Sample records for iboe venezuelan merey

  1. Naphthenic acid corrosion by Venezuelan crudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkinson, B.E.; Penuela, L.E. [Lagoven, S.A., Judibana (Venezuela). Amuay Refinery

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuelan crudes can contain levels of naphthenic acids that cause corrosion in distillation units designed for sweet crudes. This naphthenic acid corrosion can be mitigated in several ways, the most common of which is selective alloying. This paper will provide information from field experience on how various refineries worldwide have upgraded materials to run Venezuelan crudes in a cost effective way.

  2. Slump dominated upper slope reservoir facies, Intra Qua Iboe (Pliocene), Edop Field, offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugam, G. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States); Hermance, W.E.; Olaifa, J.O. [Mobil Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integration of sedimentologic and 3D seismic data provides a basis for unraveling complex depositional processes and sand distribution of the Intra Qua Iboe (IQI) reservoir (Pliocene), Edop Field, offshore Nigeria. Nearly 3,000 feet of conventional core was examined in interpreting slump/slide/debris flow, bottom current, turbidity current, pelagic/hemipelagic, wave and tide dominated facies. The IQI was deposited on an upper slope in close proximity to the shelf edge. Through time, as the shelf edge migrated seaward, deposition began with a turbidite channel dominated slope system (IQI 1 and 2) and progressed through a slump/debris flow dominated slope system (IQI 3, the principal reservoir) to a tide and wave dominated, collapsed shelf-edge deltaic system (IQI 4). Using seismic time slices and corresponding depositional facies in the core, a sandy {open_quotes}fairway{open_quotes} has been delineated in the IQI 3. Because of differences in stacking patterns of sandy and muddy slump intervals, seismic facies show: (1) both sheet-like and mounded external forms (geometries), and (2) parallel/continuous as well as chaotic/hummocky internal reflections. In wireline logs, slump facies exhibits blocky, coarsening-up, fining-up, and serrated motifs. In the absence of conventional core, slump facies may be misinterpreted and even miscorrelated because seismic facies and log motifs of slumps and debris flows tend to mimic properties of turbidite fan deposits. The slump dominated reservoir facies is composed of unconsolidated fine-grained sand. Thickness of individual units varies from 1 to 34 feet, but amalgamated intervals reach a thickness of up to 70 feet and apparently form connected sand bodies. Porosity commonly ranges from 20 to 35%. Horizontal permeability commonly ranges from 1,000 to 3,000 md.

  3. Reservoir compartmentalization of deep-water Intra Qua Iboe sand (Pliocene), Edop field, offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermance, W.E.; Olaifa, J.O. [Mobile Producing Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria); Shanmugam, G. [Mobile Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integration of 3-D seismic and sedimentological information provides a basis for recognizing and mapping individual flow units within the Intra Qua Iboe (IQI) reservoir (Pliocene), Edop Field, offshore Nigeria. Core examination show the following depositional facies: A-Sandy slump/mass flow, B-Muddy slump/mass flow, C. Bottom current reworking. D-Non-channelized turbidity currents, E. Channelized (coalesced) turbidity currents. F-Channelized (isolated) turbidity currents, G-Pelagic/hemipelagic, H-Levee, I-Reworked slope, J-Wave dominated, and K-Tide dominated facies. With the exception of facies J and K, all these facies are of deep-water affinity. The IQI was deposited on an upper slope environment in close proximity to the shelf edge. Through time, as the shelf edge migrated scaward, deposition began with a channel dominated deep-water system (IQI 1 and 2) and progressed through a slump/debris flow dominated deep-water system (IQI 3, the principle reservoir) to a tide and wave dominated shallow-water system (IQI 4). Compositional and textural similarities between the deep-water facies result in similar log motifs. Furthermore, these depositional facies are not readily apparent as distinct seismic facies. Deep-water facies A, D, E, and F are reservoir facies, whereas facies B, C, G, H, and I are non-reservoir facies. However, Facies G is useful as a seismically mappable event throughout the study area. Mapping of these non-reservoir events provides the framework for understanding gross reservoir architecture. This study has resulted in seven defined reservoir units within the IQI, which serves as the architectural framework for ongoing reservoir characterization.

