Sample records for hydroxide exchange membranes

  1. Decomposition Pathways of Tetraalkylammonium Hydroxides: Experimental and DFT Studies and Their Implications for Alkaline Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovar, B. S.; Edson, J. B.; Macomber, C. S.; Long, H.; Boncella, J. M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of the thermal decomposition of a series of alkyl trimethyl ammonium hydroxides ([RMe{sub 3}N][OH], R = Et, n-Pr, i-Bu, PhCH{sub 2}, Me{sub 3}CCH{sub 2}) was studied using TGA, evolved gas analysis and NMR spectroscopy due to the importance of these and related ions in anion exchange fuel cell membranes. Isotopic labeling with deuterium showed that deprotonation of the methyl groups of the ammonium ions by deuteroxide establishes a rapid equilibrium between the tetraalkyl ammonium ions and the nitrogen ylide species and water that scrambles the deuterium with the proton on the methyl groups. The products of the thermal decomposition when R = Et, n-Pr, i-Bu are predominately olefins arising from Hoffmann elimination, while the neopentyl substituted ammonium ion gives only neopentyl trimethyl amine and methanol, the products of S{sub N}2 attack of hydroxide on the methyl groups. DFT studies of these reactions confirm the relative activation barriers that are observed in the experimental decomposition studies.

  2. Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles: Quaternary Phosphonium Based Hydroxide Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Delaware is developing a new fuel cell membrane for vehicles that relies on cheaper and more abundant materials than those used in current fuel cells. Conventional fuel cells are very acidic, so they require acid-resistant metals like platinum to generate electricity. The University of Delaware is developing an alkaline fuel cell membrane that can operate in a non-acidic environment where cheaper materials like nickel and silver, instead of platinum, can be used. In addition to enabling the use of cheaper metals, the University of Delaware’s membrane is 500 times less expensive than other polymer membranes used in conventional fuel cells.

  3. Anion exchange membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  4. Advanced Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes Advanced Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19,...

  5. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board...

  6. Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane, fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer the promise of efficient conversion of chemical energy of fuel, such as hydrogen or methanol, into electricity with minimal pollution. Their widespread use to power zero-emission automobiles as part of a hydrogen economy can contribute to enhanced energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the commercial viability of PEMFC technology is hindered by high cost associated with the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and poor membrane durability under prolonged operation at elevated temperature. Membranes for automotive fuel cell applications need to perform well over a period comparable to the life of an automotive engine and under heavy load cycling including start-stop cycling under sub-freezing conditions. The combination of elevated temperature, changes in humidity levels, physical stresses and harsh chemical environment contribute to membrane degradation. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA)-based membranes, such as Nafion®, have been the mainstay of PEMFC technology. Their limitations, in terms of cost and poor conductivity at low hydration, have led to continuing research into membranes that have good proton conductivity at elevated temperatures above 120 °C and under low humidity conditions. Such membranes have the potential to avoid catalyst poisoning, simplify fuel cell design and reduce the cost of fuel cells. Hydrocarbon-based membranes are being developed as alternatives to PFSA membranes, but concerns about chemical and mechanical stability and durability remain. Novel anhydrous membranes based on polymer gels infused with protic ionic liquids have also been recently proposed, but considerable fundamental research is needed to understand proton transport in novel membranes and evaluate durability under fuel cell operating conditions. In order to advance this promising technology, it is essential to rationally design the next generation of PEMs based on an understanding of chemistry, membrane morphology and proton transport obtained from experiment, theory and computer simulation.

  7. DYNAMIC MODELING PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    DYNAMIC MODELING PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OVERVIEW Current/Completed Plug Power to garner SCAQMD funding for fuel cell testing GenCore system is sensitive to diluents · As built design stream to compensate for removal of EGR · Functionality of the modified GenCore Fuel Cell system

  8. Investigation of Transient Phenomena of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Investigation of Transient Phenomena of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Roongrojana of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Roongrojana Songprakorp BSc, Prince of Songkhla University to the modeling and under- standing of the dynamic behavior of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs

  9. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hibbs, Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Fujimoto, Cy H. (Albuquerque, NM); Norman, Kirsten (Albuquerque, NM); Hickner, Michael A. (State College, PA)

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  10. Nafion-sepiolite composite membranes for improved Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell performance.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nafion®-sepiolite composite membranes for improved Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell performance, characterized and integrated in Membrane-Electrodes Assembly to be tested in fuel cell operating conditions, mobile or stationary), Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are amongst the most studied fuel

  11. anion exchange membrane: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PEMFC) are amongst the most studied fuel Boyer, Edmond 13 Computational modeling and optimization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Open Access Theses and Dissertations...

  12. anion exchange membranes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PEMFC) are amongst the most studied fuel Boyer, Edmond 13 Computational modeling and optimization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Open Access Theses and Dissertations...

  13. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-3119 Unlimited Release Printed May 2011 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Joseph W. Pratt,...

  14. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P. (Berkeley, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid membrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selective for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  15. Computational Modeling and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Computational Modeling and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Marc Secanell and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Marc Secanell Gallart Bachelor in Engineering cells. In this thesis, a computational framework for fuel cell analysis and optimization is presented

  16. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P. (Berkeley, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid embrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selected for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  17. Recent developments in proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) that operate at temperatures above 120 °C are needed to avoid catalyst poisoning, speed up electrochemical reactions, simplify the design and reduce the cost of fuel cells. This review summarizes developments in PEMs over the last five years. In order to design new membranes for elevated temperature operation, one must understand the chemistry, morphology and dynamics of protons and small molecules in existing membranes. The integration of experiments with modeling and simulation can shed light on the hierarchical structure of the membrane and dynamical processes associated with molecular transport. Based on such a fundamental understanding, membranes can be modified by controlling the polymer chemistry and architecture or adding inorganic fillers that can retain water under low relative humidity conditions. In addition, the development of anhydrous membranes based on phosphoric acid doped polymers, ionic liquid-infused polymer gels and solid acids can enable fuel cell operation above 150 °C. Considerable work remains to be done to identify proton transport mechanisms in novel membranes and evaluate membrane durability under real world operating conditions.

  18. Transport properties and fuel cell performance of sulfonated poly(imide) proton exchange membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transport properties and fuel cell performance of sulfonated poly(imide) proton exchange membranes for their performance as proton exchange membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The proton to methanol of chemical fuels, such as methanol [3]. For portable applications, proton exchange membrane fuel cells

  19. PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OPERATION AND DEGRADATION IN SHORT-CIRCUIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OPERATION AND DEGRADATION IN SHORT-CIRCUIT R.E. Silvaa, b, d , F exchange membrane fuel cells, short circuit, degradation mechanism, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy an electrical short circuit of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack. The physical quantities in the fuel

  20. Conductivity Measurements of Synthesized Heteropoly Acid Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Record, K.A.; Haley, B.T.; Turner, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell technology is receiving attention due to its potential to be a pollution free method of electricity production when using renewably produced hydrogen as fuel. In a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell H2 and O2 react at separate electrodes, producing electricity, thermal energy, and water. A key component of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane that separates the electrodes. DuPont’s Nafion® is the most commonly used membrane in PEM fuel cells; however, fuel cell dehydration at temperatures near 100°C, resulting in poor conductivity, is a major hindrance to fuel cell performance. Recent studies incorporating heteropoly acids (HPAs) into membranes have shown an increase in conductivity and thus improvement in performance. HPAs are inorganic materials with known high proton conductivities. The primary objective of this work is to measure the conductivity of Nafion, X-Ionomer membranes, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Developed Membranes that are doped with different HPAs at different concentrations. Four-point conductivity measurements using a third generation BekkTech? conductivity test cell are used to determine membrane conductivity. The effect of multiple temperature and humidification levels is also examined. While the classic commercial membrane, Nafion, has a conductivity of approximately 0.10 S/cm, measurements for membranes in this study range from 0.0030 – 0.58 S/cm, depending on membrane type, structure of the HPA, and the relative humidity. In general, the X-ionomer with H6P2W21O71 HPA gave the highest conductivity and the Nafion with the 12-phosphotungstic (PW12) HPA gave the lowest. The NREL composite membranes had conductivities on the order of 0.0013 – 0.025 S/cm.

  1. Theory of proton exchange membranes fuel cells and the testing of performance characteristics of polymer electrolyte membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc, 1982-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells hold great promise as source of power. A hydrogen and oxygen PEM fuel is a simple fuel cell that can be theoretically characterized. The performance of a PEM fuel cell can be ...

  2. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell degradation prediction based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell degradation prediction based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference online XX XX XXXX Keywords: Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell degradation, Prognostic and Health nominal operating condition of a PEM fuel cell stack. It proposes a methodology based on Adaptive Neuro

  3. Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

    Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Dr Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are alternative energy conversion devices that efficiently. The fundamental relationship between operating conditions and device performance will help to optimize the device

  4. An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao the performance of anion exchange membrane (AEM) direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) is that state-of-the-art AEMs exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM- DEFCs) have received ever-increasing attention, mainly

  5. A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Loren E

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The basic concept of this form...

  6. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to

  7. Low platinum loading electrospun electrodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Simcha Lev

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to evaluate the utility of electrospun carbon nanofiber supports for sputtered platinum catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The performance of the sputtered nanofiber supports ...

  8. Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel: carbon aerogel, platinum, Strong Electrostatic Adsorption, chemical reduction, UV With the rarefaction the diffusive phenomena limiting electrochemical performances. By contrast, carbon aerogels present

  9. A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Loren E

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The ...

  10. Influence of electrode stress on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance : experimental characterization and power optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallant, Betar M. (Betar Maurkah)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressive stress applied to the electrode area of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is known to significantly affect power output. In practice, electrode stress arises during operation due to the clamping force ...

  11. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  12. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Cy H. (Albuquerque, NM); Hibbs, Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Ambrosini, Andrea (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  13. New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Summary of Colorado School of Mines heteropolyacid research presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003 "

  14. A Comparison of Biomimetic Design and TRIZ Applied to the Design of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Lily H.

    Engineering, University of Toronto *shu@mie.utoronto.ca Abstract The Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell Introduction A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell converts the stored chemical energy in a fuel, e.g., hydrogen, into electrical energy. An important and current challenge in PEM fuel cells involves water

  15. Temperature-Dependent Simulations of Dry Gas Transport in the Electrodes of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Membrane Fuel Cells M. J. Kermani1 J. M. Stockie2 mkermani@unb.ca stockie@unb.ca 1 Post Doctoral Fellow the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically. The di usion to achieve this goal is via proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells, which in principle combine oxygen

  16. A critical review of cooling techniques in proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    of a cooling system. To promote the development of effective cooling strategies, cooling techniques reported, challenges and progress of various cooling techniques, including (i) cooling with heat spreaders (using highReview A critical review of cooling techniques in proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

  17. Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by Pulsed-Laser Deposition (PLDGDL)(catalyst) (pulsed laser deposition PLD) (plasma plume) () #12;III Abstract key word: Fuel CellPulsed Laser. People begin to develop fuel cells for seeking alternative energy sources. Fuel cell use the chemical

  18. Measurements of water uptake and transport properties in anion-exchange membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    the cost of the fuel cell systems. Although promising, conventional liquid electrolyte- based alkaline fuel Keywords: Direct ethanol fuel cells Anion-exchange membrane Water uptake Water diffusivity Mass. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Alkaline fuel cells allow the use of non-platinum (Pt) catalysts

  19. Two-phase ow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Two-phase ¯ow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells Z.H. Wanga rights reserved. Keywords: Two-phase transport; PEM fuel cells; Analytical modeling; Numerical simulation excessive water, in parti- cular, for the air cathode of direct methanol PEM fuel cells. Modeling water

  20. 160 C PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.G. Marianowski

    2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program were: (a) to develop and demonstrate a new polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system that operates up to 160 C temperatures and at ambient pressures for stationary power applications, and (b) to determine if the GTI-molded composite graphite bipolar separator plate could provide long term operational stability at 160 C or higher. There are many reasons that fuel cell research has been receiving much attention. Fuel cells represent environmentally friendly and efficient sources of electrical power generation that could use a variety of fuel sources. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), formerly Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), is focused on distributed energy stationary power generation systems. Currently the preferred method for hydrogen production for stationary power systems is conversion of natural gas, which has a vast distribution system in place. However, in the conversion of natural gas into a hydrogen-rich fuel, traces of carbon monoxide are produced. Carbon monoxide present in the fuel gas will in time cumulatively poison, or passivate the active platinum catalysts used in the anodes of PEMFC's operating at temperatures of 60 to 80 C. Various fuel processors have incorporated systems to reduce the carbon monoxide to levels below 10 ppm, but these require additional catalytic section(s) with sensors and controls for effective carbon monoxide control. These CO cleanup systems must also function especially well during transient load operation where CO can spike 300% or more. One way to circumvent the carbon monoxide problem is to operate the fuel cell at a higher temperature where carbon monoxide cannot easily adsorb onto the catalyst and poison it. Commercially available polymer membranes such as Nafion{trademark} are not capable of operation at temperatures sufficiently high to prevent this. Hence this project investigated a new polymer membrane alternative to Nafion{trademark} that is capable of operation at temperatures up to 160 C.

  1. High performance of a carbon supported ternary PdIrNi catalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    -oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells Shuiyun Shen, T. S. Zhao,* Jianbo Xu and Yinshi Li-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs). We demonstrate that the use of the ternary PdIrNi catalyst for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs) offers

  2. Develpment of Higher Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assembly (MEA) for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Agro, Anthony DeCarmine, Shari Williams

    2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Our work will fucus on developing higher temperature MEAs based on SPEKK polymer blends. Thse MEAs will be designed to operatre at 120 degrees C Higher temperatures, up to 200 degrees C will also be explored. This project will develop Nafion-free MEAs using only SPEKK blends in both membrane and catalytic layers.

  3. A Durable Alternative for Proton-Exchange Membranes: Sulfonated Poly(Benzoxazole Thioether Sulfone)s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Dan; Li, Jin Hui; Song, Min Kyu; Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Meilin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s ( SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid–base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25°C to 90°C and excellent thermal stability up to 250°C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80°C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications.

  4. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

  5. The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

  6. Mechanics of proton exchange membranes : time, temperature, and hydration dependence of the stress-strain behavior of persulfonated polytetrafluorethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silberstein, Meredith N

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are an important part of the future strategy for reducing dependence on fossil fuels as the world's supplies become more limited and greenhouse gasses become more of a concern. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells ...

  7. The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

  8. Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Van Nguyen, Trung

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper water management is vital to ensuring successful performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The effectiveness of the direct liquid water injection scheme and the interdigitated flow field design towards providing adequate gas...

  9. Biohydrogen production using green microalgae as an approach to operate a small Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Membrane Fuel Cell Samira Chader1,2,* , Bouziane Mahmah1 , Khaled Chetehouna3 , Fethia Amrouche1 , Kamel to produce hydrogen in a 500 ml photobioreactor coupled to a small Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC system show that the produced biohydrogen can be used to operate a PEM Fuel Cell with good performances

  10. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  11. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Qinggang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in order to remove any residual water in the membrane andthat a small amount of residual water exists in the membrane

  12. anion-exchange membrane fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operating Temperature Room drive cycles. High-temperature membranes are still in a development stage and durability dataDurable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes US...

  13. HOGEN{trademark} proton exchange membrane hydrogen generators: Commercialization of PEM electrolyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, W.F.; Molter, T.M. [Proton Energy Systems, Inc., Rocky Hill, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    PROTON Energy Systems` new HOGEN series hydrogen generators are Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) based water electrolyzers designed to generate 300 to 1000 Standard Cubic Feet Per Hour (SCFH) of high purity hydrogen at pressures up to 400 psi without the use of mechanical compressors. This paper will describe technology evolution leading to the HOGEN, identify system design performance parameters and describe the physical packaging and interfaces of HOGEN systems. PEM electrolyzers have served US and UK Navy and NASA needs for many years in a variety of diverse programs including oxygen generators for life support applications. In the late 1970`s these systems were advocated for bulk hydrogen generation through a series of DOE sponsored program activities. During the military buildup of the 1980`s commercial deployment of PEM hydrogen generators was de-emphasized as priority was given to new Navy and NASA PEM electrolysis systems. PROTON Energy Systems was founded in 1996 with the primary corporate mission of commercializing PEM hydrogen generators. These systems are specifically designed and priced to meet the needs of commercial markets and produced through manufacturing processes tailored to these applications. The HOGEN series generators are the first step along the path to full commercial deployment of PEM electrolyzer products for both industrial and consumer uses. The 300/1000 series are sized to meet the needs of the industrial gases market today and provide a design base that can transition to serve the needs of a decentralized hydrogen infrastructure tomorrow.

  14. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Christopher J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  15. A high-performance alkaline exchange membrane direct formate , Z.K. Tang b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    is attributed to the use of the Pd/C catalyst and QAPSF membrane. The operating stability is verified dissolved into water to form a liquid fuel. Recently, a proof-of-concept membrane electrode assembly (MEA

  16. Conceptual design report for a Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for transportation application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the conceptual design for a Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for transportation applications. The design is based on the initial selection of the Chrysler LH sedan as the target vehicle with a 50 kW (gross) PEM Fuel Cell Stack (FCS) as the primary power source, a battery-powered Load Leveling Unit (LLU) for surge power requirements, an on-board hydrogen storage subsystem containing high pressure gaseous storage, a Gas Management Subsystem (GMS) to manage the hydrogen and air supplies for the FCS, and electronic controllers to control the electrical system. The design process has been dedicated to the use of Design-to-Cost (DTC) principles. The Direct Hydrogen-Powered PEM Fuel Cell Stack Hybrid Vehicle (DPHV) system is designed to operate on the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) and Hiway Cycles. These cycles have been used to evaluate the vehicle performance with regard to range and hydrogen usage. The major constraints for the DPHV vehicle are vehicle and battery weight, transparency of the power system and drive train to the user, equivalence of fuel and life cycle costs to conventional vehicles, and vehicle range. The energy and power requirements are derived by the capability of the DPHV system to achieve an acceleration from 0 to 60 MPH within 12 seconds, and the capability to achieve and maintain a speed of 55 MPH on a grade of seven percent. The conceptual design for the DPHV vehicle is shown in a figure. A detailed description of the Hydrogen Storage Subsystem is given in section 4. A detailed description of the FCS Subsystem and GMS is given in section 3. A detailed description of the LLU, selection of the LLU energy source, and the power controller designs is given in section 5.

  17. Oxygen diffusion, surface exchange and oxygen semi-permeation performances of Ln2NiO4+ membranes (Ln = La, Pr and Nd)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Oxygen diffusion, surface exchange and oxygen semi-permeation performances of Ln2NiO4+ membranes the rate determining step (rds) in oxygen semi-permeation of dense Ln2NiO4+ membranes (with Ln = La, Pr and Nd), a specific setup has been designed, which allowed measuring the oxygen semi-permeation flux

  18. anion-exchange membranes composed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: - moval of chloride ions. The composite membrane is homogeneously modified by gas phase nitration to introduce quaternary ammonium charges on it. We showed that the...

  19. The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George A. Marchetti

    1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

  20. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; V. Colbow; M. Dutta; D. Harvey; S. Wessel

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  1. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Harvey, Davie; Wessel, Silvia

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 #2;C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  2. -Supporting Information-2 Patterned ion exchange membranes for improved power production in4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the mesh spacer. The value of Aspacer was45 calculated using the dimensions of the spacer (1.5 cm Ã? 3.5 cm-conductive spacer37 In the control reactors, non-conductive polyethylene mesh was used to maintain the38 inter-membrane distance as a spacer. The open area of the mesh was calculated as 70% by the39 wire diameter and opening

  3. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Zueqian

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  4. Self-humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Operation of larger cells and fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhar, H.P.; Lee, J.H.; Lewinski, K.A. [BCS Technology, Inc., Bryan, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The PEM fuel cell is promising as the power source for use in mobile and stationary applications primarily because of its high power density, all solid components, and simplicity of operation. For wide acceptability of this power source, its cost has to be competitive with the presently available energy sources. The fuel cell requires continuous humidification during operation as a power source. The humidification unit however, increases fuel cell volume, weight, and therefore decreases its overall power density. Great advantages in terms of further fuel cell simplification can be achieved if the humidification process can be eliminated or minimized. In addition, cost reductions are associated with the case of manufacturing and operation. At BCS Technology we have developed a technology of self-humidified operation of PEM fuel cells based on the mass balance of the reactants and products and the ability of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to retain water necessary for humidification under the cell operating conditions. The reactants enter the fuel cell chambers without carrying any form of water, whether in liquid or vapor form. Basic principles of self-humidified operation of fuel cells as practiced by BCS Technology, Inc. have been presented previously in literature. Here, we report the operation of larger self-humidified single cells and fuel cell stacks. Fuel cells of areas Up to 100 cm{sup 2} have been operated. We also show the self-humidified operation of fuel cell stacks of 50 and 100 cm{sup 2} electrode areas.

