Outer Planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Steven Howe; Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru

    2014-05-01

    Exploration to the outer planets is an ongoing endeavor but in the current economical environment, cost reduction is the forefront of all concern. The success of small satellites such as CubeSats launched to Near-Earth Orbit has lead to examine their potential use to achieve cheaper science for deep space applications. However, to achieve lower cost missions; hardware, launch and operations costs must be minimized. Additionally, as we push towards smaller exploration beds with relative limited power sources, allowing for adequate communication back to Earth is imperative. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research are developing the potential of utilizing an advanced, radioisotope-based system. This system will be capable of providing both the propulsion power needed to reach the destination and the additional requirements needed to maintain communication while at location. Presented here are a basic trajectory analysis, communication link budget and concept of operations of a dual-mode (thermal and electric) radioisotope-based propulsion system, for a proposed mission to Enceladus (Saturnian icy moon) using a 6U CubeSat payload. The radioisotope system being proposed will be the integration of three sub-systems working together to achieve the overall mission. At the core of the system, stored thermal energy from radioisotope decay is transferred to a passing propellant to achieve high thrust – useful for quick orbital maneuvering. An auxiliary closed-loop Brayton cycle can be operated in parallel to the thrusting mode to provide short bursts of high power for high data-rate communications back to Earth. Additionally, a thermal photovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system will use radiation heat losses from the core. This in turn can provide the electrical energy needed to utilize the efficiency of ion propulsion to achieve quick interplanetary transit times. The intelligent operation to handle all functions of this system under optimized conditions adds to the complexity of the mission architecture.

  7. Modeling the Fracture of Ice Sheets on Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waisman, Haim; Tuminaro, Ray

    2013-10-10

    The objective of this project was to investigate the complex fracture of ice and understand its role within larger ice sheet simulations and global climate change. This objective was achieved by developing novel physics based models for ice, novel numerical tools to enable the modeling of the physics and by collaboration with the ice community experts. At the present time, ice fracture is not explicitly considered within ice sheet models due in part to large computational costs associated with the accurate modeling of this complex phenomena. However, fracture not only plays an extremely important role in regional behavior but also influences ice dynamics over much larger zones in ways that are currently not well understood. To this end, our research findings through this project offers significant advancement to the field and closes a large gap of knowledge in understanding and modeling the fracture of ice sheets in the polar regions. Thus, we believe that our objective has been achieved and our research accomplishments are significant. This is corroborated through a set of published papers, posters and presentations at technical conferences in the field. In particular significant progress has been made in the mechanics of ice, fracture of ice sheets and ice shelves in polar regions and sophisticated numerical methods that enable the solution of the physics in an efficient way.

  8. Atom addition reactions in interstellar ice analogues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linnartz, Harold; Fedoseev, Gleb

    2015-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the state-of-the-art in laboratory based interstellar ice chemistry. The focus is on atom addition reactions, illustrating how water, carbon dioxide and methanol can form in the solid state at astronomically relevant temperatures, and also the formation of more complex species such as hydroxylamine, an important prebiotic molecule, and glycolaldehyde, the smallest sugar, is discussed. These reactions are particularly relevant during the dark ages of star and planet formation, i.e., when the role of UV light is restricted. A quantitative characterization of such processes is only possible through dedicated laboratory studies, i.e., under full control of a large set of parameters such as temperature, atom-flux, and ice morphology. The resulting numbers, physical and chemical constants, e.g., barrier heights, reaction rates and branching ratios, provide information on the molecular processes at work and are needed as input for astrochemical models, in order to bridge the timescales t...

  9. Should we geoengineer larger ice caps?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The climate of Earth is susceptible to catastrophes that could threaten the longevity of human civilization. Geoengineering to reduce incoming solar radiation has been suggested as a way to mediate the warming effects of contemporary climate change, but a geoengineering program for thousands of years could also be used to enlarge the size of the polar ice caps and create a permanently cooler climate. Such a large ice cap state would make Earth less susceptible to climate threats and could allow human civilization to survive further into the future than otherwise possible. Intentionally extending Earth's glacial coverage will require uninterrupted commitment to this program for millenia but would ultimately reach a cooler equilibrium state where geoengineering is no longer needed. Whether or not this program is ever attempted, this concept illustrates the need to identify preference among potential climate states to ensure the long-term success of civilization.

  10. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    2008-01-15

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  11. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  12. Drilling deep in South Pole Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karg, Timo

    2014-01-01

    To detect the tiny flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei or from interactions of highest energy cosmic rays with the microwave background photons needs target masses of the order of several hundred cubic kilometers. Clear Antarctic ice has been discussed as a favorable material for hybrid detection of optical, radio and acoustic signals from ultra-high energy neutrino interactions. To apply these technologies at the adequate scale hundreds of holes have to be drilled in the ice down to depths of about 2500 m to deploy the corresponding sensors. To do this on a reasonable time scale is impossible with presently available tools. Remote drilling and deployment schemes have to be developed to make such a detector design reality. After a short discussion of the status of modern hot water drilling we present here a design of an autonomous melting probe, tested 50 years ago to reach a depth of about 1000 m in Greenland ice. A scenario how to build such a probe today with modern technologies...

  13. Resonant vibrational energy transfer in ice Ih

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, L.; Li, F.; Skinner, J. L.

    2014-06-28

    Fascinating anisotropy decay experiments have recently been performed on H{sub 2}O ice Ih by Timmer and Bakker [R. L. A. Timmer, and H. J. Bakker, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 4148 (2010)]. The very fast decay (on the order of 100 fs) is indicative of resonant energy transfer between OH stretches on different molecules. Isotope dilution experiments with deuterium show a dramatic dependence on the hydrogen mole fraction, which confirms the energy transfer picture. Timmer and Bakker have interpreted the experiments with a Förster incoherent hopping model, finding that energy transfer within the first solvation shell dominates the relaxation process. We have developed a microscopic theory of vibrational spectroscopy of water and ice, and herein we use this theory to calculate the anisotropy decay in ice as a function of hydrogen mole fraction. We obtain very good agreement with experiment. Interpretation of our results shows that four nearest-neighbor acceptors dominate the energy transfer, and that while the incoherent hopping picture is qualitatively correct, vibrational energy transport is partially coherent on the relevant timescale.

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Sedimentary pellets as an ice-cover proxy in a High Arctic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Sedimentary pellets as an ice-cover proxy in a High Arctic ice-covered lake Jessica-cover extent and dynamics on this perennially ice-covered, High Arctic lake. These pellets are interpreted growth. The pellets remain frozen in the ice until a summer or series of summers with reduced ice cover

  15. Glacial conditions that contribute to the regeneration of Fountain Glacier proglacial icing, Bylot Island, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorman, Brian

    Glacial conditions that contribute to the regeneration of Fountain Glacier proglacial icing, Bylot icings are one of the most common forms of extrusive ice found in the Canadian Arctic. However, the icing. Its regeneration depends on the availability of subglacial water and on the balance between ice

  16. Ising model for melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Y -P; Golden, K M

    2014-01-01

    The albedo of melting Arctic sea ice, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by pools of water on the ice surface. Recent observations show an onset of pond complexity at a critical area of about 100 square meters, attended by a transition in pond fractal dimension. To explain this behavior and provide a statistical physics approach to sea ice modeling, we introduce a two dimensional Ising model for pond evolution which incorporates ice-albedo feedback and the underlying thermodynamics. The binary magnetic spin variables in the Ising model correspond to the presence of melt water or ice on the sea ice surface. The model exhibits a second-order phase transition from isolated to clustered melt ponds, with the evolution of pond complexity in the clustered phase consistent with the observations.

  17. Section D - G

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4 » Searchwith First JamesofAward SECTION B SUPPLIES ANDC

  18. Section I: Contract Clause

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4 » Searchwith First JamesofAward SECTION B SUPPLIES

  19. Meltwater effects on flow of Greenland's ice sheet less severe...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Side effects of increasing meltwater less severe than feared Meltwater effects on flow of Greenland's ice sheet less severe for sea level rise than earlier feared, scientists...

  20. Sandia Energy - NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Process Experiment (MIZOPEX) Home Climate Office of Science News News & Events Research & Capabilities Monitoring Analysis...

  1. optimal initial conditions for coupling ice sheet models to earth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    optimal initial conditions for coupling ice sheet models to earth system models Perego, Mauro Sandia National Laboratories Sandia National Laboratories; Price, Stephen F. Dr...

  2. THE STICKINESS OF MICROMETER-SIZED WATER-ICE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Water ice is one of the most abundant materials in dense molecular clouds and in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks. In contrast to other materials (e.g., silicates), water ice is assumed to be stickier due to its higher specific surface energy, leading to faster or more efficient growth in mutual collisions. However, experiments investigating the stickiness of water ice have been scarce, particularly in the astrophysically relevant micrometer-sized region and at low temperatures. In this work, we present an experimental setup to grow aggregates composed of ?m-sized water-ice particles, which we used to measure the sticking and erosion thresholds of the ice particles at different temperatures between 114 K and 260 K. We show with our experiments that for low temperatures (below ?210 K), ?m-sized water-ice particles stick below a threshold velocity of 9.6 m s{sup –1}, which is approximately 10 times higher than the sticking threshold of ?m-sized silica particles. Furthermore, erosion of the grown ice aggregates is observed for velocities above 15.3 m s{sup –1}. A comparison of the experimentally derived sticking threshold with model predictions is performed to determine important material properties of water ice, i.e., the specific surface energy and the viscous relaxation time. Our experimental results indicate that the presence of water ice in the outer reaches of protoplanetary disks can enhance the growth of planetesimals by direct sticking of particles.

  3. Basal melt rates beneath Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beem, Lucas H.; Jezek, Ken C.; van der Veen, Cornelis J.

    2010-08-05

    and J.E. Mitchell. 1994. The role of the margins in the dynamics of an active ice stream. J. Glaciol., 40(136), 527–538. Engelhardt, H. 2004a. Ice temperature and high geothermal flux at Siple Dome, West Antarctica, from borehole measurements. J. Glaciol... ratio which varies laterally across the shear margin. Basal drag, ?b, basal velocity, U(b), basal temperature gradient, @T/@z(b), esti- mates of geothermal flux, G, plus knowledge of basal ice properties, density, ?, latent heat of fusion of ice, Li...

  4. Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for air-cooled ice machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  5. Acceleration of Greenland ice mass loss in spring 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velicogna, I; Velicogna, I; Wahr, J

    2006-01-01

    10.1029/ 2005GL025550 (2006). Peltier, W. R. Global glacial2004). Tushingham, A. M. & Peltier, W. R. ICE-3G: A new

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - SGP Ice Nuclei Characterization Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and their impact on clouds and climate therefore remain relatively unconstrained. Soils of all types and plant surfaces are sources for ice nucleating particles that are...

  7. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  8. optimal initial conditions for coupling ice sheet models to earth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for coupling ice sheet models to earth system models Authors: Perego, Mauro 1 ; Price, Stephen F. Dr 2 ; Stadler, Georg 3 + Show Author Affiliations Sandia National...

  9. A METHOD FOR AIRCRAFT ICING DIAGNOSIS IN PRECIPITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabry, Frederic

    A METHOD FOR AIRCRAFT ICING DIAGNOSIS IN PRECIPITATION François A. Turcotte Department precipitation event and its microphysics was simulated using a high resolution three-dimensional kinematic cloud

  10. Radiokrypton Dating Identifies Ancient Antarctic Ice | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Radiokrypton Dating Identifies Ancient Antarctic Ice Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science...

  11. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solomon, A.; Feingold, G.; Shupe, M. D.

    2015-09-25

    This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus in large eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a diurnal cycle. Balances derived from a mixed-layer model and phase analyses are used to provide insight into buffering mechanisms that maintain ice in these cloud systems. We find that, for the case under investigation, IN recycling through subcloud sublimation considerably prolongs ice production over a multi-day integration. This effective source of IN to the cloud dominates over mixing sources from above or below the cloud-driven mixed layer. Competing feedbacks between dynamical mixing andmore »recycling are found to slow the rate of ice lost from the mixed layer when a diurnal cycle is simulated. The results of this study have important implications for maintaining phase partitioning of cloud ice and liquid that determine the radiative forcing of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.« less

  12. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solomon, A.; Feingold, G.; Shupe, M. D.

    2015-04-21

    This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed phase stratocumulus in large-eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a diurnal cycle. Balances derived from a mixed-layer model and phase analyses are used to provide insight into buffering mechanisms that maintain ice in these cloud systems. We find that for the case under investigation, IN recycling through subcloud sublimation considerably prolongs ice production over a multi-day integration. This effective source of IN to the cloud dominates over mixing sources from above or below the cloud-driven mixed layer. Competing feedbacks between dynamical mixing andmore »recycling are found to slow the rate of ice lost from the mixed layer when a diurnal cycle is simulated. The results of this study have important implications for maintaining phase partitioning of cloud ice and liquid that determine the radiative forcing of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.« less

  13. Section L, Paragraph L-4

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    D SECTION L ATTACHMENT D CROSS REFERENCE MATRIX Section L Section M Offeror's Proposal Criterion 1: PAST PERFORMANCE L-15 (a) M-3 (a) Criterion 2: SITE ORGANIZATION AND...

  14. Automated Kinematic Modelling of Warped Galaxy Discs in Large Hi Surveys: 3D Tilted Ring Fitting of HI Emission Cubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamphuis, P; Oh, S- H; Spekkens, K; Urbancic, N; Serra, P; Koribalski, B S; Dettmar, R -J

    2015-01-01

    Kinematical parameterisations of disc galaxies, employing emission line observations, are indispensable tools for studying the formation and evolution of galaxies. Future large-scale HI surveys will resolve the discs of many thousands of galaxies, allowing a statistical analysis of their disc and halo kinematics, mass distribution and dark matter content. Here we present an automated procedure which fits tilted-ring models to Hi data cubes of individual, well-resolved galaxies. The method builds on the 3D Tilted Ring Fitting Code (TiRiFiC) and is called FAT (Fully Automated TiRiFiC). To assess the accuracy of the code we apply it to a set of 52 artificial galaxies and 25 real galaxies from the Local Volume HI Survey (LVHIS). Using LVHIS data, we compare our 3D modelling to the 2D modelling methods DiskFit and rotcur. A conservative result is that FAT accurately models the kinematics and the morphologies of galaxies with an extent of eight beams across the major axis in the inclination range 20$^{\\circ}$-90$^{...

  15. Effective stress profiles and seepage flows beneath glaciers and ice sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rempel, Alan W.

    stress for ice infiltration Qb Heat flux into glacier base Qf Heat produced by dissipation Qg Geothermal Vertical coordinate Exponent in permeability relation #12; Exponent in ice-saturation relation il Ice

  16. Analytical determination of performance degradation on a helicopter main rotor due to ice accretion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camba, Javier

    1986-01-01

    artificial icing tests Canada's National Research Council (NRC) Icing Tunnel and simulated ice tests the OSU Transonic Airfoil Facility using a irfo'1 1 s inbicitave of current rotorcraft technol ogy. The final correlations are: Lift Increment Prediction...

  17. Incorporation of particulates into accreted ice above subglacial Vostok lake, Antarctica 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegert, M. J.; Royston-Bishop, G.; Priscu, J. C.; Tranter, M.; Christner, B.; Lee, V.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of microscopic particulates in meteoric and accreted ice from the Vostok (Antarctica) ice core is assessed in conjunction with existing ice-core data to investigate the mechanism by which particulates are ...

  18. PART III - SECTION J

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal of HonorPoster SessionPrograms |Y-12 reduces water usageE SECTION

  19. SECTION J, APPENDIX B - PEP

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    SECTION J APPENDIX B PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PLAN Replaced by Mods 002, 016, 020, 029, 0084 Intentionally left blank for Internet posting purposes. Section J, Appendix B, Page 1...