  4. The Venezuelan natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, P.V.; Hernandez, N.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuela's consumption energy of comes from three primary sources: hydroelectricity, liquid hydrocarbons and natural gas. In 1986, the energy consumption in the internal market was 95.5 thousand cubic meters per day of oil equivalent, of which 32% was natural gas, 46% liquid hydrocarbons and 22% hydroelectricity. The Venezuelan energy policy established natural gas usage after hydroelectricity, as a substitute of liquid hydrocarbons, in order to increase exports of these. This policy permits a solid development of the natural gas industry, which is covered in this paper.

  5. Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment of the Venezuelan petroleum loss examines two areas. The first part of the analysis focuses on the impact of the loss of Venezuelan crude production on crude oil supply for U.S. refiners who normally run a significant fraction of Venezuelan crude oil. The second part of the analysis looks at the impact of the Venezuelan production loss on crude markets in general, with particular emphasis on crude oil imports, refinery crude oil throughput levels, stock levels, and the changes in price differences between light and heavy crude oils.

  6. Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  7. Long range weathering effects on the chemical properties of two Venezuelan crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bautz, Anton Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LONG RANGE WEATHERING EFFECTS ON Tl'iE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO VENEZUELAN CRUDE OILS A Thesis ANTON FRANK BAUTZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1974 Major Subject: Oceanography LONG RANGE WEATHERING EFFECTS ON THE CHEHICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO VENEZUELAN CRUDE OILS A Thesis by ANTON FRANK BAUTZ Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of C t Head of Department Hember...

  8. A Non Parametric Model for the Forecasting of the Venezuelan Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costanzo, Sabatino; Dehne, Wafaa; Prato, Hender

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neural net model for forecasting the prices of Venezuelan crude oil is proposed. The inputs of the neural net are selected by reference to a dynamic system model of oil prices by Mashayekhi (1995, 2001) and its performance is evaluated using two criteria: the Excess Profitability test by Anatoliev and Gerko (2005) and the characteristics of the equity curve generated by a trading strategy based on the neural net predictions. ----- Se introduce aqui un modelo no parametrico para pronosticar los precios del petroleo Venezolano cuyos insumos son seleccionados en base a un sistema dinamico que explica los precios en terminos de dichos insumos. Se describe el proceso de recoleccion y pre-procesamiento de datos y la corrida de la red y se evaluan sus pronosticos a traves de un test estadistico de predictibilidad y de las caracteristicas del Equity Curve inducido por la estrategia de compraventa bursatil generada por dichos pronosticos.

  9. Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Tower, Nichole A.; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Sahin, Ergin; Golden, Jennifer E.; Noah, James W.; Schroeder, Chad E.; Stosky, Julie B.; Sosa, Melinda; Cramer, Daniel E.; McKellip, Sara N.; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E. Lucile; Schmaljohn, Connie S.; Julander, Justin G.; Smith, Jeffery M.; Filone, Claire Marie; Connor, John H.; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Davey, Robert A.

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    W. Noah4, Chad E. Schroeder5, Julie B. Sotsky2, Melinda I. Sosa4, Daniel E. Cramer2, Sara N. McKellip4, Lynn Rasmussen4, E. Lucile White4, Connie S. Schmaljohn6, Justin G. Julander7, Jeffrey M. Smith6, Claire Marie Filone8, John H. Connor8, Yasuteru... infection. Citation: Chung D-H, Jonsson CB, Tower NA, Chu Y-K, Sahin E, et al. (2014) Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2. PLoS Pathog 10(6): e1004213. doi:10...