  5. Effects of proton-exchange membrane fuel-cell operating conditions on charge transfer resistances measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron, Doug S [ORNL; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are highly dependent on operating conditions, such as humidity and temperature. This study employs electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to measure the effects of operating parameters on internal proton and electron transport resistance mechanisms in the PEMFC. Current-density experiments have been performed to measure the power production in a 25 cm{sup 2} Nafion 117 PEMFC at varying operating conditions. These experiments have shown that low humidity and low temperature contribute to decreased power production. EIS is currently employed to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in power production by calculating the specific resistances at various regions in the PEMFC. Experiments are performed at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 C, feed humidities from 20 to 98%, and air stoichiometric ratios from 1.33 to 2.67. In all experiments, the hydrogen feed stoichiometric ratio was approximately 4.0. EIS is used to identify which transport steps limit the power production of the PEMFC over these ranges of conditions. The experimental data are analyzed via comparison to equivalent circuit models (ECMs), a technique that uses an electrical circuit to represent the electrochemical and transport properties of the PEMFC. These studies will aid in designing fuel cells that are more tolerant to wide-ranging operating conditions. In addition, optimal operating conditions for PEMFC operation can be identified.

  6. Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by Shewanella and Geobacter: a key role for multihaem c-type cytochromes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Liang; Squier, Thomas C.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissimilatory reduction of metal (e.g. Fe, Mn) (hydr)oxides represents a challenge for microorganisms, as their cell envelopes are impermeable to metal (hydr)oxides that are poorly soluble in water. To overcome this physical barrier, the Gram-negative bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobactersulfurreducens have developed electron transfer (ET) strategies that require multihaem c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts). In S. oneidensis MR-1, multihaem c-Cyts CymA and MtrA are believed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane quinone/quinol pool through the periplasm to the outer membrane. The type II secretion system of S. oneidensis MR-1 has been implicated in the reduction of metal (hydr)oxides, most likely by translocating decahaem c-Cyts MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane to the surface of bacterial cells where they form a protein complex. The extracellular MtrC and OmcA can directly reduce solid metal (hydr)oxides. Likewise, outer membrane multihaem c-Cyts OmcE and OmcS of G. sulfurreducens are suggested to transfer electrons from outer membrane to type IV pili that are hypothesized to relay the electrons to solid metal (hydr)oxides. Thus, multihaem c-Cyts play critical roles in S. oneidensis MR-1-and G. sulfurreducens-mediated dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides by facilitating ET across the bacterial cell envelope.

  7. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the invention comprises an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane therebetween, the anode and the cathode each comprising a patterned sheet of longitudinally aligned transition metal-containing carbon nanotubes, wherein the carbon nanotubes are in contact with and are aligned generally perpendicular to the membrane, wherein a catalytically active transition metal is incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

  8. Mechanical and Transport Properties of Layer-by-Layer Electrospun Composite Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannarino, Matthew M.

    Composite membranes composed of highly conductive and selective layer-by-layer (LbL) films and electrospun fiber mats were fabricated and characterized for mechanical strength and electrochemical selectivity. The LbL ...

  9. Platinum-Alloy Cathode Catalyst Degradation in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Nanometer-Scale Compositional and Morphological Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuo

    Electrochemical measurements showed an ?75% Pt surface area loss and an ?40% specific activity loss for a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) cathode with acid-treated “Pt[subscript 3]Co ” catalyst particles in a H[subscript ...

  10. Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chakraborty, Jui, E-mail: jui@cgcri.res.in [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ghosh, Swapankumar, E-mail: swapankumar.ghosh2@mail.dcu.ie [National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR, Trivandrum 695019 (India); Mitra, Manoj K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Basu, Debabrata [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, CSIR, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 A in pristine LDH to 21.3 A in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug molecule in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion. - Graphical abstract: ZnAl-layered double hydroxide intercalated with methotrexate ({approx}34% loading) promises the possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in controlled delivery. Highlights: > ZnAl-layered double hydroxide methotrexate nanohybrid has been synthesized. > XRD and TEM studies on nanohybrid revealed successful intercalation of methotrexate. > TG and CHN analyses showed {approx}34 wt% of methotrexate loading into the nanohybrid. > Possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in delivery.

  11. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  12. Nanoscale study of reactive transport in catalyst layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with precious and non-precious catalysts using lattice Boltzmann method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li; Kang, Qinjun; Holby, Edward F; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution porous structures of catalyst layer (CL) with multicomponent in proton exchange membrane fuel cells are reconstructed using a reconstruction method called quartet structure generation set. Characterization analyses of nanoscale structures are implemented including pore size distribution, specific area and phase connectivity. Pore-scale simulation methods based on the lattice Boltzmann method are developed and used to predict the macroscopic transport properties including effective diffusivity and proton conductivity. Nonuniform distributions of ionomer in CL generates more tortuous pathway for reactant transport and greatly reduces the effective diffusivity. Tortuosity of CL is much higher than conventional Bruggeman equation adopted. Knudsen diffusion plays a significant role in oxygen diffusion and significantly reduces the effective diffusivity. Reactive transport inside the CL is also investigated. Although the reactive surface area of non-precious metal catalyst (NPMC) CL is much higher t...

  13. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Willow brook, IL)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane there between. A bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated in the nanotubes forms at least one portion of the MEA and is in contact with the membrane. A combination selected from one or more of a hydrocarbon and an organometallic compound containing an catalytically active transition metal and a nitrogen containing compound and an inert gas and a reducing gas is introduced into a first reaction zone maintained at a first reaction temperature for a time sufficient to vaporize material therein. The vaporized material is transmitted to a second reaction zone maintained at a second reaction temperature for a time sufficient to grow longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes. The nanotubes are in contact with a portion of the MEA at production or being positioned in contact thereafter. Methods of forming a PEMFC are also disclosed.

  14. Pre-Oxidized and Nitrided Stainless Steel Foil for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates: Part 2- Single-Cell Fuel Cell Evaluation of Stamped Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; EstevezGenCell, Francisco [GenCell Corp; Connors, Dan [GenCell Corp; Garzon, Fernando [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gervasio, Don [Arizona State University; Kosaraju, S.H. [Arizona State University

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal (gas) nitridation of stainless steel alloys can yield low interfacial contact resistance (ICR), electrically conductive and corrosion-resistant nitride containing surface layers (Cr{sub 2}N, CrN, TiN, V{sub 2}N, VN, etc.) of interest for fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. This paper presents results of proton exchange membrane (PEM) single-cell fuel cell studies of stamped and pre-oxidized/nitrided developmental Fe-20Cr-4V weight percent (wt.%) and commercial type 2205 stainless steel alloy foils. The single-cell fuel cell behavior of the stamped and pre-oxidized/nitrided material was compared to as-stamped (no surface treatment) 904L, 2205, and Fe-20Cr-4V stainless steel alloy foils and machined graphite of similar flow field design. The best fuel cell behavior among the alloys was exhibited by the pre-oxidized/nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V, which exhibited {approx}5-20% better peak power output than untreated Fe-20Cr-4V, 2205, and 904L metal stampings. Durability was assessed for pre-oxidized/nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V, 904L metal, and graphite plates by 1000+ h of cyclic single-cell fuel cell testing. All three materials showed good durability with no significant degradation in cell power output. Post-test analysis indicated no metal ion contamination of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) occurred with the pre-oxidized and nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V or graphite plates, and only a minor amount of contamination with the 904L plates.

  15. Composite fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  16. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

    1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  17. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oei, D.

    1995-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Technical Progress Report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389 awarded to Ford Motor Company on July 1, 1994. The overall objective of this contract is to advance the Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for automotive applications. Specifically, the objectives resulting from this contract are to: (1) Develop and demonstrate on a laboratory propulsion system within 2-1/2 years a fully functional PEM Fuel Cell Power System (including fuel cell peripherals, peak power augmentation and controls). This propulsion system will achieve, or will be shown to have the growth potential to achieve, the weights, volumes, and production costs which are competitive with those same attributes of equivalently performing internal combustion engine propulsion systems; (2) Select and demonstrate a baseline onboard hydrogen storage method with acceptable weight, volume, cost, and safety features and analyze future alternatives; and (3) Analyze the hydrogen infrastructure components to ensure that hydrogen can be safely supplied to vehicles at geographically widespread convenient sites and at prices which are less than current gasoline prices per vehicle-mile; (4) Identify any future R&D needs for a fully integrated vehicle and for achieving the system cost and performance goals.

  18. annealed proton exchanged: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characterized and integrated in Membrane-Electrodes Assembly to be tested in fuel cell operating conditions, mobile or stationary), Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells...

  19. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  20. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  1. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  2. Nanofiber composite membranes with low equivalent weight perfluorosulfonic acid polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    membranes for hydrogen/air and direct methanol proton- exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Such new membranes must possess the requisite transport properties (e.g., high proton conductivity and low gas

  3. Proton Diffusion in Nickel Hydroxide Prediction of Active Material Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    to improve battery design and operation. Introduction Nickel hydroxide is the active material in rechargeable of protons, we used elec- trochemical impedance spectroscopy to measure D+ in planar nickel hydroxide films nickel batteries (e.g., Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, and Ni/H2). Nickel batteries are usually positive limited, meaning

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum hydroxide complexes Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deposition rate of aluminum hydroxides, however, was less than that of iron hydroxides in stream reaches... responses may be explained by a change in deposition from iron to ......

  5. Manufacturing and Performance Assessment of Stamped, Laser Welded, and Nitrided FeCrV Stainless Steel Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud [General Motors Technical Center; Dadheech, G [General Motors Technical Center; Bradley, J [General Motors Technical Center; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A manufacturing and single-cell fuel cell performance study of stamped, laser welded, and gas nitrided ferritic stainless steel foils in an advanced automotive bipolar plate assembly design was performed. Two developmental foil compositions were studied: Fee20Cre4V and Fee23Cre4V wt.%. Foils 0.1 mm thick were stamped and then laser welded together to create single bipolar plate assemblies with cooling channels. The plates were then surface treated by pre-oxidation and nitridation in N2e4H2 based gas mixtures using either a conventional furnace or a short-cycle quartz lamp infrared heating system. Single-cell fuel cell testing was performed at 80 C for 500 h at 0.3 A/cm2 using 100% humidification and a 100%/40% humidification cycle that stresses the membrane and enhances release of the fluoride ion and promotes a more corrosive environment for the bipolar plates. Periodic high frequency resistance potential-current scans during the 500 h fuel cell test and posttest analysis of the membrane indicated no resistance increase of the plates and only trace levels of metal ion contamination.

  6. The role of calcium hydroxide in the formation of thaumasite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellmann, F. [Institute for Building Materials Science, Department of Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-University Weimar (Germany)], E-mail: frank.bellmann@bauing.uni-weimar.de; Stark, J. [Institute for Building Materials Science, Department of Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-University Weimar (Germany)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has recently been derived by thermodynamic calculation that the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide plays a vital role in the resistance of cement paste or concrete against the formation of thaumasite. To obtain experimental data on this matter, special binders have been mixed and used for the preparation of mortar bars. These specimens were exposed to moderate sulphate attack for a period of 18 months at a temperature of 8 deg. C. Mortar bars containing calcium hydroxide showed visual signs of attack a few months after exposure, leading to expansion, mass loss and complete failure. In contrast to this, no signs of attack were observed when no calcium hydroxide was present in the microstructure. These results confirm the conclusions of earlier thermodynamic calculations that the presence of calcium hydroxide has an important impact on the formation of thaumasite. Calcium-rich C-S-H formed in the presence of calcium hydroxide is vulnerable against sulphate attack and the formation of thaumasite. In the absence of calcium hydroxide, C-S-H has a much lower calcium/silicon ratio and a higher resistance against the formation of thaumasite.

  7. Membrane Cells in Chlor Alkali Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesker, K.

    there is a stfluorinated Inembrallt~ dates 30 years age. Since then a lot of research has been performed to reach an economical. commercial chloralkali industry: 1962 Invention... of the per fluorinated ion exchange membrane 1968-72 Development of the membrane process 1 30% of NaOH IY81 first conversion of a diaphragm plant In a membrane chloralkali...

  8. affecting proton exchange: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stress applied to the electrode area of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is known to significantly affect power output. In practice, electrode stress arises...

  9. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  10. Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Tak Keun; Kim, Jin Yong; Shin, Yongsoon; Engelhard, Mark H.; Weil, K. Scott

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, the properties of a series of non-platinum based nanoscale tantalum oxide/tungsten oxide-carbon composite catalysts was investigated for potential use in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode side of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. Electrochemical performance was measured using a half-cell test set up with a rotating disc electrode and compared with a commercial platinum-on-carbon (Pt/C) catalyst. Overall, all of the oxide-based composite catalysts exhibit high ORR on-set potentials, comparable to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst. The addition of tungsten oxide as a dopant to tantalum oxide greatly improved mass specific current density. Maximum performance was achieved with a catalyst containing 32 mol% of tungsten oxide, which exhibited a mass specific current density ~8% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) and ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.2 V vs. NHE. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the tungsten cations in the composite catalysts exist in the +6 oxidation state, while the tantalum displays an average valence of +5, suggesting that the addition of tungsten likely creates an oxygen excess in the tantalum oxide structure that influences its oxygen absorption kinetics. When the 32mol% tungsten doped catalyst loading on the working electrode was increased to five times that of the original loading (which was equivalent to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst), the area specific current density improved four fold, achieving an area specific current density ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. NHE.

  11. REGULAR ARTICLE Mapping the membrane proteome of Corynebacterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roegner, Matthias

    REGULAR ARTICLE Mapping the membrane proteome of Corynebacterium glutamicum Daniela Schluesener proteins. For analysis of the membrane proteome from Corynebacterium glutamicum, we replaced the first exchange chromatography / Corynebacterium glutamicum / Intrinsic mem- brane protein / Mass spectrometry

  12. The reaction of cesium hydroxide with 4-phenylvaleric acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caughfield, Arvie Jeane

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , but with other alkali metal ions. Also, it was desirable to learn more about the fundamental nature of the excess solubility of 4-phenylvaleric acid in aqueous cesium hydroxide. Of special interest was to deter- mine whether any n-bonding may be involved.... Similarly, nuclear magnetic resonance techniques may be used to determine whether any TT-bonding involving the phenyl ring of 4- phenylvaleric acid occurs during its reaction with cesium hydroxide. If any such bonding to the n-electrons of the ring occurs...

  13. The role of SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} surface distribution in arsenic removal by iron oxy-hydroxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tresintsi, S. [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Simeonidis, K., E-mail: ksime@physics.auth.gr [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, 38334 Volos (Greece); Pliatsikas, N.; Vourlias, G.; Patsalas, P. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Mitrakas, M. [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the contribution of chemisorbed SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} in improving arsenic removal properties of iron oxy-hydroxides through an ion-exchange mechanism. An analytical methodology was developed for the accurate quantification of sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}) distribution onto the surface and structural compartments of iron oxy-hydroxides synthesized by FeSO{sub 4} precipitation. The procedure is based on the sequential determination of SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} presence in the diffuse and Stern layers, and the structure of these materials as defined by the sulfate-rich environments during the reaction and the variation in acidity (pH 3–12). Physically sorbed SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}, extracted in distilled water, and physically/chemically adsorbed ions on the oxy-hydroxide's surface leached by a 5 mM NaOH solution, were determined using ion chromatography. Total sulfate content was gravimetrically measured by precipitation as BaSO{sub 4}. To validate the suggested method, results were verified by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that low precipitation pH-values favor the incorporation of sulfate ions into the structure and the inner double layer, while under alkaline conditions ions shift to the diffuse layer. - Graphical abstract: An analytical methodology for the accurate quantification of sulfate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}) distribution onto the diffuse layer, the Stern layer and the structure of iron oxy-hydroxides used as arsenic removal agents. - Highlights: • Quantification of sulfate ions presence in FeOOH surface compartments. • Preparation pH defines the distribution of sulfates. • XPS and FTIR verify the presence of SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} in the structure, the Stern layer the diffuse layer of FeOOH. • Chemically adsorbed sulfates control the arsenic removal efficiency of iron oxyhydroxides.

  14. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides Wei the mechanism of phosphate sorption on aluminum hydroxides under different environ- mental conditions, including

  15. alkalis hydroxides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D . P E A K * A N D D . L . S P A R to animals and its mobility in the soil environment. It is known that iron(III) oxides and hydroxides are important sorbents for SeO4...

  16. DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

  17. Phase Stability of Nickel Hydroxides and Oxyhydroxides A. Van der Ven,a,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Phase Stability of Nickel Hydroxides and Oxyhydroxides A. Van der Ven,a,z D. Morgan,b Y. S. Meng of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA We investigate phase stability of several nickel hydroxides manuscript received September 12, 2005. Available electronically December 14, 2005. Nickel hydroxide

  18. Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    d r o x i d e D e m e t h y l a t i o n h y d r o x i d e B e t a e l i m i n a t i o n hydro xide Deben zylation OH + CH 3 OH + + N H 3 C H 2 C CH 3 C H 2 CH 3 N H 3 C N C h y d r...

  19. Some durability considerations for proton exchange membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Improved catalyst resistance to poisons like CO in reformed fuels. * Combined heat and power generation, improving system efficiency. (i.e. hot water and electricity...

  20. Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP7-0973 1 Introduction InNational Laboratories Find More

  1. Improvement in electrochromic stability of electrodeposited nickel hydroxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, C.; Matsumoto, H.; Nogami, G. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochromic nickel hydroxide thin film was anodically deposited from an aqueous solution. The effect of solution temperature, postheat-treatment temperature, and addition of cadmium on the electrochromic behavior (color/bleach durability cycle, response time, and coloration efficiency of the nickel hydroxide films in NaOH) were investigated. A significant increase in the color/bleach durability cycle from 500 (for the as-deposited film) to more than 5000 cycles (for the heat-treated film) was observed. The addition of cadmium increased the utilization of the active materials. It was found that the coloration efficiency was 40 cm{sup 2}/C and coloration and bleaching response time were 20 to 30 s and 8 to 10 s, respectively. The change in the electrochromic properties with heat-treatment temperature is discussed based on the physical and electrochemical analysis.

  2. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  3. Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell Aleksander Kolstad Chemical. The important aspects concerning the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, more commonly known as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), have been studied in two separate parts. Part 1 of the thesis

  4. Multicomponent membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  5. Structural Properties of the Cr(III)-Fe(III) (Oxy)Hydroxide Compositional Series: Insights for a Nanomaterial “Solid Solution”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Michel, F.M.; Harrington, R.; Parise, J.B.; Reeder, R.J.

    2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromium(III) (oxy)hydroxide and mixed Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides are environmentally important compounds for controlling chromium speciation and bioaccessibility in soils and aquatic systems and are also industrially important as precursors for materials and catalyst synthesis. However, direct characterization of the atomic arrangements of these materials is complicated because of their amorphous X-ray properties. This study involves synthesis of the complete Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxide compositional series, and the use of complementary thermal, microscopic, spectroscopic, and scattering techniques for the evaluation of their structural properties. Thermal analysis results show that the Cr end member has a higher hydration state than the Fe end member, likely associated with the difference in water exchange rates in the first hydration spheres of Cr(III) and Fe(III). Three stages of weight loss are observed and are likely related to the loss of surface/structural water and hydroxyl groups. As compared to the Cr end member, the intermediate composition sample shows lower dehydration temperatures and a higher exothermic transition temperature. XANES analysis shows Cr(III) and Fe(III) to be the dominant oxidation states. XANES spectra also show progressive changes in the local structure around Cr and Fe atoms over the series. Pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray total scattering data shows that the Fe end member is nanocrystalline ferrihydrite with an intermediate-range order and average coherent domain size of {approx}27 {angstrom}. The Cr end member, with a coherent domain size of {approx}10 {angstrom}, has only short-range order. The PDFs show progressive structural changes across the compositional series. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results also show the loss of structural order with increasing Cr content. These observations provide strong structural evidence of chemical substitution and progressive structural changes along the compositional series.

  6. Structural Properties of the Cr(III)-Fe(III) (Oxy)hydroxide Compositional Series: Insights for a Nanomaterial "Solid Solution"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, Y.; Michel, F; Zhang, L; Harrington, R; Parise, J; Reeder, R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromium(III) (oxy)hydroxide and mixed Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides are environmentally important compounds for controlling chromium speciation and bioaccessibility in soils and aquatic systems and are also industrially important as precursors for materials and catalyst synthesis. However, direct characterization of the atomic arrangements of these materials is complicated because of their amorphous X-ray properties. This study involves synthesis of the complete Cr(III)-Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxide compositional series, and the use of complementary thermal, microscopic, spectroscopic, and scattering techniques for the evaluation of their structural properties. Thermal analysis results show that the Cr end member has a higher hydration state than the Fe end member, likely associated with the difference in water exchange rates in the first hydration spheres of Cr(III) and Fe(III). Three stages of weight loss are observed and are likely related to the loss of surface/structural water and hydroxyl groups. As compared to the Cr end member, the intermediate composition sample shows lower dehydration temperatures and a higher exothermic transition temperature. XANES analysis shows Cr(III) and Fe(III) to be the dominant oxidation states. XANES spectra also show progressive changes in the local structure around Cr and Fe atoms over the series. Pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray total scattering data shows that the Fe end member is nanocrystalline ferrihydrite with an intermediate-range order and average coherent domain size of 27 {angstrom}. The Cr end member, with a coherent domain size of 10 {angstrom}, has only short-range order. The PDFs show progressive structural changes across the compositional series. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results also show the loss of structural order with increasing Cr content. These observations provide strong structural evidence of chemical substitution and progressive structural changes along the compositional series.