  20. Modeling the evolution of polar ice sheets: Ice sheet system model workshop; Bergen, Norway, 2-4 June 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larour, E; Schlegel, N; Morlighem, M

    2014-01-01

    Model Workshop; Bergen, Norway, 2?4 June 2014 The Ice SheetUniversity of Bergen in Norway, in June 2014. This is the

  1. Section 1: Contact Information Section 2: Employment History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Section 1: Contact Information Section 2: Employment History Section 3: Educational History Section 4: Additional Required Information Employment Application The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley! Specific information about current job opportunities at LBNL may be found at http://cjo.lbl.gov/. Please

  2. H2 ICE Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Lowï‚— WeUpdate JonGuided 8/12/15GuyH2 ICE Combustion

  3. Ice in Arctic Mixed-phase Stratocumulus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHighHussein KhalilResearch88 Sign In AboutWorkshop:Ice Nuclei

  4. Southern Great Plains Ice Nuclei Characterization Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValleySouthern Great Plains Ice Nuclei

  5. THE CONTRIBUTION OF GREENLAND ICE SHEET MELTING TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE CONTRIBUTION OF GREENLAND ICE SHEET MELTING TO GLOBAL SEA-LEVEL CHANGE Conor Mc, orbital cycles, glacial isostatic adjustment and tectonics. Each of these elements contribute different it to be directly observed. This project examined the contribution to sea-level change due to melting of ice from

  6. Integrated navigation for AUV operations under ice shelves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Gwyn

    2000 Heat Wipes Out Giant Antarctic Ice Shelf The Independent, 31 January 2000 Catastrophic Melting VI Pine Island Bay #12;The (virtual) mission ... #12;The first mission- March 2003: Pine Island Bay NASA 30 km Sea Ice Pine Island Glacier Open Water 9 February 2003 #12;The Pine Island Bay Glacier

  7. ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Claude

    1 ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1 1 Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1C 3X5 ABSTRACT Ice collision forces can be determined by energy considerations. A variety of interaction geometry cases are considered. The indentation energy functions for eight different

  8. ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Claude

    ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1 1 Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1C 3X5 ABSTRACT Ice collision forces can be determined by energy considerations. A variety of interaction geometry cases are considered. The indentation energy functions for eight different

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Diatom assemblages promote ice formation in large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    (Oyserman et al., 2012; Twiss et al., 2012). Conducted during times of expansive ice cover, these surveys (Saxton et al., 2012; Twiss et al., 2012). The physical processes involved in the develop- ment of diatom demonstrated the presence of viable diatoms in meltwater from lake ice (Twiss et al., 2012), consistent

  10. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, A.J.; Schertz, W.W.

    1980-09-29

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  11. Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface in Forested Landscapes Andrew A- tems. In 1998, a severe ice storm damaged over ten million hectares of forest across northern New York investigated the spatial arrangement of forest damage at the terrestrial-aquatic interface, an ecological edge

  12. Fluid Migration During Ice/Rock Planetesimal Differentiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raney, Robert 1987-

    2012-12-12

    fast melt water can segregate from the core of an ice-rich planetesimal. To answer this question we treat the core as two phase flow problem: a compacting viscous “solid” (ice/rock mixture) and a segregating liquid (melt water). The model developed...

  13. Third international workshop on ice storage for cooling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorski, A.J.

    1986-04-01

    The third international workshop on ice storage for cooling applications which was informal and interactive in nature, was open to persons interested in all ice-growing technologies and in ice storage, both seasonal and diurnal. Presentations were made on some 20 topics, ranging from freezers in Alaska to ice cooling of commercial jet aircraft. Workshop tours included visits to ice-storage systems at Commonwealth Edison's facilities in Bolingbrook and Des Plaines Valley, the A.C. Neilsen builing in Northbrook, and the new State of Illinois Center in Chicago. The first workshop in the present series considered the future of ice storage and predicted applications in the agricultural sector, desalinization, and commercial ice production. Progress has been rapid in the intervening two years, and an important topic at the third workshop was the possible use of ''warm ices'' (clathrate hydrates) for energy storage. This report consists primarily of abstracts of presentations made at the workshop. Persons wishing to obtain further information about particular papers should contact the speakers directly; speakers' addresses and telephone numbers are listed in this report.

  14. Has the ice man arrived? Tact on the Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hearst, Marti

    Has the ice man arrived? Tact on the Internet Jonathan Grudin, UC Irvine and Microsoft Research resides in this extremely efficient spread of information. It is efficient, but it is not dis- crete. Eugene O'Neill's play The Ice Man Cometh outlines a series of calamities that occur when his characters

  15. CO diffusion into amorphous H2O ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauck, Trish; Shulenberger, Katherine; Rajappan, Mahesh; Oberg, Karin I; Cuppen, Herma M

    2015-01-01

    The mobility of atoms, molecules and radicals in icy grain mantles regulate ice restructuring, desorption, and chemistry in astrophysical environments. Interstellar ices are dominated by H2O, and diffusion on external and internal (pore) surfaces of H2O-rich ices is therefore a key process to constrain. This study aims to quantify the diffusion kinetics and barrier of the abundant ice constituent CO into H2O dominated ices at low temperatures (15-23 K), by measuring the mixing rate of initially layered H2O(:CO2)/CO ices. The mixed fraction of CO as a function of time is determined by monitoring the shape of the infrared CO stretching band. Mixing is observed at all investigated temperatures on minute time scales, and can be ascribed to CO diffusion in H2O ice pores. The diffusion coefficient and final mixed fraction depend on ice temperature, porosity, thickness and composition. The experiments are analyzed by applying Fick's diffusion equation under the assumption that mixing is due to CO diffusion into an i...

  16. UV Irradiation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UV Irradiation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ices: Production of Alcohols, Quinones. Clemett,3 Richard N. Zare3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultra, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account

  17. Methods and apparatus for rotor blade ice detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMieux, David Lawrence

    2006-08-08

    A method for detecting ice on a wind turbine having a rotor and one or more rotor blades each having blade roots includes monitoring meteorological conditions relating to icing conditions and monitoring one or more physical characteristics of the wind turbine in operation that vary in accordance with at least one of the mass of the one or more rotor blades or a mass imbalance between the rotor blades. The method also includes using the one or more monitored physical characteristics to determine whether a blade mass anomaly exists, determining whether the monitored meteorological conditions are consistent with blade icing; and signaling an icing-related blade mass anomaly when a blade mass anomaly is determined to exist and the monitored meteorological conditions are determined to be consistent with icing.

  18. THE PHASES OF WATER ICE IN THE SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciesla, Fred J.

    2014-03-20

    Understanding the phases of water ice that were present in the solar nebula has implications for understanding cometary and planetary compositions as well as the internal evolution of these bodies. Here we show that amorphous ice formed more readily than previously recognized, with formation at temperatures <70 K being possible under protoplanetary disk conditions. We further argue that photodesorption and freeze-out of water molecules near the surface layers of the solar nebula would have provided the conditions needed for amorphous ice to form. This processing would be a natural consequence of ice dynamics and would allow for the trapping of noble gases and other volatiles in water ice in the outer solar nebula.

  19. Field demonstration of the ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, J.L.; Jackson, L.M.

    1999-10-05

    The ICE 250{trademark} Cleaning System was engineered to convert water into small ice particles for use in cleaning and decontamination applications. Ice crystals are produced in a special icemaker and pressured through a hose-nozzle onto the surface to be cleaned. The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Ice Cleaning Systems, Inc., conducted a test of this system at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 to evaluate the system's cleaning capabilities in an oil field environment. Equipment cleaned included an oil storage tank, a rod pumping unit, a road grader, and a wellhead. Contaminants were unrefined sour crude oil, hydraulic fluid, paraffin, and dirt, occurring separately and as mixtures. In all four demonstration cleaning tasks, the ICE 250 System effectively removed surface contaminant mixtures in a timely manner and left no oily residue. A minimal amount of waste moisture was generated, thereby reducing cleanup and disposal costs.

  20. The future of water, ice, snow underThe future of water, ice, snow under global warmingglobal warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurricane Katrina, the Kerry--Gingrich debate over globalGingrich debate over global warming, the local and regional warming.effects of global warming. Climate extends beyond temperature and rainfall, toClimate extendsThe future of water, ice, snow underThe future of water, ice, snow under global warmingglobal

  1. Observations of ice thickness and frazil ice in the St. Lawrence Island polynya from satellite imagery, upward looking sonar, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    with meteorological observations and a heat flux model. South of the island, we compare the ULS and thermalObservations of ice thickness and frazil ice in the St. Lawrence Island polynya from satellite, this paper examines the behavior of the Bering Sea St. Lawrence Island polynya using a combination

  2. CO2 diffusion in polar ice: observations from naturally formed CO2 spikes in the Siple Dome (Antarctica) ice core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada 89512-1095, USA ABSTRACT. One common assumption in interpreting ice-core CO2 records is that diffusion in the ice does not affect the concentration profile. However, this assumption/Ar and Kr/Ar), electrical conductivity and Ca2+ ion concentrations to show that substantial CO2 diffusion

  3. Sea ice in the paleoclimate system: the challenge of reconstructing sea ice from proxies e an introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University, Denmark e Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, UK f British Antarctic Survey. In the climate system, sea ice cover generally acts as an amplifier: it in- fluences the energy budget). Under perennial sea ice there is generally little primary production apart from under special conditions

  4. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  5. SECTION A: STUDENT INFORMATION ______________________________________________________________________ 93#____________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    , as Amended, you have the right to withhold the disclosure of "Directory Information." a. Student's name bSECTION A: STUDENT INFORMATION # __________________@_________________________ (______)______________ ________/________/_________ Email Address Phone # Effective Date of this Request SECTION B: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The items listed

  6. Photodesorption of ices I: CO, N2 and CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karin I. Oberg; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Harold Linnartz

    2009-01-23

    A longstanding problem in astrochemistry is how molecules can be maintained in the gas phase in dense inter- and circumstellar regions. Photodesorption is a non-thermal desorption mechanism, which may explain the small amounts of observed cold gas in cloud cores and disk mid-planes. This paper aims to determine the UV photodesorption yields and to constrain the photodesorption mechanisms of three astrochemically relevant ices: CO, N2 and CO2. In addition, the possibility of co-desorption in mixed and layered CO:N2 ices is explored. The ice photodesorption is studied experimentally under ultra high vacuum conditions and at 15-60 K using a hydrogen discharge lamp (7-10.5 eV). The ice desorption during irradiation is monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy of the ice and simultaneous mass spectrometry of the desorbed molecules. Both the UV photodesorption yields per incident photon and the photodesorption mechanisms are molecule specific. CO photodesorbs without dissociation from the surface layer of the ice. N2, which lacks an electronic transition in this wavelength range, has a photodesorption yield that is more than an order of magnitude lower. This yield increases significantly due to co-desorption when N2 is mixed in with or layered on top of CO ice. CO2 photodesorbs through dissociation and subsequent recombination from the top 10 layers of the ice. At low temperatures (15-18 K) the derived photodesorption yields are 2.7x10^-3 and CO2 photodesorption yield is 1.2x10^-3x(1-e^(-X/2.9)) + 1.1x10^-3x(1-e^(-X/4.6)) molecules photon-1, where X is the ice thickness in monolayers and the two parts of the expression represent a CO2 and CO photodesorption pathway.

  7. Gas ageice age differences and the chronology of the Vostok ice core, M. L. Bender,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    Gas age­ice age differences and the chronology of the Vostok ice core, 0­100 ka M. L. Bender,1 G. [1] Gas is trapped in polar ice at depths of $50­120 m and is therefore significantly younger than cores (Vostok, Dome Fuji, and Dome C). We recorrelate the gas records of Vostok and Greenland Ice Sheet

  8. Fast numerical method for growth and retreat of subsurface ice on Mars Norbert Schorghofer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    ice, retreat of pore ice, retreat of an ice sheet, and retreat of pore ice due to geothermal heating) Dtexpl: vertical spatial resolution and D the diffusion coef- ficient. The vertical grid spacing needs to be finer than the diurnal skin depth of the temperature cycle. The diurnal

  9. Modelling the reorientation of sea-ice faults as the wind changes direction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    Modelling the reorientation of sea-ice faults as the wind changes direction Alexander V. WILCHINSKY-1290, USA ABSTRACT. A discrete-element model of sea ice is used to study how a 908 change in wind direction alters the pattern of faults generated through mechanical failure of the ice. The sea-ice domain is 400

  10. Development, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification of high-fidelity arctic sea ice models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana S.

    2010-09-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and due to feedback effects the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice to model physical parameters. A new sea ice model that has the potential to improve sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code and the MPM sea ice code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness, and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  11. A Model of Viscoelastic Ice-Shelf Flexure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAyeal, Douglas R.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Banwell, Alison F.

    2015-07-15

    -shelf and ice-stream motion and stress fields. Examples of these phenomena27 include tide-driven grounding-line flexure and migration [e.g., Sayag and Worster, 2013, Tsai and28 Gudmundsson, 2015], tidally pulsed grounding line ice velocity variations [e... -shelf flexure that is applicable to circumstances where the114 ratio of vertical to horizontal length scales, H and L, respectively, is small (H/L ? 1), and where115 the vertical displacement (assumed constant through the depth of the ice shelf) due to flexure...

  12. Microphysical Consequences of the Spatial Distribution of Ice Nucleation in Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Fan; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2014-07-28

    Mixed-phase stratiform clouds can persist even with steady ice precipitation fluxes, and the origin and microphysical properties of the ice crystals are of interest. Vapor deposition growth and sedimentation of ice particles along with a uniform volume source of ice nucleation, leads to a power law relation between ice water content wi and ice number concentration ni with exponent 2.5. The result is independent of assumptions about the vertical velocity structure of the cloud and is therefore more general than the related expression of Yang et al. [2013]. The sensitivity of the wi-ni relationship to the spatial distribution of ice nucleation is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking and ice growth with cloud-volume, cloud-top, and cloud-base sources of ice particles through a time-dependent cloud field. Based on observed wi and ni from ISDAC, a lower bound of 0.006 m^3/s is obtained for the ice crystal formation rate.

  13. Minimalist Model of Ice Microphysics in Mixed-phase Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2013-07-28

    The question of whether persistent ice crystal precipitation from super cooled layer clouds can be explained by time-dependent, stochastic ice nucleation is explored using an approximate, analytical model, and a large-eddy simulation (LES) cloud model. The updraft velocity in the cloud defines an accumulation zone, where small ice particles cannot fall out until they are large enough, which will increase the residence time of ice particles in the cloud. Ice particles reach a quasi-steady state between growth by vapor deposition and fall speed at cloud base. The analytical model predicts that ice water content (wi) has a 2.5 power law relationship with ice number concentration ni. wi and ni from a LES cloud model with stochastic ice nucleation also confirm the 2.5 power law relationship. The prefactor of the power law is proportional to the ice nucleation rate, and therefore provides a quantitative link to observations of ice microphysical properties.

  14. THE STRUCTURE OF SURFACE H{sub 2}O LAYERS OF ICE-COVERED PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE ICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueta, S.; Sasaki, T. E-mail: takanori@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Many extrasolar (bound) terrestrial planets and free-floating (unbound) planets have been discovered. While the existence of bound and unbound terrestrial planets with liquid water is an important question, of particular importance is the question of these planets' habitability. Even for a globally ice-covered planet, geothermal heat from the planetary interior may melt the interior ice, creating an internal ocean covered by an ice shell. In this paper, we discuss the conditions that terrestrial planets must satisfy for such an internal ocean to exist on the timescale of planetary evolution. The question is addressed in terms of planetary mass, distance from a central star, water abundance, and abundance of radiogenic heat sources. In addition, we investigate the structure of the surface H{sub 2}O layers of ice-covered planets by considering the effects of ice under high pressure (high-pressure ice). As a fiducial case, a 1 M{sub ?} planet at 1 AU from its central star and with 0.6-25 times the H{sub 2}O mass of the Earth could have an internal ocean. We find that high-pressure ice layers may appear between the internal ocean and the rock portion on a planet with an H{sub 2}O mass over 25 times that of the Earth. The planetary mass and abundance of surface water strongly restrict the conditions under which an extrasolar terrestrial planet may have an internal ocean with no high-pressure ice under the ocean. Such high-pressure ice layers underlying the internal ocean are likely to affect the habitability of the planet.