  10. Geology reinterpretation of an inactive old field-Mata 3, Venezuelan East Basin-using computer methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, O.; Rivero, C.; Abud, J. [East Univ., Corpoven, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays to find a new oil field is a very dificult task that the petroleum people know very well; therefore the reactivation of an old oil field that had important production is the best way to increase the economic benefits for the Corporation and for the country in general. In this paper, the most important point was the Geology Study regarding the reopening of the Mata-3 oil field, which ceased to be active 15 years ago, after producing 30 mmbls of light oil. There are 30 prospective sands but only 3 of them have produced 70% of the primary production. Thus, the principal objectives were the S2, S3, 4 sands of Oficina Formation (Venezuelan East Basin) in 476 wells located in this area. The following computer systems that were available to us: GIPSIE System, Vax (Intergraph Co.); PMSE System, Vax (Intergraph Co.); CPS-3 System, Unix (Radian Co.); and SIGEMAP System PC (Corpoven, S.A.). All of them assist in the different tasks that must be done by the geologists working in the interpretation area. In the end, we recommended 40 wells to workover (2 wells/year for 20 years) and thereby to increase the POI (petroleum in situ) and increase the reserves by 13.4 mmbls of fight oil, important commercial production. The estimate of the total investment is about $2 million (340 mmBs.).

  11. User's guide to the Venezuelan macrofinancial model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliana, Simon

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a user's guide and documentation for a macrofinancial model of Venezuela. This model was developed under a DOE International Affairs Division grant (contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295) for the project, "A ...

  12. Experimentally induced Venezuelan equine encephalitis infection in the domestic chicken

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Kim Mary Wendelsdorf

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10 and 10 mouse intraperitoneal 50%%d lethal dose 3. 8 5. 0 (MlpLD ) [38]. Proctor and Pearson infected pheasant and chukars with virulent VEE to determine their susceptibility to the virus. Viremias were detected on day one post... and viremias could not be detected, while chickens younger than one month showed high mortality [41]. In a study conducted by Dickerman and Bonacorsa twelve hour old (wet) chickens were reported to be susceptible to VEE infection. The chickens became...

  13. Food webs of two Venezuelan clear-water streams with seasonal fluctuations in hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Christopher Chase

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    on the pool bottom. The substrate was mostly sand, with gravel increasing toward the middle of the channel where the current was greatest, Stream flow was 0. 77 m s'. Dissolved oxygen ranged from 5. 5 mg l to 6 ing l ', and pH ranged from 6 to 5. 5... depth of 3 m. This deep area of the stream had a sand and gravel substrate. The average stream velocity at this site was 0. 86 m s '. Dissolved oxygen ranged from 4 mg l ' to 6 mg I ', and pH was constant at 5. 5. Flooding ceased during September...

  14. The role of domestic animals in the epidemiology of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Stanley Koloc

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    response, (c) antibody response and (d) viremia patterns and persistence. The cattle remained overtly healthy except for a transient fever after inoculation with the virus; how- ever, the dogs exhibited clinical signs of anorexia, fever, and depression... for five to six days post- inoculation. Viremia titers and virus persistence as well as antibody responses were generally greater in the dogs than in the calves. Diurnal variations occurred in many of the parameters measured in both species. Levels...

  15. The Possible Loss of Venezuelan Heavy Crude Oil Imports Underscores the Strategic Importance of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    of the Keystone XL Pipeline By Jorge R. Piñon Recent press reports indicate the possible sale by state crude, making reliance on Canadian heavy crude oil more significant, and the approval of the Keystone XL pipeline even more crucial to U.S. energy security. The pipeline is currently in limbo, waiting on approval