  7. Method of treating inflammatory diseases using a radiolabeled ferric hydroxide calloid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  8. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

  9. Lithium hydroxide, LiOH, at elevated densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermann, Andreas [School of Physics and Astronomy and Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Ashcroft, N. W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Hoffmann, Roald [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the high-pressure phases of crystalline lithium hydroxide, LiOH. Using first-principles calculations, and assisted by evolutionary structure searches, we reproduce the experimentally known phase transition under pressure, but we suggest that the high-pressure phase LiOH-III be assigned to a new hydrogen-bonded tetragonal structure type that is unique amongst alkali hydroxides. LiOH is at the intersection of both ionic and hydrogen bonding, and we examine the various ensuing structural features and their energetic driving mechanisms. At P = 17 GPa, we predict another phase transition to a new phase, Pbcm-LiOH-IV, which we find to be stable over a wide pressure range. Eventually, at extremely high pressures of 1100 GPa, the ground state of LiOH is predicted to become a polymeric structure with an unusual graphitic oxygen-hydrogen net. However, because of its ionic character, the anticipated metallization of LiOH is much delayed; in fact, its electronic band gap increases monotonically into the TPa pressure range.

  10. CX-010528: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exclusion Determination Durability Investigation for Quarternary Phosphonium-based Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09182012 Location(s):...

  11. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the hydrophilic chain elements of the polymer, will yield highly conductive materials with excellent mech

  12. anti-liver cell membrane: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assembly to be tested in fuel cell operating conditions, mobile or stationary), Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are amongst the most studied fuel...

  13. Study of two sampling procedures for the valorization of metal hydroxide sludge as pollutant trapper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Study of two sampling procedures for the valorization of metal hydroxide sludge as pollutant@emse.fr Abstract: For the valorisation of metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent of pollutant, it is necessary to make sure that the adsorption matrix (sludge) has characteristics allowing a reproducibility

  14. 4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    4June2013 Page 1 of 8 Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) SOP Standard Operating Procedures Strong Corrosives ­ Strong Bases (SB) Sodium Hydroxide (Pellets) PrintOH Form: pellets Color: white Melting point/freezing point: 318 °C (604 °F

  15. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danesi, P.R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solution and the supported liquid membranes are arranged to provide a continuous process.

  16. Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, Laura

    We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered ...

  17. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STUBBS, A.M.

    2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process in Rm 230C/234-5Z. The magnesium hydroxide process control software Rev 0 is being updated to include control programming for a second hot plate. The process control programming was performed by the system administrator. Software testing for the additional hot plate was performed per PFP Job Control Work Package 2Z-00-1703. The software testing was verified by Quality Control to comply with OSD-Z-184-00044, Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process.

  18. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and weatherproofed'' pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  19. Effects of Concentration of Organically Modified Nanoclay on Properties of Sulfonated Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposite Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanglimsuwan, Apiradee

    Electrolyte nanocomposite membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells were prepared by carrying out a sulfonation of poly(vinyl alcohol) with sulfosuccinic acid and adding a type of ...

  20. Agriculture on Exchange InternationalExchangeProgram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viglas, Anastasios

    Agriculture on Exchange InternationalExchangeProgram Students enrolled in courses offered through the Faculty of Agriculture and Environment are welcome to apply for exchange. However, to ensure that you Academic Adviser before submitting an exchange application. Undergraduate Agriculture students normally go

  1. Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate Noriko U-lim- iting step for the formation of Ni­Al LDH is Al dissolu- Nickel contamination of soils is a serious

  2. Nested potassium hydroxide etching and protective coatings for silicon-based microreactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Mas, Nuria

    We have developed a multilayer, multichannel silicon-based microreactor that uses elemental fluorine as a reagent and generates hydrogen fluoride as a byproduct. Nested potassium hydroxide etching (using silicon nitride ...

  3. A Ni-Fe Layered Double Hydroxide-Carbon Nanotube Complex for Water Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Ming; Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Wu, Justin Zachary; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Regier, Tom; Wei, Fei; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly active, durable and cost-effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation to evolve oxygen gas hold a key to a range of renewable energy solutions including water splitting and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here, we report the synthesis of ultrathin nickel iron layered double hydroxide nanoplates on mildly oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Incorporation of Fe into the nickel hydroxide induced the formation of NiFe-layered double hydroxide. The nanoplates were covalently attached to a network of nanotubes, affording excellent electrical wiring to the nanoplates. The ultra-thin Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide nanoplates/carbon nanotube complex was found to exhibit unusually high electro-catalytic activity and stability for oxygen evolution and outperformed commercial precious metal Ir catalysts.

  4. Mg/Al Ordering in Layered Double Hydroxides Revealed by Multinuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in a wide range of materials is readily envisaged. Citation: Sideris PJ, UG Nielsen, Z Gan, and CP Grey.2008."MgAl Ordering in Layered Double Hydroxides Revealed by Multinuclear...

  5. Removal of Chloride from Wastewater by Advanced Softening Process Using Electrochemically Generated Aluminum Hydroxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustafa, Syed Faisal

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    solubility. Chloride can be removed from water and wastewater by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate using advanced softening process. This research was conducted to evaluate chloride removal using electrochemically generated aluminum hydroxide and lime...

  6. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  7. In vivo toxicity studies of europium hydroxide nanorods in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: patra.chittaranjan@mayo.edu; Abdel Moneim, Soha S. [Gastroenterology and Hepatology, GI Research Unit, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1034, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Eshed, Michal [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Mukherjee, Priyabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1334, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Gedanken, Aharon [Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shah, Vijay H. [Gastroenterology and Hepatology, GI Research Unit, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1034, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1321A, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, 200 First Street S.W, Guggenheim 1334, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence and pro-angiogenic properties to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [Eu{sup III}(OH){sub 3}] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) and time dependent manner (8-60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice euthanized on days 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod-treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods.

  8. Simple route for the synthesis of supercapacitive Co-Ni mixed hydroxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubal, D.P. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India) [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jagadale, A.D.; Patil, S.V. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India)] [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India); Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel method for deposition of Co-Ni mixed hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle network of Co-Ni hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High specific capacitance of 672 F g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High discharge/charge rates. -- Abstract: Facile synthesis of Co-Ni mixed hydroxides films with interconnected nanoparticles networks through two step route is successfully established. These films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared technique (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wettability test. Co-Ni film formation is confirmed from XRD and FTIR study. SEM shows that the surface of Co-Ni films is composed of interconnected nanoparticles. Contact angle measurement revealed the hydrophilic nature of films which is feasible for the supercapacitor. The electrochemical performance of the film is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, and constant-current charge/discharge cycling techniques. Specific capacitance of the Co-Ni mixed hydroxide electrode achieved 672 F g{sup -1}. Impedance analysis shows that Co-Ni mixed hydroxide electrode provides less resistance for the intercalation and de-intercalation of ions. The Co-Ni mixed electrode exhibited good charge/discharge rate at different current densities. The results demonstrated that Co-Ni mixed hydroxide composite is very promising for the next generation high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

  9. www.angewandte.org ACIEFS 48 (35) 63636562 (2009) ISSN 14337851 Vol. 48 No. 35

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reducing the cost of the fuel cell. Further, HEMFCs can offer fuel flexibility (e.g., methanol, ethanol ionomer is required to maximize the performance of hydroxide-exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs for High-Performance Hydroxide Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Shuang Gu, Rui Cai, Ting Luo, Zhongwei Chen

  10. Separations by supported liquid membrane cascades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danesi, Pier R. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes a new separation technique which leads to multi-stage operations by the use of a series (a cascade) of alternated carrier-containing supported-liquid membranes. The membranes contain alternatively a liquid cation exchanger extractant and a liquid anion exchanger extractant (or a neutral extractant) as carrier. The membranes are spaced between alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions of different composition which alternatively provide positively charged extractable species and negatively charged (or zero charged) extractable species, of the chemical species to be separated. The alternated aqueous electrolytic solutions in addition to providing the driving force to the process, simultaneously function as a stripping solution from one type of membrane and as an extraction-promoting solution for the other type of membrane. The aqueous electrolytic solutions and the supported liquid membranes are arranged in such a way to provide a continuous process which leads to the continuous enrichment of the species which show the highest permeability coefficients. By virtue of the very high number of stages which can be arranged, even chemical species having very similar chemical behavior (and consequently very similar permeability coefficients) can be completely separated. The invention also provide a way to concentrate the separated species.

  11. Direct Deposition of Trivalent Rhodium Hydroxide Nanoparticles onto a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pho- tocatalyst was prepared by exfoliation and intercalation of proton-exchanged KCa2Nb3O10 (see Supporting Information for details). HCa2Nb3O10 (0.13 g) was exfoliated by shaking in 50 mL of aqueous tetra % loading of Rh, 20 mM aqueous RhCl3 (0.632 mL) was added to 50 mL of the exfoliated TBAOH/Ca2Nb3O10

  12. Electrolyte membrane, methods of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamaki, Ryo; Rice, Steven Thomas; Yeager, Gary William

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method of forming an electrolyte membrane comprising forming a mixture; the mixture comprising a polyhydroxy compound, an aromatic polyhalide compound and an alkali metal hydroxide; disposing the mixture on a porous substrate; reacting the mixture to form a crosslinked proton conductor; and sulfonating the proton conductor. Disclosed herein too is an article comprising a porous substrate; and a sulfonated crosslinked proton conductor disposed within pores of the porous substrate.

  13. Electrolyte membrane, methods of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamaki, Ryo (Santa Clarita, CA); Rice, Steven Thomas (Scotia, NY); Yeager, Gary William (Rexford, NY)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method of forming an electrolyte membrane comprising forming a mixture; the mixture comprising a polyhydroxy compound, an aromatic polyhalide compound and an alkali metal hydroxide; disposing the mixture on a porous substrate; reacting the mixture to form a proton conductor; and crosslinking the proton conductor to form a cross-linked proton-conducting network. Disclosed herein too is an article comprising a porous substrate; and a crosslinked proton conductor disposed on the porous substrate.

  14. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  15. Experimental and theoretical treatment of elementary ligand exchange reactions in aluminum complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, B.L.; Casey, W.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Tossell, J.A. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substitution of a hydroxide or fluoride ion for a water molecule in the inner-coordination sphere of Al(OH{sub 2}){sub 6}{sup 3+} considerably weakens bonds from aluminum to other water molecules that are also in the inner-coordination sphere. The labilizing effect of these substitutions on the rate of dissociation of Al-O bonds is a model for ligand-promoted dissolution of aluminum (hydr)oxide minerals. Here measured activation parameters for ligand exchange are compared with ab initio calculations of the energetics for comparable reactions. Because solvent exchange is an elementary reaction, it is particularly well-suited for such comparisons. The calculations indicate that substitution of hydroxide or fluoride ion into the inner-coordination sphere greatly reduces the energy requires to remove a water molecule. The calculated and measured activation energies, however, differ significantly. A reasonable interpretation is that interactions between hydration waters and second-sphere water molecules, which are usually partly or fully excluded from the calculations, contribute to the exchange mechanism.

  16. Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  17. The influence of zeta potential and yield stress on the filtration characteristics of a magnesium hydroxide simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, Simon; Nabi, Rafiq; Poole, Colin [Leeds University/Nexia Solutions URA in Particle Science and Technology, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Patel, Ashok [British Nuclear Group, Reactor Sites, Berkeley Centre, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, GL13 9PB (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the UK, irradiated fuels from Magnox reactors are often stored in water-filled ponds under alkaline conditions, so as to minimise corrosion of fuel cladding. This is important to prevent or reduce leakage of soluble fission products and actinides to the pond water. A variety of intermediate level wastes derived from Magnox materials are stored at power stations. Under these alkaline conditions, various species of magnesium are formed, of which magnesium hydroxide is the dominant material. The particle-fluid interactions are significant for the design and operation of facilities for hydraulic retrieval, filtration, dewatering and ion exchange treatment of fuel storage pond water and stored wet Magnox wastes. Here we describe a study of particulate properties and filtration characteristics of oxide particle simulants under laboratory conditions. Cake and medium resistance data were correlated across a range of pH conditions with electro-acoustic zeta potential and shear yield stress measurements, as a function of particle volume fractions. The influence of zeta potential on filtration properties arises directly from the interaction of particles within the sediment cake. (authors)

  18. Enhanced electrochromic property of nickel hydroxide thin films prepared by anodic deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chigane, Masaya; Ishikawa, Masami (Osaka Municipal Technical Research Inst. (Japan). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel hydroxide and nickel oxide thin films have received much attention as electrochromic (EC) materials, particularly as the materials for a complementary counterlayer against an EC tungsten oxide layer in smart window systems. Nickel hydroxide thin films were prepared onto transparent conductive tin oxide (NESA) substrates by potentiostatic electrolysis of a nickel amine complex solution at various potentials (0.6 to 1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Nickel hydroxide thin film (F0.7) obtained at relatively lower anodic potential (0.7 V) showed enhanced electrochromism between colorless and dark brown in a sodium borate buffer solution at pH 12; the absorption spectrum in the colored (oxidized) state was broadened in the visible and near-infrared region compared with the nickel hydroxide films prepared at the higher anodic potential (1.1 V). characterization of the films revealed that crystal structure of F0.7 is assigned to [alpha]-Ni(OH)[sub 2], and that its electrochromism is based on the reversible oxidation to hexagonal [gamma][sub 2]-2NiO[sub 2] [center dot] NiOOH structure. Composite nickel hydroxide film, i.e., by the electrolytic deposition at 1.1 V followed by that at 0.7 V, showed electrochromic property similar to F0.7 and its durability in repeated redox cycles were much improved in comparison with that of F0.7. Electrochromic properties in switching performance of this composite nickel hydroxide film were investigated.

  19. Woven heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  20. Do not forget the electrochemical characteristics of the Membrane-Electrode-Assembly when designing a PEMFC stack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , France I Introduction: Principle of Fuel Cells I.1 Fuel Cell system I.2 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) I.3 Components of a PEM Elementary Cell (Membrane, Catalysts, GDL) I.4 Electrical Characterization of the MEA by Electrochemical Spectroscopy (EIS) II.4 Optimization of the Membrane

  1. Factors Affecting Ni and Zn Hydroxide Precipitate Formation in Soils. (S02-peltier222185-oral)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Factors Affecting Ni and Zn Hydroxide Precipitate Formation in Soils. (S02-peltier222185-oral) Authors: E.F. Peltier* - Univ. of Delaware D.L. Sparks - Univ. of Delaware Abstract: The formation matter in the soil. Speaker Information: Edward Peltier, Univ. of Delaware, Dept. of Plant and Soil

  2. Adsorption of Chromium (VI) by metal hydroxide sludge from the metal finishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Adsorption of Chromium (VI) by metal hydroxide sludge from the metal finishing Loïc Perrin Ecole sludge (MHS) during the treatment of their liquid effluents charged with heavy metals. Generally, a small part of these sludge is valorized because of their important metal fickleness. Consequently

  3. Aluminum hydroxide coating thickness measurements and brushing tests on K West Basin fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum hydroxide coating thicknesses were measured on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin using specially developed eddy current probes . The results were used to estimate coating inventories for MCO fuel,loading. Brushing tests successfully demonstrated the ability to remove the coating if deemed necessary prior to MCO loading.

  4. Energy Exchange News

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please join FEMP Director Tim Unruh and Julia Kelley with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for a presentation on the Energy Exchange. The Energy Exchange is a new 2 1/2 day training opportunity...

  5. Mixed anion materials and compounds for novel proton conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poling, Steven Andrew; Nelson, Carly R.; Martin, Steve W.

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides new amorphous or partially crystalline mixed anion chalcogenide compounds for use in proton exchange membranes which are able to operate over a wide variety of temperature ranges, including in the intermediate temperature range of about 100 .degree. C. to 300.degree. C., and new uses for crystalline mixed anion chalcogenide compounds in such proton exchange membranes. In one embodiment, the proton conductivity of the compounds is between about 10.sup.-8 S/cm and 10.sup.-1 S/cm within a temperature range of between about -60 and 300.degree. C. and a relative humidity of less than about 12%..

  6. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

  7. Mechanics and multi-physics deformation behavior of polymer electrolyte membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silberstein, Meredith N

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are a developing technology within the energy sector that offer both efficiency and environmental advantages over traditional combustion processes. In particular, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are ...

  8. acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R. Daik; A. Musa 8 Comparative study of the break in process of post doped and sol-gel high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells Energy Storage, Conversion and...

  9. Evaluation of Fiber Bundle Rotation for Enhancing Gas Exchange in a Respiratory Assist Catheter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    of a rotating densely packed bundle of hollow fiber membranes, water and blood gas exchange levels were the concept of an intravenous respiratory assist device, in which a bundle of hollow fiber membranes (HFMs short blind- ended HFMs along its length in a "bottle-brush" configura- tion.11­14 Our group first

  10. Energy Exchange | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchange Energy Exchange Energy Exchange August 11-13, 2015, Phoenix Convention Center The 2015 Energy Exchange in Phoenix, Arizona, is being launched to provide two-and-a-half...

  11. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  12. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants ...

  13. Supported inorganic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehgal, Rakesh (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  14. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current coal mining and processing procedures produce a significant quanity of fine coal that is difficult to handle and transport. The objective of this work is to determine if these fines can be economically pelletized with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, to produce a clean-burning fuel for fluidized-bed combustors or stoker boilers. To harden these pellets, carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide to produce a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated. Previous research indicated that carbonation significantly improved compressive strength, impact and attrition resistance and ``weatherproofed`` pellets formed with sufficient calcium hydroxide (5 to 10% for minus 28 mesh coal fines).

  15. Control of the mass and energy dynamics of polybenzimidazole-membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of the mass and energy dynamics of polybenzimidazole-membrane fuel cells Federico Zenith-temperature proton- exchange-membrane fuel cell are investigated. For a particular configuration, three lumped the necessary conditions for the fuel-cell stack to operate. It is possible to control temperature by using only

  16. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  17. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  18. Honeywell Modular Automation System Computer Software Documentation for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STUBBS, A.M.

    2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Computer Software Document (CSWD) is to provide configuration control of the Honeywell Modular Automation System (MAS) in use at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process in Rm 23OC/234-52. This CSWD describes hardware and PFP/FFS developed software for control of Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation process located in room 230, 234-52. The Honeywell and Plant Scape software generate limited configuration reports for the developed control software. These reports are described in the following section and are attached as addendum's. This plan applies to PFP Engineering Manager, Thermal Stabilization Cognizant Engineers, Solutions Stabilization Engineers, and the Shift Technical Advisors responsible for the Honeywell MAS software/hardware and administration of the Honeywell System.

  19. Chicago Climate Exchange, Inc. 2010 Chicago Climate Exchange 1 The Role of Exchanges and Standardization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chicago Climate Exchange®, Inc.© 2010 Chicago Climate Exchange 1 The Role of Exchanges and Standardization in Reducing Emissions at Scale Michael J. Walsh, Ph.D. Executive Vice President Chicago Climate Exchange, Inc. #12;Chicago Climate Exchange®, Inc.© 2010 Chicago Climate Exchange Pacala-Socolow GHG

  20. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  1. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  2. Ion Exchange Membrane Cathodes for Scalable Microbial Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -7), complex wastes and wastewaters, such as agricultural waste (8) and domestic wastewater (9, 10), and other electrodes)andthusrepresentmoreusefulmaterialsforreducing the costs of MFCs for wastewater treatment in various wastes and wastewaters (1-3). Diverse organic substrates have been used as electron donors

  3. Anion Exchange Membranes - Transport/Conductivity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NMPerformanceof Energy4 * AugustAndrea-

  4. Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NMPerformanceof Energy4 * AugustAndrea-for Fuel

  5. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ ReportEnergy NationalDepartmentEnergyEnergyOn-Board

  6. Facile synthesis of deoxycholate intercalated layered double hydroxide nanohybrids via a coassembly process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaowen; Wang, Shuang; Du, Na; Zhang, Renjie; Hou, Wanguo, E-mail: wghou@sdu.edu.cn

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we describe a synthesis strategy of deoxycholate (DC) intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanohybrids via a coassembly method at room temperature. For this strategy, LDH particles were delaminated to well-dispersed 2D nanosheets in formamide, and the resulting LDH nanosheets were then coassembled with DC anions into the DC intercalated LDH (DC-LDH) nanohybrids. The so-synthesized nanohybrids were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, elemental analyses and TG-DSC. It was found that the loading amount of DC in the nanohybrids could be easily controlled by changing the ratio of DC to LDH. In addition, the nanohybrids have similar characteristics with the DC-LDH nanohybrids synthesized by the hydrothermal method, including their DC loading, crystal structure, morphology and thermal gravimetric behavior. However, this strategy exhibited the advantages of short reaction time and mild experimental conditions compared with the hydrothermal method. - Graphical abstract: Deoxycholate intercalated layered double hydroxide nanohybrids were successfully synthesized via a coassembly strategy. In this strategy, the interlayer spaces of LDHs can be efficiently used for the intercalation of guest species. - Highlights: • Deoxycholate intercalated layered double hydroxide nanohybrids were synthesized via a coassembly strategy. • This strategy exhibited the advantages of short time and mild conditions. • This strategy can enable organic species to be readily intercalated into the LDH galleries.

  7. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory Hudson (Castro Valley, CA)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizing a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate, in particular water-insoluble calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide. Among other uses, the metal hydroxide formed can be employed to absorb acid gases such as carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. The invention can also generate hydrogen and oxidative gases such as oxygen or chlorine.