  15. Ice Concentration Retrieval in Stratiform Mixed-phase Clouds Using Cloud Radar Reflectivity Measurements and 1D Ice Growth Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.

  16. 1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note (No. 11) De-icing salt damage to trees De-icing Salt Damage to Trees Joan F Webber, David R Rose, Martin C Dobson #12;2 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 S a l t D a m a g e De-icing Salt Damage Introduction Rock salt

  17. Autosub missions beneath Polar Ice: Preparation and Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Gwyn

    events implemented (up from 1); ordered sequences of events to trigger next mission element added. J and shelf ice. 4 - 12 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler to obtain the stratigraphy within sediments Water

  18. Hydrological and biogeochemical cycling along the Greenland ice sheet margin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatia, Maya Pilar, 1979-

    2012-01-01

    Global warming has led to a significant increase in Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) melt and runoff since 1990, resulting in escalated export of fresh water and associated sediment to the surrounding North Atlantic and Arctic ...

  19. Intelligent Matchmaking for Polar Ice Sheet Data Collection and Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    for the dynamic configuration of sensors and the motion of the rovers that carry them. The PRISM intelligent intelligent sensor and roveIntelligent Matchmaking for Polar Ice Sheet Data Collection and Delivery Costas Tsatsoulis, Sudha

  20. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Raj

    2015-01-01

    During the last ice age several quasi-periodic abrupt warming events took place. Known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature anomalies. Paleoclimate data shows that the fluctuations often occurred right after massive glacial meltwater releases in the North Atlantic and in bursts of three or four with progressively decreasing strengths. In this study a simple dynamical model of an overturning circulation and sea ice is developed with the goal of understanding the fundamental mechanisms that could have caused the DO events. Interaction between sea ice and the overturning circulation in the model produces self-sustained oscillations. Analysis and numerical experiments reveal that the insulating effect of sea ice causes the ocean to periodically vent out accumulated heat in the deep ocean into the atmosphere. Subjecting the model to idealized freshwater forcing mimicking Heinrich events causes modulation of the natural p...

  1. Immersion freezing of clay minerals and bacterial ice nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiranuma, Naruki

    2013-01-01

    The immersion mode ice nucleation efficiency of clay minerals and biological aerosols has been investigated using the AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber. Both monodisperse and polydisperse ...

  2. Interface limited growth of heterogeneously nucleated ice in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razvan A. Nistor; Thomas E. Markland; B. J. Berne

    2013-12-30

    Heterogeneous ice growth exhibits a maximum in freezing rate arising from the competition between kinetics and the thermodynamic driving force between the solid and liquid states. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the atomistic details of this competition, focusing on water properties in the interfacial region along the secondary prismatic direction. The crystal growth velocity is maximized when the efficiency of converting interfacial water molecules to ice, collectively known as the attachment kinetics, is greatest. We find water molecules that contact the intermediate ice layer in concave regions along the atomistically roughened surface are more likely to freeze directly. The increased roughening of the solid surface at large undercoolings consequently plays an important limiting role on the rate of ice growth, as water molecules are unable to integrate into increasingly deeper surface pockets. These results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms for self-assembly of solid phases that are important in many biological and atmospheric processes.

  3. Psychology General Of1ice P217 Biological Sciences Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machel, Hans

    Psychology General Of1ice P217 Biological Sciences Building Edmonton, Alberta. Robert Cook ----------------------------------------------- Professor of Psychology Dean in 1986, when he joined the Department of Psychology as an assistant

  4. Thermal desorption of CH4 retained in CO2 ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luna, R; Domingo, M; Satorre, M A

    2008-01-01

    CO2 ices are known to exist in different astrophysical environments. In spite of this, its physical properties (structure, density, refractive index) have not been as widely studied as those of water ice. It would be of great value to study the adsorption properties of this ice in conditions related to astrophysical environments. In this paper, we explore the possibility that CO2 traps relevant molecules in astrophysical environments at temperatures higher than expected from their characteristic sublimation point. To fulfil this aim we have carried out desorption experiments under High Vacuum conditions based on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance and additionally monitored with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. From our results, the presence of CH4 in the solid phase above the sublimation temperature in some astrophysical scenarios could be explained by the presence of several retaining mechanisms related to the structure of CO2 ice.

  5. Oil spreading in surface waters with an ice cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapa, P.D.; Weerasuriya, S.A.; Belaskas, D.P.; Chowdhury, T.

    1993-02-01

    A study of oil spreading in surface waters in the presence of a floating ice cover is presented. The ice can be solid or fragmented. Both axi-symmetrical and uni-directional spreading are studied. The report describes the analytical and numerical model development, the experimental set-up, results from the laboratory experiments, and their comparison with the derived theory and the numerical simulation. To analyze the spreading of oil under solid ice, new equations are derived. These equations consider gravity (buoyancy) - inertia phase, gravity (buoyancy) - viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy - surface tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to termination of spreading is presented. The emphasis of the study is on the dominant spreading mechanism for oil under ice, which is the buoyancy-viscous phase.

  6. Magnetization plateaus of dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Y. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2014-05-07

    Unlike spin ice on pyrochlore lattice, the spin ice structure on kagome lattice retains net magnetic charge, indicating non-negligible dipolar interaction in modulating the spin ice states. While it is predicted that the dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice exhibits a ground state with magnetic charge order and ?3?×??3 spin order, our work focuses on the magnetization plateau of this system. By employing the Wang-Landau algorithm, it is revealed that the lattice exhibits the fantastic three-step magnetization in response to magnetic field h along the [10] and [01] directions, respectively. For the h//[1 0] case, an additional ?3/6M{sub s} step, where M{sub s} is the saturated magnetization, is observed in a specific temperature range, corresponding to a new state with charge order and short-range spin order.

  7. Thermal desorption of CH4 retained in CO2 ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Luna; C. Millan; M. Domingo; M. A. Satorre

    2008-01-21

    CO2 ices are known to exist in different astrophysical environments. In spite of this, its physical properties (structure, density, refractive index) have not been as widely studied as those of water ice. It would be of great value to study the adsorption properties of this ice in conditions related to astrophysical environments. In this paper, we explore the possibility that CO2 traps relevant molecules in astrophysical environments at temperatures higher than expected from their characteristic sublimation point. To fulfil this aim we have carried out desorption experiments under High Vacuum conditions based on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance and additionally monitored with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. From our results, the presence of CH4 in the solid phase above the sublimation temperature in some astrophysical scenarios could be explained by the presence of several retaining mechanisms related to the structure of CO2 ice.

  8. Radio-frequency probes of Antarctic ice at South Pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Besson, David Zeke; Kravchenko, I.

    2013-05-16

    consistent with measurements in East Antarctica. Combined with other radio echo sounding data, we conclude that observed birefringent asymmetries at South Pole are generated entirely in the lower half of the ice sheet. By contrast, birefringent asymmetries...

  9. Determining Greenland Ice Sheet sensitivity to regional climate change: one-way coupling of a 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model By Nicole-ice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model Copyrightice sheet model with a mesoscale climate model by Nicole-

  10. Structure order, local potentials, and physical anomalies of water ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q Sun

    2014-07-11

    Hydrogen-bond forms a pair of asymmetric, coupled, H-bridged oscillators with ultra-short-range interactions and memory. hydrogen bond cooperative relaxation and the associated binding electron entrapment and nonbonding electron polarization discriminate water and ice from other usual materials in the physical anomalies. As a strongly correlated fluctuating system, water prefers the statistically mean of tetrahedrally-coordinated structure with a supersolid skin that is elastic, polarized, ice like, hydrophobic, with 3/4 density.

  11. Sputtering of Oxygen Ice by Low Energy Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muntean, E A; Field, T A; Fitzsimmons, A; Hunniford, C A; McCullough, R W

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring ices lie on both interstellar dust grains and on celestial objects, such as those in the outer solar system. These ices are continu- ously subjected to irradiation by ions from the solar wind and/or cosmic rays, which modify their surfaces. As a result, new molecular species may form which can be sputtered off into space or planetary atmospheres. We determined the experimental values of sputtering yields for irradiation of oxygen ice at 10 K by singly (He+, C+, N+, O+ and Ar+) and doubly (C2+, N2+ and O2+) charged ions with 4 keV kinetic energy. In these laboratory experiments, oxygen ice was deposited and irradiated by ions in an ultra high vacuum chamber at low temperature to simulate the environment of space. The number of molecules removed by sputtering was observed by measurement of the ice thickness using laser interferometry. Preliminary mass spectra were taken of sputtered species and of molecules formed in the ice by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). We find that the experi...

  12. CO and N$_2$ desorption energies from water ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayolle, Edith C; Loomis, Ryan; Bergner, Jennifer; Graninger, Dawn M; Rajappan, Mahesh; Öberg, Karin I

    2015-01-01

    The relative desorption energies of CO and N$_2$ are key to interpretations of observed interstellar CO and N$_2$ abundance patterns, including the well-documented CO and N$_2$H$^+$ anti-correlations in disks, protostars and molecular cloud cores. Based on laboratory experiments on pure CO and N$_2$ ice desorption, the difference between CO and N$_2$ desorption energies is small; the N$_2$-to-CO desorption energy ratio is 0.93$\\pm$0.03. Interstellar ices are not pure, however, and in this study we explore the effect of water ice on the desorption energy ratio of the two molecules. We present temperature programmed desorption experiments of different coverages of $^{13}$CO and $^{15}$N$_2$ on porous and compact amorphous water ices and, for reference, of pure ices. In all experiments, $^{15}$N$_2$ desorption begins a few degrees before the onset of $^{13}$CO desorption. The $^{15}$N$_2$ and $^{13}$CO energy barriers are 770 and 866 K for the pure ices, 1034-1143 K and 1155-1298 K for different sub-monolayer co...

  13. INDICATOR: LAKE ERIE ICE COVER Winter ice cover on Lake Erie affects the amount of heat and moisture transferred

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by impeding or stopping navigation, interfering with power plants and cooling water intakes, and damaging was virtually free of any significant ice cover in 1998 and, with the exception of portions of January, the same

  14. The glacier and land ice surface topography interferometer: An airborne proof-of-concept demonstration of high-precision Ka-band single-pass elevation mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    and Land Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN): AAND LAND ICE SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY INTERFEROMETER application,”AND LAND ICE SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY INTERFEROMETER Fig. 2.

  15. 115 year ice-core data from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya: high-resolution record of Eurasian Arctic climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Hubertus

    ice core has been drilled within the framework of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica of Antarctica. Drilling reached bedrock during the last field season 2005/06 providing ice over a time span. Since Ca2+ is derived from terrestrial dust and marine sources, the non-sea-salt calcium concentrations

  16. SECTION J, APPENDIX A - SOW

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and improve the industrial competitiveness and national security of the United States. Section J, Appendix A, Page 19 (Replaced Mod 002; Modified Mod 016; Replaced Mod...

  17. SECTION J, APPENDIX A - SOW

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and improve the industrial competitiveness and national security of the United States. Section J, Appendix A, Page 17 Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0007749 CHAPTER...

  18. PART III-SECTION J

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    During Transition. The Contractor shall invoice for reimbursement of Transition Plan costs in accordance with Section G, G-7, Invoicing for Transition Costs, paragraph (b)....

  19. FULLY SAMPLED MAPS OF ICES AND SILICATES IN FRONT OF CEPHEUS A EAST WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerakines, Perry

    are relatively constant over the mapped region exhibiting both ice absorptions. The fraction of CO2 ice are invoked. The routine detection of solid CO2, with a fraction relative to water ice between 9% and 37 report the first fully sampled maps of the distribution of interstellar CO2 ices, H2O ices, and total

  20. Table Of Contents Section: Page

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 i Section 2 SANITATION Table Of Contents Section: Page 02.A General Water......................................................... 2-1 02.D Non-Potable Water and openings. 02.C DRINKING WATER #12;EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 2-2 02.C.01 An adequate supply of potable water

  1. Understanding cirrus ice crystal number variability for different heterogeneous ice nucleation spectra

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sullivan, S. C.; Morales Betancourt, R.; Barahona, D.; Nenes, A.

    2015-08-11

    Along with minimizing parameter uncertainty, understanding the cause of temporal and spatial variability of nucleated ice crystal number, Ni, is key to improving the representation of cirrus clouds in climate models. To this end, sensitivities of Ni to input variables like aerosol number and diameter provide valuable information about nucleation regime and efficiency for a given model formulation. Here we use the adjoint model of the Barahona and Nenes cirrus formation parameterization to understand Ni variability for various ice-nucleating particle (INP) spectra. Inputs are generated with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, and simulations are done with a theoretically-derived spectrum,more »a lab-based empirical spectrum, and two field-based empirical spectra that differ in the nucleation threshold for black carbon aerosol and in the active site density for dust. The magnitude and sign of Ni sensitivity to insoluble aerosol number can be directly linked to nucleation regime and efficiency of various INP. The lab-based spectrum calculates much higher INP efficiencies than field-based ones, which reveals a disparity in aerosol surface properties. Ni sensitivity to temperature tends to be low, due to the compensating effects of temperature on INP spectrum parameters; this low temperature sensitivity regime has been experimentally reported before but never unraveled as done here.« less

  2. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON METHANOL PRODUCTION IN INTERSTELLAR AND PREPLANETARY ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Cook, A. M.; Herbst, Eric; Chiar, J. E.; Shenoy, S. S.

    2011-11-20

    Methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) is thought to be an important link in the chain of chemical evolution that leads from simple diatomic interstellar molecules to complex organic species in protoplanetary disks that may be delivered to the surfaces of Earthlike planets. Previous research has shown that CH{sub 3}OH forms in the interstellar medium predominantly on the surfaces of dust grains. To enhance our understanding of the conditions that lead to its efficient production, we assemble a homogenized catalog of published detections and limiting values in interstellar and preplanetary ices for both CH{sub 3}OH and the other commonly observed C- and O-bearing species, H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2}. We use this catalog to investigate the abundance of ice-phase CH{sub 3}OH in environments ranging from dense molecular clouds to circumstellar envelopes around newly born stars of low and high mass. Results show that CH{sub 3}OH production arises during the CO freezeout phase of ice-mantle growth in the clouds, after an ice layer rich in H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} is already in place on the dust, in agreement with current astrochemical models. The abundance of solid-phase CH{sub 3}OH in this environment is sufficient to account for observed gas-phase abundances when the ices are subsequently desorbed in the vicinity of embedded stars. CH{sub 3}OH concentrations in the ices toward embedded stars show order-of-magnitude object-to-object variations, even in a sample restricted to stars of low mass associated with ices lacking evidence of thermal processing. We hypothesize that the efficiency of CH{sub 3}OH production in dense cores and protostellar envelopes is mediated by the degree of prior CO depletion.