  16. Application of oil gas-chromatography in reservoir compartmentalization in a mature Venezuelan oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz, N.G.; Mompart, L. [Maraven, Caracas (Venezuela); Talukdar, S.C.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas chromatographic oil {open_quotes}fingerprinting{close_quotes} was successfully applied in a multidisciplinary production geology project by Maraven, S.A. to define the extent of vertical and lateral continuity of Eocene and Miocene sandstone reservoirs in the highly faulted Bloque I field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Seventy-five non-biodegraded oils (20{degrees}-37.4{degrees} API) were analyzed with gas chromatography. Fifty were produced from the Eocene Misoa C-4, C-5, C-6 or C-7 horizons, fifteen from the Miocene basal La Rosa and ten from multizone completions. Gas chromatographic and terpane and sterane biomarker data show that all of the oils are genetically related. They were expelled from a type II, Upper Cretaceous marine La Luna source rock at about 0.80-0.90% R{sub o} maturity. Alteration in the reservoir by gas stripping with or without subsequent light hydrocarbons mixing was observed in some oils. Detailed chromatographic comparisons among the oils shown by star plots and cluster analysis utilizing several naphthenic and aromatic peak height ratios, resulted in oil pool groupings. This led to finding previously unknown lateral and vertical reservoir communication and also helped in checking and updating the scaling character of faults. In the commingled oils, percentages of each contributing zone in the mixture were also determined giving Maraven engineers a proven, rapid and inexpensive tool for production allocation and reservoir management The oil pool compartmentalization defined by the geochemical fingerprinting is in very good agreement with the sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the reservoirs and helped evaluate the influence of structure in oil migration and trapping.

  17. Holocene hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal, Venezuelan Andes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Holocene hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal is derived from Atlantic Ocean evaporation which is modified by passage over lowland South America suggest that the decreasing 18 O reflects a decrease in the fraction of moisture entering South America

  18. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  19. Contextualization of four exemplary models of contemporary Venezuelan narrative: Contextualizacion de cuatro pautas para la narritiva Venezolana contemporanea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez Borjas, Gladys Margarita

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sociales. Intentaba dar testimonio de los hechos historicos y sociales influenciada por el medio ambiente politico y social que imperaba en Latinoamerica para esa epoca. Los narradores postmodernistas intentaron combinar ambas corrientes para producir... aproximaci6n a la realidad, comparten las siguientes caracteristicas: el hombre se convierte en el centro de la vision del mundo, la naturaleza ya no interesa corno entidad aut6noma, sino que sirve para explicar al hombre en su medio ambiente ( , de Jose...

  20. Association of Tonate Virus (Subtype IIIB of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Complex) with Encephalitis in a Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the VEE complex, since no virus could be recovered from clinical specimens cultured on mosquito cells) was first isolated in French Gui- ana, an overseas French department located between Brazil and Surinam

  1. NEGATION IN GUIANESE LOKONO/ARAWAK Guianese Lokono/Arawak is spoken in the lowlands of the Guianas, Guyana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the Guianas, Guyana, Suriname, the French Overseas department of Guiana, and Venezuelan Guayana. Some speakers

  2. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  3. Cryptic Speciation and Recombination in the Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as Revealed by Gene Genealogies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Brazil; kMycology Laboratory, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), Caracas, Venezuela

  4. Essays on Forecasting and Hedging Models in the Oil Market and Causality Analysis in the Korean Stock Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hankyeung

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    (Angola), Oriente (Ecuador), Iran Heavy (Islamic Republic of Iran), Basra Light (Iraq), Kuwait Export (Kuwait), Es Sider (Libya), Bonny Light (Nigeria), Qatar Marine (Qatar), Arab Light (Saudi Arabia), Murban (UAE) and Merey (Venezuela). OPEC collects...-1 and 5-3-2, may also be utilized for crack spread margins. Especially, the 2-1-1 crack spread, signifying that two barrels of crude yield a barrel each of gasoline and heating oil, is a better description of the case of heavy crude oils like OPEC basket...