  8. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  9. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lytle, J.; Hackley, K.; Dagamac, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Schanche, G. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is an investigation of calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent, as a binder for coal fines. The reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, referred to as carbonation, is being studied as a method of improving pellet quality. Carbonation forms a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate. The effect of particle size and compaction pressure on pellet strength was studied using a laboratory hydraulic press. Particle distributions with mean sizes of 200, 90 and 40 microns were tested. The results indicate that pellet strength increased with decreasing particle size and increasing compaction pressure when calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide increased in strength by approximately 40% when air dried for one day. This increase in strength is attributed to carbonation of the calcium hydroxide via atmospheric carbon dioxide. Corn starch, an adhesive binder, was tested at the finest particle size. Pellet strength did not increase as a function of increasing compaction pressure. At the finest particle size and highest compaction pressure (18,750 psi), dried pellets formed with 2 wt% corn starch were equivalent in strength to pellets containing 5 wt% calcium hydroxide.

  10. Contaminant desorption during long-term leaching of hydroxide-weathered Hanford sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extractions target exchangeable cations, short-range-ordered minerals,extraction data all confirm the formation of feldspathoid minerals

  11. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Morisato, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) ›PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

  12. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Morisato, Atsushi

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A separation membrane is described which is useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula shown in the accompanying diagram, wherein R{sub 1} is chosen from the group consisting of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R{sub 2} is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP]. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations. 4 figs.

  13. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  14. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

    1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  15. Membrane Separations Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.

    applicabilily of separation mel hods for the removal of carbon dioxide frum gas streams. Another application of hybrid systems deals with hydrogen recovery. As discussed earlier, this separation may be made by membrane petmeation, but classically it has also... box; altemate schemes have this sequence reversed. Sal6S gas Feed Membrane ~ Acid gas Amine conlactor Acid gas Amine stripper Figure 7. Hybrid system for the removal of acid gases from nalural gas. MEMBRANE UNIT COLD BOX HYDROGEN PRODUCT...

  16. Co-evolution of primordial membranes and membrane proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    not only the origin of membrane bioenergetics but also of membranes themselves. We argue that evolution- brane bioenergetics. Membrane evolution and the last universal common ancestor A topologically closed

  17. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  18. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  19. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  20. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  1. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Hackley, K.; Dagamac, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Schanche, G. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research was an investigation of calcium hydroxide, a sulfur-capturing sorbent, as a binder for coal fines. The reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, referred to as carbonation, was studied as a method for improving pellet quality. Carbonation forms a cementitious matrix of calcium carbonate. Research has demonstrated that calcium hydroxide is a viable binder for coal fines and that a roller-and-die pellet mill is an effective method of pellet formation. From a minus 28 mesh preparation plant fine coal sample, a roller-and-die pellet mill produced strong pellets when 5 and 10% calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. The pellets containing 10% calcium hydroxide strengthened considerably when air cured. This increase in strength was attributed to carbonation via atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide were produced using an extruder but pellets formed in this manner were much weaker than pellets produced with the roller-and-die mill. In tests performed using a laboratory hydraulic press, the effect of particle size and compaction pressure on pellet strength was studied. Particle distributions with mean sizes of 200, 90 and 40 microns were tested. The results indicate that pellet strength increased with decreasing particle size and increasing compaction pressure when calcium hydroxide was used as a binder. Pellets containing 10 wt% calcium hydroxide increased in strength by approximately 40% when air dried for one day. As above, this increase in strength was attributed to carbonation of the calcium hydroxide via atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  2. Nanocomposite Membranes for Complex Separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeu, Seung Uk

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    membranes for reverse-selective removal of alkanes from light gases, 2) defect-free inorganic nanocomposite membranes that have uniform pores, and 3) nanocomposite membranes for minimizing protein fouling in microfiltration applications. Reverse-selective...

  3. Ab initio studies of ionization potentials of hydrated hydroxide and hydronium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles W. Swartz; Xifan Wu

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The ionization potential distributions of hydrated hydroxide and hydronium are computed with many-body approach for electron excitations with configurations generated by {\\it ab initio} molecular dynamics. The experimental features are well reproduced and found to be closely related to the molecular excitations. In the stable configurations, the ionization potential is mainly perturbed by water molecules within the first solvation shell. On the other hand, electron excitation is delocalized on both proton receiving and donating complex during proton transfer, which shifts the excitation energies and broadens the spectra for both hydrated ions.

  4. Modeling of durability of polyelectrolyte membrane of O2/H2 fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atrazhev, Vadim V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we discuss critical aspects of the mechanisms and features of polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) degradation in low-temperature H2/O2 fuel cell. In this paper, we focused on chemical mechanism of OH radical generation and their distribution in operational fuel cell. According to the current concept, free radicals are generated from hydrogen and oxygen crossover gases at the surface of Pt particles that precipitated in the membrane. We explicitly calculate Pt precipitation rate and electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane that controls it. Based on radical generation rate and Pt distribution we calculate degradation rate of the membrane taking advantage of simple kinetics equations.

  5. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  6. Energy Exchange Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The schedule for Energy Exchange is now available. Attendees will have the option of attending a variety of training sessions offered within 10 tracks during the times listed below. Session details...

  7. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  8. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  9. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  10. Rapid synthesis of barium titanate microcubes using composite-hydroxides-mediated avenue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Xi; Ouyang, Jing, E-mail: jingouyang@csu.edu.cn; Jin, Jiao; Yang, Huaming, E-mail: hmyang@csu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Barium titanate oxides microcubes can be synthesized within 1 min. • Composite-hydroxides-mediated strategy provided a possible large scale production. • BST obtained in the strategy showed fairly good crystallinity and tetragonality. - Abstract: This paper reports the rapid synthesis of barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}, BTO) microcubes via composite-hydroxides-mediated reaction within 1 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion spectrum (EDS) results confirmed both cubic and tetragonal lattices in the sample and the uniform microcubes with an average size of 1 ?m. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectrum indicated that the band gap of the BTO powder was 3.05 eV. Ferroelectric polarization vs. electric field (P–E) tests showed that the ferroelectric domains had formed in the as-synthesized BTO microcubes and sintered ceramics. BTO ceramics sintered at 1100 °C for 3 h showed fairly good tetragonality and possessed a maximum polarization of 0.21 ?C/cm{sup 2}, indicating that the sintering temperature for the BTO powders prepared via this method was relatively low. The process and equipment reported herein provided a potential method for the rapid synthesis of titanate based perovskites.

  11. Aluminum hydroxide solubility in aqueous solutions containing fluoride ions at 50/sup 0/Cype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjuan, B.; Michard, G.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum hydroxide solubility experiments were performed at 50/sup 0/C using the method of May et al. (1979b). The shift observed by May at 25/sup 0/C between acidic and alkaline solution was also observed in these experiments. Infrared spectra of solids separated from solutions show that the low solubility values observed in alkaline medium can be related to the formation of a new solid phase: bayerite (or nordstrandite) (pK*/sub S/sub 4// = 13.4 at 50/sup 0/C) in the presence of initial gibbsite. A second set of experiments was performed in solutions containing fluoride ions in the 10/sup -4/-10/sup -3/ M concentration range. Fluorocomplexes are important in acidic solution; Al(OH)/sub m/F/sub p/ mixed complexes can be important in the minimum of Al solubility when total fluoride exceeds 10/sup -3/ M. The authors propose values of thermodynamic data for Al(OH)/sub 2/F/sub 2//sup -/, Al(OH)F/sub 3//sup -/, Al(OH)/sub 2/F/sup 0/ and for aluminum trifluoride solid. The difference of aluminum hydroxide solubility between acidic and alkaline medium is still observed.

  12. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizes a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide.

  13. A nonstoichiometric structural model to characterize changes in the nickel hydroxide electrode during cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Venkat; Bahne, C. Cornilsen; Weidner, John W.

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental capacities and mass changes are recorded using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance during the first 9 charge and discharge cycles of nickel hydroxide thin films cycled in 3.0 weight percent (wt%) potassium hydroxide electrolyte. For the first time, the film capacities have been corrected for the oxygen evolution side reaction, and the data used as input into the point defect-containing structural model to track the changes that occur during short-term cycling. Variations in capacity and mass during formation and charge/discharge cycling are related to changes in the point defect parameters, thus providing a structural origin for the unique experimental variations observed here and often reported in the literature, but previously unexplained. Proton-, potassium-, and water-content vary in the active material during charge/discharge cycling. The observed capacity loss, or ''capacity fade'', is explained by incomplete incorporation of potassium ions in (or near) the nickel vacancy during charge, as additional protons are then allowed to occupy the vacant lattice site. The increase in water content during reduction parallels the expansion of the electrode that is well known during cycling. This result confirms the origin of the swelling phenomenon as being caused by water incorporation. The model and methodology developed in this paper can be used to correlate electrochemical signatures with material chemical structure.

  14. Synthesis and release behavior of composites of camptothecin and layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong Lun [School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yan Li [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hou Wanguo, E-mail: wghou@sdu.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liu Shaojie [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple method, reconstruction of calcinated layered double hydroxides (CLDH) in an organic (ethanol)-water mixed solvent medium containing drug, was developed to intercalate partially a non-ionic and poorly water-soluble drug (camptothecin) into the gallery of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to form the drug-LDH composites. The purpose of choosing organic-water mixed solvent is to increase remarkably the solubility of camptothecin (CPT) in the reconstruction medium. A probable morphology of CPT molecules in the gallery of LDHs is that CPT molecules arrange as monolayer with the long axis parallel to the LDH layers. The in vitro drug release from the composites was remarkably lower than that from the corresponding physical mixture, which shows these drug-inorganic composites can be used as a potential drug delivery system. - Graphical abstract: A simple method, reconstruction of calcinated LDHs in an organic-water medium containing drug, was developed to intercalate non-ionic and poorly water-soluble camptothecin into the gallery of LDHs.

  15. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  16. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  17. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

    1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  18. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Corrigan, Dennis (Troy, MI); Venkatesan, Srini (Southfield, MI); Young, Rosa (Troy, MI); Fierro, Christian (Troy, MI); Fetcenko, Michael A. (Rochester Hills, MI)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  19. R&D on an Ultra-Thin Composite Membrane for High-Temperature Operation in PEMFC. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuh, C.-Y.

    2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    FuelCell Energy developed a novel high-temperature proton exchange membrane for PEM fuel cells for building applications. The laboratory PEM fuel cell successfully operated at 100-400{supdegree}C and low relative humidity to improve CO tolerance, mitigate water and thermal management challenges, and reduce membrane cost. The developed high-temperature membrane has successfully completed 500h 120C endurance testing.

  20. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  1. Ni Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Evidence for the Formation of Ni-Al Hydroxide and Its Transformation into Ni-Silicate by Visible,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    into Ni-Silicate by Visible, Infrared and XANES Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetry A. C. Scheinost, R. G suggest either the formation of layered double hydroxides or of layer silicates. Desorption studies polymerization of SiO causes the formation of 1:1 or 2:1 Ni silicates, where the original Ni-Al hydroxide

  2. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  3. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  4. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  5. Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (2114 Chadbourne Ave., Madison, WI 53705); Sheng, Guangyao (45 N. Orchard St., Madison, WI 53715)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

  6. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  7. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  8. Laser Assisted Emittance Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe here the laser assisted emittance exchange (LAEE) technique. A laser operating in the transverse mode (TEM10 or TEM01) is used to interact with the electron beam in a dispersive region and to initiate the transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange. It is shown that with the LAEE one can generate an electron beam with ultralow transverse emittance, which allows one to significantly bring down the size of an X-ray free electron laser (FEL) and greatly extend the availability of these light sources. The technique can also be used to enhance the performances of X-ray FELs in storage rings. The timing and energy jitter problems for the standard emittance exchange and LAEE techniques are also discussed.

  9. Synthesis of crystalline americium hydroxide, Am(OH){sub 3}, and determination of its enthalpy of formation; estimation of the solubility-product constants of actinide(III) hydroxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morss, L.R.; Williams, C.W.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports a new synthesis of pure, microcrystalline Am(OH){sub 3}, its characterization by x-ray powder diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, and the calorimetric determination of its enthalpy of solution in dilute hydrochloric acid. From the enthalpy of solution the enthalpy of formation of Am(OH){sub 3} has been calculated to be {minus}1371.2{plus_minus}7.9 kj{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, which represents the first experimental determination of an enthalpy of formation of any actinide hydroxide. The free energy of formation and solubility product constant of Am(OH){sub 3} (K{sub sp} = 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}31}) have been calculated from our enthalpy of formation and entropy estimates and are compared with literature measurements under near-equilibrium conditions. Since many properties of the tripositive lanthanide and actinide ions (e.g., hydrolysis, complex-ion formation, and thermochemistry) change in a regular manner, these properties can be interpreted systematically in terms of ionic size. This paper compares the thermochemistry of Am(OH){sub 3} with thermochemical studies of lanthanide hydroxides. A combined structural and acid-base model is used to explain the systematic differences in enthalpies of solution between the oxides and hydroxides of the 4f{sup n} and 5f{sup n} subgroups and to predict solubility-product constants for the actinide(III) hydroxides of Pu through Cf.

  10. Synthesis of lanthanum zirconium oxide nanomaterials through composite-hydroxide-mediated approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Hongyun [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China) [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Huang, Dan [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Qiang [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China) [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Li [Qinghai Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau (China)] [Qinghai Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau (China); Wang, Ning [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Yongqian [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China) [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hou, Shuen, E-mail: jincug@yahoo.com.cn [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China) [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Lanthanum zirconium oxide (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) with cubic pyrochlore structure thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) materials have been synthesized through composite-hydroxide-mediated method at 200 Degree-Sign C. Compared with YSZ TBCs material, La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} showed more excellent thermal stability and lower thermal conductivity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} TBCs were synthesized through composite-hydroxide-mediated method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The XRD patterns showed a single phase for La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} after treated at 1300 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal conductivity value of La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} was lower than that of YSZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} showed more excellent stability and lower thermal conductivity than YSZ. -- Abstract: A novel thermal barrier coating material, lanthanum zirconium oxide (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) has been synthesized through the composite-hydroxide-mediated method at low temperature. The phase structures, morphology, thermal stability and thermal conductivity of the as-synthesized La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} were investigated systematically. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed a single phase with cubic pyrochlore structure for La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} after treated at 1300 Degree-Sign C for 100 h. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses showed that the sample was made up of sphere-like nanoparticles with the size between 50 and 100 nm. Furthermore, the thermal analysis result demonstrated the La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} sample had high thermal stability even at 1300 Degree-Sign C. As the temperature increased to 1200 Degree-Sign C, the thermal conductivity value could be as low as 1.75 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}. Due to the high-temperature stability and lower thermal conductivity, the La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} material is expected to be a promising candidate for the use of thermal barrier coatings.

  11. Trifluorostyrene containing compounds, and their use in polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Biswajit (Kingston, CA); Roelofs, Mark Gerrit (Hockessin, DE); Yang; Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting a monomer onto a base polymer, wherein the grafting monomer is selected from the group consisting of structure 1a, 1b and mixture thereof; ##STR00001## wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of --R.sub.FSO.sub.2F, --R.sub.FSO.sub.3M, --R.sub.SO.sub.2NH.sub.2 and --R.sub.FSO.sub.2N(M)SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F, where in M is hydrogen, an alkali cation or ammonium; and R.sub.F and R.sup.2.sub.F are perfluorinated or partially fluorinated, and may optionally include ether oxygens; and n is between 1 and 2 for 1a, or n is between 1 and 3 for 1b. These ion exchange polymers are useful is preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  12. Sorption of MS2 Bacteriophage to Layered Double Hydroxides: Effects of Reaction Time, pH, and Competing Anions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    that some materials such as coal-based media, clay minerals, metal oxides­hydroxides, and activated very high retention capacities for from an aqueous solution by bituminous coal (Oza and MS2. Sorption) from 5.2 102 plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL solution by Mg­Al reported that some coal-based media

  13. Formation of Crystalline Zn-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Precipitates on Alumina: The Role of Mineral Dissolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    the sequestration of toxic metals such as nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co) as layered double hydroxide (LDH, which is an important mechanism for toxic metal sequestration in natural environments, carbonate, or silicate.8-10 Even though it is clear that Me-Al LDHs can form in certain environments

  14. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Hackley, K.; Dagamac, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Berger, R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Schanche, G. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pelletization of fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, represents a method to produce a fuel which will burn in compliance with the recently passed Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA`s). To harden the pellets, the reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide, referred to as carbonation, is being studied. Carbonation forms a bonding matrix of calcium carbonate. This is a two-year research program. This report covers the second quarter of the second year. Research is indicating that 5 to 10 wt% calcium hydroxide pellets can be produced via a roller-and-die pellet mill and air cured to achieve sufficient quality for handling and transportation. This quarter, 1/2 inch-diameter pellets containing 10% calcium hydroxide were demonstrated to gradually react with atmospheric carbon dioxide (3 days) while air drying to achieve compressive strengths equivalent to those attained for fully dried pellets which had been carbonated for one-hour with 100% commercial grade carbon dioxide. It was also demonstrated that an organic, adhesive binder, corn starch, can be very effective at producing strong pellets but drying is required before appreciable pellet strength is attained. For pellets containing 2 wt% corn starch, it was determined that less than 50% of the ultimate strength was achieved as the pellets were dried from 20 wt% to 5 wt% moisture. Strength improved considerably as the pellet moisture content was reduced below 5 wt%.

  15. Effects of aluminosilicate minerals in clay soil fractions on pore water hydroxide ion concentrations in soil/cement matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Evan Russell

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    form of montmorillonite, with 0. 5, 10, 20, and 40 percent bentonite by total, air-dry weight were mixed with Type I Portland cement at 10, 20, and 30 percent cement by weight of air-dry soil. Pore water was expressed and analyzed for hydroxide, calcium...

  16. Effects of aluminosilicate minerals in clay soil fractions on pore water hydroxide ion concentrations in soil/cement matrices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Evan Russell

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ucement/waste matrices. Research described herein was undertaken 1) to ascertain the pH decrement in soil/cement matrices as a function of clay:cement ratio and 2) to develop a methodology to predict hydroxide ion concentrations in soil/cement matrices. To assess...

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  18. APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

  19. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL lithium hydroxide fire and impact shield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.H.; Eversole, R.E.; Just, R.A.; Schaich, R.W.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ORNL Lithium Hydroxide Fire and Impact Shield and its packaging were designed and fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to permit the transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material and limited quantities of fissionable material. The shield and its packaging were evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and that evaluation is the subject of this report. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the shield relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for the hypothetical accident conditions. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that the shield and its packaging are in compliance with the applicable regulations. 16 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Hong; Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

    2006-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H{sub 2} separation from other light gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO). However, zeolite membranes have not been successful for H{sub 2} separation from light gases because the zeolite pores are either too big or the membranes have a large number of defects. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H{sub 2} separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H{sub 2} selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO{sub 2}CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} were separated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one BZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated B-ZSM-5 membrane was activated, but the CO{sub 2} and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H{sub 2} permeance and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sup 2} /CH{sub 4} separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 molxm-2xs-1xPa-1, and the H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H{sub 2} with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H{sub 2} permeance more than one order of magnitude. The H{sub 2} separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Increasing the membrane feed pressure also increased the H{sub 2} flux and the H{sub 2} mole fraction in the permeate stream for both mixtures. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO{sub 2} adsorption inhibited H{sub 2} adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO{sub 2} permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H{sub 2} recompression because H{sub 2} remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO{sub 2} feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} sorption selectivity with increased CO{sub 2} partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H{sub 2} from CH{sub 4} because CH{sub 4} is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity is much lower than the H{sup 2} diffusivity. The H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity was almost independent of temperature, pressure, and feed composition. Silylation on SAPO-34 membranes increased H{sup 2}/CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivities but did not increase H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities because silylation only blocked defects in SAPO-34 membranes. Hydr

  1. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The effect of temperature and ethanol on the deposition of nickel hydroxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streinz, C.C.; Motupally, S.; Weidner, J.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel hydroxide is one of the most commonly used active materials for the positive electrode in rechargeable batteries. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of the temperature and the ethanol content of the Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution on: (i) the efficiency of electrochemical deposition of nickel hydroxide; and (ii) the molecular weight (MW) of the deposited film. An electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN) was used to measure the mass of films electrochemically deposited from Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions and constant current discharges were used to determine the electrochemical capacity of the films. The data indicates that increasing the temperature increases both the efficiency of the deposition reaction and the MW of the deposited film. The increased efficiency at higher temperatures is attributed to a decrease in the concentration of a nickel complex at the surface of the electrode. The lower complex concentration decreases the diffusion rate of this species away from the electrode surface and hence increases the rate at which the complex precipitates from the solution. The increase in the MW at higher temperature is attributed to a combination of increased rate of deposition and an increase in the lattice spacing of the active material. The data also indicate that increasing the ethanol content of the solution had no noticeable effect on the efficiency of deposition, when water was present. In pure ethanol, however, the chemistry of deposition seemed to change considerably. However, increasing the ethanol content resulted in an increase of the MW of the film. Increased in the MW with an increase in the ethanol content is due to an increase in the relative percentage of ethanol incorporated in the active material. The data also indicate that the number of electrons in the discharge reaction is approximately 1.4 electrons per nickel atom.