  3. Males showed no response to air-borne female Experimental Protocol: Prior to the first trial, the first female was placed in the cube on the left maze arm.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaffin, Doug

    to the first trial, the first female was placed in the cube on the left maze arm. Each trial was initiated by dropping a male scorpion into the end of the long arm. Males were allowed five minutes to move into the left or right arm of the arena. We considered a trial complete when the male scorpion entered either

  4. Evidence of NAO control on subsurface ice accumulation in a 1200 yr old cave-ice sequence, St. Livres ice cave, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    . Livres ice cave, Switzerland Markus Stoffel a,b,c, , Marc Luetscher d,e , Michelle Bollschweiler b Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Batelle, chemin de Drize 7, CH-1227 Carouge-Geneva, Switzerland b, Baltzerstrasse 1+3, CH-3012 Berne, Switzerland c Department of Geosciences, Geography, University of Fribourg

  5. Liquid Water Oceans in Ice Giants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloane J. Wiktorowicz; Andrew P. Ingersoll

    2006-09-26

    Aptly named, ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune contain significant amounts of water. While this water cannot be present near the cloud tops, it must be abundant in the deep interior. We investigate the likelihood of a liquid water ocean existing in the hydrogen-rich region between the cloud tops and deep interior. Starting from an assumed temperature at a given upper tropospheric pressure (the photosphere), we follow a moist adiabat downward. The mixing ratio of water to hydrogen in the gas phase is small in the photosphere and increases with depth. The mixing ratio in the condensed phase is near unity in the photosphere and decreases with depth; this gives two possible outcomes. If at some pressure level the mixing ratio of water in the gas phase is equal to that in the deep interior, then that level is the cloud base. Alternately, if the mixing ratio of water in the condensed phase reaches that in the deep interior, then the surface of a liquid ocean will occur. We find that Neptune is both too warm (photospheric temperature too high) and too dry (mixing ratio of water in the deep interior too low) for liquid oceans to exist at present. To have a liquid ocean, Neptune's deep interior water to gas ratio would have to be higher than current models allow, and the density at 19 kbar would have to be ~ 0.8 g/cm^3. Such a high density is inconsistent with gravitational data obtained during the Voyager flyby. As Neptune cools, the probability of a liquid ocean increases. Extrasolar "hot Neptunes," which presumably migrate inward toward their parent stars, cannot harbor liquid water oceans unless they have lost almost all of the hydrogen and helium from their deep interiors.

  6. Microbial Diversity Studies in Sediments of Perennially Ice-covered Lakes, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Chao

    2009-01-01

    perennial ice cover. Sedimentology 38: 363-379. Takacs,perennial ice cover. Sedimentology 38: 363-379. Suzuki, M. ,perennial ice cover. Sedimentology 38: 363-379. Tamaki, H. ,

  7. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raj Saha

    2015-02-21

    During the last ice age several quasi-periodic abrupt warming events took place. Known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature anomalies. Paleoclimate data shows that the fluctuations often occurred right after massive glacial meltwater releases in the North Atlantic and in bursts of three or four with progressively decreasing strengths. In this study a simple dynamical model of an overturning circulation and sea ice is developed with the goal of understanding the fundamental mechanisms that could have caused the DO events. Interaction between sea ice and the overturning circulation in the model produces self-sustained oscillations. Analysis and numerical experiments reveal that the insulating effect of sea ice causes the ocean to periodically vent out accumulated heat in the deep ocean into the atmosphere. Subjecting the model to idealized freshwater forcing mimicking Heinrich events causes modulation of the natural periodicity and produces burst patterns very similar to what is observed in temperature proxy data. Numerical experiments with the model also suggests that the characteristic period of 1,500 years is due to the geometry, or the effective heat capacity, of the ocean that comes under sea ice cover.

  8. Effects of Pre-Existing Ice Crystals on Cirrus Clouds and Comparison between Different Ice Nucleation Parameterizations with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiangjun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the treatment of ice nucleation in a more realistic manner in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5.3 (CAM5.3), the effects of preexisting ice crystals on ice nucleation in cirrus clouds are considered. In addition, by considering the in-cloud variability in ice saturation ratio, homogeneous nucleation takes place spatially only in a portion of cirrus cloud rather than in the whole area of cirrus cloud. With these improvements, the two unphysical limiters used in the representation of ice nucleation are removed. Compared to observations, the ice number concentrations and the probability distributions of ice number concentration are both improved with the updated treatment. The preexisting ice crystals significantly reduce ice number concentrations in cirrus clouds, especially at mid- to high latitudes in the upper troposphere (by a factor of ~10). Furthermore, the contribution of heterogeneous ice nucleation to cirrus ice crystal number increases considerably.Besides the default ice nucleation parameterization of Liu and Penner (2005, hereafter LP) in CAM5.3, two other ice nucleation parameterizations of Barahona and Nenes (2009, hereafter BN) and Kärcher et al. (2006, hereafter KL) are implemented in CAM5.3 for the comparison. In-cloud ice crystal number concentration, percentage contribution from heterogeneous ice nucleation to total ice crystal number, and preexisting ice effects simulated by the three ice nucleation parameterizations have similar patterns in the simulations with present-day aerosol emissions. However, the change (present-day minus pre-industrial times) in global annual mean column ice number concentration from the KL parameterization (3.24×106 m-2) is obviously less than that from the LP (8.46×106 m-2) and BN (5.62×106 m-2) parameterizations. As a result, experiment using the KL parameterization predicts a much smaller anthropogenic aerosol longwave indirect forcing (0.24 W m-2) than that using the LP (0.46 W m-2) and BN (0.39 W m-2) parameterizations.

  9. Magnetic and Mössbauer characterization of the magnetic properties of single-crystalline sub-micron sized Bi?Fe?O? cubes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Viescas, Arthur J.; Le Breton, Jean-Marie; Chiron, Hubert; Juraszek, Jean; Park, Tae-Jin

    2014-11-25

    Magnetic and Mössbauer characterization of single crystalline, sub-micron sized Bi?Fe?O? cubes has been performed using SQUID magnetometry and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy in the temperature range of 4.2 K ? T ? 300 K. A broad magnetic phase transition from the paramagnetic to the anti-ferromagnetic state is observed below 250 K, with the Mössbauer spectra exhibiting a superposition of magnetic, collapsed and quadrupolar spectra in the transition region of 200 K more »strain at the surface. A small hysteresis loop is observed in SQUID measurements at 5 K, attributable to the presence of weak-ferromagnetism arising from the canting of Fe³? ion sublattices in the antiferromagnetic matrix.« less

  10. Magnetic and Mössbauer characterization of the magnetic properties of single-crystalline sub-micron sized Bi?Fe?O? cubes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Papaefthymiou, Georgia C. [Villanova Univ., Villanova, PA (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Viescas, Arthur J. [Villanova Univ., Villanova, PA (United States); Le Breton, Jean-Marie [Univ., et INSA de Rouen, Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Chiron, Hubert [Univ., et INSA de Rouen, Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Juraszek, Jean [Univ., et INSA de Rouen, Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Park, Tae-Jin [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic and Mössbauer characterization of single crystalline, sub-micron sized Bi?Fe?O? cubes has been performed using SQUID magnetometry and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy in the temperature range of 4.2 K ? T ? 300 K. A broad magnetic phase transition from the paramagnetic to the anti-ferromagnetic state is observed below 250 K, with the Mössbauer spectra exhibiting a superposition of magnetic, collapsed and quadrupolar spectra in the transition region of 200 K < T < 245 K. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra obtained in transmission geometry are identical to those recorded in back-scattering geometry via conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, indicating the absence of strain at the surface. A small hysteresis loop is observed in SQUID measurements at 5 K, attributable to the presence of weak-ferromagnetism arising from the canting of Fe³? ion sublattices in the antiferromagnetic matrix.

  11. Magnetic and Mössbauer characterization of the magnetic properties of single-crystalline sub-micron sized Bi?Fe?O? cubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Viescas, Arthur J.; Le Breton, Jean-Marie; Chiron, Hubert; Juraszek, Jean; Park, Tae-Jin

    2014-11-25

    Magnetic and Mössbauer characterization of single crystalline, sub-micron sized Bi?Fe?O? cubes has been performed using SQUID magnetometry and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy in the temperature range of 4.2 K ? T ? 300 K. A broad magnetic phase transition from the paramagnetic to the anti-ferromagnetic state is observed below 250 K, with the Mössbauer spectra exhibiting a superposition of magnetic, collapsed and quadrupolar spectra in the transition region of 200 K < T < 245 K. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra obtained in transmission geometry are identical to those recorded in back-scattering geometry via conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, indicating the absence of strain at the surface. A small hysteresis loop is observed in SQUID measurements at 5 K, attributable to the presence of weak-ferromagnetism arising from the canting of Fe³? ion sublattices in the antiferromagnetic matrix.

  12. Qurz 10 SOLUTIONS, SECTION ALL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    jony2_000

    Qurz 10 SOLUTIONS, SECTION ALL. If C is the line segment from (0, 0) to (3, 5), then fc 3x2ds :7. A16 B25 C45 D65 E.75. Solution. To parametrize the line we ...

  13. Marine Ecological Processes Online section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Marine Ecological Processes Online section FAS 6272 (3 credits) Fall 2014 Course Description, behavior, population dynamics, and community structure in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Prerequisite will have: · Examined how ecological processes operate in the marine environment · Compared how ecological

  14. Fast particle-driven ion cyclotron emission (ICE) in tokamak plasmas and the case for an ICE diagnostic in ITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClements, K G; Dendy, R O; Carbajal, L; Chapman, S C; Cook, J W S; Harvey, R W; Heidbrink, W W; Pinches, S D

    2014-01-01

    Fast particle-driven waves in the ion cyclotron frequency range (ion cyclotron emission or ICE) have provided a valuable diagnostic of confined and escaping fast ions in many tokamaks. This is a passive, non-invasive diagnostic that would be compatible with the high radiation environment of deuterium-tritium plasmas in ITER, and could provide important information on fusion {\\alpha}-particles and beam ions in that device. In JET, ICE from confined fusion products scaled linearly with fusion reaction rate over six orders of magnitude and provided evidence that {\\alpha}-particle confinement was close to classical. In TFTR, ICE was observed from super-Alfv\\'enic {\\alpha}-particles in the plasma edge. The intensity of beam-driven ICE in DIII-D is more strongly correlated with drops in neutron rate during fishbone excitation than signals from more direct beam ion loss diagnostics. In ASDEX Upgrade ICE is produced by both super-Alfv\\'enic DD fusion products and sub-Alfv\\'enic deuterium beam ions.

  15. The sticking of atomic hydrogen on amorphous water ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veeraghattam, Vijay K.; Manrodt, Katie; Lewis, Steven P.; Stancil, P. C. E-mail: lewis@physast.uga.edu

    2014-07-20

    Using classical molecular dynamics, we have simulated the sticking and scattering process of a hydrogen atom on an amorphous ice film to predict the sticking probability of hydrogen on ice surfaces. A wide range of initial kinetic energies of the incident hydrogen atom (10 K-600 K) and two different ice temperatures (10 K and 70 K) were used to investigate this fundamental process in interstellar chemistry. We report here the sticking probability of atomic hydrogen as a function of incident kinetic energy, gas temperature, and substrate temperature, which can be used in astrophysical models. The current results are compared to previous theoretical and experimental studies that have reported a wide range in the sticking coefficient.

  16. A study of carbon-14 of paleoatmospheric methane for the last glacial termination from ancient glacial ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrenko, Vasilii Victorovich

    2008-01-01

    for the last glacial termination." xii VITA Education Ph.D.the Last Glacial Termination: a horizontal ice core.the Last Glacial Termination: a horizontal ice core.

  17. Spatial patterns of ice storm disturbance in the forested landscape of Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas and Oklahoma 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rachel E.

    2009-05-15

    Large-extent ice storms have received relatively little attention from researchers. This research investigates the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the spatial patterns of ice storm disturbance on a forested landscape. This investigation...

  18. The Development of Measurement Techniques to Identify and Characterize Dusts and Ice Nuclei in the Atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen, Andrew

    2014-01-15

    Mineral dusts and ice crystals directly influence the Earth's radiative budget through radiative scattering and absorption. The interaction of spherical particles on the radiative budget are well known, however mineral dusts and ice crystals...

  19. Heterogeneous ice nucleation controlled by the coupling of surface crystallinity and surface hydrophilicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi, Yuanfei; Li, Tianshu

    2015-01-01

    The microscopic mechanisms controlling heterogeneous ice nucleation are complex and remain poorly understood. Although good ice nucleators are generally believed to match ice lattice and to bind water, counter examples are often identified. Here we show, by advanced molecular simulations, that the heterogeneous nucleation of ice on graphitic surface is controlled by the coupling of surface crystallinity and surface hydrophilicity. Molecular level analysis reveals that the crystalline graphitic lattice with an appropriate hydrophilicity may indeed template ice basal plane by forming a strained ice layer, thus significantly enhancing its ice nucleation efficiency. Remarkably, the templating effect is found to transit from within the first contact layer of water to the second as the hydrophilicity increases, yielding an oscillating distinction between the crystalline and amorphous graphitic surfaces in their ice nucleation efficiencies. Our study sheds new light on the long-standing question of what constitutes ...

  20. VoICE: A semi-automated pipeline for standardizing vocal analysis across models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkett, ZD; Day, NF; Peñagarikano, O; Geschwind, DH; White, SA

    2015-01-01

    al. VoICE: A semi-automated pipeline for standardizing vocalVoICE: A semi-automated pipeline for standardizing vocalwe designed an analysis pipeline into which any type of

  1. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Innovant de-icing system for more electric aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    . Mechanical de-icing systems are low energy solution that are focused on breaking down and shedding the ice-mechanical systems give a durable, light-weight, power-saver solution which justifies the recent efforts

  2. Ice nucleation and droplet formation by bare and coated soot particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Beth

    We have studied ice formation at temperatures relevant to homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation, as well as droplet activation and hygroscopicity, of soot particles of variable size and composition. Coatings of ...

  3. Glacial geology and glaciology of the Younger Dryas ice cap in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golledge, Nicholas Robert

    2009-01-01

    This thesis uses geological field data and numerical ice sheet modelling to study the Younger Dryas ice cap in Scotland. The Younger Dryas stadial is important because it represents the most recent period of high-magnitude ...

  4. The Role of Oceans and Sea Ice in Abrupt Transitions between Multiple Climate States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Brian E. J.

    The coupled climate dynamics underlying large, rapid, and potentially irreversible changes in ice cover are studied. A global atmosphere–ocean–sea ice general circulation model with idealized aquaplanet geometry is forced ...

  5. Fast proton hopping detection in ice I{sub h} by quasi-elastic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fast proton hopping detection in ice Isub h by quasi-elastic neutron scattering. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast proton hopping detection in ice...

  6. Assessment of Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Impacts Assessment of Future ICE and Fuel-Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Impacts 2004 Diesel Engine...

  7. Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet from 1958 to 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rignot, E; Rignot, E; Box, JE; Burgess, E; Hanna, E

    2008-01-01

    ice sheet surface mass balance varia- bility (1988 – 2004)5 L20502 RIGNOT ET AL. : MASS BALANCE GREENLAND 1958 – 20072005), Runoff and mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet:

  8. Analysis of Antarctic Sea Ice Thickness: A Newly Created Database for 2000-2009 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Benjamin Patrick

    2012-10-19

    Observations of Antarctic sea ice thickness are sporadic in space and time, hindering knowledge of its variability. A proxy based on stage of development data from the National Ice Center (NIC) weekly operational charts is used to create a high...

  9. Modeling the impact of atmospheric moisture transport on global ice volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nisancioglu, Kerim Hestnes, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Following Milankovitch's original hypothesis most model studies of changes in global ice volume on orbital time scales have focused on the impact of ablation on ice sheet mass balance. In most cases, poleward moisture flux ...

  10. Assessing the Predictability of the Beaufort Sea Minimum Ice Extent in a Changing Arctic Climate Regime 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quirk, Laura Marie

    2014-04-25

    Understanding the climatic drivers of changes in sea ice extent in the Arctic has become increasingly important as record minima in the September sea ice extent continue to be reached. This research therefore addresses the question of which synoptic...

  11. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-24 A COMPUTERIZED ICE CONCENTRATION DATA BASE FOR THE GREAT LAKES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-24 A COMPUTERIZED ICE CONCENTRATION DATA BASE FOR THE GREAT LAKES ......................................................................................................... 5 2. Computerized ice concentration data base .............................................................................................................................................. 5 2. BASIC DATAAND DATA REDUCTION

  12. Using Temporal Information in an Automated Classification of Summer, Marginal Ice Zone Imagery*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    * Donna Haverkamp and Costas Tsatsoulis Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science- analyzed temperature records and regional statistics in order to achieve an automated ice's ice/water concentrations and melt state with temperature and wind data, a current interpretation

  13. A Computational Study of Icing Effects on the Performance of an S-Duct Inlet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Wonjin

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a diffusing S-duct inlet (M2129) is computationally studied for the effects of inlet icing. Different ice accretion shapes, predicted by numerical analysis in the literature reviewed, are simulated on the inlet lip. Two commercial...