  5. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  6. Distributed leadership and social networks in the school- based development of the International Baccalaureate's Middle Years Program in a Venezuelan K-12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolivar, Jose M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this section the social distribution of design tasks will beof the social distribution of curriculum design and teacherThe social distribution of MYP design tasks (reorganization

  7. 2 REGION 6 COASTAL CHARTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    do Ibo 46,171 Pemba 46,234 61190 Dar Es Salaam to Mchinga Bay 297,064 61191 Dar es Salaam & Adjoining Anchorages 50,040 Plan: Dar es Salaam Harbor (Not shown on index) 10,007 61200 Dar es Salaam to Mombasa

  8. Highlights from ThreeHighlights from Three Decades of Loblolly PineDecades of Loblolly Pine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne''s Flying Services Flying Service Smurfit CartSmurfit Cartóón de Venezuelan de Venezuela Synagro

  9. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reserves. In the data, crude oil reserve addi- tions consistForce and Proven Reserves in the Venezuelan Oil Industry .such as crude oil production, proved reserves, new reserves,

  10. Geochemical tools and paleoclimate clues : multi-molecular and isotropic investigations of tropical marine sediments and alpine ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makou, Matthew C

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    South American climate has undergone dramatic changes since the last glacial period, as evidenced from Cariaco Basin (Venezuelan coast) and Peru Margin marine sediment biomarker records. Compounds derived from vascular ...

  11. Real vs. artefactual absences in species distributions: tests for Oryzomys albigularis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert P.

    distribucio´n de una especie. Usando datos del Smithsonian Venezuelan Project (una serie grande de inventarios´tesis sobre la distribucio´n del roedor sigmodontino Oryzomys albigularis (Tomes, 1860). Tales inventarios

  12. Submarine diagenesis in Lower Cretaceous coral-rudist reefs, Mural Limestone, southeastern Arizona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Scott Lewis

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon isotope values (d 3 C? = 2. 5 '/ ) and a 0. 3X Mg enrichment over original low-Mg calcite rudi st shells support the interpretation of these peloidal features as former Mg-calcite submar1ne cements. Primary porosity in the reef core was neglig1.... . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Peloidal submarine cement infilling primary porosity. . 6O 62 65 25 26 27 Thin section photomicrographs of nonmarine diagenetic components. SEM micrograph showing section through Holocene submarine cement peloid 4 3 C vs. &IBO...

  13. Reaction rates and apparent toxicity of Houston Ship Channel water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Peter William

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through funds provided by the Department of Interior, Federal Water Pollution Cor trol Administration Training Grant iio. 5T1- WP-'?4. My research was financed through funds provided by the Galveston Bay Study of the Texas Water Quality Board Contract... AND DISCUSSIONS V. CI'NCLUSIONS AND RECONNE!IOATIGNS IBO APPENDIX A APPENDIX B REFERENCES. VITA 13g 155 157 V I I LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. The Kreb's Cycle 2. Cytochrome System 3. Warburg Apparatus Constant Volume Respirometer . 5. Functional...

  14. Studies of carbon monoxide diffusion in an urban area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, John Charles

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Major. Sub]ect: Meteorology STnDIBS 0. " CAtIBO:t;IONOXI!IR DIN!iUSION IN AN URBAN ARSA A Thc. si s By JOHN Gifted!, !! S Tt!O:!AS Approved ss to s tyi e and content by: (Che '. rr an of Co@tt &e) Mz. ! n F. Grifffths (Mieia er) Dr. Robert C..., Ihiiniels (Head of Lepcrtnie ) Dr. Vance K. Moyer (Men'. ber) I'Ir, Bill C. Moore J-nue;y 1S7O APSTRACT Studies of Carbon Ilonox de Diffusion in an Urban Area. (January 1970) John C. Thoaias, E. S. , Texas A&'~i University Directcd1 by: Professor...

  15. Accurate BTU Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, S.; Rusnak, J. J.

    1 represents a typical arrangement in which heat is supplied to, or absorbed by the difference in temperatures of a working fluid, generally water. (See Ref. 1). Supply (TIl- Supply (Tl1 E E Heat (BTU) He.' ~ Exchange Exchange Relurn (T2... rate (BTU/unit time) ? m Mass flow rate (lb/unit time) hI' h2 = Specific enthalpy of supply and return liquid (BTU/lb) BTU C p - Average specific heat (--~----) IboF Equations 1, 2 are instantaneous values for heat flow or energy transferred...