  3. Munich, Germany Exchange Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Munich, Germany Exchange Program Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Founded in 1472, Ludwig talented scholars and students from all over the world. As one of Germany's most dynamic universities, LMU administration, and geosciences to name a few. Most courses are offered in Germany, but many departments offer

  4. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J.

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA�¢����s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20���ºC to 120���ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA�¢����s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

  5. CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Greene; Patricia A. Kirk; Richard Hayes; Joshua Riley

    2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., the developer of a centrifugal membrane filtration technology, has engineered and developed a system for use within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program. The technology uses supported microporous membranes rotating at high rpm, under pressure, to separate suspended and colloidal solids from liquid streams, yielding a solids-free permeate stream and a highly concentrated solids stream. This is a crosscutting technology that falls under the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program, with potential application to tank wastes, contaminated groundwater, landfill leachate, and secondary liquid waste streams from other remediation processes, including decontamination and decommissioning systems. SpinTek II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System is a unique compact crossflow membrane system that has large, demonstrable advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems: (1) High fluid shear prevents membrane fouling even with very high solids content; hazardous and radioactive components can be concentrated to the consistency of a pasty slurry without fouling. (2) Induced turbulence and shear across the membrane increases membrane flux by a factor of ten over existing systems and allows operation on fluids not otherwise treatable. (3) Innovative ceramic membrane and mechanical sealing technology eliminates compatibility problems with aggressive DOE waste streams. (4) System design allows rapid, simple disassembly for inspection or complete decontamination. (5) Produces colloidal- and suspended-solids-free filtrate without the addition of chemicals. The first phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 5) completed the physical scale-up of the SpinTek unit and verified successful scale-up with surrogate materials. Given successful scale-up and DOE concurrence, the second phase of this project (PRDA maturity stage 6) will provide for the installation and operation of the full-scale two-stage SpinTek unit for treatment of a DOE waste-stream at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technology has very broad application across the DOE system. Nineteen DOE technical needs areas (Appendix C) have been identified. Following successful full-scale demonstration for treatment of DOE wastes, this innovative technology will be rapidly deployed on a wide range of waste and process streams throughout the DOE system.

  6. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) A revolutionary method of building a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for...

  7. Membrane Bioreactors: Past, Present and Future?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermanowicz, Slav W

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scale municipal membrane bioreactor - Characterisation ofin a submerged membrane bioreactor at high mixed liquorA brief description of membrane bioreactor (MBR) historical

  8. Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report The Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES),...

  9. Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachs, Frederick

    Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange David M. Blersch dblersch Shade of Blue and You 21 September 2010 #12;National Science Foundation Ecosystem Restoration through;National Science Foundation Ecosystem Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange UB's ERIE Program www

  10. Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

  11. Gas Separation Using Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koros, W. J.; Paul, D. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    constant diffusion coefficient applies to the diffusion process, von Wroblewski showed that the permeability, P, is equal to the product of the solubility and diffusivity coefficients, i.e., D(C 2 P = _N_ -0 (dC/dx) C 1 ) -~-...:..... = OS (4....6 0.15 1.4 ?u ITS OF PERMEABILITY ARE BARRERS. 1 HARRER Such membranes offered flux increases of as much as 50- to 100-fold compared to their I-mil silicone rubber counterpart s. The membranes were typi ca 11 y supported in a plate...

  12. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  13. One-step synthesis of layered yttrium hydroxides in immiscible liquid–liquid systems: Intercalation of sterically-bulky hydrophobic organic anions and doping of europium ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Mebae; Fujihara, Shinobu, E-mail: shinobu@applc.keio.ac.jp

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic–organic layered rare-earth compounds were synthesized on the basis of a biphasic liquid–liquid system in one pot. Layered yttrium hydroxides (LYHs) were chosen as a host material for the intercalation of hydrophobic organic guest anions such as benzoate, sebacate, or laurate. In a typical synthesis, an organic phase dissolving carboxylic acid was placed in contact with an equal amount of an aqueous phase dissolving yttrium nitrate n-hydrate and urea. At elevated temperatures up to 80 °C, urea was hydrolyzed to release hydroxyl anions which were used to form yttrium hydroxide layers. LYHs were then precipitated with the intercalation of carboxylate anions delivered from the organic phase under the distribution law. The structure and the morphology of the LYHs could be modulated by the intercalated anions. Doped with Eu{sup 3+} ions, the LYHs exhibited red photoluminescence which was enhanced by the intercalated anions due to the antenna effect. - Graphical abstract: The Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered yttrium hydroxide exhibits intense red photoluminescence after intercalation of benzoate ions. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Immiscible biphasic liquid systems were introduced to synthesize layered yttrium hydroxides. • The temperature of the biphasic systems does not exceed 80 °C in one step of the synthesis. • Hydrophobic organic anions were intercalated between the hydroxide layers in one pot. • Structure and morphology of the hydroxides were modulated by changing the kind of organic anions. • Eu{sup 3+}-doping led to red luminescence from the hydroxides in association with the intercalated organic anions.

  14. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  15. Proceedings: Heat exchanger workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer processes are of controlling importance in the operation of a thermal power plant. Heat exchangers are major cost items and are an important source of problems causing poor power plant availability and performance. A workshop to examine the improvements that can be made to heat exchangers was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on June 10-11, 1986, in Palo Alto, California. This workshop was attended by 25 engineers and scientists representing EPRI-member utilities and EPRI consultants. A forum was provided for discussions related to the design, operation and maintenance of utility heat transfer equipment. The specific objectives were to identify research directions that could significantly improve heat exchanger performance, reliability and life cycle economics. Since there is a great diversity of utility heat transfer equipment in use, this workshop addressed two equipment categories: Boiler Feedwater Heaters (FWH) and Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG). The workshop was divided into the following panel sessions: functional design, mechanical design, operation, suggested research topics, and prioritization. Each panel session began with short presentations by experts on the subject and followed by discussions by the attendees. This report documents the proceedings of the workshop and contains recommendations of potentially valuable areas of research and development. 4 figs.

  16. Nanocomposite Membranes for Complex Separations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeu, Seung Uk

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    membranes showed exceptionally high propane/nitrogen selectivities. This result was ascribed to the presence of stable residual solvent that affects the solubility of hydrocarbon species. Mesoporous silica-ceramic nanocomposite membranes have been fabricated...

  17. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

  18. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  19. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  20. Automotive Perspective on Membrane Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC

  1. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1, and the H2/CO2 separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H2 with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H2 permeance more than one order of magnitude. Increasing the membrane feed pressure increased the H2 flux and the H2 mole fraction in the permeate stream for both H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 mixtures. The H2 separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO2 adsorption inhibited H2 adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO2/H2 separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO2 permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H2 recompression because H2 remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO2/H2 separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO2 feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO2/H2 sorption selectivity with increased CO2 partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H2 from CH4 because CH4 is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  2. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grot, Stephen (Middletown, DE); Grot, Walther (Chadds Ford, PA)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  3. Computational and experimental study of nanoporous membranes for water desalination and decontamination.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickner, Michael A. (Penn State University, University Park, PA); Chinn, Douglas Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Long, Kevin R. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Kent, Michael Stuart (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Debusschere, Bert J.; Zendejas, Frank J.; Tran, Huu M.; Najm, Habib N.; Simmons, Blake Alexander

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamentals of ion transport in nanopores were studied through a joint experimental and computational effort. The study evaluated both nanoporous polymer membranes and track-etched nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. The track-etched membranes provide a geometrically well characterized platform, while the polymer membranes are more closely related to ion exchange systems currently deployed in RO and ED applications. The experimental effort explored transport properties of the different membrane materials. Poly(aniline) membranes showed that flux could be controlled by templating with molecules of defined size. Track-etched polycarbonate membranes were modified using oxygen plasma treatments, UV-ozone exposure, and UV-ozone with thermal grafting, providing an avenue to functionalized membranes, increased wettability, and improved surface characteristic lifetimes. The modeling effort resulted in a novel multiphysics multiscale simulation model for field-driven transport in nanopores. This model was applied to a parametric study of the effects of pore charge and field strength on ion transport and charge exclusion in a nanopore representative of a track-etched polycarbonate membrane. The goal of this research was to uncover the factors that control the flux of ions through a nanoporous material and to develop tools and capabilities for further studies. Continuation studies will build toward more specific applications, such as polymers with attached sulfonate groups, and complex modeling methods and geometries.

  4. Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

  5. STABILITY OF DOW CORNING Q2-3183A ANTIFOAM IN IRRADIATED HYDROXIDE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, T; Crawford, C; Burket, P; Calloway, B

    2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) examined the stability of Dow Corning Q2-3183A antifoam to radiation and aqueous hydroxide solutions. Initial foam control studies with Hanford tank waste showed the antifoam reduced foaming. The antifoam was further tested using simulated Hanford tank waste spiked with antifoam that was heated and irradiated (2.1 x 10{sup 4} rad/h) at conditions (90 C, 3 M NaOH, 8 h) expected in the processing of radioactive waste through the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford. After irradiation, the concentration of the major polymer components polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polypropylene glycol (PPG) in the antifoam was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). No loss of the major polymer components was observed after 24 h and only 15 wt% loss of PDMS was reported after 48 h. The presence of degradation products were not observed by gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) or high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). G values were calculated from the GPC analysis and tabulated. The findings indicate the antifoam is stable for 24 h after exposure to gamma radiation, heat, and alkaline simulated waste.

  6. Effects of phosphorus on corrosion resistance of electroless nickel in 50% sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeller, R.L. III (Occidental Chemical Corp., Grand Island, NY (United States)); Salvati, L. (Abbott Labs., Abbott Park, IL (United States))

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel (Ni) and electroless nickel (EN) coatings are used extensively in caustic soda (NaOH) service. The corrosion resistance of an EN coating is dependent upon phosphorus (P) content, but not in the trend expected. High-phosphorus EN (HPEN) coatings have poorer corrosion resistance in hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) than low-phosphorus (LPEN) and medium-phosphorus (MPEN) coatings, which have a corrosion resistance comparable to Ni. The purpose of this work was to quantify the effect of P in EN coatings on their corrosion resistance in 50% NaOH at room temperature (RT). Electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the corrosion processes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize coating surfaces. Very low corrosion rates ([<=] [mu]m/y) were measured for all coatings. It was proposed that the detrimental effect of P in EN coatings exposed to a concentrated NaOH environment was a result of the higher solubility of nickel phosphate (Ni[sub 3][PO[sub 4

  7. Textural properties of synthetic nano-calcite produced by hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German; Charlet, L; Tisserand, Delphine; Renard, F

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 1/4 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used to synthesize fine particles of calcite. This method allows a high carbonation efficiency (about 95% of Ca(OH)2-CaCO3 conversion), a significant production rate (48 kg/m3 h) and high purity of product (about 96%). However, the various initial physicochemical conditions have a strong influence on the crystal size and surface area of the synthesized calcite crystals. The present study is focused on the estimation of the textural properties of synthesized calcite (morphology, specific surface area, average particle size, particle size distribution and particle size evolution with reaction time), using Rietveld refinements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations. This study demonstrate that the pressure, the temperatu...

  8. Priority Firm Exchange .

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnical News, informationPriority Firm Exchange . . . . . . . . .

  9. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard (Salt Lake City, UT); Taylor, Dale M. (Murray, UT)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  10. Carbonation as a binding mechanism for coal/calcium hydroxide pellets. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.M. Ehrlinger, H.P.; Hackley, K.C.; Lytle, J.M.; Moran, D.L. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Berger, R.L. [Univ. Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Schanche, G. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States); Chow, Poo [Univ. Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Strickland, R. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project supported by the CRSC, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and the Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), ISGS is investigating the pelletization of fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent. The objective is to produce a readily-transportable fuel which will burn in compliance with the recently passed Clean Air Act Amendments. To improve the economics of pelletization, carbonation, or, the reaction of carbon dioxide with calcium hydroxide to produce a binding matrix of calcium carbonate, is being investigated as a method of hardening pelletized coal fines. Previous results indicate that carbonation significantly improves pellet quality including serving to weatherproof the pellets. During this quarter, work was conducted on several topics. Calcium oxide was investigated as a potentially lower cost binder than calcium hydroxide and was determined to be of comparable effectiveness on a molar basis indicating some potential for an overall cost savings. The effect of pellet size on pellet quality was also investigated. Results indicate that 1/4 and 1/2-inch diameter pellets have similar compressive strengths when compared on the basis of pounds per square inch crushing pressure. Also a low cost starch was tested as an alternative binder. Although cheaper per pound than a starch binder previously tested, it was not less expensive when evaluated on the basis of pellet quality attained.

  11. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  12. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

  13. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  14. Membranes on an Orbifold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil Lambert; David Tong

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We harvest clues to aid with the interpretation of the recently discovered N=8 supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory with SO(4) gauge symmetry. The theory is argued to describe two membranes moving in the orbifold R8/Z2. At level k=1 and k=2, the classical moduli space M coincides with the infra-red moduli space of SO(4) and SO(5) super Yang-Mills theory respectively. For higher Chern-Simons level, the moduli space is a quotient of M. At a generic point in the moduli space, the massive spectrum is proportional to the area of the triangle formed by the two membranes and the orbifold fixed point.

  15. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  16. Hierarchical organization of chiral rafts in colloidal membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prerna Sharma; Andrew Ward; T. Gibaud; Michael F. Hagan; Zvonimir Dogic

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid phase separation is ubiquitous in suspensions of nanoparticles, proteins and colloids. With a few notable exceptions, surface-tension-minimizing liquid droplets in bulk suspensions continuously coalesce, increasing in size without bound until achieving macroscale phase separation. In comparison, the phase behavior of colloids, nanoparticles or proteins confined to interfaces, surfaces or membranes is significantly more complex. Inclusions distort the local interface structure leading to interactions that are fundamentally different from the well-studied interactions mediated by isotropic solvents. Here, we investigate liquid-liquid phase separation in monolayer membranes composed of dissimilar chiral colloidal rods. We demonstrate that colloidal rafts are a ubiquitous feature of binary colloidal membranes. We measure the raft free energy landscape by visualizing its assembly kinetics. Subsequently, we quantify repulsive raft-raft interactions and relate them to directly imaged raft-induced membrane distortions, demonstrating that particle chirality plays a key role in this microphase separation. At high densities, rafts assemble into cluster crystals which constantly exchange monomeric rods with the background reservoir to maintain a self-limited size. Lastly, we demonstrate that rafts can form bonds to assemble into higher-order supra-structures. Our work demonstrates that membrane-mediated liquid-liquid phase separation can be fundamentally different from the well-characterized behavior of bulk liquids. It outlines a robust membrane-based pathway for assembly of monodisperse liquid clusters which is complementary to existing methods which take place in bulk suspensions. Finally, it reveals that chiral inclusions in membranes acquire long-ranged repulsive interactions, which might play a role in stabilizing assemblages of finite size.

  17. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  18. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

  19. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  20. Electrical properties of polar membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars D. Mosgaard; Karis A. Zecchi; Thomas Heimburg

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological membranes are capacitors that can be charged by applying a field across the membrane. The charges on the capacitor exert a force on the membrane that leads to electrostriction, i.e. a thinning of the membrane. Since the force is quadratic in voltage, negative and positive voltage have an identical influence on the physics of symmetric membranes. However, this is not the case for a membrane with an asymmetry leading to a permanent electric polarization. Positive and negative voltages of identical magnitude lead to different properties. Such an asymmetry can originate from a lipid composition that is different on the two monolayers of the membrane, or from membrane curvature. The latter effect is called 'flexoelectricity'. As a consequence of permanent polarization, the membrane capacitor is discharged at a voltage different from zero. This leads to interesting electrical phenomena such as outward or inward rectification of membrane permeability. Here, we introduce a generalized theoretical framework, that treats capacitance, polarization, flexoelectricity and piezoelectricity in the same language.

  1. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  2. A Binghamton Exchange Program UNIVERSITY COLLEGE UTRECHT EXCHANGE PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    A Binghamton Exchange Program UNIVERSITY COLLEGE UTRECHT EXCHANGE PROGRAM THE BINGHAMTON PROGRAM AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE UTRECHT Utrecht University ranks first among Dutch universi- ties and is one of the finest universities in Europe. Students take courses in the University College Utrecht (UCU), Utrecht University

  3. A Binghamton Exchange Program UTRECHT SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS EXCHANGE PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    A Binghamton Exchange Program UTRECHT SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS EXCHANGE PROGRAM THE BINGHAMTON PROGRAM AT UTRECHT SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS Utrecht University ranks first among Dutch universi- ties and is one of the finest universities in Europe. Students take courses in the Utrecht School of Eco- nomics (USE

  4. Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  5. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  6. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  7. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  8. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

  9. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

  10. Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

  11. Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riba Sagarra, Jaume

    Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

  12. 4, 125164, 2007 Methanol exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 125­164, 2007 Methanol exchange between grassland and the atmosphere A. Brunner et al. Title Discussions Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences Methanol (albrecht.neftel@art.admin.ch) 125 #12;BGD 4, 125­164, 2007 Methanol exchange between grassland

  13. Regeneration of strong-base anion-exchange resins by sequential chemical displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Gu, Baohua (Oak Ridge, TN); Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for regenerating strong-base anion exchange resins utilizing a sequential chemical displacement technique with new regenerant formulation. The new first regenerant solution is composed of a mixture of ferric chloride, a water-miscible organic solvent, hydrochloric acid, and water in which tetrachloroferrate anion is formed and used to displace the target anions on the resin. The second regenerant is composed of a dilute hydrochloric acid and is used to decompose tetrachloroferrate and elute ferric ions, thereby regenerating the resin. Alternative chemical displacement methods include: (1) displacement of target anions with fluoroborate followed by nitrate or salicylate and (2) displacement of target anions with salicylate followed by dilute hydrochloric acid. The methodology offers an improved regeneration efficiency, recovery, and waste minimization over the conventional displacement technique using sodium chloride (or a brine) or alkali metal hydroxide.

  14. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Using Advanced Polymeric Membranes BESP 20 Michael Heben NREL Carbon Nanotube Materials for Substrate Enhanced Control of Catalytic Activity BESP 21 G. Kane Jennings...

  15. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  16. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped Ti-substituted perovskites, La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}, with 0 {le} x {le} 0.20, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization, electric resistivity, and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. All samples show a rhombohedral structure (space group R3C) from 10 K to room temperature. At room temperature, the cell parameters a, c and the unit cell volume increase with increasing Ti content. However, at 10 K, the cell parameter a has a maximum value for x = 0.10, and decreases for x > 0.10, while the unit cell volume remains nearly constant for x > 0.10. The average (Mn,Ti)-O bond length increases up to x = 0.15, and the (Mn,Ti)-O-(Mn,Ti) bond angle decreases with increasing Ti content to its minimum value at x = 0.15 at room temperature. Below the Curie temperature TC, the resistance exhibits metallic behavior for the x {le} 0.05 samples. A metal (semiconductor) to insulator transition is observed for the x {ge} 0.10 samples. A peak in resistivity appears below TC for all samples, and shifts to a lower temperature as x increases. The substitution of Mn by Ti decreases the 2p-3d hybridization between O and Mn ions, reduces the bandwidth W, and increases the electron-phonon coupling. Therefore, the TC shifts to a lower temperature and the resistivity increases with increasing Ti content. A field-induced shift of the resistivity maximum occurs at x {le} 0.10 compounds. The maximum MR effect is about 70% for La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}. The separation of TC and the resistivity maximum temperature T{sub {rho},max} enhances the MR effect in these compounds due to the weak coupling between the magnetic ordering and the resistivity as compared with La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. The bulk densities of the membranes were determined using the Archimedes method. The bulk density was 5.029 and 5.57 g/cc for LSFT and dual phase membranes, respectively. The microstructure of the dual phase membrane was analyzed using SEM. It is evident from the micrograph that the microstructure is composed of dual phases. The dense circular regions are enclosed by the less dense, continuous phase which accommodates most of the pores. The pores are normally aggregated and found clustered along the dense regions where as the dense regions do not have pores. Upon closer observation of the micrograph it is revealed that the dense region has a clear circular cleavage or crack as their boundary. The circular cleavage clearly encompasses a dense region and which consists of no pore or any flaw that is visible. The size distribution of the dense, discontinuous regions is varying from 5 to 20 {micro}m with a D{sub 50} of 15 {micro}m. The grain size distribution was estimated from the micrographs using image analysis and a unimodal distribution of grains was observed with an average grain size of 1.99 {micro}m. The chemical compositions of the membranes were analyzed using EDS analysis and no other impurities were observed. The XRD analysis was carried out for the membranes and the phase purity was confirmed. The fracture toughness of LSFT membranes at room temperature has to be calculated using the Vickers indentation method. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the ionic conductivity by the use of blocking electrodes. Preliminary measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Modifications to the apparatus to improve the data quality have been completed. Electron microscopy studies of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been initiated. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradient

  18. Neutron scattering from myelin revisited: bilayer asymmetry and water-exchange kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denninger, Andrew R. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Demé, Bruno; Cristiglio, Viviana [Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL), CS 20156, F-38042 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); LeDuc, Géraldine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), CS 40220, F-38043 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Feller, W. Bruce [NOVA Scientific Inc., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); Kirschner, Daniel A., E-mail: kirschnd@bc.edu [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of internodal myelin in the rodent central and peripheral nervous systems has been determined using neutron diffraction. The kinetics of water exchange in these tissues is also described. Rapid nerve conduction in the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS, respectively) of higher vertebrates is brought about by the ensheathment of axons with myelin, a lipid-rich, multilamellar assembly of membranes. The ability of myelin to electrically insulate depends on the regular stacking of these plasma membranes and on the presence of a number of specialized membrane-protein assemblies in the sheath, including the radial component, Schmidt–Lanterman incisures and the axo–glial junctions of the paranodal loops. The disruption of this fine-structure is the basis for many demyelinating neuropathies in the CNS and PNS. Understanding the processes that govern myelin biogenesis, maintenance and destabilization requires knowledge of myelin structure; however, the tight packing of internodal myelin and the complexity of its junctional specializations make myelin a challenging target for comprehensive structural analysis. This paper describes an examination of myelin from the CNS and PNS using neutron diffraction. This investigation revealed the dimensions of the bilayers and aqueous spaces of myelin, asymmetry between the cytoplasmic and extracellular leaflets of the membrane, and the distribution of water and exchangeable hydrogen in internodal multilamellar myelin. It also uncovered differences between CNS and PNS myelin in their water-exchange kinetics.