  14. Incorporation of particulates into accreted ice above subglacial Vostok lake, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christner, Brent C.

    polycarbonate membranes, and secondary electron images were collected at Â500 magnification using a scanning conductivity suggest that the ice comprises lake water which has refrozen to the underside of the ice sheet

  15. Global ice cloud observations: radiative properties and statistics from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Kerry Glynne

    2009-05-15

    Ice clouds occur quite frequently, yet so much about these clouds is unknown. In recent years, numerous investigations and field campaigns have been focused on the study of ice clouds, all with the ultimate goal of gaining a better understanding...

  16. 2,000-year record of atmospheric methyl bromide from a South Pole ice core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Eric S; Aydin, Murat; Tatum, Cheryl; Williams, Margaret B

    2008-01-01

    air from firn at the South Pole, Nature, 383, 231 – 235. 5METHYL BROMIDE FROM SOUTH POLE ICE CORE Butler, J. H. , M.of methyl chloride from a South Pole ice core: Evidence for

  17. Stable levitation and dynamics of ice particles at low pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Kowalski; Bernard Xie; Colin V. Parker; Cheng Chin

    2015-04-13

    We demonstrate stable levitation and trapping of ice particles of 30~200 micon at low background gas pressures in the presence of a temperature gradient. The thermophoretic force levitates the particles, which have long lifetimes of over an hour. The equilibrium position depends on the background pressure and temperature gradient, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. Furthermore, we investigate interesting launching and merging dynamics of the levitated particles, as well as the development of instability at high background pressures. Our system provides a robust platform to investigate the aggregation of floating ice particles in air, and potentially chemical and biological processes in a microgravity environment.

  18. Ice plug employed on subsea pipeline bend during repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-22

    The first controlled-temperature ice plug in the bend of an offshore gas trunkline has been carried out for Phillips Petroleum Co. Norway on its Norpipe A.S. platform in the German sector of the North Sea. The procedure was part of a subsea valve repair operation. The ice plug was successfully formed offshore and tested to a differential pressure of 1,450 psi. Repair of two valves required only 5 days during which time gas production was operating at close to 50--60% via the platform bypass, says the service company. The paper discusses the procedure.

  19. Fluid Flow and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Wing Anti-Icing System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is controlled through regulating the hot flow passing a wing anti-icing valve by an automatic control system

  20. Ice formation on nitric acid coated dust particles: Laboratory and modeling studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Chun; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Liu, Xiaohong; Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-08-16

    Changes in the ice nucleation characteristics of atmospherically relevant mineral dust particles due to nitric acid coating are not well understood. Further, the atmospheric implications of dust coating on ice-cloud properties under different assumptions of primary ice nucleation mechanisms are unknown. We investigated ice nucleation ability of Arizona test dust, illite, K-feldspar and quartz as a function of temperature (-25 to -30°C) and relative humidity with respect to water (75 to 110%). Particles were size selected at 250 nm and transported (bare or coated) to the ice nucleation chamber to determine the fraction of particles nucleating ice at various temperature and water saturation conditions. All dust nucleated ice at water-subsaturated conditions, but the coated particles showed a reduction in their ice nucleation ability compared to bare particles. However, at water-supersaturated conditions, we observed that bare and coated particles had nearly similar ice nucleation characteristics. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that structural properties of bare dust particles modified after acid treatment. We found that lattice parameters were slightly different, but crystallite sizes of the coated particles were reduced compared to bare particles. Next, single-column model results show that simulated ice crystal number concentrations mostly depends upon fraction of particles that are coated, primary ice nucleation mechanisms, and the competition between ice nucleation mechanisms to nucleate ice. In general, we observed that coating modify the ice-cloud properties and the picture of ice and mixed-phase cloud evolution is complex when different primary ice nucleation mechanisms are competing for fixed water vapor mass.

  1. Ice at the Interface: Atmosphere-Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer Processes and Their Role in Polar Change---Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-23

    The atmosphere-ocean boundary layer in which sea ice resides includes many complex processes that require a more realistic treatment in GCMs, particularly as models move toward full earth system descriptions. The primary purpose of the workshop was to define and discuss such coupled processes from observational and modeling points of view, including insight from both the Arctic and Antarctic systems. The workshop met each of its overarching goals, including fostering collaboration among experimentalists, theorists and modelers, proposing modeling strategies, and ascertaining data availability and needs. Several scientific themes emerged from the workshop, such as the importance of episodic or extreme events, precipitation, stratification above and below the ice, and the marginal ice zone, whose seasonal Arctic migrations now traverse more territory than in the past.

  2. THE EXTENT OF PLEISTOCENE ICE CAP, GLACIAL DEPOSITS AND GLACIOKARST IN THE ALADAGLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zreda, Marek

    holes, ice caves, glacial melt-water streams, stone circles and girlands represent glacialTHE EXTENT OF PLEISTOCENE ICE CAP, GLACIAL DEPOSITS AND GLACIOKARST IN THE ALADAGLAR MASSIF between 1100 m and 3756 m of altitudes. Many of the glacial landforms, such as moraines and ice

  3. TRMM observations of the global relationship between ice water content and lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    TRMM observations of the global relationship between ice water content and lightning Walter A to retrieve ice water content. Citation: Petersen, W. A., H. J. Christian, and S. A. Rutledge (2005), TRMM observations of the global relationship between ice water content and lightning, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L

  4. Nonlinear Thermal Transport and Brine Convection in First Year Sea Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature gradients and at greater depths in the ice. Preliminary modelling of the impact of brine migration of thermistors frozen into first­year Antarctic sea ice provides temperature against depth data, which is fitted on heat transport through first­year sea ice is presented. Diffusion­driven brine pocket migration

  5. Sensitivity of Cenozoic Antarctic ice sheet variations to geothermal heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sensitivity of Cenozoic Antarctic ice sheet variations to geothermal heat flux David Pollard a sheet to geothermal heat flux is investigated, using a coupled climate­ice sheet model with various prescribed values and patterns of geothermal heat flux. The sudden growth of major ice across the Eocene

  6. A Computational Study of the Spreading of Oil Underneath a Sheet of Ice Mark Sussman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Mark

    A Computational Study of the Spreading of Oil Underneath a Sheet of Ice Mark Sussman Department) The spreading of oil underneath a sheet of ice is computed using an adaptive level set method for incompressible of a body of oil under ice in water. The computational models are used to make further observations

  7. A Computational Study of the Spreading of Oil Underneath a Sheet of Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    A Computational Study of the Spreading of Oil Underneath a Sheet of Ice Mark Sussman Department) Abstract The spreading of oil underneath a sheet of ice is computed using an adaptive level set method the final steady profile of a body of oil under ice in water. The computational models are used to make

  8. Cloud Detection over Snow and Ice Using MISR Data , Eugene E. Clothiaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bin

    Cloud Detection over Snow and Ice Using MISR Data Tao Shi , Bin Yu , Eugene E. Clothiaux detection is particularly difficult in the snow- and ice-covered po- lar regions and availability WORDS: Cloud detection; Feature selection; Ice and snow; Multi-angle Imaging Spectro- Radiometer (MISR

  9. THEORETICAL MODELING OF LIDAR RETURN PHENOMENOLOGY FROM SNOW AND ICE SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerekes, John

    THEORETICAL MODELING OF LIDAR RETURN PHENOMENOLOGY FROM SNOW AND ICE SURFACES J. Kerekes, J. Zhang the science of lidar sensing of complex ice and snow surfaces as well as in support of the upcoming ICESat- 2 from snow and ice surfaces. First, the anticipated lidar return characteristics for a sloped non

  10. Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Keith

    Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone Dillon; published 7 August 2007. [1] Analysis of satellite ocean color and wind speed data within the seasonal ice. Moore (2007), Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice

  11. Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Shfaqat A.; Wahr, John; Stearns, Leigh; Hamilton, Gordon; van Dam, Tonie; Larson, Kristine M.; Francis, Olivier

    2007-11-01

    [1] The rapid unloading of ice from the southeastern sector of the Greenland ice sheet between 2001 and 2006 caused an elastic uplift of ?35 mm at a GPS site in Kulusuk. Most of the uplift results from ice dynamic-induced volume losses on two nearby...

  12. Dynamics of stickslip motion, Whillans Ice Stream, Antarctica J. Paul Winberry a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an additional asperity in the northern part of the ice stream, producing another pulse of seismic energy 6Dynamics of stick­slip motion, Whillans Ice Stream, Antarctica J. Paul Winberry a, , Sridhar 6 April 2011 Editor: P. Shearer Keywords: glacial geophysics ice stream seismology The stick

  13. Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating that such a film exists and is caused by the deposition of iron and sodium atoms on the ice grain from iron

  14. Interannual Variability in Pollen Dispersal and Deposition on the Tropical Quelccaya Ice Cap*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kam-biu

    should also be considered Key Words: biogeography, ice-core palynology, Peru, pollen dispersal, Quelccaya is represented in the modern pollen rain on the ice caps. A modern analog is our most powerful calibration tool from the Quelccaya Ice Cap (Reese and Liu 2002) in southern Peru and Mt. Parinacota (Reese, Liu

  15. A model of the threedimensional evolution of Arctic melt ponds on firstyear and multiyear sea ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    A model of the threedimensional evolution of Arctic melt ponds on firstyear and multiyear sea ice F in Arctic melt ponds on the surface of sea ice. An accurate estimate of the fraction of the sea ice surface covered in melt ponds is essential for a realistic estimate of the albedo for global climate models. We

  16. Ethanol adsorbed on ice: A first-principles study C. Thierfelder*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    Ethanol adsorbed on ice: A first-principles study C. Thierfelder* Centre of Theoretical Chemistry of ethanol molecules on the ice Ih basal plane. Apart from smooth surfaces, also substrate models simulation for ethanol adsorbed on ice using the TIP4P potential16 for the water-water interaction. Recent

  17. Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet from 1958 to 2007 E. Rignot,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Box, Jason E.

    Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet from 1958 to 2007 E. Rignot,1,2 J. E. Box,3 E. Burgess,4 October 2008. [1] We combine estimates of the surface mass balance, SMB, of the Greenland ice sheet the total ice sheet mass balance. During that time period, we find a robust correlation (R2 = 0.83) between

  18. Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery Article Published.G. and Ravishankara, A.R. (2009) Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery's research outputs online #12;Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery J. F

  19. Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    of Bayes detection to produce sea ice extent maps. Statistical models for sea ice and ocean are represented of their independence of solar illumination, their ability to penetrate to ever-present canopy of clouds in the polar of these same measure- ments. The A imagery exhibits good statistical contrast between sea ice and ocean

  20. Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: evidence from high resolution sea, Norway Abstract A high resolution account of Icelandic sea ice over the last millennium has been ice and/or climate conditions around Iceland during the Little Ice Age. Author for correspondence

  1. Experimental Investigation of Direct Expansion Dynamic Ice-on-coil Storage System Used in Residential Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, M.; Kong, F.; Han, Z.; Liu, W.

    2006-01-01

    expansion dynamic ice-on-coil storage system that overcame the disadvantages of static and dynamic ice-storage system. It is concluded that periodic ice moving avoids the increased heat resistance that creates a decreased evaporating temperature. Due to a...

  2. 9 The Dynamics of Snow and Ice Masses J.S. Wettlaufer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wettlaufer, John S.

    of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-5640, USA 9.1 Ice: Land, Sea and Air On Earth today the storage of relatively slow inland (upstream) ice [2]. These contemporary observations give strength transport through the connected network of air pockets that separate individual ice grains. Eventually

  3. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-18 PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION TRANSMITTANCE THROUGH ICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to obtain the ratios shown in Figure 9. 9. Ratio of under-ice to above-ice radiation (T) versus true solar. 12. Ratio of below- to above-ice radiation (T) as a function of true solar time (TST) during a period of melting snow for 7 March 1977. 13. Radiation transmittance (T) as a function of true solar time (TST

  4. Ice Towing Tank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on Openei | Open Energy2010)Texas) Jump to:

  5. Acceleration of Greenland ice mass loss in spring 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    of increased melting at the ice sheet surface and increased glacial discharge at the coasts. All these trends, suggest that both accumulation and melting have increased during the past decade, with melting increasing thinning in the 1990s at low elevations8 where increased melting is probably more important than increased

  6. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Air-Cooled Ice Machines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for air-cooled ice machines, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  7. Development and Applications of the Community Ice Sheet Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Matthew J.; Lipscomb, William H.; Price, Stephen F.; Johnson, Jesse; Sacks, William

    2012-07-23

    The initial goals of the project are: (1) create a model for land ice that includes relevant and necessary dynamics, physical processes, and couplings; and (2) apply that model to say something more substantial about SLR in Lme for IPCC AR5 (AR6?).

  8. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics at Alkali/Ice Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Martin

    trapping sites, i.e. at local potential minima, are formed. Photoinjection of excess electrons into these alkali-ion covered amorphous ice layers, results in the trapping of a solvated electron at an alkali, i.e. pump-probe time delay, the electron transfer is mediated by tunneling through a potential

  9. Visible and near infrared reflectances measured from laboratory ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    ,aswellasuncertaintiesin data, validation by means of the independent in situ airborne and ground-based measurements that are co. Liou Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles the measured ice particle morphology. We demonstrate that laboratory scat- tering and reflectance data for thin

  10. FLOOD-PLAIN DELINEATION IN ICE JAM PRONE REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    methodology is introduced for incorporating the risk of icejams into flood-plain delineations in northern in the computation of annual maximum flood elevation distributions and flood risk in icejam prone regionsFLOOD-PLAIN DELINEATION IN ICE JAM PRONE REGIONS By Richard M. Vogel,1 S. M. ASCE and Jery R

  11. Water and Ice Dielectric Spectra Scaling at 0 °C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. G. Artemov; A. A. Volkov

    2013-08-06

    Dielectric spectra (10^4-10^11 Hz) of water and ice at 0 {\\deg}C are considered in terms of proton conductivity and compared to each other. In this picture, the Debye relaxations, centered at 1/{\\tau}_W ~ 20 GHz (in water) and 1/{\\tau}_I ~ 5 kHz (in ice), are seen as manifestations of diffusion of separated charges in the form of H3O+ and OH- ions. The charge separation results from the self-dissociation of H2O molecules, and is accompanied by recombination in order to maintain the equilibrium concentration, N. The charge recombination is a diffusion-controlled process with characteristic lifetimes of {\\tau}_W and {\\tau}_I, for water and ice respectively. The static permittivity, {\\epsilon}(0), is solely determined by N. Both, N and {\\epsilon}(0), are roughly constant at the water-ice phase transition, and both increase, due to a slowing down of the diffusion rate, as the temperature is lowered. The transformation of the broadband dielectric spectra at 0 {\\deg}C with the drastic change from {\\tau}_W to {\\tau}_I is mainly due to an abrupt (by 0.4 eV) change of the activation energy of the charge diffusion.

  12. Tuesday, March 24, 2009 MARS: GROUND ICE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Tuesday, March 24, 2009 MARS: GROUND ICE AND CLIMATE CHANGE 1:30 p.m. Waterway Ballroom 1 Chairs.-B. Fastook J. L. Deciphering the Late Amazonian Climate History of Mars: Assessing Obliquity Predictions climate history of Mars; extended periods of consistently high or low obliquity are unlikely during

  13. Ice method for production of hydrogen clathrate hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokshin, Konstantin (Santa Fe, NM); Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-05-13

    The present invention includes a method for hydrogen clathrate hydrate synthesis. First, ice and hydrogen gas are supplied to a containment volume at a first temperature and a first pressure. Next, the containment volume is pressurized with hydrogen gas to a second higher pressure, where hydrogen clathrate hydrates are formed in the process.

  14. The Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for verifying numerical code. The exact solution to the set of equations is derived using mathematical methodsThe Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE Code Amjidanutpan Ramanujam, Christopher Sikorski, Todd Harman* UUCS­07­006 School of Computing University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112

  15. The Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for verifying numerical code. The exact solution to the set of equations is derived using mathematical methodsThe Method of Generated Solutions for Numerical Verification of ICE Code Amjidanutpan Ramanujam, Christopher Sikorski, Todd Harman* UUCS-07-006 School of Computing University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112

  16. http://www.ices.cmu.edu/ballista Prof. Philip Koopman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koopman, Philip

    http://www.ices.cmu.edu/ballista Prof. Philip Koopman koopman@cmu.edu - (412) 268-5225 - http robustness #12;3 Overview: Automated Robustness Testing u System Robustness · Motivation · Ballista automatic · Technology Transfer · Application to Non OS APIs u Conclusions A Ballista is an ancient siege weapon

  17. Optical constants of carbon dioxide ice Stephen G. Warren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Stephen

    Optical constants of carbon dioxide ice Stephen G. Warren Laboratory measurements of the absorption. At pressures belowthe triple point (5.2atm), carbon dioxide exists only as a gas or solid. The sublimation in the ultraviolet (50-130-nm wavelength) due to elec- tronic transitions. It is relatively transparent

  18. GREAT LAKES ICE COVER RaymondA. Asset'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the early fifteenth centllry. in central Japan. southern Germany,and Switzerland." I National Oceanographic hydropower production and cooling water intakes, and damaging shore structures. Ice cover also impacts, and spring energy exchanges between the lake and the planetary boundary layer. Although observations of shore

  19. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-11-06

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice numbermore »is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 ?m for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.« less

  20. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice number is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 ?m for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.

  1. GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING Section A Java

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Gary

    GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING Section A ­ Java 1 - Introduction 2 - Installation & First Programs 3 - GUI: Layout Managers 9 - GUI: JMenu Gary Hill December 2003 Java 1 of 1 #12;GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING 1, sample applications, and support for Java standards. Get started quickly using the included tutorials

  2. Marine Ecological Processes Online section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Marine Ecological Processes Online section FAS 4270 (3 credits) Fall 2012 Course Description The course covers the ecology of marine organisms and habitats with focus on how general ecological principles and those unique to the marine environment drive patterns and processes. Prerequisite: Two

  3. Dimensions and aspect ratios of natural ice crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, J.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Hong, Y. P.; Lee, S. -S.; Jung, C. H.; Lawson, R. P.; Mo, Q.

    2014-12-10

    During the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the Tropics, the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in the Arctic, and the 2010 Small PARTicles In CirrUS (SPARTICUS) campaign in mid-latitudes, high-resolution images of ice crystals were recorded by a Cloud Particle Imager at temperatures (T) between -87 and 0 °C. The projected maximum dimension (D'), length (L'), and width (W') of pristine columns, plates, and component bullets of bullet rosettes were measured using newly developed software, the Ice Crystal Ruler. The number of bullets in each bullet rosette was also measured. Column crystals were furthermore »distinguished as either horizontally oriented columns or columns with other orientations to eliminate any orientation effect on the measured dimensions. Dimensions and aspect ratios (AR, dimension of major axis divided by dimension of minor axis) of crystals were determined as functions of temperature, geophysical location, and type of cirrus. Dimensions of crystals generally increased as temperature increased. Columns and bullets had larger dimensions (i.e., W') of the minor axis (i.e., a axis) for a given dimension (i.e., D' or L') of the major axis (i.e., c axis), and thus smaller AR, as T increased, whereas this trend did not occur for plate crystals. The average number of branches in bullet rosettes was 5.50±1.35 during three campaigns and 6.32±1.34 (5.46±1.34; 4.95±1.01) during TWP-ICE (SPARTICUS; ISDAC). The AR of bullets increased with the number of branches in bullet rosettes. Most dimensions of crystals and ARs of columnar crystals measured during SPARTICUS were larger than those measured during TWP-ICE and ISDAC at ?67 T T L–W relationships of columns derived using current data exhibited a strong dependence on temperature; similar relationship determined in previous studies were within the range of the current data.« less

  4. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

  5. Space geodesy constrains ice age terminal deglaciation: The global ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peltier, W. Richard

    . Peltier1 , D. F. Argus2 , and R. Drummond1 1 Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto] or a combination of such influences [Vettoretti and Peltier, 2003]. Simple ice sheet coupled climate models have been successful in explaining the origins of this 100 kyr cyclic behavior [Tarasov and Peltier, 1997

  6. Incorporation of a physically based melt pond scheme into the sea ice component of a climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    Incorporation of a physically based melt pond scheme into the sea ice component of a climate model and evolution of melt ponds. Melt ponds accumulate on the surface of sea ice from snow and sea ice melt, melt ponds cover up to 50% of the sea ice surface. We have developed a melt pond evolution theory. Here

  7. Section H: Special Contract Requirements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4 » Searchwith First JamesofAward SECTION B SUPPLIES ANDCH

  8. Turbine airfoil having outboard and inboard sections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazzola, Stefan; Marra, John J

    2015-03-17

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and formed from at least an outboard section and an inboard section such that an inner end of the outboard section is attached to an outer end of the inboard section. The outboard section may be configured to provide a tip having adequate thickness and may extend radially inward from the tip with a generally constant cross-sectional area. The inboard section may be configured with a tapered cross-sectional area to support the outboard section.

  9. SECTION THIRTY SEVEN Consultants Section Thirty Seven Consultants, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummaryDIST OF COLUMBIANorth Pitt Street, Alexandria,J-1 SECTION JTHIRTY

  10. Molecular interactions with ice: Molecular embedding, adsorption, detection, and release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, K. D.; Langlois, Grant G.; Li, Wenxin; Sibener, S. J.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2014-11-14

    The interaction of atomic and molecular species with water and ice is of fundamental importance for chemistry. In a previous series of publications, we demonstrated that translational energy activates the embedding of Xe and Kr atoms in the near surface region of ice surfaces. In this paper, we show that inert molecular species may be absorbed in a similar fashion. We also revisit Xe embedding, and further probe the nature of the absorption into the selvedge. CF{sub 4} molecules with high translational energies (?3 eV) were observed to embed in amorphous solid water. Just as with Xe, the initial adsorption rate is strongly activated by translational energy, but the CF{sub 4} embedding probability is much less than for Xe. In addition, a larger molecule, SF{sub 6}, did not embed at the same translational energies that both CF{sub 4} and Xe embedded. The embedding rate for a given energy thus goes in the order Xe > CF{sub 4} > SF{sub 6}. We do not have as much data for Kr, but it appears to have a rate that is between that of Xe and CF{sub 4}. Tentatively, this order suggests that for Xe and CF{sub 4}, which have similar van der Waals radii, the momentum is the key factor in determining whether the incident atom or molecule can penetrate deeply enough below the surface to embed. The more massive SF{sub 6} molecule also has a larger van der Waals radius, which appears to prevent it from stably embedding in the selvedge. We also determined that the maximum depth of embedding is less than the equivalent of four layers of hexagonal ice, while some of the atoms just below the ice surface can escape before ice desorption begins. These results show that energetic ballistic embedding in ice is a general phenomenon, and represents a significant new channel by which incident species can be trapped under conditions where they would otherwise not be bound stably as surface adsorbates. These findings have implications for many fields including environmental science, trace gas collection and release, and the chemical composition of astrophysical icy bodies in space.

  11. A constellation of CubeSats with synthetic tracking cameras to search for 90% of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Michael; Spangelo, Sara; Werne, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Congress mandated NASA to find 90% of near-Earth objects (NEO) with sizes over 140m that are potentially hazardous to the Earth by the year 2020. After an in-depth look at a number of alternative approaches, the National Research Council (NRC) concluded in 2010 that this goal was nearly impossible to reach by 2020. In this paper, we present a new space mission concept that is capable of addressing the challenges of this Congressional mandate. The proposed mission concept relies on two emerging technologies: the technique of synthetic tracking to detect NEOs and the new generation of small and capable interplanetary spacecraft. Synthetic tracking is a technique that de-streaks asteroid images by taking multiple fast exposures. With synthetic tracking, a 600 sec observation with a 10cm telescope, which can fit in a CubeSat, can detect a 20.5 mag moving object without losing sensitivity from streaking. Our primary science objective is to detect, track, catalogue, and characterize 90% of NEAs of H=22 mag (diamete...

  12. ArgonCube: a novel, fully-modular approach for the realization of large-mass liquid argon TPC neutrino detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amsler, C; Asaadi, J; Auger, M; Barbato, F; Bay, F; Bishai, M; Bleiner, D; Borgschulte, A; Bremer, J; Cavus, E; Chen, H; De Geronimo, G; Ereditato, A; Fleming, B; Goldi, D; Hanni, R; Kose, U; Kreslo, I; La Mattina, F; Lanni, F; Lissauer, D; Luthi, M; Lutz, P; Marchionni, A; Mladenov, D; Nessi, M; Noto, F; Palamara, O; Raaf, J L; Radeka, V; Rudolph Von Rohr, Ch; Smargianaki, D; Soderberg, M; Strauss, Th; Weber, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G P; Zeyrek, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2015-01-01

    The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber is a prime candidate detector for future neutrino oscillation physics experiments, underground neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. A large international project based on this technology is currently being considered at the future LBNF facility in the United States on the very large mass scale of 40 kton. In this document, following the long standing R&D work conducted over the last years in several laboratories in Europe and in the United States, we intend to propose a novel Liquid Argon TPC approach based on a fully-modular, innovative design, the ArgonCube. The related R&D work will proceed along two main directions; one aimed at on the assessment of the proposed modular detector design, the other on the exploitation of new signal readout methods. Such a strategy will provide high performance while being cost-effective and robust at the same time. According to our plans, we will firstly realize a detector prototype hosted in a cryostat that is a...

  13. SECTION J, APPENDIX B - PEP

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) August 20123/%2A en NNSAReference to Mod 0108C SECTION

  14. Section 999 Program Library | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Offshore Drilling Section 999 Program Library Section 999 Program Library Cost-Shared Program Publications October 2, 2013 UDAC Meeting - October 2013 October 2, 2013 URTAC...

  15. Interagency ADR Workplace Section Education Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Interagency Alternative Dispute Resolution Working Group (IADRWG) Workplace Conflict Management Section (“Workplace Section”) provides guidance on “best practices” in ADR program development,...

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort (INEEL)

    2005-03-01

    The U.S. Department Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) teamed with Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Arizona Public Service (APS) to develop the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant that produces and compresses hydrogen on site through an electrolysis process by operating a PEM fuel cell in reverse; natural gas is also compressed onsite. The Pilot Plant dispenses 100% hydrogen, 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG), and 100% CNG via a credit card billing system at pressures up to 5,000 psi. Thirty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles (including Daimler Chrysler, Ford and General Motors vehicles) are operating on 100% hydrogen and 15 to 50% H/CNG blends. Since the Pilot Plant started operating in June 2002, they hydrogen and H/CNG ICE vehicels have accumulated 250,000 test miles.

  17. Significant groundwater contribution to Antarctic ice streams hydrologic budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoffersen, Poul; Bougamont, Marion; Carter, Sasha P.; Fricker, Helen A.; Tulaczyk, Slawek

    2014-03-26

    et al., 1986; Rooney et al., 1987; Smith, 1997], so far this has only been directly observed at the Siple Coast, where samples collected in boreholes confirmed it to be till [Engelhardt et al., 1990], a glacially produced material with highly non... ] and (B) 2009 [Rignot et al., 2011]. With constant model geometry [Fretwell et al., 2013], climate [Arthern et al., 2006; Comiso, 2000], and geothermal heat flux [Maule et al., 2005; Shapiro and Ritzwoller, 2004], we converge ice temperature, effective...

  18. American Indian Complex to Cool Off Using Ice Storage System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Oklahoma City, summer temperatures can get above 100 degrees, making cooling more of a necessity than a luxury. But the designers of the American Indian Cultural Center and Museum (AICCM) wanted to make cooling choices that reflect American Indian cultures' respect for the land. So, rather than using conventional air-conditioning, the museum's main complex will use an ice storage system estimated to save 644,000 kilowatt hours of electricity a year.

  19. Localization of water monomers inside ice-like clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. L. Golo; S. M. Pershin

    2012-04-04

    On the basis of the experimental data we suggest that water monomers could be trapped in channels running through ice-like clusters in water. Our argument relies on a simple model that describes the motion of a dipole particle inside a channel in the presence of an electric field with linear gradient. The model admits of both finite and infinite regimes of motion so that the finite one could correspond to the particle being confined to a channel.

  20. Wideband measurements of ice sheet attenuation and basal scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Christopher Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Paden, J. D.; Jezek, K. C.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Larsen, L. B.

    2005-04-01

    SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2005 Wideband Measurements of Ice Sheet Attenuation and Basal Scattering John D. Paden, Student Member, IEEE, Christopher T. Allen, Senior Member, IEEE, Sivaprasad Gogineni, Fellow, IEEE, Kenneth C. Jezek, Dorthe Dahl... the real part of the permittivity by [11] (4) and the imaginary part of the permittivity by [11] (5) To determine the total loss as the radio wave propagates to and from the bedrock, we discretize the temperature, density, and conductivity profiles shown...

  1. Multifunctional Graphene/Platinum/Nafion Hybrids via Ice Templating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estevez, Luis; Kelarakis, Antonios; Gong, Qianming; Da’as, Eman Husni; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of multifunctional hybrids in both films and bulk form, combining electrical and ionic conductivity with porosity and catalytic activity. The hybrids are synthesized by a two-step process: (a) ice templation of an aqueous suspension comprised of Nafion, graphite oxide, and chloroplatinic acid to form a microcellular porous network and (b) mild reduction in hydrazine or monosodium citrate which leads to graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles on a Nafion scaffold

  2. Electric fields in ice and near water clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batista, Enrique R. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 351560, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States) [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 351560, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States); Xantheas, Sotiris S. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 906 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, MS K8-91, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 906 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, MS K8-91, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Jonsson, Hannes [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)

    2000-02-15

    We have studied the electric field near water clusters and in ice Ih using first principles calculations. We employed Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) for the calculations of the clusters up to and including the hexamer, and density functional theory (DFT) with a gradient dependent functional [Perdew-Wang (PW91)] for ice Ih as well as the clusters. The electric field obtained from the first principles calculations was used to test the predictions of an induction model based on single center multipole moments and polarizabilities of an isolated water molecule. We found that the fields obtained from the induction model agree well with the first principles results when the multipole expansion is carried out up to and including the hexadecapole moment, and when polarizable dipole and quadrupole moments are included. This implies that accurate empirical water interaction potential functions transferable to various environments such as water clusters and ice surfaces could be based on a single center multipole expansion carried out up to the hexadecapole. Since point charges are not included, the computationally intensive Ewald summations can be avoided. Molecular multipole moments were also extracted from the first principles charge density using zero flux dividing surfaces as proposed by Bader. Although the values of the various molecular multipoles obtained with this method are quite different from the ones resulting from the induction model, the rate of convergence of the electric field is, nevertheless, quite similar. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Dimensions and aspect ratios of natural ice crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, J.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Hong, Y. P.; Lee, S. -S.; Jung, C. H.; Lawson, R. P.; Mo, Q.

    2015-04-15

    During the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the tropics, the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in the Arctic, and the 2010 Small PARTicles In CirrUS (SPARTICUS) campaign at mid-latitudes, high-resolution images of ice crystals were recorded by a Cloud Particle Imager at temperatures (T) between -87 and 0 °C. The projected maximum dimension (D'), length (L'), and width (W') of pristine columns, plates, and component bullets of bullet rosettes were measured using newly developed software, the Ice Crystal Ruler. The number of bullets in each bullet rosette was also measured. Column crystals were furthermore »distinguished as either horizontally oriented columns or columns with other orientations to eliminate any orientation effect on the measured dimensions. The dimensions and aspect ratios (AR, the dimension of the major axis divided by the dimension of the minor axis) of crystals were determined as functions of temperature, geophysical location, and type of cirrus. Dimensions of crystals generally increased with temperature. Columns and bullets had larger dimensions (i.e., W') of the minor axis (i.e., a axis) for a given dimension (i.e., D' orL') of the major axis (i.e., c axis), and thus smaller AR, as T increased, whereas this trend did not occur for plate crystals. The average number of branches in bullet rosettes was 5.50 ± 1.35 during three campaigns and 6.32 ± 1.34 (5.46 ± 1.34; 4.95 ± 1.01) during TWP-ICE (SPARTICUS; ISDAC). The AR of bullets increased with the number of branches in bullet rosettes. Most dimensions of crystals and ARs of columnar crystals measured during SPARTICUS were larger than those measured during TWP-ICE and ISDAC at ?67 L–W relationships of columns derived using current data exhibited a strong dependence on temperature; similar relationships determined in previous studies were within the range of the current data.« less

  4. Reflection and transmission of ocean wave spectra by a band of randomly distributed ice floes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montiel, Fabien; Bennetts, Luke

    2014-01-01

    A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through an arbitrary finite array of circular ice floes, where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by wave scattering effects. The model is applied to characterise the wave reflection and transmission properties of a strip of ice floes, such as an ice edge band. A method is devised to extract the reflected and transmitted directional wave spectra produced by the array. The method builds upon an integral mapping from polar to Cartesian coordinates of the scattered wave components. Sensitivity tests are conducted for a row of floes randomly perturbed from a regular arrangement. Results for random arrays are generated using ensemble averaging. A realistic ice edge band is then reconstructed from field experiments data. Simulations show a good qualitative agreement with the data in terms of transmitted wave energy and directional spreading. In particular, it is observed that short waves ...

  5. Realizing three-dimensional artificial spin ice by stacking planar nano-arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles; Nisoli, Cristiano

    2014-01-06

    Artificial spin ice is a frustrated magnetic two-dimensional nano-material, recently employed to study variety of tailor-designed unusual collective behaviours. Recently proposed extensions to three dimensions are based on self-assembly techniques and allow little control over geometry and disorder. We present a viable design for the realization of a three-dimensional artificial spin ice with the same level of precision and control allowed by lithographic nano-fabrication of the popular two-dimensional case. Our geometry is based on layering already available two-dimensional artificial spin ice and leads to an arrangement of ice-rule-frustrated units, which is topologically equivalent to that of the tetrahedra in a pyrochlore lattice. Consequently, we show, it exhibits a genuine ice phase and its excitations are, as in natural spin ice materials, magnetic monopoles interacting via Coulomb law.

  6. Discrete-element model for the interaction between ocean waves and sea ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Pan, Wenxiao

    2012-01-05

    We present a discrete element method (DEM) model to simulate the mechanical behavior of sea ice in response to ocean waves. The wave/ice interaction can potentially lead to the fracture and fragmentation of sea ice depending on the wave amplitude and period. The fracture behavior of sea ice is explicitly modeled by a DEM method, where sea ice is modeled by densely packed spherical particles with finite size. These particles are bonded together at their contact points through mechanical bonds that can sustain both tensile & compressive forces and moments. Fracturing can be naturally represented by the sequential breaking of mechanical bonds. For a given amplitude and period of incident ocean wave, the model provides information for the spatial distribution and time evolution of stress and micro-fractures and the fragment size distribution. We demonstrate that the fraction of broken bonds,, increases with increasing wave amplitude. In contrast, the ice fragment size decreases with increasing amplitude.

  7. Neutrino Astronomy at the South Pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Toale; for the IceCube Collaboration

    2006-07-01

    IceCube is currently being built deep in the glacial ice beneath the South Pole. In its second year of construction, it is already larger than its predecessor, AMANDA. AMANDA continues to collect high energy neutrino and muon data as an independent detector until it is integrated with IceCube. After introducing both detectors, recent results from AMANDA and a status report on IceCube are presented.

  8. An investigation of ice shape prediction methodologies and comparison with experimental data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Britton, Randall Keith

    1989-01-01

    water content has allowed rime, mixed, and glaze ice shapes on the leading edge of an airfoil to be investigated. To my beloved parents, their 6rst grandson, and his mother ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the members of my committee, Dr... water droplets. The free air temperature heavily inSuences what type and the extent which ice will accrete. Higher temperatures are usually associated with higher liquid water contents and thus lend themselves to the formation of glaze ice. Conversely...

  9. A PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF WATER AND METHANE ICES ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Schaller, Emily L. E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present a new near-infrared photometric system for detection of water ice and methane ice in the solar system. The system consists of two medium-band filters in the K-band region of the near-infrared, which are sensitive to water ice and methane ice, plus continuum observations in the J band and Y band. The primary purpose of this system is to distinguish between three basic types of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)-those rich in water ice, those rich in methane ice, and those with little absorbance. In this work, we present proof-of-concept observations of 51 KBOs using our filter system, 21 of which have never been observed in the near-infrared spectroscopically. We show that our custom photometric system is consistent with previous spectroscopic observations while reducing telescope observing time by a factor of {approx}3. We use our filters to identify Haumea collisional family members, which are thought to be collisional remnants of a much larger body and are characterized by large fractions of water ice on their surfaces. We add 2009 YE{sub 7} to the Haumea collisional family based on our water ice band observations (J - H{sub 2}O = -1.03 {+-} 0.27) which indicate a high amount of water ice absorption, our calculated proper orbital elements, and the neutral optical colors we measured, V - R = 0.38 {+-} 0.04, which are all consistent with the rest of the Haumea family. We identify several objects dynamically similar to Haumea as being distinct from the Haumea family as they do not have water ice on their surfaces. In addition, we find that only the largest KBOs have methane ice, and Haumea itself has significantly less water ice absorption than the smaller Haumea family members. We find no evidence for other families in the Kuiper Belt.

  10. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below 273 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Roedel, Tobias R.; Gilles, Marry K.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2012-09-25

    Atmospheric ice formation induced by particles with complex chemical and physical properties through heterogeneous nucleation is not well understood. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by ambient particles collected from urban environments in Los Angeles and Mexico City are presented. Using a vapour controlled cooling system equipped with an optical microscopy, the range of onset conditions for ice nucleation and water uptake by the collected particles was determined as a function of temperature (200{273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) up to water saturation. Three distinctly different types of authentic atmospheric particles were investigated including soot particles associated with organics/inorganics, inorganic particles of marine origin coated with organic material, and Pb/Zn containing inorganic particles apportioned to anthropogenic emissions relevant to waste incineration. Single particle characterization was provided by micro-spectroscopic analyses using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption ne structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Above 230 K, signicant differences in water uptake and immersion freezing effciencies of the different particle types were observed. Below 230 K, the particles exhibited high deposition ice nucleation effciencies and formed ice at RHice values well below homogeneous ice nucleation limits. The data show that the chemical composition of these eld{collected particles plays an important role in determining water uptake and immersion freezing. Heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coeffcients, cumulative ice nuclei (IN) spectrum, and IN activated fraction for deposition ice nucleation are derived. The presented ice nucleation data demonstrate that anthropogenic and marine particles comprising of various chemical and physical properties exhibit distinctly different ice nucleation effciencies and can serve as effcient IN at atmospheric conditions typical for cirrus and mixed phase clouds. This indicates a potential link between human activities and cloud formation, and thus climate.

  11. VUV spectroscopy and photo-processing of astrochemical ices: an experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    VUV spectroscopy and photo-processing of astrochemical ices: an experimental study Nigel J. Mason environments within our universe has relied critically upon the continuing technological advances

  12. Using Satellite Radar Data to Map and Monitor Variations in Great Lakes Ice Cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Many practical applications such as winter navigation, shore structure protection, hydropower generation, lake ecology, and potential flooding caused by ice jams necessitate mapping and monitoring

  13. Electromagnetic and physical properties of sea ice formed in the presence of wave action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onstott, R. G.; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Gow, A. J.; Grenfell, T. C.; Jezek, K. C.; Perovich, D. K.; Swift, C. T.

    1998-09-01

    of continuous sheets of newly formed ice. In addi- tion, because of the filtering action of frazil and ice pans, high wave energy and long ocean wavelengths are required to form large ice pans, and pans formed under these conditions have more complex surfaces... based on existing and future satellite technology is required. In this investigation, a wide range of sensor parameters are used to support the development of a ?broad spectral approach? to the problem of inverting sensor signal data to sea ice form...

  14. Methyl chloride variability in the Taylor Dome ice core during the Holocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verhulst, Kristal R; Aydin, Murat; Saltzman, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    in the Taylor Dome ice core during the Holocene Kristal R.2005GB002680. Lee-Taylor, J. , and K. R. Redeker (2005),

  15. Direct Calculation of Ice Homogeneous Nucleation Rate for a Molecular Model of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Haji-Akbari; Pablo G. Debenedetti

    2015-07-08

    Ice formation is ubiquitous in nature, with important consequences in a variety of environments, including biological cells, soil, aircraft, transportation infrastructure and atmospheric clouds. However, its intrinsic kinetics and microscopic mechanism are difficult to discern with current experiments. Molecular simulations of ice nucleation are also challenging, and direct rate calculations have only been performed for coarse-grained models of wate. For molecular models, only indirect estimates have been obtained, e.g. by assuming the validity of classical nucleation theory. We use a path sampling approach to perform the first direct rate calculation of homogeneous nucleation of ice in a molecular model of water. We use TIP4P/Ice, the most accurate among existing molecular models for studying ice polymorphs. By using a novel topological approach to distinguish different polymorphs, we are able to identify a freezing mechanism that involves a competition between cubic and hexagonal ice in the early stages of nucleation. In this competition, the cubic polymorph takes over since the addition of new topological structural motifs consistent with cubic ice leads to the formation of more compact crystallites. This is not true for topological hexagonal motifs, which give rise to elongated crystallites that are not able to grow. This leads to transition states that are rich in cubic ice, and not the thermodynamically stable hexagonal polymorph. This mechanism provides a molecular explanation to the earlier experimental and computational observations of the preference for cubic ice in the literature.

  16. Radiation damage and associated phase change effect on photodesorption rates from ices—Ly? studies of the surface behavior of CO{sub 2}(ice)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Photodesorption from a crystalline film of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K has been studied using Ly? (10.2 eV) radiation. We combine quantitative mass spectrometric studies of gases evolved and transmission IR studies of species trapped in the ice. Direct CO desorption is observed from the primary CO{sub 2} photodissociation process, which occurs promptly for CO{sub 2} molecules located on the outermost surface of the ice (Process I). As the fluence of Ly? radiation increases to ?5.5 × 10{sup 17} photons cm{sup –2}, extensive damage to the crystalline ice occurs and photo-produced CO molecules from deeper regions (Process II) are found to desorb at a rapidly increasing rate, which becomes two orders of magnitude greater than Process I. It is postulated that deep radiation damage to produce an extensive amorphous phase of CO{sub 2} occurs in the 50 nm ice film and that CO (and CO{sub 2}) diffusive transport is strongly enhanced in the amorphous phase. Photodesorption in Process II is a combination of electronic and thermally activated processes. Radiation damage in crystalline CO{sub 2} ice has been monitored by its effects on the vibrational line shapes of CO{sub 2}(ice). Here the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition has been correlated with the occurrence of efficient molecular transport over long distances through the amorphous phase of CO{sub 2}(ice). Future studies of the composition of the interstellar region, generated by photodesorption from ice layers on grains, will have to consider the significant effects of radiation damage on photodesorption rates.

  17. Ice shelf-ocean interactions in a general circulation model : melt-rate modulation due to mean flow and tidal currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dansereau, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between the ocean circulation in sub-ice shelf cavities and the overlying ice shelf have received considerable attention in the context of observed changes in flow speeds of marine ice sheets around Antarctica. ...

  18. ICE CHEMISTRY IN EMBEDDED YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, J. M.; Van Loon, J. Th. [School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Chen, C.-H. R.; Indebetouw, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Sloan, G. C. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Woods, P. M.; Kemper, F. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gordon, K. D.; Boyer, M. L.; Shiao, B.; Meixner, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Madden, S. [Service d'Astrophysique, Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Speck, A. K. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Marengo, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    We present spectroscopic observations of a sample of 15 embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These observations were obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) as part of the SAGE-Spec Legacy program. We analyze the two prominent ice bands in the IRS spectral range: the bending mode of CO{sub 2} ice at 15.2 mum and the ice band between 5 and 7 mum that includes contributions from the bending mode of water ice at 6 mum among other ice species. The 5-7 mum band is difficult to identify in our LMC sample due to the conspicuous presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission superimposed onto the ice spectra. We identify water ice in the spectra of two sources; the spectrum of one of those sources also exhibits the 6.8 mum ice feature attributed in the literature to ammonium and methanol. We model the CO{sub 2} band in detail, using the combination of laboratory ice profiles available in the literature. We find that a significant fraction (approx>50%) of CO{sub 2} ice is locked in a water-rich component, consistent with what is observed for Galactic sources. The majority of the sources in the LMC also require a pure-CO{sub 2} contribution to the ice profile, evidence of thermal processing. There is a suggestion that CO{sub 2} production might be enhanced in the LMC, but the size of the available sample precludes firmer conclusions. We place our results in the context of the star formation environment in the LMC.

  19. Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavalieri, D.J.; Gloersen, P.; Parkinson, C.L.; Comiso, J.C.; Zwally, H.J.

    1997-11-07

    From November 1978 through December 1996, the areal extent of sea ice decreased by 2.9 {+-} 0.4 percent decade in the Arctic and increased by 1.3 {+-} 0.2 percent per decade in the Antarctic. The observed hemispheric asymmetry in these trends is consistent with a modeled response to a carbon dioxide-induced climate warming. The interannual variations, which are 2.3 percent of the annual mean in the Arctic, with a predominant period of about 5 years, and 3.4 percent of the annual mean in the Antarctic, with a predominant period of about 3 years, are uncorrelated. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalesse, Heike

    2013-06-27

    Daily netcdf-files of ice-cloud dynamics observed at the ARM sites at SGP (Jan1997-Dec2010) and Manus (Jul1999-Dec2010). The files include variables at different time resolution (10s, 20min, 1hr). Profiles of radar reflectivity factor (dbz), Doppler velocity (vel) as well as retrieved vertical air motion (V_air) and reflectivity-weighted particle terminal fall velocity (V_ter) are given at 10s, 20min and 1hr resolution. Retrieved V_air and V_ter follow radar notation, so positive values indicate downward motion. Lower level clouds are removed, however a multi-layer flag is included.

  1. Water, O2 and Ice in Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Hollenbach; Michael J. Kaufman; Edwin A. Bergin; Gary J. Melnick

    2009-03-02

    We model the temperature and chemical structure of molecular clouds as a function of depth into the cloud, assuming a cloud of constant density n illuminated by an external FUV (6 eV < E < 13.6 eV) flux G_0 (scaling factor in multiples of the local interstellar field). Extending previous photodissociation region models, we include the freezing of species, simple grain surface chemistry, and desorption (including FUV photodesorption) of ices. We also treat the opaque cloud interior with time-dependent chemistry. Here, under certain conditions, gas phase elemental oxygen freezes out as water ice and the elemental C/O abundance ratio can exceed unity, leading to complex carbon chemistry. Gas phase H2O and O2 peak in abundance at intermediate depth into the cloud, roughly A_V~3-8 from the surface, the depth proportional to ln(G_0/n). Closer to the surface, molecules are photodissociated. Deeper into the cloud, molecules freeze to grain surfaces. At intermediate depths photodissociation rates are attenuated by dust extinction, but photodesorption prevents total freezeout. For G_0 < 500, abundances of H2O and O2 peak at values ~10^(-7), producing columns ~10^(15) per cm^2, independent of G_0 and n. The peak abundances depend primarily on the product of the photodesorption yield of water ice and the grain surface area per H nucleus. At higher values of G_0, thermal desorption of O atoms from grains enhances the gas phase H2O peak abundance and column slightly, whereas the gas phase O2 peak abundance rises to ~10^(-5) and the column to ~2x10^(16) per cm^2. We present simple analytic equations for the abundances as a function of depth which clarify the dependence on parameters. The models are applied to observations of H2O, O2, and water ice in a number of sources, including B68, NGC 2024, and Rho Oph.

  2. Rigid pile response to ice plate and current loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolte, John George

    1986-01-01

    Using Light Ice-Breaking Recording Vessel, " Proceedinxls, Qffsbore Technolo Confer~ace, OTC Paper No. 2225, lloOl~J~ PP. McLeod, W. R. , Adamo, L. C. , and Hamilton, R. C. , "A Unique Strategy for Obtaining Wave and Wind Data in the Gulf of Alaska... stream_source_info 1986 Thesis N798.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 88765 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name 1986 Thesis N798.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 RIGID PILE...

  3. SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kalesse, Heike

    Daily netcdf-files of ice-cloud dynamics observed at the ARM sites at SGP (Jan1997-Dec2010) and Manus (Jul1999-Dec2010). The files include variables at different time resolution (10s, 20min, 1hr). Profiles of radar reflectivity factor (dbz), Doppler velocity (vel) as well as retrieved vertical air motion (V_air) and reflectivity-weighted particle terminal fall velocity (V_ter) are given at 10s, 20min and 1hr resolution. Retrieved V_air and V_ter follow radar notation, so positive values indicate downward motion. Lower level clouds are removed, however a multi-layer flag is included.

  4. Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE- SPECIFIC SAVINGS PORTFOLIOImpactIce

  5. Nanotextured Anti-Icing Surfaces | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesofPublications The NRELDemonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano

  6. Part IV: Section D: Packaging and Marketing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D PACKAGING AND MARKING DE-AC36-08GO28308 Modification M801 Section D - Page ii PART I SECTION D PACKAGING AND MARKING TABLE OF CONTENTS D.1 Packaging 1 D.2 Marking 1...

  7. Part V: Section H: Special Contract Requirements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DE-AC36-08GO28308 Modification M801 Section H - Page 2 of 50 PART I SECTION H SPECIAL CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS H.1 No Third Party Beneficiaries...

  8. SECTION FOUR Site Design Guidelines Bicycle Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    SECTION FOUR Site Design Guidelines Bicycle Systems 26 4, the following should be considered when designa ng bicycle routes on roadways: Vehicular speed limits; SECTION FOUR Site Design Guidelines Bicycle Systems 27 4.2 BIKE LANES Bike lanes

  9. Reconstruction of the Past and Forecast of the Future European and British Ice Sheets and Associated Sea–Level Change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagdorn, Magnus K M

    The aim of this project is to improve our understanding of the past European and British ice sheets as a basis for forecasting their future. The behaviour of these ice sheets is investigated by simulating them using a ...

  10. Time-variable gravity observations of ice sheet mass balance: Precision and limitations of the GRACE satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velicogna, I.; Wahr, J.

    2013-01-01

    observations, Science, 314, Peltier, W. R. (2004), Globalice history models (ICE5G [Peltier, 2004] and Fleming andfor Greenland; ICE5G [Peltier, 2004] and IJ05 [Ivins and

  11. Investigation of Glacial Dynamics in the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf System (LAS) Using Remote Sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Zhaohui 1982-

    2012-12-10

    Numerous recent studies have documented dynamic changes in the behaviors of large marine-terminating outlet glaciers and ice streams in Greenland, the Antarctic Peninsula, and West Antarctica. However, fewer observations of outlet glaciers and ice...

  12. The Development and Use of the Berkeley Fluorescence Spectrometer to Characterize Microbial Content and Detect Volcanic Ash in Glacial Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohde, Robert Andrew

    2010-01-01

    optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South PoleContent and Detect Volcanic Ash in Glacial Ice by RobertContent and Detect Volcanic Ash in Glacial Ice by Robert

  13. A deep high-resolution optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South Pole glacial ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woschnagg, Kurt

    A deep high-resolution optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South Pole glacial ice N. E (2005), A deep high-resolution optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South Pole glacial ice

  14. On the water delivery to terrestrial embryos by ice pebble accretion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sato, Takao; Ida, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Standard accretion disk models suggest that the snow line in the solar nebula migrated interior to the Earth's orbit in a late stage of nebula evolution. In this late stage, a significant amount of ice could have been delivered to 1 AU from outer regions in the form of mm to dm-sized "pebbles." This raises the question why the present Earth is so depleted of water (with the ocean mass being as small as 0.023% of the Earth mass). Here we quantify the amount of icy pebbles accreted by terrestrial embryos after the migration of the snow line assuming that no mechanism halts the pebble flow in outer disk regions. We use a simplified version of the coagulation equation to calculate the formation and radial inward drift of icy pebbles in a protoplanetary disk. The pebble accretion cross section of an embryo is calculated using analytic expressions presented by recent studies. We find that the final mass and water content of terrestrial embryos strongly depends on the radial extent of the gas disk, the strength of d...

  15. GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING SECTION D -JAVA 3D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Gary

    GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING SECTION D - JAVA 3D 1SECTION D - GRAPHICS 3-D........................................................................................... 2 30 Graphics 3D: Introduction to Java 3D........................................................................................ 78 ©Gary Hill September 2004 Java 3-D 1 of 13 #12;GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING SECTION D - GRAPHICS 3-D 30

  16. Human Subjects Section 6. Protection of Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Human Subjects Section 6. Protection of Human Subjects This section is required for applicants answering "yes" to the question "Are human subjects involved?" on the R&R Other Project Information form subjects applicants must provide a justification in this section for the claim that no human subjects

  17. Cryoconite Hole Ecosystems in Antarctic Glacier Ice Brent C. Christner, Montana State University, Department of Land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christner, Brent C.

    released from the melted glacial ice and attached to deposited airborne particulates provide the biological glacial melting. Cryoconite hole ecosystems exist and thrive under the harsh conditions associated, are warmed by the sun, and melt into the ice producing a cylindrical basin of liquid water. Organisms

  18. ICE SHEETS, GLOBAL WARMING, AND ARTICLE 2 OF THE UNFCCC An Editorial Essay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    in area and perhaps in mass since the Last Glacial Maximum (Bindschadler, 1998; Huybrechts, 2002) provides of ice loss by altering the mass balance between precipitation rates on the one hand, and melting and ice site has been tied to the availability of surface melt water, which percolates to and lubricates

  19. Ocean Challenge, Vol.19, Autumn 2012 Early Online The shrinking Greenland ice Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Helen

    , the circulation within Greenland's fjords is not well known, and the interaction between glacial ice and the ocean's melting demands that oceanographers get involved! Unlike Antarctica, Greenland is not surrounded speeding up of the glacial ice flux over land. This in turn has caused concern over the vulnerability

  20. INTO DEEP ICEWhat does the future hold for Earth's ice? A group of British researchers seeks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Chenyang

    INTO DEEP ICEWhat does the future hold for Earth's ice? A group of British researchers seeks.spectrum.ieee.org INTO DEEP ICEWhat does the future hold for Earth's ice? A group of British researchers seeks answers 2005 | IEEE Spectrum | NA 29 A COOL MISSION: A team of engineers and glaciologists [center] from

  1. Use of CAD Tools in the Integrated Computer Engineering Design (ICED) Curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uht, Augustus K.

    Use of CAD Tools in the Integrated Computer Engineering Design (ICED) Curriculum Augustus K. Uht undergraduate computer engineering curriculum, ICED, is being introduced at the University of Rhode Island. The main feature of the curriculum is a design project span­ ning the last three years of the major

  2. A Bayesian Network for Autonomous Sensor Control during Polar Ice Sheet Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    is developing intelligent radar sensors for the measurement and study of the mass balance of the polar ice autonomous, mobile, intelligent radar sensors for the measurement and study of the mass balanceA Bayesian Network for Autonomous Sensor Control during Polar Ice Sheet Measurements Sudha

  3. Storage of Dressed Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Refrigerated Freshwater, Diluted Seawater, Seawater, and in Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storage of Dressed Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Refrigerated Freshwater, Diluted during storage. Iced storage offers several advantages over the water chilling systems, including little by 25 per- cent within four days after transfer to ice, and weight gained during water storage was lost

  4. Experimental investigation of ice slurry flow pressure drop in horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Pressure drop behaviour of ice slurry based on ethanol-water mixture in circular horizontal tubes has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethyl alcohol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The pressure drop tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 30% depending on test conditions. Results from flow tests reveal much higher pressure drop for higher ice concentrations and higher velocities in comparison to the single phase flow. However for ice concentrations of 15% and higher, certain velocity exists at which ice slurry pressure drop is same or even lower than for single phase flow. It seems that higher ice concentration delay flow pattern transition moment (from laminar to turbulent) toward higher velocities. In addition experimental results for pressure drop were compared to the analytical results, based on Poiseulle and Buckingham-Reiner models for laminar flow, Blasius, Darby and Melson, Dodge and Metzner, Steffe and Tomita for turbulent region and general correlation of Kitanovski which is valid for both flow regimes. For laminar flow and low buoyancy numbers Buckingham-Reiner method gives good agreement with experimental results while for turbulent flow best fit is provided with Dodge-Metzner and Tomita methods. Furthermore, for transport purposes it has been shown that ice mass fraction of 20% offers best ratio of ice slurry transport capability and required pumping power. (author)

  5. CMU-ITC-83-029 WHITE PAPER: The ICE Execution Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CMU-ITC-83-029 WHITE PAPER: The ICE Execution Environment Document Number 003-001/002.01 DRAFT Unclassified June 21st, 1983 _[H Conner, TC Peters, LK Raper Information Technology Center Carnegie-Mellon University Schenley Park Pittsburgh, PA 15213 #12;The ICE Execution Environment DRAFT 003- 001/002.01 U ncla

  6. A model of melt pond evolution on sea ice P. D. Taylor and D. L. Feltham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    , C12007, doi:10.1029/2004JC002361. 1. Introduction [2] Sea ice is formed by the freezing of seawater into the upper layers of the ocean. Drainage is believed to be the primary source of desalination of sea ice

  7. An icing physics study by using lifetime-based molecular tagging thermometry technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Hui

    of water droplets Solidification process Micro scale heat transfer Wind turbine icing a b s t r a c to produce 20% of its total power from wind by 2030. According to American Wind Energy Association (AWEA within small icing water droplets in order to elucidate underlying physics to improve our under- standing

  8. Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss Shfaqat A. Khan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Kristine

    Elastic uplift in southeast Greenland due to rapid ice mass loss Shfaqat A. Khan,1 John Wahr,2 caused an elastic uplift of $35 mm at a GPS site in Kulusuk. Most of the uplift results from ice dynamic digital elevation models, contributes about $16 mm of the observed uplift, with an additional $5 mm from

  9. Fluorescence Microscopy Evidence for Quasi-Permanent Attachment of Antifreeze Proteins to Ice Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wettlaufer, John S.

    Fluorescence Microscopy Evidence for Quasi-Permanent Attachment of Antifreeze Proteins to Ice ABSTRACT Many organisms are protected from freezing by the presence of extracellular antifreeze proteins (AFPs), which bind to ice, modify its morphology, and prevent its further growth. These proteins have

  10. Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer, CO3(X 1 A1), in carbon-dioxide-rich extraterrestrial ices and in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Carbon dioxide ices were

  11. CALCULATION OF WAVE-ICE INTERACTION USING THE WIENER-HOPF TECHNIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Colin

    of long-standing interest to New Zealand researchers [18, 11, 13], particularly those processes in the South- ern Oceans around the coast of Antarctica. SigniÞcant features of the breakup process, as well-edged shore fast ice. The wave energy that is not reßected, i.e. that penetrates into the ice sheet, causes

  12. Impact of a major ice storm on an old-growth hardwood forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lechowicz, Martin J.

    , and Martin J. Lechowicz Abstract: We quantified the amount of woody biomass and volume lost in an old in northeastern North America. The woody biomass lost is the greatest recorded for any ice storm. The impact of this ice storm ranks among that of the most damaging windstorms and hurricanes recorded in forested land

  13. Water ice in the dark dune spots of Richardson crater on Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kereszturi, A; Schmidt, F

    2010-01-01

    In this study we assess the presence, nature and properties of ices - in particular water ice - that occur within these spots using HIRISE and CRISM observations, as well as the LMD Global Climate Model. Our studies focus on Richardson crater (72{\\deg}S, 179{\\deg}E) and cover southern spring and summer (LS 175{\\deg} - 17 341{\\deg}). Three units have been identified of these spots: dark core, gray ring and bright halo. Each unit show characteristic changes as the season progress. In winter, the whole area is covered by CO2 ice with H2O ice contamination. Dark spots form during late winter and early spring. During spring, the dark spots are located in a 10 cm thick depression compared to the surrounding bright ice-rich layer. They are spectrally characterized by weak CO2 ice signatures that probably result from spatial mixing of CO2 ice rich and ice free regions within pixels, and from mixing of surface signatures due to aerosols scattering. The bright halo shaped by winds shows stronger CO2 absorptions than th...

  14. Influence of tides on melting and freezing beneath FilchnerRonne Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, David

    Influence of tides on melting and freezing beneath FilchnerRonne Ice Shelf, Antarctica Keith doubles. With tidal forcing, the spatial pattern and magnitude of basal melting and freezing generally), Influence of tides on melting and freezing beneath FilchnerRonne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett

  15. Tidally driven ice speed variation at Helheim Glacier, Greenland, observed with terrestrial radar interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, David

    Tidally driven ice speed variation at Helheim Glacier, Greenland, observed with terrestrial radar Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA 4 Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University is usually packed with dense ice melange. Helheim Glacier accelerated and retreated between 2000 and 2005

  16. Performance of a stand-alone wind-electric ice maker for remote villages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, H.C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Brandemuehl, M.J. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Joint Center for Energy Management; Bergey, M.L.S. [Bergey Windpower Co., Norman, OK (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Two ice makers in the 1.1 metric tons per 24 hours (1.2 tons per day) size range were tested to determine their performance when directly coupled to a variable-frequency wind turbine generator. Initial tests were conducted using a dynamometer to simulate to wind to evaluate whether previously determined potential problems were significant and to define basic performance parameters. Field testing in Norman, Oklahoma, was completed to determine the performance of one of the ice makers under real wind conditions. As expected, the ice makers produced more ice at a higher speed than rated, and less ice at a lower speed. Due to the large start-up torque requirement of reciprocating compressors, the ice making system experienced a large start-up current and corresponding voltage drop which required a larger wind turbine that expected to provide the necessary current and voltage. Performance curves for ice production and power consumption are presented. A spreadsheet model was constructed to predict ice production at a user-defined site given the wind conditions for that location. Future work should include long-term performance tests and research on reducing the large start-up currents the system experiences when first coming on line.

  17. Sediment Melt-Migration Dynamics in Perennial Antarctic Lake Ice Steven M. Jepsen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priscu, John C.

    Sediment Melt-Migration Dynamics in Perennial Antarctic Lake Ice Steven M. Jepsen* Edward E. Adams examined sediment melt-migration dynamics in the ice cover of Lake Fryxell, Taylor Valley, McMurdo Dry. The specific objectives were to determine the thermal conditions required for sediment melt and how sediment

  18. A network model for fluid transport through sea ice A. JABINI,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    A network model for fluid transport through sea ice J. ZHU,1 A. JABINI,1,2 K.M. GOLDEN,1 H. EICKEN, particularly in the Antarctic (Ackley and others, 1995; Maksym and Jeffries, 2001). Fluid transport through sea of dissolved organic matter (Lizotte, 2003). While fluid transport controls a broad range of sea-ice processes

  19. Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project March 2012. [1] Six Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project model simulations are compared and Assimilation System models. Citation: Johnson, M., et al. (2012), Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness

  20. A continuum model of melt pond evolution on Arctic sea ice Daniela Flocco1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    A continuum model of melt pond evolution on Arctic sea ice Daniela Flocco1 and Daniel L. Feltham1 to generate meltwater that accumulates in ponds. The melt ponds reduce the albedo of the sea ice cover during), which simulates the formation and evolution of the melt pond cover. In order to be compatible