  16. Quick Anomaly Detection by the Newcomb--Benford Law, with Applications to Electoral Processes Data from the USA, Puerto Rico and Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pericchi, Luis; 10.1214/09-STS296

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and quick general test to screen for numerical anomalies is presented. It can be applied, for example, to electoral processes, both electronic and manual. It uses vote counts in officially published voting units, which are typically widely available and institutionally backed. The test examines the frequencies of digits on voting counts and rests on the First (NBL1) and Second Digit Newcomb--Benford Law (NBL2), and in a novel generalization of the law under restrictions of the maximum number of voters per unit (RNBL2). We apply the test to the 2004 USA presidential elections, the Puerto Rico (1996, 2000 and 2004) governor elections, the 2004 Venezuelan presidential recall referendum (RRP) and the previous 2000 Venezuelan Presidential election. The NBL2 is compellingly rejected only in the Venezuelan referendum and only for electronic voting units. Our original suggestion on the RRP (Pericchi and Torres, 2004) was criticized by The Carter Center report (2005). Acknowledging this, Mebane (2006) and The...

  17. A cytogenetic study of the Gossypium arboreum L. Gossypium hirsutum L. ring-of-six chromosomes and some plant characters isolated from a three-species hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiranti, Ivan Nicolas

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IIIooot of tbe regaimwesio Sow ibo SoSgeo af +4~4 ~ . 4@i~ l$~. pg 'i l h } 'c 4 'o- t l CTI'QQQSfXC IflST CF SR ggQgg JQg@gg L, {ggggg g gpss L. KR lf - SQ CSIQCNCIOS Ivaa Xieekas TiragA1 ee te ~ eaateat +s i, r 'I 4 I i ' \\ ff P ( 1 8VCGP8...' C. i se. "?'P' '~ '(9::~. IVY rkk' . ~lb A' t. 1 1'' ' I The besLawreu of tLN P1 te glabrous eegregatei iato bairp es4 glabsoas elaeew ?s ?syeoied bF tho bppotbuie state4 slxeeL bowler, the ratiu derialsd sigaifieeatLF Aoa 1&1 (Table 5), Tbe...

  18. Loanwords in Kali'na, a Cariban language of French Guyana Odile Renault-Lescure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . It is constituted by the five Guianas: Venezuelan Guiana, (formerly British) Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana distributed in these countries. 11.141 live in Venezuela, 3000 in Guyana (Forte 2000), 3000 in Suriname (Boven% in Suriname; there is no precise data for French Guiana, but the rate is high). The Kali'na people speak

  19. Upper mantle structure beneath the Caribbean-South American plate boundary from surface wave tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    Upper mantle structure beneath the Caribbean-South American plate boundary from surface wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle of the Caribbean-South American boundary region American continental lithosphere, the Venezuelan archipelago, and the Caribbean oceanic lithosphere

  20. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION Contributions from the United States National Herbarium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    of the Guiana Shield (VENEZUELA: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; GUYANA, SURINAM, FRENCH GUIANA) by V. Funk, DeltaAmacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium and Surinam, French Guiana (a part of France) and the Venezuelan states of Amazonas, Bolivar, and Delta

  1. The tectonics of eastern Hispaniola: an investigation into the formation and episodic uplift of the Beata Ridge and the geologic and velocity structure of the Cibao basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucher, Paul James

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the influence of an end load. The response to the bending of an elastic plate is the creation of a forebulge distal to the point of loading. The bathymetry of the Venezuelan basin and the Muertos trough is investigated to show that the bulge in the eastern...