  19. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  20. The Separation of Tritiated Water Using Supported Polyphosphazene Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, James B. (CHEMMET LTD); Nelson, David A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carboxylated poly(diaryloxy)phosphazene was examined as the active constituent of the composite membranes to separate tritiated water (HTO) from light water. These membranes were tested with water containing 10 800 pCi/l and 3 mu-Ci/l of tritiated water, respectively, under cross-flow filtration conditions. Reductions in the permeate of nearly 30% HTO were observed with these tritium concentrations. Low temperature (5 degrees C), low pressure (137.9-551.6 kPa), and high pH (near 10 or above) were required to obtain such reductions (rejection). Salt species (Na2SO4, CaCl2 and CaSO4) at various concentrations and pressures, within a 137.9-551.6 kPa range, did not appear to affect the HTO separation efficiency. Mass balances performed during these experiments indicate an unaccounted small amount of tritium (0.5-2.2%). Sorption experiments with the polyphosphazene suggest that the membrane does not operate by an ion exchange mechanism; that is, tritium accumulation within the membrane.

  1. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  2. Energy-Exchange Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)

  3. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

  4. Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

  5. Adding sodium hydroxide to study metal removal in a stream affected by acid mine drainage. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amacher, M.C.; Brown, R.W.; Kotubi-Amacher, J.; Willis, A.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fisher Creek, a stream affected by acid mine drainage in the Beartooth Mountains of Montana, was studied to determine the extent to which copper and zinc would be removed from stream water when pH was increased by a pulse of sodium hydroxide. As stream pH increased, copper and zinc were rapidly and completely removed from stream water by adsorption or coprecipitation with freshly precipitated hydrous ferric oxide. In practice, the best way of increasing the pH of streams impacted by acid mine drainage would be to increase the alkalinity of tributaries by lining their channels with limestone rock.

  6. Single Molecule Probes of Lipid Membrane Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livanec, Philip W.

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological membranes are highly heterogeneous structures that are thought to use this heterogeneity to organize and modify the function of membrane constituents. Probing membrane organization, structure, and changes therein ...

  7. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  8. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Elyassi, Bahman; Lima, Fernando; Iyer, Aparna; Agrawal, Kumar; Sabnis, Sanket

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 oC and 600 oC) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants in terms of performance and economic aspects of the plants. Specifically, simulation and design optimization studies were performed using the developed stand-alone membrane reactor models to identify the membrane selectivity and permeance characteristics necessary to achieve desired targets of CO2 capture and H2 recovery, as well as guide the selection of the optimal reactor design that minimizes the membrane cost as a function of its surface area required. The isothermal membrane reactor model was also integrated into IGCC system models using both the MATLAB and Aspen software platforms and techno-economic analyses of the integrated plants have been carried out to evaluate the feasibility of replacing current technologies for pre-combustion capture by the proposed novel approach in terms of satisfying stream constraints and achieving the DOE target goal of 90% CO2 capture. The results of the performed analyses based on present value of annuity calculations showed break even costs for the membrane reactor within the feasible range for membrane fabrication. However, the predicted membrane performance used in these simulations exceeded the performance achieved experimentally. Therefore, further work is required to improve membrane performance.

  9. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  10. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  11. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  12. Charge exchange molecular ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Ions, particularly molecular ions with multiple dopant nucleons per ion, are produced by charge exchange. An ion source contains a minimum of two regions separated by a physical barrier and utilizes charge exchange to enhance production of a desired ion species. The essential elements are a plasma chamber for production of ions of a first species, a physical separator, and a charge transfer chamber where ions of the first species from the plasma chamber undergo charge exchange or transfer with the reactant atom or molecules to produce ions of a second species. Molecular ions may be produced which are useful for ion implantation.

  13. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  14. Heat exchanger with ceramic elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

  15. Understanding microbe-mineral electron exchange | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    insight into how bacteria, such as S. oneidensis (above), exchange electrons with minerals in their surroundings as part of cellular respiration-a series of electron exchanges...

  16. Competing effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange bias in epitaxial FeIrMn bilayers. Competing effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange bias in epitaxial FeIrMn...

  17. Residential Exchange History Fact Sheet - June 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    history of BPA's Residential Exchange Program June 2007 F rom its start, the Residential Exchange Program (REP) has been a source of nearly continuous controversy. Its roots go...

  18. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

  19. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  20. Heat exchange assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  1. Hear Exchange Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey (Rocky Hill, NJ); Tonon, Thomas S. (Princeton, NJ)

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: fuel cell membrane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    membrane ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels the Success of Future Generation Vehicles On February 14, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Energy Efficiency,...

  3. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  4. Apparatus for tensioning a heliostat membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sallis, Daniel V. (P.O. Box 554, Littleton, CO 80120)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for pneumatically or hydraulically tensioning a membrane, which stretched membrane can support a reflective surface for use as a heliostat in a solar energy collection system.

  5. New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  6. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation...

  7. Fullerene-Nafion Composite Recast Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Fullerene-Nafion Composite Recast Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  8. Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the...

  9. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  10. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  11. Energy Efficiency Exchange 2015 Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The schedule for Energy Efficiency Exchange 2015 is now available. Attendees will have the option of attending a variety of training sessions offered within 10 tracks during the times listed below....

  12. Optimization of Heat Exchanger Cleaning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegell, J. H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of heat integration systems is quantified in terms of the amount of heat that is recovered. This decreases with time due to increased fouling of the heat exchange surface. Using the "Total Fouling Related Expenses (TFRE)" approach...

  13. Designing Flexible Heat Exchanger Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautam, R.; Chen, H. S.; Wareck, J. S.

    Procedures and methods used for designing flexible heat exchanger networks are described. The general approach consists of defining the flexibility problem as a set of cases. Pinch Technology is then used to develop an initial network design...

  14. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  15. Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M. [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rives, V., E-mail: vrives@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate was more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: > LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. > Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. > Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. > Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.

  16. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  17. Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, Bernard [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0445 (United States)]. E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors.

  18. Analysis of Nonlinear Elastic Membrane Oscillations by Eigenfunction Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balogh, Andras - Department of Mathematics, University of Texas

    of elas- tic membranes. Unattended ground sensors can have as their basic element a circular membrane

  19. ROTARY FILTER FINES TESTING FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D.

    2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    SRNL was requested to quantify the amount of 'fines passage' through the 0.5 micron membranes currently used for the rotary microfilter (RMF). Testing was also completed to determine if there is any additional benefit to utilizing a 0.1 micron filter to reduce the amount of fines that could pass through the filter. Quantifying of the amount of fines that passed through the two sets of membranes that were tested was accomplished by analyzing the filtrate by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for titanium. Even with preparations to isolate the titanium, all samples returned results of less than the instrument's detection limit of 0.184 mg/L. Test results show that the 0.5 micron filters produced a significantly higher flux while showing a negligible difference in filtrate clarity measured by turbidity. The first targeted deployment of the RMF is with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). SCIX uses crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to sorb cesium to decontaminate a clarified salt solution. The passage of fine particles through the filter membranes in sufficient quantities has the potential to impact the downstream facilities. To determine the amount of fines passage, a contract was established with SpinTek Filtration to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disk and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of 0.1 micron filter disks to determine the amount of fine particles that would pass the membrane and to determine the flux each set produced. The membrane on both disk sets is manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with three feed combinations: prototypically ground CST, CST plus monosodium titanate (MST), and CST, MST, plus Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) simulant. Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected, measured for turbidity, and sent back to SRNL for analysis to quantify the amount of fines that passed through the membrane. It should be noted that even though ground CST was tested, it will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank and is not expected to require filtration.

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  1. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

  2. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  3. New developments in hydrogen permselective membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavalas, G.R.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the original project were to develop silica hydrogen permselective membranes and to evaluate the economic feasibility of these membranes in hydrogen production from coal gas. The objectives of the work reported here were to increase the membrane permeance by developing new precursors or deposition conditions, and to carry out fundamental permeability measurements of the membrane at different stages of pore narrowing.

  4. An emergency response team for membrane repair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchhausen, Tomas

    events, which we focus on here. As discussed later, Ca2+ influx at the site of plasma membrane-fusion events are required to repair a torn plasma membrane, and we propose that this emergency products and the plasma membrane. Reseal or die. Plasma-membrane disruption is a normal event in the life

  5. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  6. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  7. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P (Palo Alto, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  8. Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and desalination using a forward osmosis membrane in an air-cathode microbial osmotic fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cathode microbial osmotic fuel cell Craig M. Werner a,n , Bruce E. Logan b , Pascal E. Saikaly a , Gary L. Amy Keywords: Forward osmosis Desalination Fouling Microbial osmotic fuel cell a b s t r a c t A microbial was compared to conventional microbial fuel cells containing a cation (CEM) or anion exchange membrane (AEM

  9. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  10. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

  11. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  12. Anisotropic surface tension of buckled fluid membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroshi Noguchi

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid sheets and fluid membranes exhibit buckling under lateral compression. Here, it is revealed that fluid membranes have anisotropic buckling surface tension contrary to solid sheets. Surprisingly, the surface tension perpendicular to the buckling direction shows stronger dependence than that parallel to it. Our theoretical predictions are supported by numerical simulations of a meshless membrane model. This anisotropic tension can be used to measure the membrane bending rigidity. It is also found phase synchronization occurs between multilayered buckled membranes.

  13. Nickel-Cobalt Hydroxide Nanosheets Coated on NiCo2O4 Nanowires Grown on Carbon Fiber Paper for High-Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    of supercapacitors exist based on the underlying energy storage mechanism: electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and pseudocapacitors. Unlike EDLCs, which store electrical energy by electrostatic accumulation of charges EDLCs.12 Transition metal oxides, hydroxides, and their compounds are being widely explored

  14. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  15. Information Exchange for theInformation Exchange for the Development of SustainableDevelopment of Sustainable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Exchange for theInformation Exchange for the Development of SustainableDevelopment influenced the development ofthe development of sustainable wood process industrysustainable wood process industry substantiallysubstantially .. Information Exchange for the development of Sustainable Wood Process

  16. Effective interactions between fluid membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bing-Sui Lu; Rudolf Podgornik

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. The steric constraint is implemented via a representation of the Heaviside function, which enables one to transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero mode fluctuations of the membranes, and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area $S$, we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the inter-membrane separation $d$ as $d^{-2}$ for $d \\ll \\sqrt{S}$, but crosses over to $d^{-4}$ scaling for $d \\gg \\sqrt{S}$, whereas the zero mode part of the steric potential always scales as $d^{-2}$. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain exact nonlinear expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude $\\sigma$, which becomes small at low temperatures $T$ and/or large bending stiffnesses $\\kappa$. Moreover, $\\sigma$ scales as $d$ for $d \\ll \\sqrt{S}$, but saturates at $\\sqrt{k_{{\\rm B}} T S/\\kappa}$ for $d \\gg \\sqrt{S}$. In addition, using variational Gaussian theory, we apply our self-consistent treatment to study inter-membrane interactions subject to three different types of potential: (i)~the Moreira-Netz potential for a pair of strongly charged membranes with an intervening solution of multivalent counterions, (ii)~an attractive square well, (iii)~the Morse potential, and (iv)~a combination of hydration and van der Waals interactions.

  17. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  18. Structural transformation and photoluminescence behavior during calcination of the layered europium-doped yttrium hydroxide intercalate with organic-sensitizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yahong; Pan, Guohua; Gu, Qingyang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Xinxin [Analysis and Test Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Genban [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Shulan, E-mail: mashulan@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yang, Xiaojing, E-mail: yang.xiaojing@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Calcination of organic sensitizer intercalated layered europium-doped yttrium hydroxide displayed tunable luminescent performance dependent on calcined temperatures. The 200 °C-calcined sample revealed an optimal fluorescence behavior with respect to TA-LYH:Eu composite and the as-transformed oxide. - Highlights: • We report the calcinations process of organic/LYH:Eu nanocomposite materials. • We study structural transformation and fluorescence behavior of the calcined samples. • Calcined samples displayed tunable luminescent performance dependent on temperatures. • The optimal fluorescence was found in 200 °C-calcined sample. • This material can provide valuable guide for developing tunable luminescent materials. - Abstract: We report, for the first time, structural transformation and photoluminescence behavior by calcination of layered europium-doped yttrium hydroxide (LYH:Eu) intercalate with organic sensitizer terephthalate (TA). The calcined samples displayed tunable luminescent performance dependent on calcined temperatures. Calcination under low temperatures (200 and 300 °C) retained layered structure, while high temperatures (>400 °C) yielded oxide phase. The optimal fluorescence occurred in 200 °C-calcination, possibly resulting from an optimal arrangement of TA. Above 200 °C, the luminescence intensity was first weakened and then enhanced, due to gradual departure of TA and following occurrence of oxide phase. The energy transfer presented an intrinsic transition from TA-to-Eu{sup 3+} in the organic intercalate to O{sup 2?}-to-Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer in as-transformed oxide. The predominant luminescence property of the hybrid material can provide valuable guide for developing tunable luminescent materials, especially flexible materials resulting from the containing organic component.

  19. The Roles of Outer Membrane Cytochromes of Shewanella and Geobacter in Extracellular Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Liang; Richardson, David; Wang, Zheming; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As key components of the electron transfer (ET) pathways used for dissimilatory reduction of solid iron [Fe(III)] and manganese [Mn(IV)] (hydr)oxides, outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and OmcE and OmcS of Geobacter sulfurreducens mediate ET reactions extracellularly. Cell surface-exposed MtrC and OmcA can transfer electrons directly to the metal oxides. S. oneidensis MR-1 cells also secrete flavins that can facilitate ET to the oxides. The secreted flavins are thought to serve either as chelators that form soluble Fe(III)/Mn(IV)-flavin complexes or as electron shuttles that ferry the electrons from cell-associated ET proteins to the metal oxides. Cell-surface localization may also permit MtrC and OmcA to transfer electrons extracellularly to either flavin-chelated Fe(III)/Mn(IV) or oxidized flavins. OmcE and OmcS are proposed to be located on the Geobacter cell surface where they are believed to function as the intermediates to relay electrons to type IV pili, which are then hypothesized to transfer electrons directly to the metal oxides. Thus, cell surface-localization positions these outer membrane cytochromes to transfer electrons to Fe(III)/Mn(IV) oxides external to the bacterial cells either directly, indirectly, or both, demonstrating a common strategy shared by Shewanella and Geobacter for extracellular reduction of the oxides.

  20. Primer on nuclear exchange models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hafemeister, David [Physics Department, Cal Poly University, San Luis Obispo, California (United States)

    2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic physics is applied to nuclear force exchange models between two nations. Ultimately, this scenario approach can be used to try and answer the age old question of 'how much is enough?' This work is based on Chapter 2 of Physics of Societal Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007 and 2014)

  1. Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on maximizing the return of high temperature PEM membrane research was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  2. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for production of synthesis gas employing a catalytic membrane reactor wherein the membrane comprises a mixed metal oxide material.

  3. Nanoengineered membranes for controlled transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN) [Greenback, TN; Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoengineered membrane for controlling material transport (e.g., molecular transport) is disclosed. The membrane includes a substrate, a cover definining a material transport channel between the substrate and the cover, and a plurality of fibers positioned in the channel and connected to an extending away from a surface of the substrate. The fibers are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and have a width of 100 nanometers or less. The diffusion limits for material transport are controlled by the separation of the fibers. In one embodiment, chemical derivitization of carbon fibers may be undertaken to further affect the diffusion limits or affect selective permeability or facilitated transport. For example, a coating can be applied to at least a portion of the fibers. In another embodiment, individually addressable carbon nanofibers can be integrated with the membrane to provide an electrical driving force for material transport.

  4. Nanoporous carbon catalytic membranes and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foley, Henry C. (Hockessin, DE); Strano, Michael (Wilmington, DE); Acharya, Madhav (New Castle, DE); Raich, Brenda A. (Houston, TX)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic membranes comprising highly-dispersed, catalytically-active metals in nanoporous carbon membranes and a novel single-phase process to produce the membranes.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of tryptophan and membrane- associated peptides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlamadinger, Diana Elizabeth

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamics of membrane protein folding measured byThermodynamics of Membrane Protein Folding: Lessons from theKim, Thermodynamics of membrane protein folding measured by

  6. Quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteins using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analysis of cell surface membrane proteome changes. The strategy includes enrichment of surface membrane proteins using a membrane-impermeable chemical probe followed by...

  7. Continuous production of polymethylpentene membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epperson, Bonnie J. (San Diego, CA); Burnett, Lowell J. (San Diego, CA); Helm, Verne D. (Plains, MT)

    1983-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas separation membranes may be prepared in a continuous manner by passing a porous support which may, if so desired, be backed by a fabric through a solution of polymethylpentene dissolved in an organic solvent such as hexane. The support member is passed through the solution while one side thereof is in contact with a roller, thereby permitting only one side of the support member to be coated with the polymer. After continuously withdrawing the support member from the bath, the solvent is allowed to evaporate and the resulting membrane is recovered.

  8. Nanocomposite MembranesNanocomposite Membranes for Energy andfor Energy and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lightsey, Glenn

    Including:Including: Oil & gasOil & gas Chemical processingChemical processing Water purification membranes 44 Example: oil & gas applicationExample: oil & gas application Residue ~5,000 m2/m3 Feed H2 CO2 H 4 Selectivity Nominal volume fraction filler Rubbery Polymer Order-of-magnitude increase

  9. Finance Peer Exchange Kickoff Call | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Finance Peer Exchange Kickoff Call Finance Peer Exchange Kickoff Call BetterBuildings Financing Peer Exchange Kickoff Call, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, April 28, 2011. Call...

  10. Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Quality Assurance Strategies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Quality Assurance Strategies Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Quality Assurance Strategies Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange...

  11. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  12. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  13. Synergistic diffuser/heat-exchanger design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazzara, David S. (David Sergio), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical and numerical evaluation of synergistic diffusing heat-exchanger design is presented. Motivation for this development is based on current diffuser and heat-exchange technologies in cogeneration plants, which ...

  14. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  15. Heat Exchanger Fouling- Prediction, Measurement and Mitigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, G. R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Programs (OIP) sponsors the development of innovative heat exchange systems. Fouling is a major and persistent cost associated with most industrial heat exchangers and nationally wastes...

  16. Ion exchange as a tertiary treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westervelt, Ronald David

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , produced the first synthetic ion exchange resins by reacting phenol with formaldehyde (2). These resins were insoluble and infusible. They found that the cation exchange properties could be greatly in- creased by substituting phenolsulfonic acid... by hydrogen ions. They could also b&. operated on the sodium cycle to exchange sodium iona for cations in solution. Adams and Holmes also produced the first anion exchange resins by reacting amines such as m-phenylene- diamine with formaldehyde...

  17. Amorphous Alloy Membranes Prepared by Melt-Spin methods for Long-Term use in Hydrogen Separation Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Dhanesh; Kim, Sang-Mun; Adibhatla, Anasuya; Dolan, Michael; Paglieri, Steve; Flanagan, Ted; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; Wermer, Joseph

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous Ni-based alloy membranes show great promise as inexpensive, hydrogenselective membrane materials. In this study, we developed membranes based on nonprecious Ni-Nb-Zr alloys by adjusting the alloying content and using additives. Several studies on crystallization of the amorphous ribbons, in-situ x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM, hydrogen permeation, hydrogen solubility, hydrogen deuterium exchange, and electrochemical studies were conducted. An important part of the study was to completely eliminate Palladium coatings of the NiNbZr alloys by hydrogen heattreatment. The amorphous alloy (Ni0.6Nb0.4)80Zr20 membrane appears to be the best with high hydrogen permeability and good thermal stability.

  18. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  19. Hybrid Membranes for Light Gas Separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ting

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    separations, especially olefin/paraffin separations. This thesis focuses on the designing dendrimer-based hybrid membranes on mesoporous alumina for reverse-selective separations, synthesizing Cu(I)-dendrimer hybrid membrane to facilitate olefin...

  20. Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Edward K

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

  1. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  2. Science Policy Exchange September 21, 2009 Columbia River Estuary Science-Policy Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science Policy Exchange September 21, 2009 Summary 1 Columbia River Estuary Science-Policy Exchange and Conservation Council hosted a science-policy exchange in Astoria, Oregon. The Council supports strategies Science Advisory Board (ISAB) and the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) attended the exchange

  3. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  4. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  5. On Multiple Gluon Exchange Webs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Harley

    2015-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    I present an overview of the study of infrared singularities through the eikonal approximation and the concept of webs. Our work reveals the interesting structure of an infinite subclass of webs, Multiple Gluon Exchange Webs. We find that they can be expressed as sums of products of functions depending upon only a single cusp angle, spanned by a simple basis of functions, and conjecture that this structure will hold to all orders.

  6. Challenges in Bio-Inspired Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Jun Lin (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  7. Agenda: High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG) meeting on May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

  8. A Hybrid Microbial Fuel Cell Membrane Bioreactor with a Conductive Ultrafiltration Membrane Biocathode for Wastewater Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Hybrid Microbial Fuel Cell Membrane Bioreactor with a Conductive Ultrafiltration Membrane-biocathode microbial fuel cell- membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater that some of these systems require wastewater aeration. Treatment technologies such as membrane bioreactors

  9. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.] President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  10. Acceptance testing of the eddy current probes for measurement of aluminum hydroxide coating thickness on K West Basin fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    During a recent visual inspection campaign of fuel elements stored in the K West Basin, it was noted that fuel elements contained in sealed aluminum canisters had a heavy translucent type coating on their surfaces (Pitner 1997a). Subsequent sampling of this coating in a hot cell (Pitner 1997b) and analysis of the material identified it as aluminum hydroxide. Because of the relatively high water content of this material, safety related concerns are raised with respect to long term storage of this fuel in Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). A campaign in the basin is planned to demonstrate whether this coating can be removed by mechanical brushing (Bridges 1998). Part of this campaign involves before-and-after measurements of the coating thickness to determine the effectiveness of coating removal by the brushing machine. Measurements of the as-deposited coating thickness on multiple fuel elements are also expected to provide total coating inventory information needed for MCO safety evaluations. The measurement technique must be capable of measuring coating thicknesses on the order of several mils, with a measurement accuracy of 0.5 mil. Several different methods for quantitatively measuring these thin coatings were considered in selecting the most promising approach. Ultrasonic measurement was investigated, but it was determined that due to the thin coating depth and the high water content of the material, the signal would likely pass directly through to the cladding without ever sensing the coating surface. X-ray fluorescence was also identified as a candidate technique, but would not work because the high gamma background from the irradiated fuel would swamp out the low energy aluminum signal. Laser interferometry could possibly be applied, but considerable development would be required and it was considered to be high risk on a short term basis. The consensus reached was that standard eddy current techniques for coating thickness measurement had the best chance for success in this endeavor. If proper placement and alignment of the eddy current measurement probe on the coating could be achieved, the thickness of this non-conductive coating over the conductive fuel cladding (Zircaloy 2) should be measurable based on magnetic stand-off aspects. Eddy current devices are routinely used to measure paint coating thicknesses on metal surfaces in this regard. The purpose of this report is to document the development and acceptance testing of the eddy current system conducted to qualify its use for the measurement of aluminum hydroxide coating thicknesses on fuel stored in the K West Basin.

  11. ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water Objective This project provides measurement solutions that probe the surface and internal structure of polymer membranes used in water purification, and correlate that structure to the transport of water and other species through the membrane. Our methods are focused

  12. IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SEQUESTRATION Oxygen Transport Membrane Hydrogen Transport Membrane Natural Gas Coal Biomass Syngas CO/H2 WGS H2 operating experience. #12;ELTRON RESEARCH INC. Syngas Production Rate ­ 60 mL/min cm2 @ 900°C Equivalent O2 Operational Experience Under High Pressure Differential SUMMARY OF ELTRON OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANE SYNGAS

  13. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low Cost Membrane

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Virginia Tech University (Academic)- Membrane Development Collaborations 3M Fuel Cell Components Program- NSTF Catalyst & Membrane Entegris - Carbon Cell...

  14. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal.

  15. OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES TWO-eng-48 OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

  16. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  17. Process for restoring membrane permeation properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.G.

    1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for restoring the selectivity of high-free-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70--100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use. 8 figs.

  18. Process for restoring membrane permeation properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Casillas, Carlos G. (San Jose, CA)

    1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for restoring the selectivity of high-flee-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70-100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use.

  19. Surface selective membranes for carbon dioxide separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, hybrid membranes have been developed for the selective separation of CO2 from mixtures containing H2. Beginning with commercially available Pall alumina membrane tubes with nominal pore diameter of 5 nm, hybrids were produced by silation with a variety of functionalities designed to facilitate the selective adsorption of CO2 onto the pore surface. The goal is to produce a membrane which can harness the power of surface diffusion to give the selectivity of polymer membranes with the permeance of inorganic membranes.

  20. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  1. Computational modeling of structure and OH-anion diffusion in quaternary ammonium polysulfone hydroxide Polymer electrolyte for application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    . Introduction Despite the significant progress made in reducing cost of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells further progress in commercializa- tion of the fuel cell technology, the focus should be moved to other types of fuel cells which do not require expensive Pt as catalysts. Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) are more

  2. Materials for use as proton conducting membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Einsla, Brian R. (Blacksburg, VA); McGrath, James E. (Blacksburg, VA)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of polymers having pendent sulfonate moieties connected to polymeric main chain phenyl groups are described. These polymers are prepared by the steps of polymerization (using a monomer with a phenyl with an alkoxy substitution), deportation by converting the alkoxy to a hydroxyl, and functionalization of the polymer with a pendant sulfonate group. As an example, sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers with pendent sulfonic acid groups are synthesized by the direct copolymerization of methoxy-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, then converting the methoxy groups to the reactive hydroxyl form, and finally functionalizing the hydroxyl form with proton-conducting sites through nucleophilic substitution. The family of polymers may have application in proton exchange membranes and in other applications.

  3. Dialysis membrane for separation on microchips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA); Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and forms a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  4. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  5. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  6. Photo-switchable membrane and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Kenneth L; Glowacki, Eric

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Switchable gas permeation membranes in which a photo-switchable low-molecular-weight liquid crystalline (LC) material acts as the active element, and a method of making such membranes. Different LC eutectic mixtures were doped with mesogenic azo dyes and infused into track-etched porous membranes with regular cylindrical pores. Photo-induced isothermal phase changes in the imbibed mesogenic material afforded large, reversible changes in the permeability of the photo-switchable membrane to nitrogen. For example, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable cyanobiphenyl LC material demonstrated low permeability in the nematic state, while the photo-generated isotropic state demonstrated a 16.times.-greater sorption coefficient. Both states obey a high linear sorption behavior in accordance with Henry's Law. In contrast, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable phenyl benzoate LC material showed the opposite permeability behavior to the biphenyl-imbibed membrane, along with nonlinear sorption behavior.

  7. Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

  8. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herchenroeder, L.A.; Burkholder, H.R.

    1990-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity. 2 figs.

  9. Sandia Energy - Heat Exchanger Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatingsUltra-High-Voltage SiliconEnergyFailureGlobalHeat Exchanger

  10. Final Report: Computer Simulation of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis in Structured Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohail Murad

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular simulation methods were developed as part of this project to increase our fundamental understanding of membrane based separation systems. Our simulations clarified for example that steric (size) effects had a significant impact on the desalination membranes. Previously it was thought the separation was entirely driven by coulombic force (attractive/repulsive forces at the membrane surfaces). Steric effects played an important role, because salt ions in brackish water are never present alone, but are strongly hydrated which effectively increases their size, and makes it impossible to enter a membrane, while the smaller water molecules can enter more readily. Membrane surface effects did play a role in increasing the flux of water, but not in the separation itself. In addition we also developed simulation methods to study ion exchange, gas separations, and pervaporation. The methods developed were used to once again increase our fundamental understanding of these separation processes. For example our studies showed that when the separation factor of gases in membranes can be significantly affected by the presence of another gas, it is generally because the separation mechanism has changed. For example in the case of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, in their pure state the separation factor is determined by diffusion, while in mixtures it is influenced more by adsorption in the membrane (zeolite in our case) Finally we developed a new technique using the NMR chemical shift to determine intermolecular interactions for mixtures. For polar-nonpolar systems such as Xe dissolved in water we were able to significantly improve the accuracy of gas solubilities, which are very sensitive to the cross interaction between water and Xe.

  11. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells with chromium nitride nanocrystals as electrocatalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Hexiang; Chen, Xiaobo; Zhang, Huamin; Wang, Meiri; Mao, Samuel S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is critical for cost-effective fuel cell devices. Transitionelectrocatalysts for cost-effective fuel cell devices. Incost-effective electrocatalyst alternatives for fuel cells.

  12. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Qinggang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    domains composed of fluorocarbon matrix and sulfonateswith the hydrophobic fluorocarbon phase still remain on the

  13. SEPARATION OF PROTEINS BY ION EXCHANGE AND MEMBRANE CHROMATOGRAPHY: BUFFER COMPOSITION, INTERFERING IMPURITIES AND FOULING CONSIDERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imam, Tahmina

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    on identifying major impurity and optimization of solution properties for target protein purification. The second approach consisted of designing an adsorbent that interacted specifically with the target molecule. The first study included modification of protein...

  14. Characterization and modification of electrospun fiber mats for use in composite proton exchange membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannarino, Matthew Marchand

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatic fiber formation, or electrospinning, offers a particularly simple and robust method to create polymeric nanofibers of various sizes and morphologies. In electrospinning, a viscoelastic fluid is charged so ...

  15. Topic 04 Mathilde Brigaudet 395 Study of diffusive limitations in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    aerogels may replace advantageously the usual carbon blacks as catalyst support in cathodes. Resulting, which is a strong poison of Pt catalysts. On the contrary, electrocatalysts based on carbon aerogels on the catalytic layer architecture. Moreover, carbon aerogels and xerogels enable a good platinum dispersion

  16. Perchlorate Degradation Using Partially Oxidized Titanium Ions and Ion Exchange Membrane Hybrid System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sung Hyuk

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Perchlorate has entered human and environmental food chains and has received a great deal of attention because of its toxicity to humans. In this study, chemical degradation of perchlorate was investigated using partially oxidized titanium ions (Ti2...

  17. Bipolar plate/diffuser for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination bipolar plate/diffuser fuel cell component includes an electrically conducting solid material having: a porous region having a porous surface; and a hermetic region, the hermetic region defining at least a portion of at least one coolant channel, the porous region defining at least a portion of at least one reactant channel, the porous region defining a flow field medium for diffusing the reactant to the porous surface.

  18. Bipolar plate/diffuser for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination bipolar plate/diffuser fuel cell component includes an electrically conducting solid material having: a porous region having a porous surface; and a hermetic region, the hermetic region defining at least a portion of at least one coolant channel, the porous region defining at least a portion of at least one reactant channel, the porous region defining a flow field medium for diffusing the reactant to the porous surface.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy Petroleum Technology VisionImproperIdahoansThis report is a

  20. Evaluation of ultrafiltration membranes in the purification of guayule resin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeyaseelan, Ranjit S.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Methanol at 370 ml/nun 150 MWCO Membrane Feed: Water at 20 psi 150 MWCO Membrane Feed: Water at 50 psi 200 MWCO Membrane Feed: AVater at 370 ml/min 200 MWCO Membrane Feed: Methanol at 370 ml/min 20 27 30 31 200 MWCO Membrane Feed: Guayule Resin... at 370 ml/min . . . 33 350 MWCO Membrane Feed: AVater at 86. 8 ml/min 10 12 13 14 350 MWCO Membrane Feed: Water at 20 psi 350 MWCO Membrane Feed: Water at 40 psi 350 MWCO Membrane Iced: Methanol at 86. 8 ml/min 350 MWCO Membrane Feed: Methanol...

  1. DHE (downhole heat exchangers). [Downhole Heat Exchangers (DHE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culver, G.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of downhole heat exchangers (DHE) for residential or commercial space and domestic water heating and other applications has several desirable features. Systems are nearly or completely passive -- that is, no or very little geothermal water or steam is produced from the well either reducing or completely eliminating surface environmental concerns and the need for disposal systems or injection wells. Initial cost of pumps and installation are eliminated or reduced along with pumping power costs and maintenance costs associated with pumping often corrosive geothermal fluids. Many residential and small commercial systems do not require circulating pumps because the density difference in the incoming and outgoing sides of the loop are sufficient to overcome circulating friction losses in the entire system. The major disadvantage of DHEs is their dependence on natural heat flow. In areas where geological conditions provide high permeability and a natural hydraulic gradient, DHEs can provide a substantial quantity of heat. A single 500-ft (152 m) well in Klamath Falls, Oregon, supplies over one megawatt thermal and output is apparently limited by the surface area of pipe that can be installed in the well bore. In contrast, DHEs used in conjunction with heat pumps may supply less than 8 KW from a well of similar depth. Here output is limited by conductive heat flow with perhaps a small contribution from convection near the well bore. The highest capacity DHE reported to date, in Turkey, supplies 6 MW thermal from an 820-ft (250 m) well. There were two main goals for this project. The first was to gather, disseminate and exchange internationally information on DHES. The second was to perform experiments that would provide insight into well bore/aquifer interaction and thereby provide more information on which to base DHE designs. 27 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. New Composite Membranes for High Throughput Solid-Liquid Separations at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhave, Ramesh R [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New Composite Membranes for High Throughput Solid-Liquid Separations at the Savannah River Site R. Bhave (Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oak Ridge, TN) and M. R. Poirier* (Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken SC) Solid-liquid separation is the limiting step for many waste treatment processes at the Savannah River Site. SRNL researchers have identified the rotary microfilter as a technology to improve the rate of solid-liquid separation processes. SRNL is currently developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service and plans to deploy the technology as part of the small column ion exchange process. The rotary microfilter can utilize any filter media that is available as a flat sheet. The current baseline membrane is a 0.5 micron (nominal) porous metal filter (Pall PMM050). Previous testing with tubular filters showed that filters composed of a ceramic membrane on top of a stainless steel support produce higher flux than filters composed only of porous metal. The authors are working to develop flat sheet filter media composed of a ceramic membrane and/or ceramic-metal composite on top of a porous stainless steel support that can be used with the rotary microfilter to substantially increase filter flux resulting in a more compact, energy efficient and cost-effective high level radioactive waste treatment system. Composite membranes with precisely controlled pore size distribution were fabricated on porous metal supports. High quality uniform porous metal (316SS) supports were fabricated to achieve high water permeability. Separative layers of several different materials such as ultrafine metal particles and ceramic oxides were used to fabricate composite membranes. The fabrication process involved several high temperature heat treatments followed by characterization of gas and liquid permeability measurements and membrane integrity analysis. The fabricated composite membrane samples were evaluated in a static test cell manufactured by SpinTek. The composite membranes were evaluated on several feed slurries: 1 wt. % strontium carbonate in deionized water, 1 wt. % monosodium titanate in simulated salt solution, and 1 wt. % simulated sludge in simulated salt solution and deionized water. Flux as a function of feed flow rate and transmembrane pressure was measured for each of the above described feed slurries. The authors will discuss the new membrane development efforts, waste slurry filtration performance evaluations and scale-up considerations.

  3. Exchange effects in a cold plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekman, Robin; Brodin, Gert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the exchange corrections to linear electrostatic wave propagation in a plasma using a quantum kinetic formalism. Specifically we have considered the zero temperature limit. In order to simplify the calculations we have focused on the long wavelength limit, i.e. wavelengths much longer than the de Broglie wavelength. For the case of ion-acoustic waves we have calculated the exchange correction both to the damping rate and the real part of the frequency. For Langmuir waves the frequency shift due to exchange effects is found. Our results are compared with the frequency shifts deduced from commonly used exchange potentials which are computed from density functional theory.

  4. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rcul2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERSJune 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS*

  5. Manufacturing serendipity: Chicago Innovation Exchange enhancing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Social Media Photos Videos Fact Sheets, Brochures and Reports Summer Science Writing Internship John Flavin, Executive Director of the Chicago Innovation Exchange, started a small...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: information exchange on performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exchange on performance indicators Sandia Contributes to International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61400-26 Availability Standard On June 12, 2014, in Analysis, Distribution...

  7. NETL's Energy Data eXchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief tour around NETL's Energy Data Exchange site, where researchers can upload data or look at data from another researcher.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: molecularly engineered ion exchanger

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ion exchanger ECIS and UOP (a Honewell Company): CSTs Clean Radioactive Waste in Fukushima and Worldwide On February 14, 2013, in Energy, Materials Science, Nuclear Energy,...

  9. NETL's Energy Data eXchange

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief tour around NETL's Energy Data Exchange site, where researchers can upload data or look at data from another researcher.

  10. Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovations and Trends Northwest electric power industry connects on the latest energy efficiency programs and...

  11. Energy Efficiency Exchange 2015 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Exchange 2015 August 11-13, 2015, Phoenix Convention Center As the nation's largest energy consumer, the federal government has a tremendous opportunity and clear...

  12. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    process Produce prototype heat exchangers for electronics cooling and high pressure waste heat recovery power system applications Test integrity and confirm high...

  13. Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Exchange highlights energy efficiency innovations and trends Northwest electric power industry connects on the latest energy efficiency programs and strategies Portland,...

  14. A Lightweight Material for Heat Exchange Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    exchangers have been manufactured from metal because metals are effective in conducting thermal energy. Plastics, although cheaper, lighter, and less energy intensive to make...

  15. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  16. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  17. New mechanism of membrane fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mueller; K. Katsov; M. Schick

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out Monte Carlo simulation of the fusion of bilayers of single chain amphiphiles which show phase behavior similar to that of biological lipids. The fusion mechanism we observe is very different from the ``stalk'' hypothesis. Stalks do form on the first stage of fusion, but they do not grow radially to form a hemifused state. Instead, stalk formation destabilizes the membranes and results in hole formation in the vicinity of the stalks. When holes in each bilayer nucleate spontaneously next to the same stalk, an incomplete fusion pore is formed. The fusion process is completed by propagation of the initial connection, the stalk, along the edges of the aligned holes.

  18. Membrane Separations of Liquid Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd, D. R.

    [35,36]. By reducing the diameter of the tubular membrane discussed above to 0.5 to 1.5 cm for UF and 50 to 100 um for RO, the surface-to-volume ratio is increased to as much as 1200 m 2 /m 3 and fluid velocities in the fiber lumen... restricts the passage of molecules or ions in the size range 0.1 to 3.0 nm (molecular weights less than 500) and requires a pressure gradient of 500 to 10 000 kPa. Ultrafiltration (UF) is used to remove dissolved molecules in the range 1.0 to 20.0 nm...

  19. Membranes - Phosphazene - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from aRod Eggert ImageMeetingsMembranes - Phosphazene

  20. Measuring Physical Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Cortney Mittelsteadt of Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC, at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group held September 14, 2006.

  1. High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Minutes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    who also introduced the first speaker, Ahmet Kusoglu, who was presenting for Adam Weber of LBL. Kusoglu began with a discussion of the continuum modeling of membrane...

  2. Class II virus membrane fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kielian, Margaret [Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave., Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)]. E-mail: kielian@aecom.yu.edu

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Enveloped animal viruses fuse their membrane with a host cell membrane, thus delivering the virus genetic material into the cytoplasm and initiating infection. This critical membrane fusion reaction is mediated by a virus transmembrane protein known as the fusion protein, which inserts its hydrophobic fusion peptide into the cell membrane and refolds to drive the fusion reaction. This review describes recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of the class II fusion proteins of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Inhibition of the fusion protein refolding reaction confirms its importance in fusion and suggests new antiviral strategies for these medically important viruses.

  3. Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Synthesis. Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after...

  4. Tensile strain mapping in flat germanium membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhead, S. D., E-mail: S.Rhead@warwick.ac.uk; Halpin, J. E.; Myronov, M.; Patchett, D. H.; Allred, P. S.; Wilson, N. R.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shah, V. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kachkanov, V.; Dolbnya, I. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Reparaz, J. S. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [ICN2 - Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning X-ray micro-diffraction has been used as a non-destructive probe of the local crystalline quality of a thin suspended germanium (Ge) membrane. A series of reciprocal space maps were obtained with ?4 ?m spatial resolution, from which detailed information on the strain distribution, thickness, and crystalline tilt of the membrane was obtained. We are able to detect a systematic strain variation across the membranes, but show that this is negligible in the context of using the membranes as platforms for further growth. In addition, we show evidence that the interface and surface quality is improved by suspending the Ge.

  5. Partially fluorinated cyclic ionic polymers and membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic polymers are made from selected partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic. The polymers are formed into membranes.

  6. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

    1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

  7. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

  8. WAGES, FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES, AND MACROECONOMIC POLICY*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WAGES, FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES, AND MACROECONOMIC POLICY* JEFFREY SACHS In an open economy with a floaLing exchange rate, the efficacy of fiscal and monetary policy depends fundamentally on the wage rate depreciation, while fiscal expansion has no output effect. These results hold only when real wages

  9. Configure Outlook 2010 with Exchange Server

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    Configure Outlook 2010 with Exchange Server #12;1. Navigate to the Windows Start Menu (or press. #12;14. E-mail server settings will now auto configure. 15. Once the Auto Account Setup is configured server settings or additional server types. 3. Click the Next > button. #12;4. Select Microsoft Exchange

  10. Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets Mark J L Orr Centre for Cognitive Science Edinburgh University June 1997 #12; Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets Mark J L Orr y Centre for Cognitive; Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The Price Change Scaling Law 5 3 Business Time 7 4 The BZW Data 11 5 Volatility

  11. Membranes for corrosive oxidations. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop porous hydrophilic membranes that are highly resistant to oxidative and corrosive conditions and to deploy them for recovery and purification of high tonnage chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide and other oxychemicals. The research team patented a process for membrane-based separation of hydrogen peroxide (US Patent No. 5,662,878). The process is based on using a hydrophilic membrane to separate hydrogen peroxide from the organic working solution. To enable this process, a new method for producing hydrophilic membrane materials (Patent No.6,464,880) was reported. We investigated methods of producing these hydrophilic materials and evaluated separations performance in comparison to membrane stability. It was determined that at the required membrane flux, membrane stability was not sufficient to design a commercial process. This work was published (Hestekin et al., J. Membrane Science 2006). To meet the performance needs of the process, we developed a membrane contactor method to extract the hydrogen peroxide, then we surveyed several commercial and pre-commercial membrane materials. We identified pre-commercial hydrophilic membranes with the required selectivity, flux, and stability to meet the needs of the process. In addition, we invented a novel reaction/separations format that greatly increases the performance of the process. To test the performance of the membranes and the new formats we procured and integrated reactor/membrane separations unit that enables controlled mixing, flow, temperature control, pressure control, and sampling. The results were used to file a US non-provisional patent application (ANL-INV 03-12). Hydrogen peroxide is widely used in pulp and paper applications, environmental treatment, and other industries. Virtually all hydrogen peroxide production is now based on a process featuring catalytic hydrogenation followed by auto-oxidation of suitable organic carrier molecules. This process has several drawbacks, particularly in the extraction phase. One general disadvantage of this technology is that hydrogen peroxide must be produced at large centralized plants where it is concentrated to 70% by distillation and transported to the users plant sites where it is diluted before use. Advanced membranes have the potential to enable more efficient, economic, and safe manufacture of hydrogen peroxide. Advanced membrane technology would allow filtration-based separation to replace the difficult liquid-liquid extraction based separation step of the hydrogen peroxide process. This would make it possible for hydrogen peroxide to be produced on-site in mini-plants at 30% concentration and used at the same plant location without distillation and transportation. As a result, production could become more cost-effective, safe and energy efficient.

  12. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  13. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T. [Ai-Farabi Kazakh National University, Chemical Faculty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Galkin, A. [KATEP Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Bachilova, N. [NIISTROMPROEKT Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Blynskiy, A. [Nuclear Technology Safety Centre, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Maev, V. [MAEK-Kazatomprom Ltd., Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Wells, D. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Herrick, A. [NUKEM Limited- a member of the Freyssinet Group, Caithness (United Kingdom); Michelbacher, J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  14. Water in a Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane: Sorption/Desorption and Freezing phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marie Plazanet; Francesco Sacchetti; Caterina Petrillo; Bruno Deme; Paolo Bartolini; Renato Torre

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Nafion is a perfluorosulfonated polymer, widely used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. This polymer adopts a complex structural organisation resulting from the microsegregation between hydrophobic backbones and hydrophilic sulfonic acid groups. Upon hydration appear water-filled channels and cavities, in which are released the acidic protons to form a solution of hydronium ions in water embedded in the polymer matrix. Below 273 K, a phenomenon of water sorption/desorption occurs, whose origin is still an open question. Performing neutron diffraction, we monitored the quantity of ice formed during the sorption/desorption as a function of temperature down to 180 K. Upon cooling, we observe that ice forms outside of the membrane and crystallises in the hexagonal Ih form. Simultaneously, the membrane shrinks and dehydrate, leading to an increase of the hydronium ions concentration inside the matrix. Reversibly, the ice melts and the membrane re-hydrate upon heating. A model of solution, whose freezing point varies with the hydronium concentration, is proposed to calculate the quantity of ice formed as a function of temperature. The quantitative agreement between the model and experimental data explains the smooth and reversible behavior observed during the sorption or desorption of water, pointing out the origin of the phenomena. The proposed picture reconciles both confinement and entropic effects. Other examples of water filled electrolyte nano-structures are eventually discussed, in the context of clarifying the conditions for water transport at low temperature.

  15. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammels, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  16. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  17. Biological Hydrogen Production Using a Membrane Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biological Hydrogen Production Using a Membrane Bioreactor Sang-Eun Oh,1 Prabha Iyer,1,2 Mary Ann bioreactor (MBR) for biological hydrogen production. The reactor was fed glucose (10,000 mg/L) and inoculated were used. B 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Keywords: membrane bioreactor; hydrogen production

  18. Thermodynamic Modeling of a Membrane Dehumidification System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bynum, John 1983-

    2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................... 157 4.5 Original and ARPA-E condition COP results for cooling tower approach of 5?F detailed simulation results for five evaporative cooling steps and membrane cooling combined system... evaporative cooling steps and membrane cooling combined system for ARPA-E inlet and outlet conditions ................................................................... 163 4.13 Cooling tower approach of 5?F detailed simulation results for five...

  19. Developmental Cell MPK-1 ERK Controls Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Developmental Cell Article MPK-1 ERK Controls Membrane Organization in C. elegans Oogenesis via/ERK in the proximal germ- line to control plasma membrane biogenesis and organization during oogenesis and oocyte production is dramatically downregulated. The RTK-RAS-ERK pathway relays physiological and devel

  20. Fuel cell using novel electrolyte membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polak, A.J.; Beuhler, A.J.

    1986-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for producing electricity from a fuel gas having a gaseous component which is capable, in the presence of a catalytic agent, of dissociating to yield hydrogen ions comprising: (a) a thin film organic-inorganic membrane which comprises a single phase blend from about 1% to about 70% by weight of a heteropoly acid and salts; (b) a membrane housing comprising a fuel gas chamber and an oxidant gas chamber separated by a substantially imporous partition comprising the membrane defined in element (a), the membrane having a first surface in communication with the fuel gas chamber and a second surface in communication with the oxidant gas chamber; (c) two separate portions of catalytic agent effective to promote dissociation and combination, one portion in contact with the first surface of the membrane and one portion in contact with the second surface of the membrane; and, (d) means for forming electrical connection in operative contact with the catalytic agent in contact with the first surface of the membrane and in operative contact with the catalytic agent in contact with the second surface of the membrane.

  1. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  2. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  3. Improved filtration membranes through self-organizing amphiphilic comb copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asatekin Alexiou, Ayse

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating cost of a membrane filtration system is generally determined by two major factors: the permeability of the membrane to water, and the lifetime of the membrane. Both of these are strongly affected by the ...

  4. Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This research explores a novel application of catalytic membrane reactors for high- purity hydrogen extraction from bioethanol reforming. Conventional membrane systems employ hydrogen permselective materials such as palladium, polymer membranes...

  5. Fuel cell subassemblies incorporating subgasketed thrifted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, Eric J; Pierpont, Daniel M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Hamrock, Steven J; Obradovich, Stephan J; Peterson, Donald G

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell roll good subassembly is described that includes a plurality of individual electrolyte membranes. One or more first subgaskets are attached to the individual electrolyte membranes. Each of the first subgaskets has at least one aperture and the first subgaskets are arranged so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the first subgaskets. A second subgasket comprises a web having a plurality of apertures. The second subgasket web is attached to the one or more first subgaskets so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the second subgasket web. The second subgasket web may have little or no adhesive on the subgasket surface facing the electrolyte membrane.

  6. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Miller, Christopher Francis (Macungie, PA)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  7. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S. (South Jordan, UT); Nair, Balakrishnan G. (Sandy, UT); Small, Troy (Midvale, UT); Heck, Brian (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  8. Fission of a multiphase membrane tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Marc Allain; Cornelis Storm; Aurelien Roux; Martine Ben Amar; Jean-Francois Joanny

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A common mechanism for intracellular transport is the use of controlled deformations of the membrane to create spherical or tubular buds. While the basic physical properties of homogeneous membranes are relatively well-known, the effects of inhomogeneities within membranes are very much an active field of study. Membrane domains enriched in certain lipids in particular are attracting much attention, and in this Letter we investigate the effect of such domains on the shape and fate of membrane tubes. Recent experiments have demonstrated that forced lipid phase separation can trigger tube fission, and we demonstrate how this can be understood purely from the difference in elastic constants between the domains. Moreover, the proposed model predicts timescales for fission that agree well with experimental findings.

  9. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  10. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  11. Compounds for novel proton conducting membranes and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poling, Steven A.; Martin, Steve W.; Sutherland, Jacob T.

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides new compounds for use in proton exchange membranes which are able to operate in a wide variety of temperature ranges, including in the intermediate temperature range of about 100.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., and new and improved methods of making these compounds. The present invention also provides new and improved methods for making chalcogenide compounds, including, but not limited to, non-protonated sulfide, selenide and telluride compounds. In one embodiment, the proton conductivity of the compounds is between about 10.sup.-8 S/cm and 10.sup.-1 S/cm within a temperature range of between about -50 and 500.degree. C.

  12. Lateral diffusion of receptor-ligand bonds in membrane adhesion zones: Effect of thermal membrane roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Krobath; G. J. Schuetz; R. Lipowsky; T. R. Weikl

    2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The adhesion of cells is mediated by membrane receptors that bind to complementary ligands in apposing cell membranes. It is generally assumed that the lateral diffusion of mobile receptor-ligand bonds in membrane-membrane adhesion zones is slower than the diffusion of unbound receptors and ligands. We find that this slowing down is not only caused by the larger size of the bound receptor-ligand complexes, but also by thermal fluctuations of the membrane shape. We model two adhering membranes as elastic sheets pinned together by receptor-ligand bonds and study the diffusion of the bonds using Monte Carlo simulations. In our model, the fluctuations reduce the bond diffusion constant in planar membranes by a factor close to 2 in the biologically relevant regime of small bond concentrations.

  13. Phosphazene membranes for gas separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("Tg") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a Tg ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]. The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

  14. The Membrane Paradigm and Firewalls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Banks; Willy Fischler; Sandipan Kundu; Juan F. Pedraza

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the Membrane Paradigm, we show that the stretched horizon of a black hole retains information about particles thrown into the hole for a time of order the scrambling time m ln(m/M_P), after the particles cross the horizon. One can, for example, read off the proper time at which a particle anti-particle pair thrown into the hole, annihilates behind the horizon, if this time is less than the scrambling time. If we believe that the Schwarzschild geometry exterior to the horizon is a robust thermodynamic feature of the quantum black hole, independent of whether it is newly formed, or has undergone a long period of Hawking decay, then this classical computation shows that the "firewall" resolution of the AMPS paradox is not valid.

  15. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  16. Skew chicane based betatron eigenmode exchange module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA)

    2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A skewed chicane eigenmode exchange module (SCEEM) that combines in a single beamline segment the separate functionalities of a skew quad eigenmode exchange module and a magnetic chicane. This module allows the exchange of independent betatron eigenmodes, alters electron beam orbit geometry, and provides longitudinal parameter control with dispersion management in a single beamline segment with stable betatron behavior. It thus reduces the spatial requirements for multiple beam dynamic functions, reduces required component counts and thus reduces costs, and allows the use of more compact accelerator configurations than prior art design methods.

  17. Exchange effects in magnetized quantum plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trukhanova, Mariya Iv

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply the many-particle quantum hydrodynamics including the Coulomb exchange interaction to magnetized quantum plasmas. We consider a number of wave phenomenon under influence of the Coulomb exchange interaction. Since the Coulomb exchange interaction affects longitudinal and transverse-longitudinal waves we focus our attention to the Langmuir waves, Trivelpiece-Gould waves, ion-acoustic waves in non-isothermal magnetized plasmas, the dispersion of the longitudinal low-frequency ion-acoustic waves and low-frequencies electromagnetic waves at $T_{e}\\gg T_{i}$ . We obtained the numerical simulation of the dispersion properties of different types of waves.

  18. Heat Exchanger Support Bracket Design Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This engineering note documents the design of the heat exchanger support brackets. The heat exchanger is roughly 40 feet long, 22 inches in diameter and weighs 6750 pounds. It will be mounted on two identical support brackets that are anchored to a concrete wall. The design calculations were done for one bracket supporting the full weight of the heat exchanger, rounded up to 6800 pounds. The design follows the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of steel construction, Eighth edition. All calculated stresses and loads on welds were below allowables.

  19. Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Kick-off | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Documents & Publications Better Buildings Working with Utilities Peer Exchange Call: Kick-off Administering Nonprofit Energy Efficiency Programs Finance Peer Exchange Kickoff Call...

  20. Better Buildings Working with Utilities Peer Exchange Call: Kick...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    April 21, 2011 Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Finance Peer Exchange Kickoff Call Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Kick-off...

  1. Transition Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms around Aqueous Ions . Transition Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms around Aqueous Ions . Abstract: The rates...

  2. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols. Abstract: Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere...

  3. Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene Citation Details Title: Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on...

  4. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals....

  5. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities Case study details the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Exchange (formerly the Army and Air Force...

  6. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for...

  7. Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls Fall 2014 | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Calls Fall 2014 Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls Fall 2014 Better Buildings Residential Network, Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls Fall 2014. Lessons Learned: Peer...

  8. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon...

  9. Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call: Transitioning to a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call: Transitioning to a Utility Funded Program Environment: What Do I Need to Know? (January 17, 2013) Program Sustainability Peer Exchange...

  10. Advanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse Advanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse hybridmembranesystemsfa...

  11. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes at the University of Southern Mississipp...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes at the University of Southern Mississippi Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes at the University of Southern Mississippi April 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis...

  12. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report B. Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory Proceedings from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Arlington, Virginia...

  13. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor for Energy-Efficient Wastewater Reuse...

  14. Folding amphipathic helices into membranes: Amphiphilicity trumps hydrophobicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Vidal, Mónica; Jayasinghe, Sajith; Ladokhin, Alexey S; White, Stephen H

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. (1999). Membrane protein folding and stability: PhysicalA. S. & Hristova, K. (1998). Protein folding in membranes:Mutational analysis of protein folding and stability. In

  15. Graphene as the Ultimate Membrane for Gas Separation Project...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene as the Ultimate Membrane for Gas Separation Graphene as the Ultimate Membrane for Gas Separation GraphenePore.jpg Key Challenges: Investigate the permeability and...

  16. Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research and Engineering for Light-Weight Vehicles Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis of Magnesium: Scale-Up Research...

  17. Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  18. advanced membrane filtration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    available reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes are based on the thin film composite (TFC) aromatic polyamide membranes. However, they have several disadvantages...

  19. acinar cell membranes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on progress (more) Alaefour, Ibrahim 2012-01-01 26 Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Renewable Energy Websites Summary: .5 KPaabs Membrane Conductivity at...

  20. Grafted polyelectrolyte membranes for lithium batteries and fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEMBRANES FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES AND FUEL CELLS. John Kerralso be discussed. Lithium Batteries for Transportation andpolymer membrane for lithium batteries. This paper will give

  1. Membrane-Based Emitter for Coupling Microfluidics with Ultrasensitive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Membrane-Based Emitter for Coupling Microfluidics with Ultrasensitive Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry. Membrane-Based Emitter for Coupling Microfluidics with...

  2. Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  3. absorption membrane reactors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diagram and critical exponents for phantom membranes and discuss the generalization to self-avoiding membranes. M. Bowick; S. Catterall; S. Warner; G. Thorleifsson; M. Falcioni...

  4. Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor water-gas-shift.pdf More Documents &...

  5. High Temperature Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of ANL’s high temperature polymer membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  6. Table I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Automotive Table I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Automotive Technical targets for fuel cell...

  7. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications...

  8. 4. Heat exchangers; Steam, steam processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    pictures: KJ05 Temperature distributions of fluid in (a) counterflow, (b) parallel flow, and (c) 1 shell pass and 2 tubes passes. #12;7/74 Heat exchangers: Geometries /3 Temperature distribution in a counter

  9. Markets, distribution, and exchange after societal cataclysm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantor, R.A.; Henry, S.; Rayner, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti, MI (USA). Dept. of Sociology; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report identifies constraints and opportunities for the restoration of economic exchange following nuclear war. Four survival scenarios are postulated based on high or low levels of damage to (1) institutions that signal trading opportunities, reduce transaction costs, and regulate and enforce contracts, and (2) resources that are used to create and define wealth. The four scenarios are best case, worst case, resource abundance, and an institution intensive case. Three kinds of literature were reviewed, (1) the economics literature on formal markets, (2) the sociological literature on informal markets, and (3) the economic anthropology literature on pre-capitalist and pre-industrial exchange. From this corpus a set of non-market and market exchange structures are derived and rendered as rules vectors describing their operation. Each of the four survival scenarios is expounded as a subset of the possible exchange structures that is logically compatible with the constraints defining that scenario. 242 refs.

  10. Configuring Entourage 2008 w/ Exchange Web Services. Note: These instruction assume that the Exchange Web Services (EWS) Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, Keith

    Configuring Entourage 2008 w/ Exchange Web Services. Note: These instruction assume that the Exchange Web Services (EWS) Update , also known as Entourage 13.0, has already been

  11. Membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swathirajan, Sundararajan (Troy, MI); Mikhail, Youssef M. (Sterling Heights, MI)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane.

  12. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Karin D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chu, Tun-Jen (Salt Lake City, UT); Pitt, William G. (Orem, UT)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  13. Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.

    Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns G.T.Polley Pinchtechnology.com In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine... condensate sub-cooling. So, if this condensate subsequently requires re-heating both energy and capital have been wasted. If the condensate forms a feed to another distillation column it results in increased energy consumption if that separation...

  14. Heat exchanger for power generation equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nirmalan, Nirm Velumylm; Bowman, Michael John

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger for a turbine is provided wherein the heat exchanger comprises a heat transfer cell comprising a sheet of material having two opposed ends and two opposed sides. In addition, a plurality of concavities are disposed on a surface portion of the sheet of material so as to cause hydrodynamic interactions and affect a heat transfer rate of the turbine between a fluid and the concavities when the fluid is disposed over the concavities.

  15. Integrated Approach to Revamping Heat Exchangers Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass, K. E.; Dhole, V.; Wang, Y.

    geometry configurations for a given set of process conditions. Develop simulation model (in Aspen Plus) incorporating rigorous heat exchanger (Aspen Hetran) models for the 1) Validate existing preheat train performance & evaluate the existing and de...-bottlenecked cases de-bottlenecked performance Initiate pinch analysis (using Aspen Pinch) directly 2) Determine feasible energy saving from (Aspen Plus) simulation results Heat exchanger network pinch analysis (using Aspen Pinch) incorporating rigorous (Aspen...

  16. Surface Nanostructuring of Polysulfone Membranes by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Induced Graft Polymerization (APPIGP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Soo Min

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from ethanol through polyimide composite membranes. Journalal. , Preparation of polyimide composite membranes grafted

  17. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamdan, Monjid [Giner, Inc.] [Giner, Inc.

    2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm²); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  18. Growth of aqueous foam on flexible membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroyuki Shima

    2009-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, I study the coarsening dynamics of two-dimensional dry foam sandwiched by deformable membranes. The time-varying deformation of the confining membranes gives rise to a significant alteration in the evolution of polygonal cells of bubbles when compared to the case of rigid membranes. This alteration is attributed to the correlation between the rate of inter-cell gas transfer and temporal fluctuation in surface curvature within a cell domain. The existing material constants are referred to understand the utility of the correlation effect toward the artificial control of the coarsening dynamics.

  19. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery from Industrial Process Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Wang, D. (Gas Technology Institute); Bischoff, B.; Ciora (Media and Process Technology); Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S.B.

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina membrane layer on the surface of the metallic tubes was evaluated. Evaluation of this new style of membrane tube involved exposure to SO{sub 2} containing gases as well as to materials with a potential for fouling. Once the choice of substrate and membrane materials and design were confirmed, about 150 tubes were fabricated and assembled into three modules. These modules were mounted on an industrial size boiler and their performance carefully monitored during a limited testing period. The positive results of this performance test confirm the feasibility of utilizing such a system for recovery of heat and water from industrial waste streams. The improved module design along with use of long metallic substrate tubes with a ceramic membrane on the outer surface resulted in the successful, limited scale demonstration of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in the GTI test facility. This test showed this technology can successfully recover a significant amount of heat and water from gaseous waste streams. However, before industry will make the investment to install a full scale TMC, a full scale system will need to be constructed, installed and successfully operated at a few industrial sites. Companies were identified that had an interest in serving as a host site for a demonstration system.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Membranes: Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Energy-Efficient Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Porifera is developing carbon nanotube membranes that allow more efficient removal of CO2 from coal plant exhaust. Most of today’s carbon capture methods use chemical solvents, but capture methods that use membranes to draw CO2 out of exhaust gas are potentially more efficient and cost effective. Traditionally, membranes are limited by the rate at which they allow gas to flow through them and the amount of CO2 they can attract from the gas. Smooth support pores and the unique structure of Porifera’s carbon nanotube membranes allows them to be more permeable than other polymeric membranes, yet still selective enough for CO2 removal. This approach could overcome the barriers facing membrane-based approaches for capturing CO2 from coal plant exhausts.