  2. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 53155319, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/5315/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    to the global budget of methane. 1 Introduction Methane is an important greenhouse gas, whose radiative forcing) was believed to be relatively well known, however, recently a surprising dis- covery, based on laboratory confusing results were obtained in studies of CH4 soil fluxes in the Venezuelan savanna region (Hao et al

  3. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 275280, 2004 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acp/4/275/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    -MS) technique, acetonitrile was measured during the wet season in a Venezuelan woodland savanna. The site daytime in the well mixed boundary layer, which is about 60 pmol/mol above background concentrations Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide, CH3CN) is an ubiquitous trace gas in the atmosphere. Chemically relatively stable

  4. If Saddam Were Only Brazilian By NICHOLAS D. KRISTOF (NYT) 769 words

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    to forestall a riot (though Venezuelan gas is wimpish stuff, like onion-scented air freshener). My mob was made. The ground was littered with broken glass, a few gunshots had been fired, and the army was popping tear gas't done well in South America. ''Inequality in most Latin American countries is far worse than 10 years

  5. 3, 52755288, 2003 New insights in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    (PTR-MS) technique, acetoni- trile was measured during the wet season in a Venezuelan woodland savanna observed during daytime in the well mixed boundary layer, which is about 60 pmol/mol above background Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide, CH3CN) is an ubiquitous trace gas in the atmosphere. Chemically relatively stable

  6. The Long-Run Relationship between Money, Nominal GDP, and the Price Level in Venezuela: 1950 to 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    that structural breaks may be important. Since the economy depends heavily on oil revenue, oil price shocks haveThe Long-Run Relationship between Money, Nominal GDP, and the Price Level in Venezuela: 1950 and the price level in the Venezuelan economy. We apply time-series econometric techniques to annual data

  7. Potential role of event-driven sediment transport on sediment accumulation in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Basin, Venezuela Laura Lorenzoni a, , Claudia R. Benitez-Nelson b,c , Robert C. Thunell b,c , David, Venezuela e Venezuelan Foundation for Seismological Research (FUNVISIS), Apartado Postal 76880, Caracas 1070-A, Venezuela a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 8 June 2011 Received

  8. Receiver function study of the crustal structure of the southeastern Caribbean plate boundary and Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    and Venezuela Fenglin Niu,1 Tammy Bravo,2 Gary Pavlis,2 Frank Vernon,3 Herbert Rendon,4 Maximiliano Bezada,1 broadband array deployed under the BOLIVAR project and the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela northeastern Venezuela and the Venezuelan Andes. There is a good correlation between crustal structure

  9. The gravity field and plate boundaries in Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folinsbee, Robert Allin

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Free-air and simple Bouguer anomaly maps of the Venezuelan continental margin (from 60W to 72W and from 7N to 13N) are presented. The major features of the free-air map are: the large lows associated with the deep ...

  10. Patricia A. Castillo is currently a MSc. Petroleum Engineering student at the Colorado School of Mines, where she also serves as a Research and Teaching Assistant. She received her

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Mines, where she also serves as a Research and Teaching Assistant. She received her BS in Petroleum Engineering from Universidad Central de Venezuela in 2007. During her Bachelor program she developed software, and also was presented in the SPE Venezuelan Student Chapter. Her research focuses on achieve a better

  11. A global perspective on energy markets and economic integration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What will be the effect of Iraqi domestic instability on Iraqi oil production Negotiations for Iranian nuclear technology on Iranian oil supplies Saudi commitment to expanded oil production President Putin's policies on Russian oil and natural gas supplies President Chavez's policies on Venezuelan oil supplies Instability in Nigeria Higher oil prices on world economic growth Effect of economic growth on oil demand in China, India, U.S., etc. Higher oil prices on non-OPEC oil supplies

  12. The Usual and Some Better Shows: Peruvian Theatre in 1981

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luchting, Wolfgang A.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of certain theaters traditionally devoted to the 'classical' genre" (El observador [inter alia], Lima, 12/29/81). The AFP-survey men tions as the most interesting productions Ultimo round by Venezuelan Rodolfo Santana, La seorita de Tacna by Peruvian... of the group and the playwright J. Rivera Saavedra; (4) celebrating the International Year of the Physically Handicapped, Osvaldo Cattone gave us Mark Medoffs Hijos de un Dios menor [Teatro Marsano]; (5) El gran des chave [Teatro Larco; cf. supra]." When...

  13. e-Science perspectives in Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daz, G; Hamar, V; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Mendez, Z; Nez, L A; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the e-Science strategy in Venezuela, in particular initiatives by the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), Merida, and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. We present the plans for the Venezuelan Academic Grid and the current status of Grid ULA supported by Internet2. We show different web-based scientific applications that are being developed in quantum chemistry, atomic physics, structural damage analysis, biomedicine and bioclimate within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA)

  14. Kinetic modeling of petroleum formation in the Maracaibo Basin: Final report, Annex 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.; Sweeney, J.J.; Reynolds, J.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Vallejos, C.; Talukdar, S. [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to develop and test improved kinetic models of petroleum generation and cracking, pore pressure buildup, and fluid expulsion. The work was performed jointly between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Research Organization of the Venezuelan National Petroleum Company under Annex 12 of an agreement between DOE and the Venezuelan Ministry of Energy and Mines. Laboratory experiments were conducted at both LLNL and INTEVEP to obtain the reaction rate and product composition information needed to develop chemical kinetic models. Experiments at INTEVEP included hydrous pyrolysis and characterization of oils by gas and liquid chromatography. Experiments at LLNL included programmed pyrolysis in open and self-purging reactors, sometimes including on-line gas analysis by tandem mass spectrometry, and characterization of oils by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The PMOD code was used to develop a detailed pyrolysis mechanism from the extensive laboratory data. This mechanism is able to predict yield of bitumen, oil, and gas as a function of time and temperature for such diverse laboratory conditions as hydrous pyrolysis and rapid, programmed, open pyrolysis. PMOD calculations were compared to geologic observations for 22 wells in the Maracaibo basin. When permeability parameters are chosen to match calculated pore pressures with measured present day values, the PMOD calculations indicate that organic maturation reactions contribute a significant fraction of the overpressure during oil generation and early oil cracking. Calculations agreed with observed geochemical maturity parameters of the source rock. 37 refs., 64 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  16. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  17. Competitiveness of Mexican crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Mexico is under great pressure to maintain oil export revenue levels if it is to avoid a reversal in its economic recovery program. While the country's vulnerability to a price plunge is also applicable to OPEC countries, the North Sea producers, and others, Mexico does have an ace. The ace is that its heavier, metals-ridden and sulfur-laden Maya crude, which had to be pushed on customers until about 1981, is now in strong demand. Comparisons are presented of the market value of five crude oils refined in the US Gulf Coast: West Texas Intermediate (or WTI, a 40/sup 0/ API, light), Arabian Light and Isthmus (both 34/sup 0/ medium-light), Alaska North Slope (or ANS, a 27/sup 0/ API, a medium), and Maya (22/sup 0/ API, medium-heavy). In this mix, the heavier the crude, the greater is the refining margin (except for Arabian Light, for which freight cost and product yield provide lower margins than those derived from WTI). The sacrifice by OPEC and other producers cutting crude oil prices was to the benefit to refiners' improved margins during the first half of 1983. Those cuts were on the lighter-quality oils. But prices for heavier Venezuelan, Californian, and Mexican crudes increased during the second half of 1983, due to developing refinery technologies in extracting favorable product yields from them. This issue of Energy Detente presents their fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for December 1983 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  18. Fireside carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C. [PDVSA-Refineria Isla, Curayao (Netherlands); Mayorga, A.; Hau, J.L. [PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most heavy Venezuelan crudes are recognized for having a high total acid number (TAN) that is usually associated with a high tendency to produce naphthenic acid corrosion. To resist this type of corrosion in vacuum heaters, 9Cr-1Mo steel and stainless steels containing molybdenum are usually recommended. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service, and just one year after undergoing the last turnaround inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 C (1250 F). Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023 O/O).Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur due to asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures.