National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hydrothermal system jump

  1. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Valley Caldera, East-Central California, USA, From Recent Pumping Tests And Geochemical Sampling Jump to:...

  2. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity....

  3. Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Rainier, Washington Abstract A once massive hydrothermal system was disgorged from the summit of Mount Rainier in a highly...

  4. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  5. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  6. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the underlying resource.1 Occurrence Models "To search efficiently for blind geothermal systems, general geographic regions must first be identified based upon...

  7. Colorado's Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado's Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment Author...

  8. Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1995-01-26

    Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

  9. Hydrothermal Convection Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater than or equal to 90 degrees C Authors Brook, Mariner, Mabey, Swanson, Guffanti and Muffler Published Journal Assessment of...

  10. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Sims, Kenneth W.W.; Pluda, Allison R.

    2014-06-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  11. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John P. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Sims, Kenneth W.W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). School of Energy Resources; Pluda, Allison R. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Wyoming High-Precision Isotope Lab.

    2014-03-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  12. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal resource base---an assessment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment Author...

  13. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than during the deposition of natural calcite-opal deposits.

  14. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Build and demonstrate a working prototype hydrothermal spallation drilling unit that will accelerate commercial deployment of EGS as a domestic energy resource.

  15. The Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera, California |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a deep subsystem or hydrothermal reservoir in the welded tuff containing relatively hot ground water. Hydrologic, isotopic, and thermal data indicate that recharge to the...

  16. Hydrothermal Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Projects Hydrothermal Projects Hydrothermal Projects Geothermal electricity production has grown steadily, tapping a reliable, nearly inexhaustible reserve of hydrothermal systems where fluid, heat, and permeability intersect naturally in the subsurface. The United States Geological Survey estimates that 30 GW of hydrothermal resources lie beneath the surface--ten times the current installed capacity. Hydrothermal Projects Projects Database Program Links What is Play Fairway

  17. Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  18. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  19. Hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology of the Canino Hydrothermal System (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiodini, G.; Giaquinto, S.; Frondini, F.; Santucci, A. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the Canino area, central Italy, is characterized by the discharge of a large quantity of Ca-SO{sub 4} thermal waters, the total flow rate of which is estimated to be 200 l/s. Ten to twenty l/s of the thermal flow are of an Na-Cl component from a deep source, which was identified by means of the B, Cl, Cs, Na, and Li contents of the waters. The Canino Na-Cl fluids have ratios among these species close to those of the geothermal fluids of Latera. The Canino hydrothermal system, which is located within buried carbonate structures, is therefore made up of a shallower zone, where the Ca-SO{sub 4} hydrotype is prevalent, and another deeper zone where an Na-Cl brine is present. For the sulphate fluids circulating in the upper levels of the system, a temperature of 70-100{degrees} C has been estimated, while a possible higher enthalpy resource may be represented by the chloride aqueous solutions circulating at deeper levels.

  20. Clay Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante Geothermal Field (Guadeloupe) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  1. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  2. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In...

  3. Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohn, Gabriel; Hicho, George; Swartzendruber, Lydon

    1997-01-01

    A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment.

  4. Steel characteristics measurement system using Barkhausen jump sum rate and magnetic field intensity and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohn, G.; Hicho, G.; Swartzendruber, L.

    1997-04-08

    A steel hardness measurement system and method of using same are provided for measuring at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic of a ferromagnetic sample as a function of at least one magnetic characteristic of the sample. A magnetic field generator subjects the sample to a variable external magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity of the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field generating means is measured and a signal sensor is provided for measuring Barkhausen signals from the sample when the sample is subjected to the external magnetic field. A signal processing unit calculates a jump sum rate first moment as a function of the Barkhausen signals measured by the signal sensor and the magnetic field intensity, and for determining the at least one mechanical or magnetic characteristic as a function of the jump sum rate first moment. 7 figs.

  5. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  6. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System for EGS Project Type Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and DevelopmentAnalysis Project Type Topic 2 Drilling Systems Project...

  7. Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the history of the system. Authors Odin D. Christensen, Regina A. Capuano and Joseph N. Moore Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1983 DOI Not...

  8. Faults and gravity anomalies over the East Mesa hydrothermal-geothermal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Carle, S.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed interpretations of gravity anomalies over geothermal systems may be extremely useful for mapping the fracture or fault systems that control the circulation of the thermal waters. This approach seems to be particularly applicable in areas like the Salton Trough where reactions between the thermal waters and the porous sediments produce authigenic-hydrothermal minerals in sufficient quantity to cause distinct gravity anomalies at the surface. A 3-D inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly over the East Mesa geothermal field was made to examine the densified volume of rock. We show that the data not only resolve a north-south and an intersecting northwest structure, but that it may be possible to distinguish between the active present-day hydrothermal system and an older and cooler part of the system. The densified region is compared spatially to self-potential, thermal and seismic results and we find a good concordance between the different geophysical data sets. Our results agree with previous studies that have indicated that the main feeder fault recharging the East Mesa reservoir dips steeply to the west.

  9. The low temperature hydrothermal system of Campiglia, Tuscany (Italy); A geochemical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celati, R.; Grassi, S.; D'Amore, F.; Marcolini, L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Campiglia hydrothermal system which is a low temperature hydrothermal system located in southwestern Tuscany, a region of Italy characterized by intense geothermal activity and by the presence of high temperature exploited geothermal reservoirs. Six water-points, with temperatures ranging between 20 and 47{degrees} C and different chemical and isotopic compositions, are found close to the margins of outcrops of the main regional aquifer formation. Systematic hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic observations and temperature measurements were carried out on the different springs and wells for a period of three years (1984-1986). Constant water characteristics with time were observed in four water-points; two wells had variable trends depending on mixing processes. A groundwater circulation model characterized by flowpaths of different length and depth is suggested by the variety of chemical and isotopic characteristics and is consistent with geothermometry, which indicates temperatures up to 25{degrees} C higher than those measured at the spring emergencies. An important water supply to the system comes from local recharge, although regional circulation may also be present, particularly in the eastern part of the investigated area.

  10. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  11. JUMP | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    JUMP JUMP Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) - Oak Ridge, TN Project Term: Current - September 30, 2016 Funding Type: Direct Lab Funding PROJECT OBJECTIVE DOE aims to help technology innovators collect, share, and evaluate input from stakeholders and other members of the public regarding next-generation building technologies to determine which ideas should be developed further. Announced at EERE's Industry Day in September 2015, ORNL's new crowdsourcing initiative JUMP (or,

  12. Geothermal hydrothermal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The geothermal hydrothermal section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system, Leyte Province, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.G.; Giggenbach, W.F.; Saleras, J.R.M.; Salonga, N.D.; Vergara, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    Based on detailed petrological information on secondary mineral assemblages and the composition of fluids trapped in inclusions and discharged from five wells, the Alto Peak geothermal field was found to represent a combined vapor and liquid-dominated system. A central core or chimney, with a diameter of about 1 km, a height of some 3 km and occupied by a high gas vapor (1.1 to 5.6 molal CO{sub 2}), is surrounded by an envelope of intermediate salinity water (7,000 mg/kg Cl) with temperatures between 250 and 350 C. The transition from purely vapor-dominated to liquid-dominated zones takes place via two-phase zones occupied by fluid mixtures of highly variable compositions. Much of the lower temperature, mature neutral pH Cl water is likely to have formed during an earlier stage in the evolution of the system. High temperatures of > 300 C, and associated alteration, are limited to wells AP-1D and the lower parts of AP-2D and are ascribed to re-heating by recent magmatic intrusions. The isotopic composition of the well discharges suggests that they contain some 40 to 50% of magmatic water. Alto Peak is considered a typical example of hydrothermal systems associated with many dormant volcanoes.

  14. Eruptive history and petrochemistry of the Bulusan volcanic complex: Implications for the hydrothermal system and volcanic hazards of Mt. Bulusan, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delfin, F.G. Jr.; Panem, C.C.; Defant, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Two contrasting conceptual models of the postcaldera magmatic system of the Bulusan volcanic complex are constructed on the basis of a synthesis of volcanological, petrochemical, and petrologic data. These models predict that hydrothermal convection below the complex will occur either in discrete, structurally-focused zones or over a much broader area. Both models, however, agree that hydrothermal fluids at depth will be highly acidic and volcanic-related. Future ash-fall eruptions and mudflows are likely to affect the area previously chosen for possible drilling. Such risks, combined with the expected acidic character of the hydrothermal system, argue against drilling into this system.

  15. Hydrothermal Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The development of advanced exploration tools and technologies will accelerate the discovery and utilization of the U.S. Geological Survey's estimated 30,000 MWe of undiscovered hydrothermal...

  16. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-08-31

    This two-page fact sheet provides an overview of hydrothermal resources and hydrothermal reservoir creation and operation.

  17. Luminescent nanocrystals in the rare-earth niobatezirconia system formed via hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Masanori Dozono, Hayato

    2013-08-15

    Luminescent nanocrystals based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}, were hydrothermally formed as cubic phase under weakly basic conditions at 240 C. The lattice parameter of the as-prepared nanoparticles corresponding to the composition of Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7}4ZrO{sub 2} that was estimated as a single phase of cubic gradually increased as the content of europium x increased. The existence of small absorbance peaks at 395 and 466 nm corresponding to the Eu{sup 3+7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}L{sub 6}, and {sup 7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}D{sub 2} excitation transition, respectively, was clearly observed in the diffuse reflectance spectra of the as-prepared samples containing europium. The optical band gap of the as-prepared samples was in the range from 3.5 to 3.7 eV. The photoluminescence spectra of the as-prepared nanocrystals containing europium showed orange and red luminescences with main peaks at 590 and 610 nm, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions of Eu{sup 3+}, respectively, under excitation at 395 nm Xe lamp. The emission intensity corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition increased as heat-treatment temperature rose from 800 to 1200 C. - Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract shows the excitation and emission spectra and a transmission electron microscopy image of nanocrystals (with composition based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}) formed via hydrothermal route. Display Omitted - Highlights: Nanocrystals composed of 50 mol% Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2} was directly formed. The nanocrystals were hydrothermally formed under weakly basic conditions at 240 C. The Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} showed an UV-blue and broad-band emission under excitation at 240 nm. The emission is originated from the niobate octahedral group [NbO{sub 6}]{sup 7?}. The nanocrystals showed orange and red luminescences ({sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} , Eu{sup 3+})

  18. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  19. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

  20. Model for the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.

    1981-01-01

    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto led to the development of a qualitative model for fluid flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. This one-dimensional model assumes that the heat source was a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compilation of various information of the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1 cm thick sections across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion were considered as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculations of heat transfer. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4 km wide emplaced at a depth of 5 km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system.

  1. Continental Scientific Drilling Program thermal regimes: comparative site assessment geology of five magma-hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Waters, A.C.

    1980-10-01

    The geology and salient aspects of geophysics and hydrogeochemistry of five high-grade geothermal systems in the USA are reviewed. On the basis of this information, a target location is suggested for a deep (5- to 8-km) borehole that will maximize the amount of scientific information to be learned at each of the five geothermal areas.

  2. Hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field: Sulphur Springs and the Cochiti mining district

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.

    1989-03-01

    K/Ar dates and oxygen isotope data were obtained on 13 clay separates (<2 ..mu..m) of thermally altered mafic and silicic rocks from the Cochiti mining district (SE Jemez Mountains) and Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP) core hole VC-2A (Sulphur Springs, Valles caldera). Illite with K/sub 2/O contents of 6.68%--10.04% is the dominant clay in the silicic rocks, whereas interstratified illite/smectites containing 1.4%--5.74% K/sub 2/O constitute the altered andesites. Two hydrothermal alteration events are recognized at the Cochiti area (8.07 m.y., n = 1, and 6.5--5.6 m.y., n = 6). The older event correlates with the waning stages of Paliza Canyon Formation andesite volcanism (greater than or equal to13 to less than or equal to8.5 m.y.), whereas the younger event correlates with intrusions and gold- and silver-bearing quartz veins associated with the Bearhead Rhyolite (7.54--5.8 m.y.). The majority of K/Ar dates in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A (0.83--0.66 m.y., n = 4) indicate that hydrothermal alteration developed contemporaneously with resurgence and ring fracture Valles Rhyolite domes (0.89--0.54 m.y.). One date of 0 +- 0.10 m.y. in acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole probably correlates with Holocene hydrothermal activity possibly associated with the final phases of the Valles Rhyolite (0.13 m.y.).

  3. Temporal relations of volcanism and hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Goff, F. )

    1989-11-01

    Two hydrothermal alteration events (8.07 Ma, one sample; 6.51-5.60 Ma, six samples) related to the waning stages of late Miocene volcanism ({ge} 13 to {le} 5.8 Ma) are recognized at the Cochiti district (southeast Jemez Mountains). Most of the K/Ar dates (0.83 {plus minus} 0.11-0.66 {plus minus} 0.21 Ma, four samples) in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A at Sulfur Springs, Valles caldera, indicate post-Valles caldera hydrothermal alteration. A sample from acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole was too young to be dated by the K/Ar method and is possibly associated with current hot-spring activity and the youngest pulses of volcanism. Oxygen-isotope data from illite/smectite clays in the Cochiti district are zonally distributed and range from {minus}2.15{per thousand} to {plus}7.97{per thousand} (SMOW), depending upon temperature, extent of rock-fluid interaction, and composition. The samples from VC-2A get lighter with depth ({minus}0.20{per thousand} to {plus}1.62{per thousand}). The K/Ar and oxygen-isotope data provide strong evidence that the epithermal quartz-vein-hosted gold-silver mineralization at Cochiti and the sub-ore grade molybdenite at VC-2A were deposited in the late Miocene (5.99-5.60 Ma) and mid-Quaternary ({approximately}0.66 Ma), respectively, by hydrothermal fluids composed primarily of meteoric water.

  4. Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Objective The Science Center Publications Graduate Research opportunities Undergraduate research opportunities EFRC-501 graduate class Seminar schedules Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle 18 Feb 2014 by Jenny Green: In a recent early online edition of Nature Chemistry, ASU scientists, along with colleagues at Argonne National Laboratory, have reported advances

  5. A Hydrothermal Model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Area, Utah...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal system appears to be controlled to some extent by the details of the permeability structure in the immediate vicinity if the high surface heat flow region. Authors...

  6. Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jump Steady Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  7. AGS tune jump power supply design and test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi, J.; Glenn, J.W.; Huang, H.; Marneris, I.; Rosas, P.; Sandberg, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    A horizontal tune jump system has been installed to overcome the horizontal intrinsic spin resonances, which requires jumping the horizontal tune 0.04 units 82 times, 41 up and 41 down. Two quadruple magnets have been installed in AGS ring to perform this. The pulsed magnet current ranges from about 140A near injection to about 1400A later. The current pulse rise and fall time are around 100uS and flat tops time is around 4mS. These quadruples have separated supplies. This tune jump pulse power supply employees all semiconductor parts as well as the main switches. During dummy load and magnet testing, the test results showed that the power supply could meet the specification. This article will describe some details of power supply simulation, design and testing. Some test waveforms and pictures are presented in this paper.

  8. Hydrothermal energy extraction, Auburn, New York: Final report: Volume 2, Chapters 6-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castor, T.P.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses a hydrothermal energy extraction system in detail. General topics covered are: Reservoir circulation loop; HVAC buffer loop; and automatic temperature control system. (LSP)

  9. Integrated model for the natural flow regime in the Cerro Prieto hydrothermal system, B. C. , Mexico, based upon petrological and isotope geochemical criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of cuttings and core at Cerro Prieto have now been extended to more than 50 boreholes. The aims of this petrological and isotopic work are to determine the shape of the reservoir, its physical properties, and its temperature distribution and flow regime before the steam field was produced. A map showing the first occurrence of hydrothermal epidote shows a dome-shaped top to the steam-producing zone. The hottest of the mapped mineral zones - the biotite vermiculite zone - shows a dome displaced to the northeast relative to the epidote zone. Patterns of mineral zones observed in wells are consistent with patterns of oxygen isotopic ratios in calcite and quartz. Using both criteria all of the boreholes so far studied were classified as belonging to one of four different regimes. These are: (a) the thermal plume of upward flowing water close to boiling, marked by a regular sequence of prograde mineral zones and large isotopic shifts; (b) the discharge system where fluid leaks to the surface, as indicated by the occurrence of only a few low temperature mineral zones, which extend over large depth intervals with little isotope exchange; (c) the horizontal flow zone, in which boreholes penetrate reversals of both mineral zones and isotope shifts with increasing depth; and (d) the recharge zone where cold water is descending. Plotting these four types of boreholes on a map reveals a simple, consistent, pattern. This is interpreted to have been produced by a thermal plume dipping at 45/sup 0/ to the northeast.

  10. Hydrothermal Alteration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    been provided for this term. Add a Definition Opalized rock is often valued for its spectacular colors and it may indicate past hydrothermal activity (reference: https:...

  11. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Whole Algae Hydrothermal...

  12. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013 (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters. ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) ...

  13. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This ...

  14. Other Hydrothermal Deposits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capping Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products Colorful hydrothermal deposits dot the landscape at the Hverir Geothermal Area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified field...

  15. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  16. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    those promising locations to focus exploration efforts and investment. In so doing, such models can increase the expected success rate of exploratory drilling, reduce risk, and...

  17. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet Overview of hydrothermal resources PDF icon Hydrothermal Fact Sheet.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment was addressed at the State of the Industry Geothermal Briefing in Washington, DC on February 24, 2015. Eric Hass, hydrothermal program manager for the Geothermal Technologies Office presented. Exploration drilling in the Wind River Valley basin validates the

  18. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

  19. Property:IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ntifiedHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from identified hydrothermal sites, as determined by the...

  20. Property:UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Type Quantity Description Estimated conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from undiscovered hydrothermal sites, as determined by...

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hierarchical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ANNEALING; BISMUTH COMPOUNDS; CATALYSTS; CITRATES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS; ION ...

  2. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  3. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquefaction Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process Design and Economics for Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction, a paper from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. PDF icon pnnl_whole_algae_liquefaction.pdf More Documents & Publications Pathways for Algal Biofuels Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Algae

  4. Engineers, Tinkerers, and Innovators Are Invited to Join the JUMP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiative | Department of Energy Engineers, Tinkerers, and Innovators Are Invited to Join the JUMP Initiative Engineers, Tinkerers, and Innovators Are Invited to Join the JUMP Initiative October 26, 2015 - 3:10pm Addthis JUMP connects innovators to industry to make the most creative ideas a reality. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and industry partners (A.O. Smith, GE, and UTRC) want to collaborate with you to solve some of the most interesting technical challenges facing the buildings

  5. Dismantlements of Nuclear Weapons Jump 50 Percent | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Dismantlements of Nuclear Weapons Jump 50 Percent June 07, 2007 WASHINGTON, D.C. -- Meeting President Bush's directive to reduce the country's nuclear arsenal, the Department of ...

  6. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Success Stories Hydrothermal Success Stories June 9, 2015 Hydrothermal Success Stories Energy Department Honored for Inroads in Geothermal Energy As renewable energy takes a stronger role in supplying the U.S. grid, geothermal power could support a more flexible role to balance the intermittent and variable capacity of wind and solar. June 5, 2015 Geothermal energy, traditionally a baseload power source among renewables, is poised to emerge also as a flexible power source, balancing

  7. Basement Structure and Implications for Hydrothermal Circulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Abstract Detailed surface mapping, subsurface drill hole data, and geophysical modeling are the basis of a structural and hydrothermal model for the western part of Long...

  8. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, ...

  9. Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Paleochori, Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermally deposited rock includes rocks and minerals that have precipitated from...

  10. Hydrothermally Altered Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paleochori cliffs Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermal alteration refers to rocks that have been altered from their original...

  11. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis presentation by Kate Young, Dan Getman, and Ariel Esposito at the 2012 Peer Review Meeting on May 10, 2012

  12. Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration Products Numerous types of colorful hydrothermal alterations compose the landscape at Kerlingarfjoll Geothermal area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified...

  13. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  14. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  15. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  16. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  17. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-18

    Wet macroalgal slurries can be converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable oil product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics. As a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  18. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  19. DOE Provides $30 Million to Jump Start Bioenergy Research Centers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 30 Million to Jump Start Bioenergy Research Centers DOE Provides $30 Million to Jump Start Bioenergy Research Centers October 1, 2007 - 2:49pm Addthis DOE Bioenergy Research Center Investment Tops $400 Million WASHINGTON, DC-The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced it has invested nearly $30 million in end-of-fiscal-year (2007) funds to accelerate the start-up of its three new Bioenergy Research Centers, bringing total DOE Bioenergy Research Center investment

  20. Construction plans jump; operations skid in 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1997-08-04

    Federally regulated oil and gas pipelines turned in mixed performances in 1996, a review of annual reports filed with the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) shows. Plans for new pipeline construction, filed with both the FERC and Canadian regulatory bodies, increased during a 12-month period ending June 30, 1997. Natural-gas pipeline operating companies increased their operating revenues but saw their incomes fall; oil pipelines saw both revenues and incomes fall sharply as deliveries were flat. Major natural-gas pipelines slightly increased the amounts of gas they moved for a fee and decreased gas sold out of their systems. In 1996, liquids pipelines moved fewer barrels than a year earlier and reduced in all categories the miles of line operated. Each year in this exclusive report, Oil and Gas Journal tracks revenues and incomes earned from operations along with volumes moved, as submitted to the FERC by US regulated interstate pipeline companies. Data are presented on the following: pipeline revenues, incomes--1996; North American pipeline-construction costs; US pipeline costs--estimated vs. actual; North American compressor construction costs; US compressor costs--estimated vs. actual; Canadian pipeline-construction costs, actual; US interstate mileage; investment in liquids pipelines; 10 years of land-construction costs; top 10 interstate liquids lines; top 10 interstate gas lines; liquids pipeline companies; and gas pipeline companies.

  1. Reconnaissance of the hydrothermal resources of Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rush, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic factors in the Basin and Range province in Utah are more favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources than in other areas on the Colorado Plateaus or in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These geologic factors are principally crustal extension and crustal thinning during the last 17 million years. Basalts as young as 10,000 years have been mapped in the area. High-silica volcanic and intrusive rocks of Quaternary age can be used to locate hydrothermal convection systems. Drilling for hot, high-silica, buried rock bodies is most promising in the areas of recent volcanic activity. Southwestern Utah has more geothermal potential than other parts of the Basin and Range province in Utah. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area, the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale area, and the area to the north as far as 60 kilometers from them probably have the best potential for geothermal development for generation of electricity. Other areas with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C are Thermo, Monroe, Red Hill (in the Monroe-Joseph Known Geothermal Resource Area), Joseph Hot Springs, and the Newcastle area. The rates of heat and water discharge are high at Crater, Meadow, and Hatton Hot Springs, but estimated reservoir temperatures there are less than 150/sup 0/C. Additional exploration is needed to define the potential in three additional areas in the Escalante Desert. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Generation Information System Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Renewable Energy Generation Information System Place: Sacramento, California Zip:...

  3. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-29

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  4. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  5. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  6. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based ...

  7. Insider Models with Finite Utility in Markets with Jumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Yamazato, Makoto

    2011-10-15

    In this article we consider, under a Levy process model for the stock price, the utility optimization problem for an insider agent whose additional information is the final price of the stock blurred with an additional independent noise which vanishes as the final time approaches. Our main interest is establishing conditions under which the utility of the insider is finite. Mathematically, the problem entails the study of a 'progressive' enlargement of filtration with respect to random measures. We study the jump structure of the process which leads to the conclusion that in most cases the utility of the insider is finite and his optimal portfolio is bounded. This can be explained financially by the high risks involved in models with jumps.

  8. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Liquefaction Technology Pathway Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. PDF icon Whole Algae Hydrothermal

  9. The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Examines the effect of hydrothermal aging on the Nox reduction over a commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst.

  10. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-,

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hierarchical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres using BiOI microspheres as self-sacrificing templates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hierarchical Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres using BiOI microspheres as self-sacrificing templates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hierarchical Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} microspheres using BiOI microspheres as self-sacrificing templates Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub

  12. United Solar Systems Corp USSC aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Corp USSC aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Solar Systems Corp (USSC) (aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems LLC) Place: Middletown...

  13. LS Industrial Systems Co Ltd formerly LG Industrial Systems ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LS Industrial Systems Co Ltd formerly LG Industrial Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: LS Industrial Systems Co Ltd (formerly LG Industrial Systems) Place: Anyang,...

  14. Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC (formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC) Place:...

  15. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  16. Jump start: DuPont exports its energy management program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-11-23

    In August 1993, DuPont launched its innovative Jump Start program, which called for managers in its 25 largest plants to carry out a 120-day crash effort to find ways to reduce energy use at their facilities. The effort produced ideas that will result in $21.5 million in energy savings over six years, exceeding DuPont`s target. It also kicked off a longer-term program the company hopes will cut as much as $300 million, or 15% from energy bills through 2000.

  17. Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Glenn T.; Zilberstein, Vladimir A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

  18. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  19. Pipo Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pipo Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pipo Systems Place: Spain Product: Spanish wave technology developer. References: Pipo Systems1 This article is a stub. You can...

  20. Energistic Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energistic Systems Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Energistic Systems Name: Energistic Systems Address: 13551 W. 43rd Street Dr Place: Golden, Colorado Zip: 80403 Region: Rockies...

  1. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  3. Characterization of past hydrothermal fluids in the Humboldt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    has permitted hydrothermal circulation, producing both the geothermal area and nearby gold deposits. A total of five wells have been drilled with three obtaining core....

  4. Markov Jump Processes Approximating a Non-Symmetric Generalized Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limic, Nedzad

    2011-08-15

    Consider a non-symmetric generalized diffusion X( Dot-Operator ) in Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup d} determined by the differential operator A(x) = -{Sigma}{sub ij} {partial_derivative}{sub i}a{sub ij}(x){partial_derivative}{sub j} + {Sigma}{sub i} b{sub i}(x){partial_derivative}{sub i}. In this paper the diffusion process is approximated by Markov jump processes X{sub n}( Dot-Operator ), in homogeneous and isotropic grids G{sub n} Subset-Of Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup d}, which converge in distribution in the Skorokhod space D([0,{infinity}), Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup d}) to the diffusion X( Dot-Operator ). The generators of X{sub n}( Dot-Operator ) are constructed explicitly. Due to the homogeneity and isotropy of grids, the proposed method for d{>=}3 can be applied to processes for which the diffusion tensor {l_brace}a{sub ij}(x){r_brace}{sub 11}{sup dd} fulfills an additional condition. The proposed construction offers a simple method for simulation of sample paths of non-symmetric generalized diffusion. Simulations are carried out in terms of jump processes X{sub n}( Dot-Operator ). For piece-wise constant functions a{sub ij} on Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup d} and piece-wise continuous functions a{sub ij} on Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup 2} the construction and principal algorithm are described enabling an easy implementation into a computer code.

  5. NRG Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: NRG Systems Place: Hinesburg, Vermont Zip: 5461 Sector: Wind energy Product: A US-based manufacturer of wind measurement and turbine...

  6. Chorus Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chorus Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chorus Systems Place: Sankt Augustin, Germany Zip: D-53757 Product: Plans and realises PV installations in Germany. References:...

  7. Neptune Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Neptune Systems Address: PO Box 8719 Place: Breda Zip: 4820 BA Region: Netherlands Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone Number: +31 (0)...

  8. Koyo Thermo Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Koyo Thermo Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Koyo Thermo Systems Place: Nara, Japan Zip: 632-0084 Product: Koyo Thermo Systems is a Japanese crystalline silicon...

  9. Wind to Power Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wind to Power Systems Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28108 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind to Power Systems designs, supplies and...

  10. Gas Recovery Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gas Recovery Systems Place: California Zip: 94550 Product: Turnkey landfill gas (LFG) energy extraction systems. References: Gas Recovery...

  11. Biodiesel Systems LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Systems, LLC Place: Madison, Wisconsin Zip: WI 53704 Product: The core business of Biodiesel Systems is plan, design,...

  12. Blind Geothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Blind Geothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Blind Geothermal System Dictionary.png Blind Geothermal System: An area with a...

  13. Bio Fuel Systems BFS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Systems BFS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bio Fuel Systems (BFS) Place: Alicante, Spain Sector: Biomass Product: Bio Fuel Systems focuses on the development of biofuel...

  14. National System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System Templates: Building Sustainable National Inventory Management Systems Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: National System Templates: Building...

  15. Mirasol Solar Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mirasol Solar Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Mirasol Solar Energy Systems Name: Mirasol Solar Energy Systems Address: 101 Spring Road NE Place: Rio Rancho, New...

  16. Expert Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Systems Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Expert Solar Systems Name: Expert Solar Systems Address: 11700 E. Sneller Vista Place: Tucson, Arizona Zip: 85749 Sector: Solar...

  17. Landfill Energy Systems LES | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Systems LES Jump to: navigation, search Name: Landfill Energy Systems (LES) Place: Michigan Zip: 48393 Product: Landfill gas to energy systems project developer, gas...

  18. Orion Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Orion Energy Systems Place: Plymouth, Wisconsin Zip: 53073 Product: Designs and manufactures application specific lighting systems and...

  19. Ambient Control Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Control Systems Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ambient Control Systems Name: Ambient Control Systems Address: 1810 Gillespie Way Place: El Cajon, California Zip: 92020 Region:...

  20. Peak Treatment Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Treatment Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Peak Treatment Systems Place: Golden, CO Website: www.peaktreatmentsystems.com References: Peak Treatment Systems1 Information...

  1. Energy Conservation Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Energy Conservation Systems Inc Place: Prostpect, Kentucky Zip: 40059 Product: Smart solutionspower control system provider...

  2. PNNL Technology Systems Analysis Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PNNL Technology Systems Analysis Group (Redirected from Technology Systems Analysis) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Technology Systems Analysis Name Technology Systems Analysis...

  3. Extrinsic and intrinsic properties in metalinsulator transition of hydrothermally prepared vanadium dioxide crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don

    2014-03-01

    The clear insulator (monoclinic-VO{sub 2}) to metal (rutile-VO{sub 2}) transition (IMT) was observed in electrical conductivity and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements at around 340 K, which is IMT temperature (T{sub H}), in the hydrothermally prepared VO{sub 2} crystals. The occurrence of metal to insulator transition (MIT) temperature (T{sub C}) was observed below 333 K during the first resistance measurement cycle in the most of cases. The sudden jump of the electrical resistance at IMT and MIT points was amplified several times than that of the first cycle during the repeated successive thermal cycles (heating and cooling across the IMT and MIT temperatures). T{sub C} and T{sub H} shifted to higher temperature by the repeated successive thermal cycles. This shift and the amplified jump might be related to the mechanical stress between the VO{sub 2} crystals, i.e. extrinsic properties. However, the starting point of MIT, T{sub CS} = ? 336 K, and the starting point of IMT, T{sub HS} = ? 338 K, kept almost constant during the repeated thermal cycles (< 10 times). These two temperatures may be related to the intrinsic properties of the VO{sub 2}: the phase transitions initiated at these temperatures regardless of the number of the repeated thermal cycles. The neat surface of the VO{sub 2} crystals was severely damaged and the average size of particles reduced from 110 nm to 7090 nm after extensively repeated thermal cycles (> 70 times). The damaged surface and the smaller particles, which would be originated from the mechanical stress caused by crystal volume change during the first order transition of the VO{sub 2}, would weaken the electrical conduction path (loosen grain boundaries) between the VO{sub 2} single crystals and would result in the amplified jump at the following MIT. This report may boost the study for the improved stability and lifetime of the VO{sub 2} based electronic devices. - Highlights: The sharp phase transition in cluster of VO{sub 2} crystals depends on repeated thermal cycles. Two intrinsic and two extrinsic temperatures are observed during the phase transition. The mechanical stress change and surface damage may cause the extrinsic properties in transport measurement.

  4. Funding Opportunity: Geothermal Technologies Program Seeks Technologies to Reduce Levelized Cost of Electricity for Hydrothermal Development and EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Technologies Program seeks non-prime mover technologies that have the potential to contribute to reducing the levelized cost of electricity from new hydrothermal development to 6¢/ kWh by 2020 and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) to 6¢/ kWh by 2030.

  5. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  6. Direct use of hydrothermal energy: a review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.; Layton, D.

    1981-08-28

    The potential environmental impacts of the exploration, development, and production of hydrothermal geothermal energy for direct use applications are reviewed and evaluated. Mitigation strategies and research and development needs are included. (MHR)

  7. The Near-Surface Hydrothermal Regime of Long Valley Caldera ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Long Valley Caldera Citation Arthur H. Lachenbruch,Michael L. Sorey,Robert Edward Lewis,John H. Sass. 1976. The Near-Surface Hydrothermal Regime of Long Valley Caldera....

  8. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Chris M.; Musich, Mark A.; Mann, Michael D.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Richter, John J.; Potas, Todd A.; Willson, Warrack G.

    2000-01-01

    Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

  9. Louisville Electric System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Louisville Electric System Jump to: navigation, search Name: Louisville Electric System Place: Mississippi References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA...

  10. Sathian Sun Power Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sathian Sun Power Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sathian Sun Power Systems Place: Salem, Andhra Pradesh, India Sector: Solar Product: Manufacturer of solar street lights...

  11. Southwest Photovoltaic Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Southwest Photovoltaic Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Southwest Photovoltaic Systems Inc Place: Tomball, Texas Zip: 77375 Product: Distributor of small scale PV...

  12. Kawasaki Plant Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kawasaki Plant Systems Ltd Place: Kobe, Japan Zip: 650-8670 Sector: Biomass, Services, Solar Product: Engineers, manufactures, and...

  13. Advanced Fuel Cell Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Cell Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Fuel Cell Systems Place: Amherst, New York Zip: 14228 Product: Collaboration of three companies (ATSI Engineering,...

  14. Independent Energy Systems IES | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IES Jump to: navigation, search Name: Independent Energy Systems (IES) Place: Santa Cruz, California Zip: 95062 Product: Independent Energy Systems sells, designs, and installs...

  15. REpower Systems AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: REpower Systems AG Place: Hamburg, Germany Zip: D-22297 Sector: Services, Wind energy Product: Wind turbine manufacturer with...

  16. Alstom Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alstom Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alstom Energy Systems Address: 3 avenue Andr Malraux Place: Levallois-Perret Cedex, France Website: www.alstom.com...

  17. Microgy Cogeneration Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Microgy Cogeneration Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Microgy Cogeneration Systems Inc Place: Tarrytown, New York Zip: 10591 Product: New York-based Microgy...

  18. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator Jump to: navigation, search Name: Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator Place: Carmel, IN References: SGIC1 This...

  19. Performance Systems Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Development Jump to: navigation, search Name: Performance Systems Development Place: Ithaca, NY Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes...

  20. Solimpeks Solar Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solimpeks Solar Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solimpeks Solar Energy Systems Place: Karatay - KONYA, Turkey Zip: 42300 Sector: Solar Product: Turkish...

  1. Rand Solar Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rand Solar Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rand Solar Energy Systems Place: Petach Tikva, Israel Zip: 49130 Sector: Solar Product: Israel-based manufacturer and...

  2. ICOS Vision Systems NV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ICOS Vision Systems NV Jump to: navigation, search Name: ICOS Vision Systems NV Place: Leuvan, Belgium Zip: 3001 Product: Provides inspection products for the manufacturing...

  3. American Transmission Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    American Transmission Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Transmission Systems Inc Place: Ohio Website: www.atcllc.com Twitter: @amertransco References: EIA...

  4. American Energy Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Energy Systems Inc Place: Minnesota Zip: 55350 Product: Biofuel burning appliance manufacturer (pellets & corn). References:...

  5. Distributed Energy Systems Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distributed Energy Systems Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Distributed Energy Systems Corp Place: Wallingford, Connecticut Zip: CT 06492 Product: The former holding company...

  6. Corporate Systems Engineering | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Engineering Jump to: navigation, search Name: Corporate Systems Engineering Place: Indianapolis, Indiana Product: Indiana-based energy management company. Coordinates:...

  7. Greasecar Vegetable Fuel Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greasecar Vegetable Fuel Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Greasecar Vegetable Fuel Systems Place: Florence, Massachusetts Zip: 1062 Product: Manufacturer of vegetable fuel...

  8. Husk Power Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Husk Power Systems Place: Patna, Bihar, India Zip: 800023 Sector: Biomass Product: India-based developer of mini biomass plants....

  9. Interval Data Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interval Data Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Interval Data Systems Inc Address: 135 Beaver Street Place: Waltham, Massachusetts Zip: 02452 Region: Greater Boston...

  10. Institute of Concentration Photovoltaic Systems ISFOC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Systems ISFOC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Concentration Photovoltaic Systems (ISFOC) Place: Puertallano, Spain Zip: 13500 Product: Part of the R&D...

  11. Photovoltaic Geographical Information System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information System Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Photovoltaic Geographical Information System Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Opportunity...

  12. Star Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Star Energy Systems Place: Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Zip: 380 009 Sector: Solar Product: Solar PV product distributor. Coordinates:...

  13. Thermal Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Thermal Energy Systems Place: London, United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: UK based company that constructs and installs boilers...

  14. West Point Utility System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility System Jump to: navigation, search Name: West Point Utility System Place: Iowa Phone Number: (319) 837-6313 Website: www.westpointiowa.comwp-utili Facebook: https:...

  15. Promethean Power Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Promethean Power Systems Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip: 2138 Product: US-based developer of a solar-powered...

  16. Naps Systems Oy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Naps Systems Oy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Naps Systems Oy Place: Vantaa, Finland Zip: 1510 Sector: Solar Product: Naps provides solar electricity solutions that range from...

  17. Green Design Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Design Systems Address: PO Box 1229 Place: Healdsburg, California Zip: 95448 Region: Bay Area Sector: Buildings Product: Refuse...

  18. Green Systems UK | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems UK Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Systems UK Place: Cambridge, United Kingdom Sector: Solar Product: Design and installation of vacuum tube & flat plate solar hot...

  19. Directional Drilling Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Directional Drilling Systems Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for Directional Drilling Systems Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","t...

  20. Nighthawk Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nighthawk Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nighthawk Systems Inc Place: San Antonio, Texas Zip: 78216 Product: Texas-based, provider of intelligent wireless power...

  1. American Alternative Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alternative Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Alternative Energy Systems Place: Denton, Texas Zip: 76209 Product: An American company involved in project...

  2. California Wind Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Wind Systems Address: 3411 Camino Corte Place: Carlsbad, California Zip: 92008 Region: Southern CA Area Sector: Wind energy...

  3. Tahoe Water Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tahoe Water Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tahoe Water Systems Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Develops a self-contained solarwind based water pumping technology....

  4. Renewable Energy Systems Americas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Americas Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Systems Americas Place: Broomfield, CO Website: www.res-americas.com References: Renewable Energy Systems Americas1...

  5. Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System (MPDES) Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Webpage Abstract Provides...

  6. Powersource Energy Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Powersource Energy Systems Ltd Place: Canada Product: A spinoff from Soltek Powersource Ltd, since 1996, it merged back with them...

  7. Monolithic Power Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Monolithic Power Systems Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95120 Product: A California-based analog semiconductor company....

  8. Renewable Power Systems LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Power Systems, LLC Place: Averill Park, New York Zip: 12018 Sector: Solar Product: Albany, New York-based solar...

  9. Scattering universality classes of side jump in the anomalous Hall effect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Scattering universality classes of side jump in the anomalous Hall effect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scattering universality classes of side jump in the anomalous Hall effect Authors: Yang, Shengyuan A. ; Pan, Hui ; Yao, Yugui ; Niu, Qian Publication Date: 2011-03-31 OSTI Identifier: 1100161 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 83; Journal Issue: 12; Journal

  10. Paradyme Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Paradyme Systems Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  11. Hydrothermally altered and fractured granite as an HDR reservoir in the EPS-1 borehole, Alsace,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genter, A.; Traineau, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the European Hot Dry Rocks Project, a second exploration borehole, EPS-1, has been cored to a depth of 2227 m at Soultz-sous-Forets (France). The target was a granite beginning at 1417 m depth, overlain by post-Paleozoic sedimentary cover. Structural analysis and petrographic examination of the 800-m porphyritic granite core, have shown that this rock has undergone several periods of hydrothermal alteration and fracturing. More than 3000 natural structures were recorded, whose distribution pattern shows clusters where low-density fracture zones (less than 1 per meter) alternate with zones of high fracture density (more than 20 per meter). Vein alteration, ascribed to paleohydrothermal systems, developed within the hydrothermally altered and highly fractured zones, transforming primary biotite and plagioclase into clay minerals. One of these zones at 2.2 km depth produced a hot-water outflow during coring, indicating the existence of a hydrothermal reservoir. Its permeability is provided by the fracture network and by secondary porosity of the granitic matrix resulting from vein alteration. This dual porosity in the HDR granite reservoir must be taken into account in the design of the heat exchanger, both for modeling the water-rock interactions and for hydraulic testing.

  12. MaxWest Environmental Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MaxWest Environmental Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: MaxWest Environmental Systems Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77057 Product: MaxWest Environmental Systems designs,...

  13. JFE Electrical and Control Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: JFE Electrical and Control Systems Place: Japan Product: Electronic power, automation and control systems maker which also makes PV...

  14. Ethanol Oil Recovery Systems EORS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems EORS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ethanol Oil Recovery Systems (EORS) Place: Clayton, Georgia Product: Ethanol Oil Recovery Systems (EORS), a green technology...

  15. Regional Waste Systems Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Systems Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Regional Waste Systems Biomass Facility Facility Regional Waste Systems Sector Biomass Facility Type Municipal Solid...

  16. PNNL Technology Systems Analysis Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PNNL Technology Systems Analysis Group Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Technology Systems Analysis Name Technology Systems Analysis AgencyCompany Organization Pacific Northwest...

  17. Laser-induced temperature jump/time-resolved infrared study of the fast events in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, W.H.; Dyer, R.B.; Williams, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Callender, H.; Gilmanshin, R. [CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Laser-induced temperature jump followed by time-resolved infrared probe of reaction dynamics are used to study the temporal evolution of polypeptide structure during protein folding and unfolding. Reactions are initiated in times of 50 ps or longer by T-jumps of 10`s of degrees, obtained by laser excitation of water overtone absorbances. Observation of the Amide I transient absorbances reveal melting lifetimes of helices unconstrained by tertiary structure to be ca. 160 ns in a model 21-peptide and ca. 30 ns in {open_quotes}molten globule{close_quotes} apomyoglobin. No other processes are observed in these systems over the timescale 50 ps to 2 ms. Equilibrium data suggest the corresponding helix formation lifetimes to be ca. 16 and 1 ns, respectively. In {open_quotes}native{close_quotes} apomyoglobin two helix melting lifetimes are observed and we infer that a third occurs on a timescale inaccessible to our experiment (> 1 ms). The shorter observed lifetime, as in the molten globule, is ca. 30 ns. The longer lifetime is ca. 70 {mu}s. We suggest that the slower process is helix melting that is rate-limited by the unfolding of tertiary structure. Equilibrium data suggest a lifetime of ca. 1 {mu}s for the development of these tertiary folds.

  18. Probing the mechanism of rubredoxin thermal unfolding in the absence of salt bridges by temperature jump experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriques, Barbara J. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal); Saraiva, Ligia M. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal); Gomes, Claudio M. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal)]. E-mail: gomes@itqb.unl.pt

    2005-08-05

    Rubredoxins are the simplest type of iron-sulphur proteins and in recent years they have been used as model systems in protein folding and stability studies, especially the proteins from thermophilic sources. Here, we report our studies on the rubredoxin from the hyperthermophile Methanococcus jannaschii (T {sub opt} = 85 deg C), which was investigated in respect to its thermal unfolding kinetics by temperature jump experiments. Different spectroscopic probes were used to monitor distinct structural protein features during the thermal transition: the integrity of the iron-sulphur centre was monitored by visible absorption spectroscopy, whereas tertiary structure was followed by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and exposure of protein hydrophobic patches was sensed by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate fluorescence. The studies were performed at acidic pH conditions in which any stabilising contributions from salt bridges are annulled due to protonation of protein side chain groups. In these conditions, M. jannaschii rubredoxin assumes a native-like, albeit more flexible and open conformation, as indicated by a red shift in the tryptophan emission maximum and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate binding. Temperature jumps were monitored by the three distinct techniques and showed that the protein undergoes thermal denaturation via a simple two step mechanism, as loss of tertiary structure, hydrophobic collapse, and disintegration of the iron-sulphur centre are concomitant processes. The proposed mechanism is framed with the multiphasic one proposed for Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin, showing that a common thermal unfolding mechanism is not observed between these two closely related thermophilic rubredoxins.

  19. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal...

  20. Revisiting the emission from relativistic blast waves in a density-jump medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X. F. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Liang, E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Re-brightening bumps are frequently observed in gamma-ray burst afterglows. Many scenarios have been proposed to interpret the origin of these bumps, of which a blast wave encountering a density-jump in the circumburst environment has been questioned by recent works. We develop a set of differential equations to calculate the relativistic outflow encountering the density-jump by extending the work of Huang et al. This approach is a semi-analytic method and is very convenient. Our results show that late high-amplitude bumps cannot be produced under common conditions, rather only a short plateau may emerge even when the encounter occurs at an early time (<10{sup 4} s). In general, our results disfavor the density-jump origin for those observed bumps, which is consistent with the conclusion drawn from full hydrodynamics studies. The bumps thus should be caused by other scenarios.

  1. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  2. Jump-Starting Zero Energy Home Design and Student Careers | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Jump-Starting Zero Energy Home Design and Student Careers Jump-Starting Zero Energy Home Design and Student Careers April 24, 2014 - 9:28am Addthis University of Las Vegas 1 of 5 University of Las Vegas The University of Las Vegas's team thought outside the box to develop a nontraditional home design that used structural insulated panels and high mass concrete sandwich walls to achieve net zero energy use. | Photo courtesy of the University of Las Vegas. Clemson University 2 of 5

  3. Comments on the behavior of alpha(1) in main injector gamma(t) jump schemes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Comments on the behavior of alpha(1) in main injector gamma(t) jump schemes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comments on the behavior of alpha(1) in main injector gamma(t) jump schemes × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources

  4. Bella Energy formely Sun Electric Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bella Energy formely Sun Electric Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bella Energy (formely Sun Electric Systems) Place: Lafayette, Colorado Zip: 80026 Sector: Solar Product:...

  5. Applied Materials Switzerland SA Formerly HCT Shaping Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Switzerland SA Formerly HCT Shaping Systems SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Applied Materials Switzerland SA (Formerly HCT Shaping Systems SA) Place: Chezeaux, Switzerland...

  6. South Asia Energy Management Systems Inc SAEMS | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Management Systems Inc SAEMS Jump to: navigation, search Name: South Asia Energy Management Systems, Inc. (SAEMS) Place: California Product: South Asia Energy is...

  7. Practical Ocean Energy Management Systems Inc POEMS | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ocean Energy Management Systems Inc POEMS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Practical Ocean Energy Management Systems Inc (POEMS) Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92138 Sector:...

  8. Concept for Management of the Future Electricity System (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Concept for Management of the Future Electricity System (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Concept for Management of the Future Electricity System...

  9. Oak Creek Energy Systems Wind Farm II | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    II Jump to: navigation, search Name Oak Creek Energy Systems Wind Farm II Facility Oak Creek Energy Systems Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status...

  10. Kettering University Center for Fuel Cell Systems Powertrain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kettering University Center for Fuel Cell Systems Powertrain Integration Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kettering University - Center for Fuel Cell Systems & Powertrain...

  11. GWPS Global Wind Power Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GWPS Global Wind Power Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: GWPS (Global Wind Power Systems) Place: Hamburg, Germany Zip: 20095 Sector: Wind energy Product: Company...

  12. Decentralised Energy Systems India Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Decentralised Energy Systems India Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Decentralised Energy Systems India Pvt Ltd Place: Bangalore, Karnataka, India Zip: 560032 Sector:...

  13. Stand Alone Renewable Energy Systems Case Studies | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alone Renewable Energy Systems Case Studies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Stand Alone Renewable Energy Systems Case Studies AgencyCompany...

  14. Mini-Grid Renewable Energy Systems Case Studies | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mini-Grid Renewable Energy Systems Case Studies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Mini-Grid Renewable Energy Systems Case Studies AgencyCompany...

  15. File:07HIAGeothermalAndCableSystemDevelopmentPermitting.pdf ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HIAGeothermalAndCableSystemDevelopmentPermitting.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:07HIAGeothermalAndCableSystemDevelopmentPermitting.pdf...

  16. Solco International Ltd formerly Solar Energy Systems | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Ltd formerly Solar Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solco International Ltd (formerly Solar Energy Systems) Place: Welshpool, Western Australia,...

  17. Gadhia Solar Energy Systems Pvt Ltd GSESPL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gadhia Solar Energy Systems Pvt Ltd GSESPL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gadhia Solar Energy Systems Pvt Ltd. (GSESPL) Place: Valsad, Gujarat, India Zip: 396035 Sector: Solar...

  18. Solar Energy Systems Inc SES | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Inc SES Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Energy Systems, Inc (SES) Place: Brooklyn, New York Zip: 11222 Sector: Solar Product: Private company designing, building,...

  19. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Energy Systems ISE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) Place: Freiburg, Germany Zip: 79110 Sector: Solar Product: Leading...

  20. Solapur Bio Energy System Pvt Ltd SBES | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solapur Bio Energy System Pvt Ltd SBES Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solapur Bio Energy System Pvt. Ltd. (SBES) Place: Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Zip: 462016 Sector: Biomass...

  1. FAO-Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change (MOSAICC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: FAO-Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of...

  2. Shanghai Nikki Environment System Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nikki Environment System Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Nikki Environment System Inc Place: Shanghai, Shanghai Municipality, China Zip: 200040 Product: A biodiesel...

  3. Innovative Systems Engineering Solar LLC ISE Solar LLC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Engineering Solar LLC ISE Solar LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Innovative Systems Engineering Solar LLC (ISE Solar LLC) Place: Warminster, Pennsylvania Zip:...

  4. Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd (previously Solel Solar Systems) Place:...

  5. Shanghai Comtec Solar Technology Ltd aka Comtec Solar System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comtec Solar Technology Ltd aka Comtec Solar System Group Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Comtec Solar Technology Ltd (aka Comtec Solar System Group Ltd) Place:...

  6. MIT - Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Logo: MIT - Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems Name: MIT - Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy...

  7. Golden Fuel Systems formerly Greasel Conversions Inc | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Systems formerly Greasel Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Golden Fuel Systems (formerly Greasel Conversions Inc) Place: Drury, Montana Zip: 65638 Sector:...

  8. Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems...

  9. Vega Biofuels Inc formerly Vega Promotional Systems | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vega Biofuels Inc formerly Vega Promotional Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vega Biofuels Inc (formerly Vega Promotional Systems) Place: Norcross, Georgia Zip: 30010...

  10. Solar Systems and Solutions Soluciones Sistemas Solares 3S |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems and Solutions Soluciones Sistemas Solares 3S Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Systems and Solutions Soluciones Sistemas Solares (3S) Place: Navarre, Spain Sector:...

  11. Moltech Power Systems Group MPS Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Moltech Power Systems Group MPS Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Moltech Power Systems Group (MPS Group) Place: China Product: China-based subsidiary of Shanghai Huayi Group...

  12. Electricity storage for short term power system service (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    storage for short term power system service (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity storage for short term power system service Country Denmark...

  13. Category:Geographic Information System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geographic Information System Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Geographic Information System page? For detailed information on Geographic Information...

  14. W.E.T. Automotive Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    E.T. Automotive Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: W.E.T. Automotive Systems Place: Odelzhausen, Germany Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes...

  15. Training on PV Systems: Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenanc...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on PV Systems: Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Training on PV Systems: Design, Construction, Operation...

  16. International Rectifier Power Control Systems | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Control Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Rectifier Power Control Systems Place: El Segundo, California Zip: 90245 Product: Originally a division of...

  17. Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System Information Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Pollution Control System Information Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System...

  18. Energy Control Systems Engineering Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Control Systems Engineering Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Energy Control Systems Engineering Inc Place: Monrovia, California Zip: 91016 Sector: Services Product: The...

  19. Control and regulation of modern distribution system, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    system, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Control and regulation of modern distribution system, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates...

  20. Mueller Systems ArKion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mueller Systems ArKion Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mueller Systems (ArKion) Place: Middleboro, Massachusetts Zip: MA 02346 Product: Massachusetts-based energy management...

  1. Battery Park Industries Inc formerly Moltech Power Systems Inc...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries Inc formerly Moltech Power Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Battery Park Industries Inc (formerly Moltech Power Systems, Inc) Place: Gainesville, Florida...

  2. National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: National Wildlife Refuge System...

  3. Numerical Modelling of Geothermal Systems a Short Introduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modelling of Geothermal Systems a Short Introduction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: Numerical Modelling of Geothermal Systems a Short...

  4. EPA - Permit Compliance System webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Permit Compliance System webpage Abstract This webpage contains EPA's...

  5. Alternative Energy Systems Consulting Inc AESC | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Consulting Inc AESC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alternative Energy Systems Consulting Inc (AESC) Place: Carlsbad, California Zip: 92008 Sector: Services Product:...

  6. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems and wind power (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power Country Denmark...

  7. Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Complex Adaptive System Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Electricity Market Complex Adaptive System AgencyCompany Organization: Argonne National...

  8. Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide Inc Quantum Technologies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide Inc Quantum Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide Inc (Quantum Technologies) Place: Irvine,...

  9. Oregon Application for Onsite Sewage Treatment System | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application for Onsite Sewage Treatment System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Oregon Application for Onsite Sewage Treatment System...

  10. Advanced Wind Energy Systems AWES | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Energy Systems AWES Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Wind Energy Systems (AWES) Place: Toms River, New Jersey Sector: Wind energy Product: Advanced Wind Energy...

  11. Wind Energy Systems Technology LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Wind Energy Systems Technology LLC Name: Wind Energy Systems Technology LLC Address: 17350 State Highway 249 Place: Houston, Texas...

  12. Wind Energy Systems Technologies LLC WEST | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Technologies LLC WEST Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wind Energy Systems Technologies LLC (WEST) Place: New Iberia, Louisiana Sector: Wind energy Product: Wants to...

  13. Renewable Energy Systems (RES Mediterranean) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mediterranean) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Renewable Energy Systems (RES Mediterranean) Name: Renewable Energy Systems (RES Mediterranean) Address: 330 rue du Mourelet Z.I....

  14. Renewable Energy Systems (RES Scandinavia) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scandinavia) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Renewable Energy Systems (RES Scandinavia) Name: Renewable Energy Systems (RES Scandinavia) Address: Lilla Bommen 1 Place:...

  15. Renewable Energy Systems (RES Australia and New Zealand) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Australia and New Zealand) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Renewable Energy Systems (RES Australia and New Zealand) Name: Renewable Energy Systems (RES Australia and New Zealand)...

  16. Renewable Energy Systems (RES UK and Ireland) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (RES UK and Ireland) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Renewable Energy Systems (RES UK and Ireland) Name: Renewable Energy Systems (RES UK and Ireland) Address: Beaufort Court Egg...

  17. Renewable Energy Systems Inc (RES Americas) (Colorado) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc (RES Americas) (Colorado) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Renewable Energy Systems Inc (RES Americas) Name: Renewable Energy Systems Inc (RES Americas) Address: 11101 W....

  18. Distributed Generation Systems Inc DISGEN | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Inc DISGEN Jump to: navigation, search Name: Distributed Generation Systems Inc (DISGEN) Place: Lakewood, Colorado Zip: 80228 Sector: Wind energy Product: Developer of...

  19. Active Geothermal Systems And Associated Gold Deposits In The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Systems And Associated Gold Deposits In The Great Basin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Active Geothermal Systems...

  20. Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves AgencyCompany Organization: United...

  1. Arnold Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Arnold Energy Systems Region: United States Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  2. Steam-system upgrades | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    upgrades Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Steam-system upgrades Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSteam-systemupgrades&old...

  3. Cape Systems Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cape Systems Limited Place: Rock Sound, Bahamas Sector: Services Product: Offers installation and site surveying services for clean...

  4. Sustainable Transport Systems STS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    STS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sustainable Transport Systems (STS) Place: Santa Cruz, California Zip: 95062 Sector: Carbon, Efficiency Product: California-based...

  5. MGE UPS SYSTEMS SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: MGE UPS SYSTEMS SA Place: Saint Ismier, France Zip: 38 334 Product: Provides a comprehensive range of Uninterruptible Power Supply and power...

  6. Fastcap Systems Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fastcap Systems Corporation Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip: 2139 Sector: Carbon Product: Cambridge-based ultracapacitor...

  7. Redhawk Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Redhawk Energy Systems Address: 10340 Palmer Rd. SW Place: Athens, Ohio Zip: 45701 Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services, Solar,...

  8. DOE Announces JUMP Initiative Winners, Launches New Crowdsourcing Calls at Bay Area Maker Faire

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy’s Buildings Technologies Office announced the latest winners for its JUMP platform, an online crowdsourcing initiative aimed at advancing energy-efficient building technologies, during the 11th annual Bay Area Maker Faire in San Mateo, California.

  9. Educated and Equipped: Jump-Start Your Career in the Bioenergy Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Are you a recent college graduate looking to jump-start your career? Whether you majored in engineering or English, science or political science, business or biology, there are numerous opportunities to use your skills and education in the emerging bioenergy industry.

  10. Geochemical Modeling of the Near-Surface Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with non-thermal groundwater. Our conceptual model is based on hypotheses in the literature and published geochemical and petrologic data. Mixing of thermal and non-thermal...

  11. Present State of the Hydrothermal System in Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    laterally from west to east at depths less than 1 km within and around the resurgent dome. Maximum measured temperatures within these zones are near 170C but estimates from...

  12. The Shallow Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera, California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract Abstract unavailable. Authors Gene A. Suemnicht, Michael L. Sorey, Joseph N. Moore and Robert Sullivan Conference Stanford, CaliforniaThirty-Second Workshop on...

  13. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of this zone would allow a pressure change induced at distances of several kilometers below the well to be observable within a matter of days. This indicates that...

  14. New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wells, Fluid Sampling, Electrical Geophysics, And Age Determinations Of Hot-Spring Deposits. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 48(3-4):229-263. Related Geothermal...

  15. Mapping the Hydrothermal System Beneath the Western Moat of Long...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    papers or abstracts of papers presented at a two-day symposium held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on 17 and 18 March 1987. Speakers presented a large body of new...

  16. Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tracking changes in river solute flux. Authors Shaul Hurwitz, Jacob B. Lowenstern and Henry Heasler Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2007 DOI Not...

  17. Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that...

  18. Temporal Relations of Volcanism and Hydrothermal Systems in Two...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and oxygen-isotope data provide strong evidence that the epithermal quartz-vein-hosted gold-silver mineralization at Cochiti and the sub-ore grade molybdenite at VC-2A were...

  19. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean-Energy Reserves New geothermal data could open up clean energy reserves nationwide. Scientific American reported that the National Geothermal Data System is helping to...

  20. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 ?C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  1. track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Inability to accurately predict temperature and permeability of the geothermal reservoir from the surface is a major cost and exploration risk for geothermal systems. While the majority of known...

  2. Hydrothermal Photo Library | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To extend the available heat extraction per well, the Office partnered with FORO Energy to design a high-power laser system with the potential to decrease hard-rock drilling costs. ...

  3. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    List of projects selected focusing on updating technologies and methods to improve the performance of conventional hydropower plants. PDF icon Hydropower Appropriations More Documents & Publications Site Characterization Awards Water Power Program: 2011 Peer Review Report Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Projects

    Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis presentation by Kate Young, Dan Getman, and Ariel Esposito at the 2012 Peer Review Meeting on May 10, 2012 PDF icon

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of zirconia based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caillot, T. Salama, Z.; Chanut, N.; Cadete Santos Aires, F.J.; Bennici, S.; Auroux, A.

    2013-07-15

    In this work, three equimolar mixed oxides ZrO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a reference ZrO{sub 2} have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. The structural and surface properties of these materials have been fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, surface area measurement, chemical analysis, XPS, infrared spectroscopy after adsorption of pyridine and adsorption microcalorimetry of NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} probe molecules. All investigated mixed oxides are amphoteric and possess redox centers on their surface. Moreover, hydrothermal synthesis leads to catalysts with higher surface area and with better acidbase properties than classical coprecipitation method. Both Lewis and Brnsted acid sites are present on the surface of the mixed oxides. Compared to the other samples, the ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} material appears to be the best candidate for further application in acidbase catalysis. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous amorphous phase with a high surface area of titania zirconia mixed oxide obtained by hydrothermal preparation. - Highlights: Three zirconia based catalysts and a reference were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. Mixed oxides present larger surface areas than the reference ZrO{sub 2}. ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents a mesoporous structure with high surface area. ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents simultaneously strong acidic and basic properties.

  5. Beijing F Y Hyenergy Power System Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Y Hyenergy Power System Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing F.Y. Hyenergy Power System Co Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100176 Product:...

  6. Solar Self Help Inc aka Light Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Self Help Inc aka Light Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Self Help Inc. (aka Light Energy Systems) Place: Concord, California Sector: Solar Product:...

  7. Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam Jump to: navigation, search Name Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam AgencyCompany...

  8. EnergyCS Inc Energy Control Systems Engineering Inc | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EnergyCS Inc Energy Control Systems Engineering Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: EnergyCS Inc (Energy Control Systems Engineering, Inc) Sector: Services Product: String...

  9. Automation systems for Demand Response, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems for Demand Response, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Automation systems for Demand Response, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates...

  10. BrightView Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: BrightView Systems Ltd Place: Petach-Tikva, Israel Zip: 49510 Product: Has developed an unspecified technology for PV cell manufacture....

  11. Fuji Electric Systems Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fuji Electric Systems Co Ltd Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 102-0075 Product: Japanese engineering and plant construction arm of Fuji...

  12. Geographic Information System At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nash & Johnson, 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Northern Basin & Range Region (Nash &...

  13. Geographic Information System At Nw Basin & Range Region (Nash...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nw Basin & Range Region (Nash & Johnson, 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Nw Basin & Range...

  14. Geographic Information System At U.S. West Region (Williams ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    U.S. West Region (Williams & Deangelo, 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At U.S. West Region...

  15. Understanding The Chena Hot Springs, Alaska, Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Chena Hot Springs, Alaska, Geothermal System Using Temperature And Pressure Data From Exploration Boreholes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  16. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems Case Studies | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems Case Studies AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Topics:...

  17. Geographic Information System At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nash & D., 1997) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Nash & D., 1997)...

  18. Reconnaissance geophysical studies of the geothermal system in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reconnaissance geophysical studies of the geothermal system in southern Raft River Valley, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  19. Geology and alteration of the Raft River geothermal system, Idaho...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River geothermal system, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Geology and alteration of the Raft River geothermal...

  20. Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology-...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology- An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  1. Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Helium...

  2. AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability identification, dEfense and Restoration Country Germany Coordinates...

  3. AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    France) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability identification, dEfense and Restoration Country France Coordinates...

  4. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data Domain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data Domain: Assessment of Geothermal Community Data Needs Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference...

  5. China Wind Systems formerly Green Power Malex | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    formerly Green Power Malex Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Wind Systems (formerly Green PowerMalex) Place: Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China Sector: Wind energy Product:...

  6. Reaction Systems Engineering of Kent | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Engineering of Kent Jump to: navigation, search Name: Reaction Systems Engineering of Kent Place: Kent, United Kingdom Product: An organisation located in Kent involved in the...

  7. AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability identification, dEfense and Restoration Country United Kingdom...

  8. Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Flex power perspectives of...

  9. Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System Permit Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Pollution Control System Permit Application Forms Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Ground Water Pollution...

  10. Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Focus...

  11. Title 40 CFR 260: Hazardous Waste Management System: General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    : Hazardous Waste Management System: General Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Title 40 CFR 260: Hazardous...

  12. Dimensions of invariant measures for continuous random dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bielaczyc, Tomasz; Horbacz, Katarzyna

    2015-03-10

    We consider continuous random dynamical systems with jumps. We estimate the dimension of the invariant measures and apply the results to a model of stochastic gene expression.

  13. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical...

  14. Identification of a New Blind Geothermal System with Hyperspectral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a New Blind Geothermal System with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Shallow Temperature Measurements at Columbus Salt Marsh, Esmeralda County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search...

  15. Geographic Information System At Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (Deymonaz, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Fish Lake Valley...

  16. WAC - 173 - 220 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WAC - 173 - 220 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Program Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  17. AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ireland) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability identification, dEfense and Restoration Country Ireland Coordinates...

  18. Renewable Energy Systems Inc (RES Americas) (Texas) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Texas) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Systems Inc (RES Americas) Address: 9050 Capital of Texas Hwy Place: Austin, Texas Zip: 78759 Region: Texas Area Sector:...

  19. SunLight Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: SunLight Energy Systems Address: 955 Manchester Ave., SW Place: North Lawrence, Ohio Zip: 44666-9438 Sector: Solar Product: Retailer - Siemens...

  20. Geographic Information System At Nevada Test And Training Range...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Test And Training Range Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Nevada...

  1. Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

  2. Characterizing Microbial Community and Geochemical Dynamics at Hydrothermal Vents Using Osmotically Driven Continuous Fluid Samplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robidart, Julie C.; Callister, Stephen J.; Song, Peng F.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wheat, Charles G.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2013-05-07

    Microbes play a key role in mediating all aquatic biogeochemical cycles, and ongoing efforts are aimed at better understanding the relationships between microbial phylogenetic and physiological diversity, and habitat physical and chemical characteristics. Establishing such relationships is facilitated by sampling and studying microbiology and geochemistry at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales, to access information on the past and current environmental state that contributes to observed microbial abundances and activities. A modest number of sampling systems exist to date, few of which can be used in remote, harsh environments such as hydrothermal vents, where the ephemeral nature of venting underscores the necessity for higher resolution sampling. We have developed a robust, continuous fluid sampling system for co-registered microbial and biogeochemical analyses. The osmosis-powered bio-osmosampling system (BOSS) use no electricity, collects fluids with daily resolution or better, can be deployed in harsh, inaccessible environments and can sample fluids continuously for up to five years. Here we present a series of tests to examine DNA, RNA and protein stability over time, as well as material compatability, via lab experiments. We also conducted two field deployments at deep-sea hydrothermal vents to assess changes in microbial diversity and protein expression as a function of the physico-chemical environment. Our data reveal significant changes in microbial community composition co-occurring with relatively modest changes in the geochemistry. These data additionally provide new insights into the distribution of an enigmatic sulfur oxidizing symbiont in its free-living state. Data from the second deployment reveal differences in the representation of peptides over time, underscoring the utility of the BOSS in meta-proteomic studies. In concert, these data demonstrate the efficacy of this approach, and illustrate the value of using this method to study microbial and geochemical phenomena.

  3. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase III final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Wartman, B.L.; Anderson, S.B.

    1982-08-01

    The hydrothermal resources of North Dakota were evaluated. This evaluation was based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples were done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those holes-of-convenience cased.

  4. Raman spectroscopic investigations of hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    There is still very little information about the stoichiometries, structures and stabilities of metal complexes at high temperatures and pressures. Raman spectroscopy is ideally suited to probe and study concentrated electrolyte solutions at the molecular level. This thesis includes the design and construction of a Raman cell operable up to 300C and 15MPa. In order to obtain quantitative thermodynamic information from Raman spectroscopic measurements, a chemically inert internal standard must be used. Perchlorate is commonly used for this purpose at low temperatures, but it may be unstable at high temperatures and its explosive properties make it undesirable. A new preferred internal standard; trifluoromethanesulfonic acid is introduced and its spectra p to 300C discussed. The use of this compound as a high temperature internal standard enabled stepwise stability constants of zinc-bromo complexes to be determined. Although bromide is not an important ligand in geologic systems, its chemical similarity to chloride can provide insights into the study of zinc-chloro species which do not have very informative Raman spectra. The importance of organic ligands in geologic settings such as the Mississippi-Valley Type Pb-Zn sulfide deposits is now being realized. Chapter four presents the first high temperature spectroscopic measurements of lead and zinc acetate aqueous solutions. Not only do these studies verify the stability of lead and zinc acetate complexes up to 250 C but they also show that the type of complex formed is a function of pH, metal-ligand ratio and temperature, thus having important implications for zoning of Pb-Zn sulfide deposits.

  5. Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes in hydrothermal sediments: potential influences on sulfur cycling and microbial diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, MM; Hoarfrost, AL; Bose, A; Joye, SB; Girguis, PR

    2013-05-14

    Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C-2), propane (C-3), and butane (C-4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C-1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C-1-C-4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C-1-C-4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75 degrees C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C-2-C-4 alkanes. Maximum C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55 degrees C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C-3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C-4, C-2, and C-1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C-2-C(4)alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C-1 derived from these hydrothermal systems.

  6. Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhe; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Guangci; Hu, Xiaofu; Liu, Chenguang

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► The γ-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ► Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ► Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ► A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the γ-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of anions-doped calcium molybdate red powder phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Shikao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Ji

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Four anion-doped CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphors were prepared by hydrothermal approach. Some samples exhibit nearly spherical morphology and well-distributed fine particles. The red luminescence can be obviously enhanced after certain amount of anion doping. The improved phosphor system is a potential candidate for white LED applications. - Abstract: Applying hydrothermal and subsequent heat-treatment process, CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} was doped with four anions (SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}) to prepare fine red powder phosphors. The introduction of small amount of anions into the host had little influence on the structure, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The anion-doped phosphor samples (except SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) exhibited nearly spherical morphology, and the particle sizes were in the range of 0.30.4 ?m for SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}-doped samples, and 0.81.2 ?m for PO{sub 4}{sup 3?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples. Excited with 395 nm near-UV light, all samples showed typical Eu{sup 3+} red emission at 615 nm, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples enhanced the red luminescence as compared with the individual CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} sample. In particular, relative emission intensity for optimum ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped phosphors reached more than 6-fold that of the commercial red phosphor, which is highly desirable for the powder phosphors used in the solid-state lighting industry.

  8. MSE Power Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MSE Power Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: MSE Power Systems Inc Place: Albany, New York Zip: NY 12205 Sector: Services Product: Albany-based privately held company...

  9. Aura Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aura Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aura Systems Inc Place: El Segundo, California Zip: 90245 Product: El Segundo-head quartered developer of AuraGen, an axial flux...

  10. State Energy Data System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data System Jump to: navigation, search Name State Energy Data System Data Format CSV Geographic Scope United States TODO: Import actual dataset contents into OpenEI The State...

  11. Robustness of Quadratic Hedging Strategies in Finance via Backward Stochastic Differential Equations with Jumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Nunno, Giulia; Khedher, Asma; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2015-12-15

    We consider a backward stochastic differential equation with jumps (BSDEJ) which is driven by a Brownian motion and a Poisson random measure. We present two candidate-approximations to this BSDEJ and we prove that the solution of each candidate-approximation converges to the solution of the original BSDEJ in a space which we specify. We use this result to investigate in further detail the consequences of the choice of the model to (partial) hedging in incomplete markets in finance. As an application, we consider models in which the small variations in the price dynamics are modeled with a Poisson random measure with infinite activity and models in which these small variations are modeled with a Brownian motion or are cut off. Using the convergence results on BSDEJs, we show that quadratic hedging strategies are robust towards the approximation of the market prices and we derive an estimation of the model risk.

  12. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  13. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Wednesday, 29 April 2009 00:00 Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in

  14. The Timber Mountain magmato-thermal event: An intense widespread culmination of magmatic and hydrothermal activity at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.R. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    Eruption of the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members Timber Mountain Tuff at about 11.5 and 11.3 Ma, respectively, resulted in formation of the timber Mountain (TM) caldera; new K-Ar ages show that volcanism within and around the TM caldera continued for about 1 m.y. after collapse. Some TM age magmatic activity took place west and southeast of the TM caldera in the Beatty -- Bullfrog Hills and Shoshone Mountain areas, suggesting that volcanic activity at the TM caldera was an intense expression of an areally extensive magmatic system active from about 11.5 to 10Ma. Epithermal Au-Ag, Hg and fluorite mineralization and hydrothermal alteration are found in both within and surrounding the Timber Mountain -- Oasis Valley caldera complex. New K-Ar ages date this hydrothermal activity between about 13 and 10 Ma, largely between about 11.5 and 10 Ma, suggesting a genetic relation of hydrothermal activity to the TM magmatic system.

  15. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH{sup -} = B(OH){sup -4} was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH{sub 3} -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl{sup -} becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.'

  16. Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator for soft x-ray free-electron laser timing-observation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response-time...

  17. Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various Sintering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additives (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various Sintering Additives Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various Sintering Additives Authors: Terrani, Kurt A [1] ; Katoh, Yutai [1] ; Parish, Chad M [1] ; Kim, Young-Jin [2] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL General Electric (GE) Publication Date: 2016-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1237151 DOE Contract Number:

  18. Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR coolant environments in the absence of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    irradiation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR coolant environments in the absence of irradiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR coolant environments in the absence of irradiation Authors: Terrani, Kurt A [1] ; Yang, Ying [1] ; Kim, Young-Jin [2] ; Rebak, Raul [2] ; Meyer III, Harry M [1] ; Gerczak, Tyler J [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL General Electric (GE) Publication Date:

  19. Google Earth locations of USA and seafloor hydrothermal vents with associated rare earth element data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2016-02-10

    Google Earth .kmz files that contain the locations of geothermal wells and thermal springs in the USA, and seafloor hydrothermal vents that have associated rare earth element data. The file does not contain the actual data, the actual data is available through the GDR website in two tier 3 data sets entitled "Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR) Hydrothermal Vents" and "Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California"

  20. SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials with enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yingyong; Jin, Guoqiang; Tong, Xili; Guo, Xiangyun

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Novel SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials were synthesized by adding silicon carbide suspension in the molecular sieve precursor solvent followed by in situ hydrothermal synthesis. The dopped materials have a wormhole-like mesoporous structure and exhibit enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities. Highlights: {yields} SiC-dopped MCM-41 was synthesized by in situ hydrothermal synthesis of molecular sieve precursor combined with SiC. {yields} The dopped MCM-41 materials show a wormhole-like mesoporous structure. {yields} The thermal stability of the dopped materials have an increment of almost 100 {sup o}C compared with the pure MCM-41. {yields} The hydrothermal stability of the dopped materials is also better than that of the pure MCM-41. -- Abstract: SiC-dopped MCM-41 mesoporous materials were synthesized by the in situ hydrothermal synthesis, in which a small amount of SiC was added in the precursor solvent of molecular sieve before the hydrothermal treatment. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N{sub 2} physical adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the thermal and hydrothermal stabilities of MCM-41 materials can be improved obviously by incorporating a small amount of SiC. The structure collapse temperature of SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials is 100 {sup o}C higher than that of pure MCM-41 according to the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Hydrothermal treatment experiments also show that the pure MCM-41 will losses it's ordered mesoporous structure in boiling water for 24 h while the SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials still keep partial porous structure.

  1. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M. [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  2. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2003-12-23

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  3. Accelerating population balance-Monte Carlo simulation for coagulation dynamics from the Markov jump model, stochastic algorithm and GPU parallel computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zuwei; Zhao, Haibo Zheng, Chuguang

    2015-01-15

    This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for accelerating population balance-Monte Carlo (PBMC) simulation of particle coagulation dynamics. By combining Markov jump model, weighted majorant kernel and GPU (graphics processing unit) parallel computing, a significant gain in computational efficiency is achieved. The Markov jump model constructs a coagulation-rule matrix of differentially-weighted simulation particles, so as to capture the time evolution of particle size distribution with low statistical noise over the full size range and as far as possible to reduce the number of time loopings. Here three coagulation rules are highlighted and it is found that constructing appropriate coagulation rule provides a route to attain the compromise between accuracy and cost of PBMC methods. Further, in order to avoid double looping over all simulation particles when considering the two-particle events (typically, particle coagulation), the weighted majorant kernel is introduced to estimate the maximum coagulation rates being used for acceptance–rejection processes by single-looping over all particles, and meanwhile the mean time-step of coagulation event is estimated by summing the coagulation kernels of rejected and accepted particle pairs. The computational load of these fast differentially-weighted PBMC simulations (based on the Markov jump model) is reduced greatly to be proportional to the number of simulation particles in a zero-dimensional system (single cell). Finally, for a spatially inhomogeneous multi-dimensional (multi-cell) simulation, the proposed fast PBMC is performed in each cell, and multiple cells are parallel processed by multi-cores on a GPU that can implement the massively threaded data-parallel tasks to obtain remarkable speedup ratio (comparing with CPU computation, the speedup ratio of GPU parallel computing is as high as 200 in a case of 100 cells with 10 000 simulation particles per cell). These accelerating approaches of PBMC are demonstrated in a physically realistic Brownian coagulation case. The computational accuracy is validated with benchmark solution of discrete-sectional method. The simulation results show that the comprehensive approach can attain very favorable improvement in cost without sacrificing computational accuracy.

  4. Boehm Electronic Systems Slowakei s r o | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boehm Electronic Systems Slowakei s r o Jump to: navigation, search Name: Boehm Electronic Systems Slowakei s.r.o. Place: Nove Mesto nad Vahom, Slovakia Zip: 91501 Product:...

  5. Sharp Amenity System Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sharp Amenity System Co Ltd Place: Osaka, Osaka, Japan Zip: 547 0003 Product: Japan-based installer of residential and industrial PV systems;...

  6. Rolls Royce Fuel Cell Systems Ltd RRFCS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rolls Royce Fuel Cell Systems Ltd RRFCS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems Ltd (RRFCS) Place: Leicestershire, England, United Kingdom Zip: LE11 3GR...

  7. SBA Hydro Systems Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SBA Hydro Systems Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: SBA Hydro Systems Pvt. Ltd. Place: New Delhi, Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 110019 Sector: Hydro Product: Delhi-based...

  8. MacDonald Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MacDonald Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: MacDonald Systems Inc Address: 12804 Willow Centre Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77066 Region: Texas Area Sector: Buildings...

  9. Idaho On-Site Wastewater Systems Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Idaho On-Site Wastewater Systems Webpage Abstract This webpage provides an...

  10. KSL Kuttler Automation Systems GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KSL Kuttler Automation Systems GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: KSL-Kuttler Automation Systems GmbH Place: Dauchingen, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany Zip: 78083 Sector: Solar...

  11. General Permit for Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Storm Sewer Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: General Permit for Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems Abstract Permit...

  12. RRC - Online Drilling Permit System Login webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System Login webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: RRC - Online Drilling Permit System Login webpage Abstract This is the login...

  13. SyncWaveSystems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SyncWaveSystems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: SyncWaveSystems Inc Region: Canada Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.syncwavesystems.com This company is listed in...

  14. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Systems | Department of Energy Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. PDF icon

  15. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)- the Future of Geothermal Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While the amount of conventional hydrothermal power worldwide has reached nearly 12 gigawatts, exponentially more geothermal resources can be accessed through next-generation technologies known as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS).

  16. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  17. Contact metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals in the SH2 deep well, Sabatini Volcanic District, Latium, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavarretta, G.; Tecce, F.

    1987-01-01

    Metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals were logged throughout the SH2 geothermal well, which reached a depth of 2498 m in the Sabatini volcanic district. Below 460 m of volcanics, where the newly formed minerals were mainly chlorite, calcite and zeolites (mostly phillipsite), drilling entered the Allochthonous Flysch Complex. Evidence of the ''Cicerchina facies'' was found down to 1600 m depth. Starting from 1070 m, down to hole bottom, a contact metasomatic complex was defined by the appearance of garnet. Garnet together with K-fledspar, vesuvianite, wilkeite, cuspidine, harkerite, wollastonite and apatite prevail in the top part of the contact metasomatic complex. Vesuvianite and phlogopite characterize the middle part. Phlogopite, pyroxene, spinel and cancrinite predominate in the bottom part. The 1500 m thick metasomatic complex indicates the presence at depth of the intrusion of a trachytic magma which released hot fluids involved in metasomatic mineral-forming reactions. Minerals such as harkerite, wilkeite, cuspidine, cancrinite, vesuvianite and phlogopite indicate the intrusive melt had a high volatile content which is in agreement with the very high explosivity index of this volcanic district. The system is at present sealed by abundant calcite and anhydrite. It is proposed that most, if not all, of the sulphates formed after reaction of SO/sub 2/ with aqueous calcium species rather than from sulphates being remobilized from evaporitic (Triassic) rocks as previously inferred. The hypothesis of a CO/sub 2/-rich deep-derived fluid ascending through major fracture systems and contrasting cooling in the hottest areas of Latium is presented.

  18. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and other conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model), providing for the first time an integrated modeling framework to overcome a critical barrier to microalgae-derived HTL biofuels and enable predictive analysis of the overall microalgal-to-biofuel process.

  19. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and othermore » conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model), providing for the first time an integrated modeling framework to overcome a critical barrier to microalgae-derived HTL biofuels and enable predictive analysis of the overall microalgal-to-biofuel process.« less

  20. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  1. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  2. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  3. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  4. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of the three-layered sodium cobaltite P3-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x ∼ 0.60)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miclau, M.; Bokinala, K.; Miclau, N.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We report direct synthesis of the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}. • The hydrothermal synthesis of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} involves one step and low temperature. • The yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been builded up to 250 °C. • We propose a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory. • The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of HT-XRD. - Abstract: In order to obtain the layered sodium cobalt oxide materials by hydrothermal synthesis, the yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been built and studied. In the same time, the well-known data of Co–H{sub 2}O system have been extended at 250 °C in basic solution. We had first synthesized directly the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} by a one-step low-temperature hydrothermal method. The rhombohedral structure of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the purity of phases has been confirmed by XPS. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction in 298–873 K range and when the temperature has reached 723 K, the completely transformation of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} in the rhombohedral stable phase α-NaCoO{sub 2} (space group R-3m) was observed. Also, a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory in the hydrothermal process was proposed.

  5. Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vents

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-10-01

    Compilation of rare earth element and associated major and minor dissolved constituent analytical data for USA geothermal fields and global seafloor hydrothermal vents. Data is in original units. Reference to and use of this data should be attributed to the original authors and publications according to the provisions outlined therein.

  6. Optical characteristics of ZnO single crystal grown by the hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. Z.; Yin, J. G. E-mail: yjg@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, L. H.; Zhang, P. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, Y. C.; Zhang, C. L.; Gu, S. L.; Hang, Y.

    2015-12-15

    ZnO single crystals have been grown by the hydrothermal method. Raman scattering and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) have been used to study samples of ZnO that were unannealed or annealed in different ambient gases. It is suggested that the green emission may originate from defects related to copper in our samples.

  7. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  8. Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

    2012-10-16

    A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

  9. A study of thermal properties of sodium titanate nanotubes synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preda, Silviu; Rutar, Melita; Umek, Polona; Zaharescu, Maria

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The microwave-assisted hydrothermal route was used for titanate nanotubes synthesis. • Conversion to single-phase nanotube morphology completes after 8 h reaction time. • The nanotube morphology is stable up to 600 °C, as determined by in-situ XRD and SEM. • Sodium ions migrate to the surface due to thermal motion and structure condensation. - Abstract: Sodium titanate nanotubes (NaTiNTs) were synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of commercial TiO{sub 2}, at constant temperature (135 °C) and different irradiation times (15 min, 1, 4, 8 and 16 h). The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and specific surface area measurements. The irradiation time turned out to be the key parameter for morphological control of the material. Nanotubes were observed already after 15 min of microwave irradiation. The analyses of the products irradiated for 8 and 16 h confirm the complete transformation of the starting TiO{sub 2} powder to NaTiNTs. The nanotubes are open ended with multi-wall structures, with the average outer diameter of 8 nm and specific surface area up to 210 m{sup 2}/g. The morphology, surface area and crystal structure of the sodium titanate nanotubes synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method were similar to those obtained by conventional hydrothermal method.

  10. Synthesis of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by hydrothermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machmudah, Siti Widiyastuti, W. Prastuti, Okky Putri Nurtono, Tantular Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2014-02-24

    Zirconium oxide (zirconia, ZrO{sub 2}) is the most common material used for electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Zirconia has attracted attention for applications in optical coatings, buffer layers for growing superconductors, thermal-shield, corrosion resistant coatings, ionic conductors, and oxygen sensors, and for potential applications including transparent optical devices and electrochemical capacitor electrodes, fuel cells, catalysts, and advanced ceramics. In this work, zirconia particles were synthesized from ZrCl{sub 4} precursor with hydrothermal treatment in a batch reactor. Hydrothermal treatment may allow obtaining nanoparticles and sintered materials with controlled chemical and structural characteristics. Hydrothermal treatment was carried out at temperatures of 150 200C with precursor concentration of 0.1 0.5 M. Zirconia particles obtained from this treatment were analyzed by using SEM, PSD and XRD to characterize the morphology, particle size distribution, and crystallinity, respectively. Based on the analysis, the size of zirconia particles were around 200 nm and it became smaller with decreasing precursor concentration. The increasing temperature caused the particles formed having uniform size. Zirconia particles formed by hydrothermal treatment were monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic crystal.

  11. Title 48 CFR 1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8 CFR 1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 48 CFR...

  12. The Bureau of Land Management's Well Information System (WIS...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bureau of Land Management's Well Information System (WIS) How-To Guide Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  13. S R Energy Systems GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: S&R Energy Systems GmbH Place: Moosburg, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 85368 Product: S&R provides turn-key biogas plants and related components like...

  14. ORS 454 - Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    54 - Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ORS 454 - Sewage Treatment and...

  15. OAR 340-071 - On Site Wastewater Treatment Systems Definitions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 - On Site Wastewater Treatment Systems Definitions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: OAR 340-071 - On Site...

  16. 54 USC Subtitle I - National Park System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    54 USC Subtitle I - National Park System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 54 USC Subtitle I - National Park...

  17. Renewable Energy Systems Ltd RES Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd RES Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Systems Ltd (RES Group) Place: Hertfordshire, United Kingdom Zip: WD4 8LR Sector: Wind energy Product: UK based...

  18. Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System, Fenton Hill, New Mexico- Tracer Test Results Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference...

  19. Giant magnetocaloric effect and temperature induced magnetization jump in GdCrO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, L. H.; Yang, J.; Kan, X. C.; Song, W. H.; Dai, J. M.; Sun, Y. P.

    2015-04-07

    We report on a systematic study of the single-crystal GdCrO{sub 3}, which shows various novel magnetic features, such as temperature-induced magnetization reversal (TMR), temperature-induced magnetization jump (TMJ), spin reorientation, and giant magnetocaloric effect (MCE). In the field-cooled cooling process with modest magnetic field along the c axis, GdCrO{sub 3} first shows a TMR at T{sub comp}∼120−130 K and then an abrupt TMJ with a sign change of magnetization at T{sub jump}∼52−120 K, and finally a spin reorientation at T{sub SR}∼4−7 K. Interestingly, the remarkable TMJ behavior, which was not reported ever before, persists at higher fields up to 10 kOe even when TMR disappears. In addition, giant MCE with the maximum value of magnetic entropy change reaching ∼31.6 J/kg K for a field change of 44 kOe was also observed in GdCrO{sub 3} single crystal, suggesting it could be a potential material for low-T magnetic refrigeration. A possible mechanism for these peculiar magnetic behaviors is discussed based on the various competing magnetic interactions between the 3d electrons of Cr{sup 3+} ions and 4f electrons of Gd{sup 3+} ions.

  20. Airflow-terrain interactions through a mountain gap, with an example of eolian activity beneath an atmospheric hydraulic jump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaylord, D.R.; Dawson, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    The integration of atmospheric soundings from a fully instrumented aircraft with detailed sedimentary and geomorphic analyses of eolian features in the Ferris dune field of south-central Wyoming lends insight into the manner in which topography interacts with airflow to modify eolian activity. Topographically modified airflow results in zones of airflow deceleration, acceleration, and enhanced atmospheric turbulence, all of which influence the surface morphology and sedimentology. Extreme lateral confluence of prevailing airflow produces accelerated, unidirectional winds. These winds correlate with unusually continuous and elongate parabolic dunes that extend into a mountain gap (Windy Gap). Persistently heightened winds produced at the entrance to Windy Gap have resulted in a concentration of active sand dunes that lack slipfaces. Common development of a strongly amplified atmospheric wave analogous to a hydraulic jump in the gap contributes to the formation of a variety of eolian features that mantle the surface of Windy Gap and the Ferris dune field tail. Heightened, unidirectional winds in this zone promote grain-size segregation, the formation of elongated and aligned sand drifts, climbing and falling dunes, elongate scour streaks, and parabolic dunes that have low-angle (< 20/sup 0/) cross-stratification. Deflation of bedrock and loose sediment has been enhanced in the zone of maximum turbulence beneath the hydraulic jump.

  1. HDW Fuel Cell Systems GmbH HFCS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HDW Fuel Cell Systems GmbH HFCS Jump to: navigation, search Name: HDW Fuel Cell Systems GmbH (HFCS) Place: Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Zip: D-24143 Product: HDW develops...

  2. Power Air H Plus Korean Back up Power System JV | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plus Korean Back up Power System JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power AirH-Plus Korean Back-up Power System JV Place: Korea (Republic) Product: Power Air signed a MOU with...

  3. Tss4U BV formerly Holecsol R S Renewable Energy Systems and Shell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tss4U BV formerly Holecsol R S Renewable Energy Systems and Shell Solar Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tss4U BV (formerly Holecsol, R&S Renewable Energy Systems and Shell...

  4. Application of smart grid in photovoltaic power systems, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    smart grid in photovoltaic power systems, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Application of smart grid in photovoltaic power systems, ForskEL...

  5. ESTER, Enel integrated System for TEsts on stoRage (Smart Grid...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ESTER, Enel integrated System for TEsts on stoRage (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name ESTER, Enel integrated System for TEsts on stoRage Country Italy...

  6. Asola Advanced and Automotive Solar Systems GmbH | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asola Advanced and Automotive Solar Systems GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asola Advanced and Automotive Solar Systems GmbH Place: Erfurt, Germany Zip: D-99428 Sector:...

  7. Agent based control of power systems, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agent based control of power systems, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Agent based control of power systems, ForskEL Country Denmark...

  8. B A S Biogas Anlagen Systeme GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    B A S Biogas Anlagen Systeme GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: B.A.S. Biogas Anlagen Systeme GmbH Place: Tellingstedt, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Zip: 25782 Product: B.A.S....

  9. Multi-jump magnetic switching in ion-beam sputtered amorphous Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raju, M.; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K.

    2013-08-07

    Unconventional multi-jump magnetization reversal and significant in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) in the ion-beam sputtered amorphous Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}(5–75 nm) thin films grown on Si/amorphous SiO{sub 2} are reported. While such multi-jump behavior is observed in CoFeB(10 nm) film when the magnetic field is applied at 10°–20° away from the easy-axis, the same is observed in CoFeB(12.5 nm) film when the magnetic field is 45°–55° away from easy-axis. Unlike the previous reports of multi-jump switching in epitaxial films, their observance in the present case of amorphous CoFeB is remarkable. This multi-jump switching is found to disappear when the films are crystallized by annealing at 420 °C. The deposition geometry and the energy of the sputtered species appear to intrinsically induce a kind of bond orientation anisotropy in the films, which leads to the UMA in the as-grown amorphous CoFeB films. Exploitation of such multi-jump switching in amorphous CoFeB thin films could be of technological significance because of their applications in spintronic devices.

  10. A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to drive and sustain extensional geothermal systems. (c) 2005 CNR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Authors B. M. Kennedy and M. C. van Soest Published Journal...

  11. FTIR study of the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene over UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} nanoballs synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zhengru [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Qidong; Qu, Zhenping; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Ling [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Chen, Guohua [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, photocatalysts of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs were obtained via a hydrothermal treating of commercial P25 in alkaline solution, and then characterized with SEM, XRD, BET and surface photovoltage spectroscopy techniques. The UV-assisted photodegradation of gaseous benzene over P25 and the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs was monitored by an in situ infrared technique. The results demonstrated that the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs in anatase form were more active than commercial P25 in photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous benzene. The promoted activity of the hydrothermal-treated TiO{sub 2} is attributed to the increasing specific surface area and larger band gap induced by the reduced crystallite size. The spectra of FTIR indicated that weakly adsorbed phenol was formed as the reaction progress. Hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs are able to react with photo-produced phenol, which is then retained on the catalyst surface leading to the progressive deactivation of the catalyst in the gas-solid system.

  12. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowland, Christopher C.; Zhou, Zhi; Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growth in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting.

  13. Enhanced performance of wearable piezoelectric nanogenerator fabricated by two-step hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Yu; Lei, Jixue; Yin, Bing; Zhang, Heqiu; Ji, Jiuyu; Hu, Lizhong; Bian, Jiming; Liu, Yanhong; Zhao, Yu; Luo, Yingmin

    2014-03-17

    A simple two-step hydrothermal process was proposed for enhancing the performance of the nanogenerator on flexible and wearable terylene-fabric substrate. With this method, a significant enhancement in output voltage of the nanogenerator from ∼10 mV to 7 V was achieved, comparing with the one by conventional one-step process. In addition, another advantage with the devices synthesized by two-step hydrothermal process was that their output voltages are only sensitive to strain rather than strain rate. The devices with a high output voltage have the ability to power common electric devices and will have important applications in flexible electronics and wearable devices.

  14. Interfacial hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanorods towards photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, L.R. Lian, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, L.H.; Yuan, C.Z.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy was developed. 1D SnO{sub 2} nanorods as an advanced photocatalyst. SnO{sub 2} nanorods exhibit photocatalytic degradation of the MO. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) SnO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) have been successfully synthesized by means of an efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy. The resulting product was physically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, etc. The as-fabricated SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation of the methyl orange with high degradation efficiency of 99.3% with only 60 min ultra violet light irradiation. Meanwhile, the 1D SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited intriguing photostability after four recycles.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan; Lai Qiongyu; Xu Xiaoyun

    2010-11-15

    NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

  16. Sonochemical and hydrothermal synthesis of PbTe nanostructures with the aid of a novel capping agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fard-Fini, Shahla Ahmadian; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Mohandes, Fatemeh

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PbTe nanostructures were prepared with the aid of Schiff-base compound. • Sonochemical and hydrothermal methods were employed to fabricate PbTe nanostrucrues. • The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of PbTe was investigated. - Abstract: In this work, a new Schiff-base compound derived from 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde marked as (2-HyNa)-(DaDo) was synthesized, characterized, and then used as capping agent for the preparation of PbTe nanostructures. To fabricate PbTe nanostructures, two different synthesis methods; hydrothermal and sonochemical routes, were applied. To further investigate, the effect of preparation parameters like reaction time and temperature in hydrothermal synthesis and sonication time in the presence of ultrasound irradiation on the morphology and purity of the final products was tested. The products were analyzed with the aid of SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, and EDS. Based on the obtained results, it was found that pure cubic phased PbTe nanostructures have been obtained by hydrothermal and sonochemical approaches. Besides, SEM images showed that cubic-like and rod-like PbTe nanostructures have been formed by hydrothermal and sonochemical methods, respectively. Sonochemical synthesis of PbTe nanostructures was favorable, because the synthesis time of sonochemical method was shorter than that of hydrothermal method.

  17. Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, John B.; Floyd, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500.degree. to about 700.degree. F.

  18. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran; CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara ; Pollet, M.; Artemenko, A.; Miclau, M.; Grozescu, I; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  19. Hydrothermal stability of SAPO-34 for refrigeration and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haijun; Cui, Qun; Wu, Juan; Zhu, Yuezhao; Li, Quanguo; Zheng, Kai; Yao, Huqing

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%. - Highlights: • Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. • SAPO-34 with diethylamine as the template shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles, and most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is well maintained. • SAPO-34 has an excellent adsorption performance and a good hydrothermal stability, thus is promising for application in adsorption refrigeration. - Abstract: Hydrothermal stability is one of the crucial factors in applying SAPO-34 molecular sieve to adsorption refrigration. The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Both a vacuum gravimetric method and an intelligent gravimetric analyzer were applied to analyze the water adsorption performance of SAPO-34. Cyclic hydrothermal performance was determined on the modified simulation adsorption refrigeration test rig. Crystal phase, morphology, and porosity of SAPO-34 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} sorption, respectively. The results show that, water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%.

  20. 16 USC 797c - Dams in National Park System Units | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    16 USC 797c - Dams in National Park System Units Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 16 USC 797c - Dams in National...

  1. IDAPA 58.01.07 - Rules Regulating Underground Storage Tank Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    7 - Rules Regulating Underground Storage Tank Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: IDAPA 58.01.07 - Rules...

  2. ARM 17-30-10 - Ground Water Pollution Control System | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Ground Water Pollution Control System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: ARM 17-30-10 - Ground Water...

  3. 31 TAC 15.3 - Management of the Beach/Dune System Administration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TAC 15.3 - Management of the BeachDune System Administration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 31 TAC 15.3 -...

  4. AAC R-18-8-260 Hazardous Waste Management System | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AAC R-18-8-260 Hazardous Waste Management System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: AAC R-18-8-260 Hazardous...

  5. NAC 444.731 - Class III Solid Waste Management Systems | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .731 - Class III Solid Waste Management Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: NAC 444.731 - Class III...

  6. Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  7. A New Gold Pan For The West- Discovering Blind Geothermal Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gold Pan For The West- Discovering Blind Geothermal Systems With Shallow Temperature Surveys Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: A...

  8. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglin, Eric J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is working to develop improved methods for producing high-value hydrocarbon fuels. The development of one such method, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process, is being led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The HTL process uses a wet biomass slurry at elevated temperatures (i.e., 300 to 360°C [570 to 680°F]) and pressures above the vapor pressure of water (i.e., 15 to 20 MPa [2200 to 3000 psi] at these temperatures) to facilitate a condensed-phase reaction medium. The process has been successfully tested at bench-scale and development and testing at a larger scale is required to prove the viability of the process at production levels. Near-term development plans include a pilot-scale system on the order of 0.5 to 40 gpm, followed by a larger production-scale system on the order of 2000 dry metric tons per day (DMTPD). A significant challenge to the scale-up of the HTL process is feeding a highly viscous fibrous biomass wood/corn stover feedstock into a pump system that provides the required 3000 psi of pressure for downstream processing. In October 2011, PNNL began investigating commercial feed and pumping options that would meet these HTL process requirements. Initial efforts focused on generating a HTL feed and pump specification and then providing the specification to prospective vendors to determine the suitability of their pumps for the pilot-scale and production-scale plants. Six vendors were identified that could provide viable equipment to meet HTL feed and/or pump needs. Those six vendors provided options consisting three types of positive displacement pumps (i.e., diaphragm, piston, and lobe pumps). Vendors provided capabilities and equipment related to HTL application. This information was collected, assessed, and summarized and is provided as appendices to this report.

  9. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  10. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinbo; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Wu, Lili; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Zou, Ke; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  11. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.829.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.547.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.451.47, and 1.831.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  12. Hydrothermal oxidation of Navy shipboard excess hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Haroldsen, B.L.; Rice, S.F.; Brown, B.G.

    1997-03-01

    This study demonstrated effective destruction, using a novel supercritical water oxidation reactor, of oil, jet fuel, and hydraulic fluid, common excess hazardous materials found on-board Navy vessels. This reactor uses an advanced injector design to mix the hazardous compounds with water, oxidizer, and a supplementary fuel and it uses a transpiring wall to protect the surface of the reactor from corrosion and salt deposition. Our program was divided into four parts. First, basic chemical kinetic data were generated in a simple, tubular-configured reactor for short reaction times (<1 second) and long reaction times (>5 seconds) as a function of temperature. Second, using the data, an engineering model was developed for the more complicated industrial reactor mentioned above. Third, the three hazardous materials were destroyed in a quarter-scale version of the industrial reactor. Finally, the test data were compared with the model. The model and the experimental results for the quarter-scale reactor are described and compared in this report. A companion report discusses the first part of the program to generate basic chemical kinetic data. The injector and reactor worked as expected. The oxidation reaction with the supplementary fuel was initiated between 400 {degrees}C and 450 {degrees}C. The released energy raised the reactor temperature to greater than 600 {degrees}C. At that temperature, the hazardous materials were efficiently destroyed in less than five seconds. The model shows good agreement with the test data and has proven to be a useful tool in designing the system and understanding the test results. 16 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundarayya, Y. Kumar, K. Ashwini Sondge, Rajesh Srinath, S. Kaul, S. N.

    2014-04-24

    Homogeneous single phase ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO{sub 4} undergoes a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

  14. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  15. Hydrothermal dolomitization of Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones in the southern Alps (Italy): Relation to tectonics and volcanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervato, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitization has affected up to 750m of the Jurassic and Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the southern continental margin of the Alpine Tethys; the sequence crops out in the southern Alps of Italy (Monti Lessini). Late Paleocene to Miocene extrusion of basaltic tuffs, breccias, and lavas was contemporaneous with the dolomitization was was associated with extensive tectonism in an ancient back-arc basin. More than 200 samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotope ratios (carbon, oxygen, strontium), and clay mineralogy. The dolomite contains 40% to 50% MgCO{sub 3}. In thin sections, the crystal size distribution is unimodal (about 100 {mu}m), possibly indicating a single nucleation for the main crystallization phase. The {delta}{sup 13}C of the dolomite is not appreciably different from the undolomitized pelagic limestone (+1.0{per thousand} to +2.0{per thousand} Peedee belemnite (PDB)). The {delta}{sup 18}O variation (-5.0{per thousand} to -13.0{per thousand} PDB) is due to temperature variation in the system. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in the dolomite (0.70839-0.70867) is consistent with the ratio in late Oligocene-Miocene marine water. Clay minerals in limestone and dolomite differ in the presence of neoformed Mg-chlorite, indicating a maximum temperature of about 150C for dolomitization. The dolomite is suggested to have a hydrothermal origin. The heat flow associated with the volcanism allowed marine water to penetrate the system and circulate in convective cells through the tectonic breccias, locally dolomitizing the limestone.

  16. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  17. Efficient removal rhodamine B over hydrothermally synthesized fishbone like BiVO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xue; Li, Hongji; Yu, Lili; Zhao, Han; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunbo; Zhai, Hongjv

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product was synthesized through hydrothermal method. BiVO{sub 4} sample was characterized by various characterization technologies. Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} presented outstanding photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method without using any surfactant or template. The pH value was found to play an important role in the formation of this morphology. The band gap of the as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample was estimated to be about 2.36 eV from the onset of UVvis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UVvis DRS) of the photocatalyst. The as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample exhibited excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Over this catalyst, the 100% degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) (0.005 mmol L{sup ?1}) was obtained after visible light irradiation (? > 420 nm) for 180 min. This is much higher than that of bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample prepared by solid-state reaction. The reason for the differences in the photocatalytic activities of fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample and bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample was further investigated.

  18. Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UVvis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide and study of their optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.; Gharbi, N.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured ZnO were successfully obtained by a hydrothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic precursor and molar ratio are key factors for morphology and particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties were also studied. -- Abstract: Nanostructured ZnO (nanorods, nanoshuttles) have been synthesized by hydrothermal approach using ZnCl{sub 2} or Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as zinc sources and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. Techniques X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the nanostructured zinc oxide. The optical properties of the as-obtained materials were also studied and showing that it is possible to apply the ZnO nanoshuttles and nanorods on the UV filter, photocatalysis, and special optical devices.

  20. Hydrothermal Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SubTER Crosscut The US Energy Department and National Laboratories have created a crosscutting initiative focused on revolutionizing sustainable subsurface energy production and ...

  1. Hydrothermal Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Geology Characterizing geology-rock types, structures, faults, and temperatures- is a fundamental step in discovering new geo- thermal resources. This information comes from a ...

  2. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobhani, Azam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

  3. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  4. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  6. Process improvement studies on the Battelle Hydrothermal Coal Process. Final report, April 1978-April 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stambaugh, E.P.; Miller, J.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Mezey, E.J.; Smith, R.K.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives results of a study to improve the economic viability of the Battelle Hydrothermal (HT) Coal Process by reducing the costs associated with liquid/solid separation and leachant regeneration. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate process improvements for (1) separating the spent leachant and residual sodium from the coal product, (2) reducing the moisture content of the coal product, and (3) regenerating the leachant. In addition, coal desulfurization experiments were performed and economic studies were conducted to evaluate the impacts of process improvements on coal desulfurization costs. Using countercurrent washing, the optimum washing circuit was composed of four disc-filter stages, six belt-filter stages to separate spent leachant and sodium from the clean coal, and a centrifuge stage to dewater the coal. Several regenerates were found to be effective in removing greater than about 85% of the total sulfide sulfur from the spent leachant: iron carbonate was the leading candidate.

  7. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds for photovoltaic applications and solar energy conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Murugesan, Sankaran

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to formation of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds, such as bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, via a hydrothermal synthesis process, with the resulting compound(s) having multifunctional properties such as being useful in solar energy conversion, environmental remediation, and/or energy storage, for example. In one embodiment, a hydrothermal method is disclosed that transforms nanoparticles of TiO.sub.2 to bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, optionally loaded with palladium nanoparticles. The method includes reacting titanium dioxide nanotubes with a bismuth salt in an acidic bath at a temperature sufficient and for a time sufficient to form bismuth titanate crystals, which are subsequently annealed to form bismuth titanate nanocubes. After annealing, the bismuth titanate nanocubes may be optionally loaded with nano-sized metal particles, e.g., nanosized palladium particles.

  9. The effects of hydrothermal temperature on the photocatalytic performance of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} for hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Fei; Zhu, Rongshu; Song, Kelin; Niu, Minli; Ouyang, Feng; Cao, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} (120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) was prepared. • The activities splitting water to hydrogen under visible light were evaluated. • The activity achieved the best when hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C. • The activity order is related to the surface morphology and surface defects. - Abstract: A series of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal method with different hydrothermal temperatures (120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) and characterized by various analysis techniques, such as UV–vis, XRD, SEM, BET and PL. The results indicated that these photocatalysts had a similar band gap. The hydrothermal temperature had a huge influence on the properties of the photocatalysts such as the BET surface area, the total pore volume, the average pore diameter, the defects and the morphology. The photocatalytic activities of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were evaluated based on photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under visible-light irradiation. The activity order is attributed to the coefficient of the surface morphology and the surface defects. The hydrogen production efficiency achieved the best when the hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C. On the basis of the characterization of the catalysts, the effects of the hydrothermal temperature on the photocatalytic activity of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were discussed.

  10. Comparison of LiMnPO4 made by Combustion and Hydrothermal Syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiajun; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-05-15

    Among the olivine-structured metal phosphate family, LiMnPO{sub 4} exhibits a high discharge potential (4V), which is still compatible with common electrolytes, making it interesting for use in the next generation of Li ion batteries. The extremely low electronic conductivity of this material severely limits its electrochemical performance, however. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to make LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticulate to decrease the diffusion distance. Another is to add a carbon or other conductive coating in intimate contact with the nanoparticles of the main phase, as is commonly done with LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} is highly dependent on the quality of the carbon coatings on the particles [1-2], among other variables. Combustion synthesis allows the co-synthesis of nanoparticles coated with carbon in one step. Hydrothermal synthesis is used industrially to make LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials [3] and affords a good deal of control over purity, crystallinity, and particle size. A wide range of olivine-structured materials has been successfully prepared by this technique [4], including LiMnPO{sub 4} in this study. In this paper, we report on the new synthesis of nano-LiMnPO{sub 4} by a combustion method. The purity is dependent upon the conditions used for synthesis, including the type of fuel and precursors that are chosen. The fuel to nitrate ratio influences the combustion temperature, which determines the type and amount of carbon found in the LiMnPO{sub 4} composites. This can further be modified by use of carbon structural modifiers added during a subsequent (optional) calcination step. Figure 1 shows a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the spherical nano-sized LiMnPO{sub 4} particles typically formed by combustion synthesis. The average particle size is around 30 nm, in agreement with values obtained by the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. The small size of the particles cause the peak broadening evident in the pattern of combustion formed LiMnPO{sub 4}, shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 also shows a pattern of hydrothermally prepared LiMnPO{sub 4}, which is sub-micron in size. In this presentation, we will show how the crystallographic parameters, particle size, particle morphology, and carbon content and structure impact the electrochemical properties of the LiMnPO{sub 4}/C composites produced by these methods.

  11. Comparison of LiMnPO4 made by Combustion and Hydrothermal Syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiajun; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-10-12

    Among the olivine-structured metal phosphate family, LiMnPO{sub 4} exhibits a high discharge potential (4V), which is still compatible with common electrolytes, making it interesting for use in the next generation of Li ion batteries. The extremely low electronic conductivity of this material severely limits its electrochemical performance, however. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to make LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticulate to decrease the diffusion distance. Another is to add a carbon or other conductive coating in intimate contact with the nanoparticles of the main phase, as is commonly done with LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} is highly dependent on the quality of the carbon coatings on the particles, among other variables. Combustion synthesis allows the co-synthesis of nanoparticles coated with carbon in one step. Hydrothermal synthesis is used industrially to make LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials and affords a good deal of control over purity, crystallinity, and particle size. A wide range of olivine-structured materials has been successfully prepared by this technique, including LiMnPO{sub 4} in this study. In this paper, we report on the new synthesis of nano-LiMnPO{sub 4} by a combustion method. The purity is dependent upon the conditions used for synthesis, including the type of fuel and precursors that are chosen. The fuel to nitrate ratio influences the combustion temperature, which determines the type and amount of carbon found in the LiMnPO{sub 4} composites. This can further be modified by use of carbon structural modifiers added during a subsequent (optional) calcination step. Figure 1 shows a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the spherical nano-sized LiMnPO{sub 4} particles typically formed by combustion synthesis. The average particle size is around 30 nm, in agreement with values obtained by the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. The small size of the particles cause the peak broadening evident in the pattern of combustion formed LiMnPO{sub 4}, shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 also shows a pattern of hydrothermally prepared LiMnPO{sub 4}, which is sub-micron in size. In this presentation, we will show how the crystallographic parameters, particle size, particle morphology, and carbon content and structure impact the electrochemical properties of the LiMnPO{sub 4}/C composites produced by these methods.

  12. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  13. Flower-like NiO structures: Controlled hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical characteristic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Hui; Chen, Xuan; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Jia, Dianzeng; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Bao, Shujuan; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Zhou, Wanyong

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Flower-like porous NiO was obtained via thermal decomposition of the precursor prepared by a hydrothermal process using hexamethylenetetramine and polyethylene glycol as hydrolysis-controlling agent and surfactant, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of as-synthesized NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the flower-like porous NiO has high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}) with excellent cycling performance as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors (ECs), which may be attributed to the unique microstrcture of NiO. Data analyses indicated that NiO with novel porous structure attractive for practical and large-scale applications in electrochemical capacitors. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Synthesis and characterization of NiO with novel porous structure is presented in this work. ? The electrochemical performance of product was examined. ? NiO with excellent performance as electrode materials may be due to the unique microstrcture. ? NiO with novel porous structure attractive for practical with high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}). -- Abstract: Flower-like porous NiO was obtained by thermal decomposition of the precursor prepared by a hydrothermal process with hexamethylenetetramine and polyethylene glycol as hydrolysis-controlling agent and surfactant, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of as-synthesized NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resulting structures of NiO exhibited porous like petal building blocks. The electrochemical measurements results demonstrated that flower-like porous NiO has high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}) with excellent cycling performance as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, which may be attributed to the unique structure of NiO. The results indicated that NiO with novel porous structure has been attractive for practical and large-scale applications in electrochemical capacitors.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of titanium dioxide nanotubes as novel lithium adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moazeni, Maryam; Hajipour, Hengameh; Askari, Masoud; Nusheh, Mohammad

    2015-01-15

    The ion exchange process is a promising method for lithium extraction from brine and seawater having low concentrations of this element. To achieve this goal, it is vital to use an effective adsorbent with maximum lithium adsorption potential together with a stable structure during extraction and insertion of the ions. In this study, titanium dioxide and then lithium titanate spinel with nanotube morphology was synthesized via a simple two-step hydrothermal process. The produced Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} spinel ternary oxide nanotube with about 70 nm diameter was then treated with dilute acidic solution in order to prepare an adsorbent suitable for lithium adsorption from local brine. Morphological and phase analysis of the obtained nanostructured samples were done by using transmission and scanning electron microscopes along with X-ray diffraction. Lithium ion exchange capacity of this adsorbent was finally evaluated by means of adsorption isotherm. The results showed titanium dioxide adsorbent could recover 39.43 mg/g of the lithium present in 120 mg/L of lithium solution.

  15. One-step synthesis of titanium oxide nanocrystal- rutile by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Evyan Yang Chia; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2014-09-03

    Pure rutile phase titanium oxides (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystals were synthesized via hydrothermal method with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and water (H{sub 2}O) treated in an autoclave. The particle size and phase assemblages were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Band gap energy (E{sub g}) of the nanocrystals was estimated from the Ultra violet – visible light (UV-vis) absorption spectra. It was demonstrated that TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals can be prepared through increasing of temperature and period of treatment. It is believed that the presence of acid chloride (HCl) as by-product during the hydrolysis played an important role in controlling the growth of morphology and crystal structures. The E{sub g} of the samples were estimated from the plot of modified Kubelka-Munk function were in the range of 3.04 – 3.26eV for the samples synthesized at temperature ranging from 50 to 200°C for 16 hours.

  16. How an Enhanced Geothermal System Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Enhanced Geothermal System Works How an Enhanced Geothermal System Works The Potential Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), also sometimes called engineered geothermal systems, offer great potential for dramatically expanding the use of geothermal energy. Present geothermal power generation comes from hydrothermal reservoirs, and is somewhat limited in geographic application to specific ideal places in the western U.S. This represents the 'low-hanging fruit' of geothermal energy potential. EGS

  17. Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in bisulfate and about one-half-order in initial dextrose concentration, and shows a very strong dependence on pH. The kinetics of sulfate reduction by fructose at 250C are virtually the same. The lack of sulfate reduction by formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 250 C indicates that the reducing power of dextrose and fructose cannot be attributed to carbonyl, carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups. The form of the rate law for sulfate reduction by dextrose and the presence of an induction period rather suggest that the initial reduction of sulfate occurs with free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of the hexoses or their alteration products. The inferred sulfate-reduction reaction mechanism suggest that aqueous sulfate may be reduced to sulfide in geologic environments such as deep sedimentary basins. The observed acid-catalysis of the reaction in the laboratory may be supplanted by clay-mineral catalysis in geologic environments. Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during the reduction of sulfate by dextrose under hydrothermal conditions. Computer simulations of the isotopic evolution of the experiments suggest that sulfate-sulfide isotopic exchange largely controls the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide. The extent of isotopic fractionation due solely to sulfate reduction thus cannot be determined from the experiments

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis and afterglow luminescence properties of hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres for potential application in drug delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiachi Qin, Qingsong; Hu, Rui; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: We designed a novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} for the first time. Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres with afterglow were prepared by hydrothermal method. Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} is a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery. - Abstract: A novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} with hollow sphere shape and intense afterglow luminescence is prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 C for the first time. The morphology and the sphere growth process of this material are investigated by scanning electron microscopy in detail. The afterglow measurement shows that this hydrothermal obtained material exhibits obvious red afterglow luminescence (550700 nm) of Sm{sup 3+} which can last for 542 s (0.32 mcd/m{sup 2}). The depth of traps in this hydrothermal obtained material is calculated to be as shallow as 0.58 eV. The results demonstrate that although it is necessary to further improve the afterglow performance of the hydrothermal derived hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres, it still can be regarded as a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery.

  19. Effect of reductant and PVP on morphology and magnetic property of ultrafine Ni powders prepared via hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jun Wang, Xiucai; Li, Lili; Li, Chengxuan; Peng, Shuge

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The ultrafine Ni powders with the shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using different reductants. Their saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity sequentially increase, and the coercivity of hexagonal sheet-like Ni powders increases by 25% compared with the Ni bulk counterpart. - Highlights: • The ultrafine Ni powders with various shapes of sphere, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet, etc. • Facile and one-step hydrothermal reduction using three reductants and PVP additive was developed. • Magnetic properties of the ultrafine Ni powders with different shapes were measured. • Compared with bulk Ni material, coercivity of hexagonal sheet Ni increases by 25%. • The formation mechanism of the shapes was suggested. - Abstract: The ultrafine nickel particles with different shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using hydrazine hydrate, sodium hypophosphite and ethylene glycol as reductants, polyvinylpyrrolidone as structure-directing agent. It has been verified with the characterization of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission/scanning electronic microscopy that as-prepared products belong to face-centered cubic structure of nickel microcrystals with high purity and fine dispersity. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured at room temperature reveal that the values of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity rise sequentially from silknet, sphere to hexagonal sheet. In comparison with nickel bulk counterpart, the coercivity of the hexagonal sheet nickel powders increases by 25%.

  20. Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR coolant environments in the&nbsp;absence of irradiation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal of Nuclear Materials 465 (2015) 488-498 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Nuclear Materials journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jnucmat Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR coolant environments in the absence of irradiation* * K.A. Terrani a *, Y. Yang a, Y.-J. Kim b, R. Rebak b, H.M. Meyer III a, T.J. Gerczak a a Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA b GE Global Research Center, Schenectady, NY 12309, USA CrossMark ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT Article

  1. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Novel Zn-Triazole-Benzenedicarboxylate Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hyunsoo; Moureau, David M.; Parise, John B.

    2008-10-03

    Three new metal-organic coordination polymers were synthesized hydrothermally using Zn2+ ion, 1,2,4-triazole, and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC): Zn5(H2O)2(C2H2N3)4(C8H4O4)3 {center_dot} 3.9H2O (1), Zn2(C2H2N3)2(C2H3N3)(C8H4O4) {center_dot} 2.5H2O (2), and Zn4(H2O)2(C2H2N3)4(C8H4O4)2 {center_dot} 14H2O (3). Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their thermal properties were examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Structure 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group with a = 10.192(2) {angstrom}, b = 17.764(4) {angstrom}, c = 24.437(5) {angstrom}, {beta} = 91.19(3){sup o}, and V = 4423.3(15) {angstrom}3. Structure 2 crystallizes in the triclinic P space group with a = 7.797(2) {angstrom}, b = 10.047(2) {angstrom}, c = 13.577(3) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 110.18(3){sup o}, {beta} = 105.46(3){sup o}, {gamma} = 93.90(3){sup o}, and V = 947.0(3) {angstrom}3. Structure 3 crystallizes in monoclinic P21/n space group with a = 13.475(3) {angstrom}, b = 26.949(5) {angstrom}, c = 13.509(3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 95.18(3){sup o}, and V = 4885.7(17) {angstrom}3. In structure 1, the units of the triazole-Zn polyhedra are linked by BDC in a zigzag fashion to create the stacking of phenyl groups along the a axis. In structure 2, both triazole and BDC bridge Zn polyhedra in the (011) plane, resulting in the eight-membered channels along the a axis. In the case of structure 3, the BDC links the Zn polyhedra along the b axis to form a pillared open framework. This structure is the most porous of the compounds presented in this work.

  2. Hydrothermal crystallization of Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}, Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}, and Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28} in the NaOH-TiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system at a temperature of 500 deg. C and a pressure of 0.1 GPa: The structural mechanism of self-assembly of titanates from suprapolyhedral clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyushin, G. D.

    2006-07-15

    An increase in the NaOH concentration in the NaOH-TiO{sub 2} (rutile)-H{sub 2}O system at a temperature of 500 deg. C and a pressure of 0.1 GPa leads to the crystallization R-TiO{sub 2} + Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} {sup {yields}} Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} {sup {yields}} Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28}. Crystals of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} titanate (space group C2/m) have the three-dimensional framework structure Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13}. The structure of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} titanate (space group P2{sub 1}/m) contains the two-dimensional layers Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The structure of the Na{sub 16}Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28} titanate (space group P-1) is composed of the isolated ten-polyhedron cluster precursors Ti{sub 10}O{sub 28}. In all the structures, the titanium atoms have an octahedral coordination (MTiO{sub 6}). The matrix self-assembly of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 13} and Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} (Na{sub 4}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 14}) crystal structures from Na{sub 4}M{sub 12} invariant precursors is modeled. These precursors are clusters consisting of twelve M polyhedra linked through the edges. It is demonstrated that the structurally rigid precursors Na{sub 4}M{sub 12} control all processes of the subsequent evolution of the crystal-forming titanate clusters. The specific features of the self-assembly of the Na{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} structure that result from the additional incorporation of twice the number of sodium atoms into the composition of the high-level clusters are considered.

  3. Investigation of the long-term performance of betafite and zirconolite in hydrothermal veins from Adamello, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumpkin, G.R.; Day, R.A.; McGlinn, P.J.; Payne, T.E.; Giere, R.; Williams, C.T.

    1999-07-01

    Betafite and zirconolite occur in Ti-rich hydrothermal veins emplaced within dolomite marble in the contact aureole of the Adamello batholith, northern Italy. Zirconolite contains up to 18 wt% ThO{sub 2} and 24 wt% UO{sub 2}, and exhibits strong compositional zoning. Some zirconolite grains were corroded by the hydrothermal fluid. Betafite, the Ti-rich member of the pyrochlore group, often occurs as overgrowths on zirconolite. The betafite is weakly zoned and contains 29--34 wt% UO{sub 2}. In terms of end-members, betafite contains approximately 50 mole percent CaUTi{sub 2}O{sub 7} and is the closest known natural composition to the pyrochlore phase proposed for use in titanate waste forms. Amorphization and volume expansion of the betafite caused cracks to form in the enclosing silicate mineral grains. Backscattered electron images reveal that betafite was subsequently altered along crystal rims, particularly near the cracks. EPMA data reveal little difference in composition between altered and unaltered areas, except for lower totals, suggesting that alteration is primarily due to hydration. The available evidence demonstrates that both betafite and zirconolite retained actinides for approximately 40 million years after the final stage of vein formation. During this time, betafite and zirconolite accumulated a total alpha-decay dose of 3--4 x 10{sup 16} and 0.2--2 x 10{sup 16} {alpha}/mg, respectively.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn vanadate nanosheets and visible-light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.Z. Xie, Y.K.; Pei, Y.Q.; Jiang, Y.X.; Yu, H.Y.; Cai, Z.Y.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. The formation of Mn vanadate nanosheets can be controlled by growth conditions. Mn vanadate nanosheets exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. - Abstract: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route using ammonium metavanadate and Mn acetate as the raw materials, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the Mn vanadate nanosheets are composed of monoclinic MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicates that the nanosheets have the average thickness of about 50 nm, length of 210 ?m and width of 800 nm to 2 ?m. The growth process of the Mn vanadate nanosheets has also been discussed based on the analysis of the roles of the growth conditions on the formation of the Mn vanadate nanosheets. The nanosheets show good photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. About 72.96% MB can be degraded after visible light irradiation for 1 h over 10 mg Mn vanadate nanosheets in 10 mL MB solution with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup ?1}.

  5. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  6. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of HCl and some metal chlorides in magmatic/hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical analysis is given for calculating the composition of the aqueous vapor and the saline brine (hydrosaline liquid) present at run pressure and temperature in the experiment. The mixture of aqueous vapor and brine is homogenized upon quench. The method for calculating the concentration of HCl and NaCl in the coexisting aqueous vapor and brine is shown.

  7. Synthesis of ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite via facile hydrothermal method and their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Wai Kian; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia; Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-03-15

    ZnO composite films consisting of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets were prepared by low-temperature hydrothermal processing at 80 C on seeded glass substrates. The seed layer was coated on glass substrates by solgel dip-coating and pre-heated at 300 C for 10 min prior to hydrothermal growth. The size of the grain formed after pre-heat treatment was ?40 nm. A preferred orientation seed layer at the c-axis was obtained, which promoted vertical growth of the ZnO nanorod arrays and formation of the ZnO nanosheets. X-ray diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) images confirmed that the ZnO nanorods and nanosheets consist of single crystalline and polycrystalline structures, respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite films exhibited band-edge ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission (blue and green) indicating the formation of ZnO crystals with good crystallinity and are supported by Raman scattering results. The formation of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays and two-dimensional (2D) ZnO nanosheet films using seeded substrates in a single low-temperature hydrothermal step would be beneficial for realization of device applications that utilize substrates with limited temperature stability. The ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure demonstrated higher photocatalytic activity during degradation of aqueous methylene blue under visible-light irradiation. -- Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite structure formation by hydrothermal at low-temperature of 80 C against time. Highlights: Novel simultaneous formation of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure. Facile single hydrothermal step formation at low-temperature. Photoluminescence showed ultraviolet and visible emission. Feasible application on substrates with low temperature stability. Improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation.

  8. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from HTC will be dependent on hydrochar use/the purpose for HTC (e.g., energy generation or carbon storage).

  9. Life-cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Clark, C. E.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-11

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other life-cycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the GREET model shows that fossil thermal plants have fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output about one order of magnitude higher than renewable power systems, including geothermal power.

  10. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Hart, Todd R.

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant fraction of petroleum based fuels with advanced biofuels, leading to increased energy security and decreased carbon footprint; and (2) establishment of a new biofuel industry segment, leading to the creation of U.S. engineering, manufacturing, construction, operations and agricultural jobs. PNNL development of CHG progressed at two levels. Initial tests were made in the laboratory in both mini-scale and bench-scale continuous flow reactor systems. Following positive results, the next level of evaluation was in the scaled-up engineering development system, which was operated at PNNL.

  11. Reliable appropriate topology design for multiple-processor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    A Shift and Replace Graph which is a very appropriate candidate for the topology of a multiple-processor system is a function of two positive integers r and m, and is denoted as SRF(r,m). Pradhan and Reddy proved that the node connectivity of SRG(r,m) is at least r and also give a routing algorithm which generally requires 2m jumps if the number of node failures is no larger than r - 1. Later, Esfahanian and Hakimi proved that SRG(r,m) has maximum node connectivity 2r - 2 and give routing algorithms which require: (1) at most m + 3 + log/sub r/m jumps if 3 + log/sub r/m does not exceed m and the number of node failures is at most r - 1; (2) at most m + 5 + log/sub r/m jumps if 4 + log/sub r/m less than or equal to m and the number of node failures if less than or equal to 2r - 3; (3) all the other situations require no more than 2m jumps. By modifying the SRG(r,m), it is first proved that node connectivity of SRG(r,m) can be increased to: (1) 2r - 1 when r = 2, m = 2, and (2) 2r when (r = 2, m > 2) or (r > 2, m greater than or equal to 2, m greater than or equal to 2). The routing algorithms are also given for the modified SRG (r,m), which require at most 2m + 3 jumps when the number of node failures is less than or equal to 2r - 1.

  12. Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment" by Yuri Dublyansky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.

    2008-11-17

    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  13. Chena Hot Springs GRED III Project: Final Report Geology, Petrology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs GRED III Project: Final Report Geology, Petrology, Geochemistry, Hydrothermal Alteration, and Fluid Analyses Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  14. Integrated Dense Array and Transect MT Surveying at Dixie Valley...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area, Nevada- Structural Controls, Hydrothermal Alteration and Deep Fluid Sources Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of 3-D hydrated bismuth oxalate coordination polymers with open-channel structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xinxiang; Cao Yanning; Zhang Hanhui Chen Yiping; Chen Xuehuan; Chai Xiaochuan

    2008-05-15

    Two new 3-D porous bismuth coordination polymers, (C{sub 5}NH{sub 6}){sub 2}[Bi{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 4}].2H{sub 2}O 1 and (NH{sub 4})[Bi(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O 2, have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic symmetry, P2{sub 1}/c space group with a=10.378(2) A, b=17.285(3) A, c=16.563(5) A, {alpha}=90 deg., {beta}=119.66(2) deg., {gamma}=90 deg., V=2581.8(10) A{sup 3}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0355 and wR{sub 2}=0.0658 for unique 4713 reflections I >2{sigma}(I). Compound 2 crystallizes in the tetragonal symmetry, I4{sub 1}/amd space group with a=11.7026(17) A, b=11.7026(17) A, c=9.2233(18) A, {alpha}=90 deg., {beta}=90 deg., {gamma}=90 deg., V=1263.1(4) A{sup 3}, Z=32, R{sub 1}=0.0208 and wR{sub 2}=0.0518 for unique 359 reflections I> 2{sigma}(I). Compounds 1 and 2 are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6{sup 6} uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers, study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by K{sup +} on potassium ion exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the open-channel frameworks are thermally stable up to 200 deg. C, and other characterizations are also described by elemental analysis, IR and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectionintegral spectrum (UV-Vis DRIS). - Graphical abstract: Two novel 3-D extended porous coordination polymers have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. Both compounds are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6{sup 6} uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers. Study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by K{sup +} on potassium ion exchange.

  16. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phasesmore » changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  17. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  18. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Philip R; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Polsky, Yarom

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or engineered within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  19. Recovery Act. Development and Validation of an Advanced Stimulation Prediction Model for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutierrez, Marte

    2013-12-31

    This research project aims to develop and validate an advanced computer model that can be used in the planning and design of stimulation techniques to create engineered reservoirs for Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The specific objectives of the proposal are to; Develop a true three-dimensional hydro-thermal fracturing simulator that is particularly suited for EGS reservoir creation; Perform laboratory scale model tests of hydraulic fracturing and proppant flow/transport using a polyaxial loading device, and use the laboratory results to test and validate the 3D simulator; Perform discrete element/particulate modeling of proppant transport in hydraulic fractures, and use the results to improve understand of proppant flow and transport; Test and validate the 3D hydro-thermal fracturing simulator against case histories of EGS energy production; and Develop a plan to commercialize the 3D fracturing and proppant flow/transport simulator. The project is expected to yield several specific results and benefits. Major technical products from the proposal include; A true-3D hydro-thermal fracturing computer code that is particularly suited to EGS; Documented results of scale model tests on hydro-thermal fracturing and fracture propping in an analogue crystalline rock; Documented procedures and results of discrete element/particulate modeling of flow and transport of proppants for EGS applications; and Database of monitoring data, with focus of Acoustic Emissions (AE) from lab scale modeling and field case histories of EGS reservoir creation.

  20. Facile fabrication of rutile monolayer films consisting of well crystalline nanorods by following an IL-assisted hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng Peng; Liu Xiaodi; Sun, Chuansheng; Ma Jianmin; Zheng Wenjun

    2009-05-15

    In this study, rutile films consisting of rectangular nanorods were facilely deposited on glass substrates from strongly acid solution of TiCl{sub 4}. The highly ordered array of nanorods was realized in presence of ionic liquid (IL) of [Bmim]Br by following a hydrothermal process. In this process, Degussa P25 nanoparticles served as seeds that were pre-deposited on the substrates to facilitate the array of rutile nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectrum were used to characterize the obtained nanorod films. The measurements showed that the nanorods were rectangular with width of 100-200 nm and length of more than 1 {mu}m, and grew up typically along c-axis to form the arrays against the substrate. The presence of IL was found vital for the formation of rutile nanorods, and the suitable molar ratio of [Bmim]Br to TiCl{sub 4} ranged from 500:1 to 1500:1. The excessive [Bmim]Br may hinder the precipitation of rutile particles. - Graphical abstract: The rutile film consisting of rectangular nanorods is successfully deposited on glass substrate in presence of ionic liquid (IL) of [Bmim]Br. The nanorods were rectangular with width of 100-200 nm and length of more than 1 {mu}m, which grew up typically along c-axis to form the arrays against the substrate.

  1. Laser hydrothermal reductive ablation of titanium monoxide: Hydrated TiO particles with modified Ti/O surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazevska-Gilev, Jadranka; Jandova, Vera; Kupcik, Jaroslav; Bastl, Zdenek; Subrt, Jan; Bezdicka, Petr; Pola, Josef

    2013-01-15

    IR laser- and UV laser-induced ablation of titanium monoxide (TM) in hydrogen (50 Torr) is compared to the same process induced in vacuum and shown to result in deposition of hydrated surface modified nanostructured titanium suboxide films. Complementary analyses of the films deposited in vacuum and in hydrogen by Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy allowed to determine different features of both films and propose a mechanism of surface modification of ejected particles, which involves hydrothermal reduction of TM and subsequent reactions of evolved water. The films exert good adhesion to metal and quartz surfaces and are hydrophobic in spite of having their surface coated with adsorbed water. - Graphical abstract: Laser ablation of titanium monoxide (TiO) in hydrogen involves a sequence of H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O eliminations and additions and yields hydrated amorphous nanostructured titanium suboxide which is richer in oxygen than TiO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR and UV laser ablated particles of titanium monoxide (TiO) undergo amorphization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in vacuum have TiO stoichiometry and are oxidized in atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in hydrogen are hydrated and have more O in topmost layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films modification in hydrogen is explained by reactions in hydrogen plasma.

  2. Development of Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading Technologies for Lipid-Extracted Algae Conversion to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-10-01

    Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrotreating liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available test results. The system assumes an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric ton/day and that the feedstock is converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrate that HTL would be an effective option to convert LEA to liquid fuel. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent and the overall energy efficiency at higher heating value basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $0.75/L with LEA feedstock price at $33.1 metric ton at dry basis and 10% internal rate of return. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the largest effects to production cost would come from the final products yields and the upgrading equipments cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of coral-like Au/ZnO catalyst and photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.K.; Lee, G.J.; Davies, S.H.; Masten, S.J.; Amutha, R.; Wu, J.J.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Coral-like Au/ZnO was successfully prepared using green synthetic method. ? Gold nanoparticles were deposited on the ZnO structure using NaBH{sub 4} and ?-D-glucose. ? Coral-like Au/ZnO exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to degrade Orange II. - Abstract: A porous coral-like zinc oxide (c-ZnO) photocatalyst was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The coral-like structure was obtained by precipitating Zn{sub 4}(CO{sub 3})(OH){sub 6}H{sub 2}O (ZnCH), which forms nanosheets that aggregate together to form microspheres with the coral-like structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that after heating at 550 C the ZnCH microspheres can be converted to ZnO microspheres with a morphology similar to that of ZnCH microspheres. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows this conversion takes place at approximately 260 C. A simple electrostatic self-assembly method has been employed to uniformly disperse Au nanoparticles (1 wt.%) on the ZnO surface. In this procedure ?-D-glucose was used to stabilize the Au nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that the diameter of coral-like ZnO microspheres (c-ZnO) is about 8 ?m. X-ray diffraction reveals that the ZnO is highly crystalline with a wurtzite structure and the Au metallic particles have an average size of about 13 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies have confirmed the presence of ZnO and also showed that the Au is present in the metallic state. The photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye, with either ultraviolet or visible light, is faster on Au/c-ZnO than on c-ZnO.

  4. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies.

  5. In situ synthesis of TiH{sub 2} layer on metallic titanium foil through gaseous hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Na; Wang, Guancong; Liu, Hong; Ohachi, Tadashi

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: The reaction mechanism for in situ synthesizing TiH{sub 2} layer on titanium foil by a gaseous hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal methodology. - Highlights: • A dense TiH{sub 2} layer is synthesized by a hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal method. • Hydrogen in a TiH{sub 2} layer synthesized can release at low temperature. • During the dehydrogenation process, there is no any intermediate phase forming. • We report a method of low-cost, low-risk and convenience toward productive TiH{sub 2}. - Abstract: A novel strategy for synthesis of TiH{sub 2} layer on surface of metallic titanium by using an acid-hydrothermal method was proposed. During the synthesis process, no any elemental hydrogen was involved. X-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy results confirmed that a TiH{sub 2} layer of 20 μm thickness on a Ti foil surface can be formed in situ by an interface reaction of metallic titanium with sulfuric acid solution, hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid, which is a hydrogen self-storage process. By tuning reaction parameters, for example, concentration of acid, composition and morphology of TiH{sub 2}-Ti hybrid materials can be adjusted. The TiH{sub 2} layer on a metallic titanium surface can be decompounded completely heated below 400 °C. This convenient, safe and low-cost method is a promising gaseous hydrogen free approach for the synthesis of hydride-based hydrogen storage materials.

  6. Hierarchical Na-doped cubic ZrO{sub 2} synthesis by a simple hydrothermal route and its application in biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Garca, Hugo A.; Romero-Ibarra, Issis C.; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    2014-10-15

    Hierarchical growth of cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase was successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process in the presence of different surfactants (cationic, non-ionic and anionic) and sodium hydroxide. The structural and microstructural characterizations of different ZrO{sub 2} powders were performed using various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption, scanning electron microscopy and infrared. Results indicated that sodium addition stabilized the cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase by a Na-doping process, independently of the surfactant used. In contrast, microstructural characteristics varied as a function of the surfactant and sodium presence. In addition, water vapor (H{sub 2}O) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sorption properties were evaluated on ZrO{sub 2} samples. Results evidenced that sample surface reactivity changed as a function of the sodium content. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction using the different synthesized samples, obtaining yields of 93%. - Graphical abstract: Hierarchical growth of cubic Na-ZrO{sub 2} phase was synthesized by hydrothermal processes in the presence of surfactants and sodium. Sodium addition stabilized the cubic phase by a Na-doping process, while the microstructural characteristics varied with surfactants. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction. - Highlights: Cubic-ZrO{sub 2} phase was synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process. ZrO{sub 2} structure and microstructures changed as a function of the surfactant. Cubic-ZrO{sub 2} phase was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction.

  7. TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposite via a facile in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy for visible light photodegradation of eosin Y

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yingliang; Pei, Fuyun Lu, Ruijuan; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene is synthesized via in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are chemically anchored on N-graphene nanosheets. The band gap of TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene is red-shifted from neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. 5-NGT nanocomposite has the best visible light photodegradation performance. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites are synthesized via a facile in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy in order to improve the photocatalytic efficiency for pollutant photodegradation under visible light irradiation. The as-prepared nanocomposites are respectively characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Results indicated that neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have an average diameter about 6.70 nm while TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites synthesized through in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy bear an average diameter of ?1 nm and are anchored on N-graphene nanosheets via chemical bonding. Both neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and chemically anchored TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites take on the crystal type of anatase. The band gap of TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites is red-shifted compared with neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The evaluation of photodegradation performance under visible light irradiation suggested that the nanocomposite with 5 wt% N-graphene content has the best visible light photodegradation performance.

  8. Structural and electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlazan, P.; Ursu, D.H.; Irina-Moisescu, C.; Miron, I.; Sfirloaga, P.; Rusu, E.

    2015-03-15

    TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in two stages: first stage is the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and second stage the obtained ZnO nanoparticles are encapsulated in TiO{sub 2}. The obtained ZnO, TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller and resistance measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of both, TiO{sub 2} and ZnO phases in TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. According to transmission electron microscopy images, ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal shapes, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a spherical shape, and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles present agglomerates and the shape of particles is not well defined. The activation energy of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about 101 meV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of XRD, TEM and BET. • Electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated. • The activation energy of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about E{sub a} = 101 meV.

  9. Methane and methanol oxidation in supercritical water: Chemical kinetics and hydrothermal flame studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeper, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for the treatment of wastes in the presence of a large concentration of water at conditions above water`s thermodynamic critical point. A high-pressure, optically accessible reaction cell was constructed to investigate the oxidation of methane and methanol in this environment. Experiments were conducted to examine both flame and non-flame oxidation regimes. Optical access enabled the use of normal and shadowgraphy video systems for visualization, and Raman spectroscopy for in situ measurement of species concentrations. Flame experiments were performed by steadily injecting pure oxygen into supercritical mixtures of water and methane or methanol at 270 bar and at temperatures from 390 to 510{degrees}C. The experiments mapped conditions leading to the spontaneous ignition of diffusion flames in supercritical water. Above 470{degrees}C, flames spontaneously ignite in mixtures containing only 6 mole% methane or methanol. This data is relevant to the design and operation of commercial SCWO processes that may be susceptible to inadvertent flame formation. Non-flame oxidation kinetics experiments measured rates of methane oxidation in supercritical water at 270 bar and at temperatures from 390 to 442{degrees}C. The initial methane concentration was nominally 0.15 gmol/L, a level representative of commercial SCWO processes. The observed methane concentration histories were fit to a one-step reaction rate expression indicating a reaction order close to two for methane and zero for oxygen. Experiments were also conducted with varying water concentrations (0 to 8 gmol/L) while temperature and initial reactant concentrations were held constant. The rate of methane oxidation rises steadily with water concentration up to about 5 gmol/L and then abruptly falls off at higher concentrations.

  10. Characterization, properties and catalytic application of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes prepared by ultrasonic-assisted sol-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jinyuan; Wang, Huijuan; Wei, Xiuzhen; Zhu, Liping

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel class of titania nanotubes (TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method using tetrabutyl titanate and ethanol as the precursors. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, BrunauerEmmettTeller method, Differential Scanning Calorimeters-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSCTG) and UVvis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the products was evaluated in terms of reactive brilliant red X-3B in an aqueous solution under UV irradiation for 1 h. The results showed that the catalyst revealed an excellent photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of reactive brilliant X-3B could be up to 96%. Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted sol-hydrothermal method. ? TEM, HRTEM, XRD, and BET were used to study morphology and crystalline structure. ? FTIR, DSC-TG was used to investigate pyrolytic process and phase structure. ? UVvis absorption spectra were used to evaluate the photocatalysis of catalysts. ? Dye degradation result showed that the catalyst had excellent photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: A novel class of titania nanotubes (TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method using tetrabutyl titanate and ethanol as the precursors. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) method, Differential Scanning Calorimeters-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSC-TG) and UVvis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the products was evaluated in terms of reactive brilliant red X-3B in an aqueous solution under UV irradiation for 1 h. The results showed that the anatase nanotubes prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of reactive brilliant X-3B could be up to 96%. The high degradation rate was attributed to the good crystalline pure-phase structure of nanotubes caused by ultrasound. Furthermore, the large surface areas also played an important role in the high degradation rate.

  11. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  12. Effects of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Cocations on the Activity and Hydrothermal Stability of Cu/SSZ-13 NH3-SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Yilin; Washton, Nancy M.; Kollar, Marton; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-10-13

    Using a three-step aqueous solution ion-exchange method, cocation modified Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts were synthesized. These catalysts, in both fresh and hydrothermally aged forms, were characterized with several methods including temperature-programmed reduction by H2 (H2-TPR), temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD), and 27Al solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and diffuse reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopies. Their catalytic performance was probed using steady-state standard NH3-SCR. Characterization results indicate that cocations weaken interactions between Cu-ions and the CHA framework making them more readily reducible. By removing a portion of Brønsted acid sites, cocations also help to mitigate hydrolysis of the zeolite catalysts during hydrothermal aging as evidenced from 27Al NMR. Reaction tests show that certain cocations, especially Li+ and Na+, promote low-temperature SCR rates while others show much less pronounced effects. In terms of applications, our results indicate that introducing cocations can be a viable strategy to improve both low- and high-temperature performance of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts.

  13. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Exploration methods are categorized into five groups: Geology Characterizing geology-rock types, structures, faults, and temperatures- is a fundamental step in discovering new ...

  14. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) well construction technology evaluation report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capuano, Louis, Jr.; Huh, Michael; Swanson, Robert; Raymond, David Wayne; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2008-12-01

    Electricity production from geothermal resources is currently based on the exploitation of hydrothermal reservoirs. Hydrothermal reservoirs possess three ingredients critical to present day commercial extraction of subsurface heat: high temperature, in-situ fluid and high permeability. Relative to the total subsurface heat resource available, hydrothermal resources are geographically and quantitatively limited. A 2006 DOE sponsored study led by MIT entitled 'The Future of Geothermal Energy' estimates the thermal resource underlying the United States at depths between 3 km and 10 km to be on the order of 14 million EJ. For comparison purposes, total U.S. energy consumption in 2005 was 100 EJ. The overwhelming majority of this resource is present in geological formations which lack either in-situ fluid, permeability or both. Economical extraction of the heat in non-hydrothermal situations is termed Enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The technologies and processes required for EGS are currently in a developmental stage. Accessing the vast thermal resource between 3 km and 10 km in particular requires a significant extension of current hydrothermal practice, where wells rarely reach 3 km in depth. This report provides an assessment of well construction technology for EGS with two primary objectives: (1) Determining the ability of existing technologies to develop EGS wells. (2) Identifying critical well construction research lines and development technologies that are likely to enhance prospects for EGS viability and improve overall economics. Towards these ends, a methodology is followed in which a case study is developed to systematically and quantitatively evaluate EGS well construction technology needs. A baseline EGS well specification is first formulated. The steps, tasks and tools involved in the construction of this prospective baseline EGS well are then explicitly defined by a geothermal drilling contractor in terms of sequence, time and cost. A task and cost based analysis of the exercise is subsequently conducted to develop a deeper understanding of the key technical and economic drivers of the well construction process. Finally, future research & development recommendations are provided and ranked based on their economic and technical significance.

  15. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  16. A National-Scale Comparison of Resource and Nutrient Demands for Algae-Based Biofuel Production by Lipid Extraction and Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-01

    Algae’s high productivity provides potential resource advantages over other fuel crops. However, demand for land, water, and nutrients must be minimized to avoid impacts on food production. We apply our national-scale, open-pond, growth and resource models to assess several biomass to fuel technological pathways based on Chlorella. We compare resource demands between hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and lipid extraction (LE) to meet 1.89E+10 and 7.95E+10 L yr-1 biofuel targets. We estimate nutrient demands where post-fuel biomass is consumed as co-products and recycling by anaerobic digestion (AD) or catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG). Sites are selected through prioritization based on fuel value relative to a set of site-specific resource costs. The highest priority sites are located along the Gulf of Mexico coast, but potential sites exist nationwide. We find that HTL reduces land and freshwater consumption by up to 46% and saline groundwater by around 70%. Without recycling, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) demand is reduced 33%, but is large relative to current U.S. agricultural consumption. The most nutrient-efficient pathways are LE+CHG for N and HTL+CHG for P (by 42%). Resource gains for HTL+CHG are offset by a 344% increase in N consumption relative to LE+CHG (with potential for further recycling). Nutrient recycling is essential to effective use of alternative nutrient sources. Modeling of utilization availability and costs remains, but we find that for HTL+CHG at the 7.95E+10 L yr-1 production target, municipal sources can offset 17% of N and 40% of P demand and animal manures can generally meet demands.

  17. EIS-0066: The Role of Bonneville Power Administration in the Pacific Northwest Power Supply System- including its Participation in a Hydro-Thermal Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepared this EIS to examine the environmental impacts of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act, which will foster regional electric power planning in the four Northwest states, as well as increase BPA’s authority to address future power needs.

  18. Damping ring rf system for SLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M.A.; Schwarz, H.D.; Wilson, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    The linear collider project at SLAC contains two damping rings to reduce the emittance of short electron or positron bunches which contain 5 x 10/sup 10/ particles per bunch. Two of these bunches are stored at a time and then extracted for acceleration in the collider. The rf system is subject to strong transients in beam loading. A computer model is used to optimize capture while minimizing rf power. The introduction of phase jump in the rf drive at injection time together with offsets in the tuning loops of the rf cavities when no beam is stored allows optimum performance under heavy beam load conditions. The rf system (800 kV at 714 MHz) for the electron damping ring has been built, tested and installed, and is being tested with beam.

  19. Effect of calcination temperature on structural and photocatalyst properties of nanofibers prepared from low-cost natural ilmenite mineral by simple hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpraditpan, Athapon; Wirunmongkol, Thanakorn; Pavasupree, Sorapong; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Nanofibers were prepared from low-cost ilmenite mineral via simple hydrothermal. High photocatalyst nanofibers were prepared via post heat treatment method. The nanofibers calcined at 100700 C for 2 h maintained nanofiber structure. The calcined nanofibers at 400 C showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanate nanofibers were synthesized via the hydrothermal method (120 C for 72 h) using natural ilmenite mineral (FeTiO{sub 3}) as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) for specific surface area. The nanofibers were 2090 nm in diameter and 27 ?m in length. The as-synthesized nanofibers calcined at 300400 C showed TiO{sub 2} (B) whereas the nanofibers calcined at 500 C revealed a mixture of two phases of TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase. The nanofibers calcined at high temperature of 6001000 C showed a mixture of tri-crystalline of anatase, rutile, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The rutile phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The nanofibers calcined at 300700 C maintained their structure while the morphology of the nanofibers calcined at 8001000 C transformed into submicron rod-like structure. This increase of calcination temperature led to the phase transformation from thermodynamically metastable anatase to the most stable form of rutile phase. The crystallite size of prepared samples increased with increasing calcination temperature. Interestingly, with increasing calcination temperature, the absorption edge of the prepared samples shows an obvious shift to visible light region due to the change of crystallite phase and increased crystallite size. Therefore, the band gap energy of the prepared samples became narrower with increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the nanofibers calcined at 400 C for 2 h was found to be not merely higher than those of the commercially available TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles powders (P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03) but also the highest of all the samples in this study.

  20. Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed study of calc-silicate mineral zones and coexisting phase relations in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system were used as examples for thermodynamic evaluation of phase relations among minerals of variable composition and to calculate the chemical characteristics of hydrothermal solutions compatible with the observed calc-silicate assemblages. In general there is a close correlation between calculated and observed fluid compositions. Calculated fugacities of O{sub 2} at about 320{degrees}C in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system are about five orders of magnitude less than that at the nearby Salton Sea geothermal system. This observation is consistent with the occurrence of Fe{sup 3+} rich epidotes in the latter system and the presence of prehnite at Cerro Prieto.

  1. Microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Gyawali, Gobinda; Sekino, Tohru; Wohn Lee, Soo

    2013-01-15

    Simulated solar light responsive Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} composite photocatalyst was synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal process. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and BET surface area analyzer to investigate the crystal structure, morphology, chemical composition, optical properties and surface area of the composite photocatalyst. This photocatalyst exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation. Dye degradation efficiency of composite photocatalyst was found to be increased significantly as compared to that of the commercial WO{sub 3} nanopowder. Increase in photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was explained on the basis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect caused by the silver nanoparticles present in the composite photocatalyst. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic experiment was performed under simulated solar light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite photocatalyst was very active as compared to WO{sub 3} commercial powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPR effect due to Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photocatalytic activity.

  2. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oil and Hydrotreated Product from Pine Feedstock Characterized by Heteronuclear Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Cort, John R.; Hallen, Richard T.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) crude oil and hydrotreated product from pine tree farm waste (forest product residual, FPR) have been analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes and high-resolution twodimensional heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. FT-ICR MS resolves thousands of compounds in complex oils and provides unparalleled compositional details for individual molecules for identification of compound class (heteroatom content), type (number of rings plus double bonds to carbon or double bond equivalents (DBE) and carbon number (degree of alkylation). Heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy provides one-bond and multiple-bond correlations between pairs of 1H and 13C chemical shifts that are characteristic of different organic functional groups. Taken together this information provides a picture of the chemical composition of these oils. Pyrolysis crude oil product from pine wood was characterized for comparison. Generally, pyrolysis oil is comprised of a more diverse distribution of heteroatom classes with higher oxygen number relative to HTL oil as shown by both positive- and negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS. A total of 300 N1, 594 O1 and 267 O2 compounds were observed as products of hydrotreatment. The relative abundance of N1O1, N1O2, N1O3, N2, N2O1, N2O2 and O3 compounds are reduced to different degrees after hydrotreatment and other higher heteroatom containing species (O4-O10, N1O4, N1O5 and N2O3) are completely removed by hydrotreatment.

  3. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fercho, Steven; Owens, Lara; Walsh, Patrick; Drakos, Peter; Martini, Brigette; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Burton M.

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow groundwater samples indicating only minor additions of magmatic CO2 and He to the groundwater system, although much less than observed near Puna. The much reduced DIC and He abundances at Maui, along with a lack of hotsprings and hydrothermal alteration, as observed near Puna, does not strongly support a deeper hydrothermal system within the HSWRZ.

  4. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: Monitoring EGS-Related Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLarty, Lynn; Entingh, Daniel; Carwile, Clifton

    2000-09-29

    This report reviews technologies that could be applicable to Enhanced Geothermal Systems development. EGS covers the spectrum of geothermal resources from hydrothermal to hot dry rock. We monitored recent and ongoing research, as reported in the technical literature, that would be useful in expanding current and future geothermal fields. The literature review was supplemented by input obtained through contacts with researchers throughout the United States. Technologies are emerging that have exceptional promise for finding fractures in nonhomogeneous rock, especially during and after episodes of stimulation to enhance natural permeability.

  5. Fabrication of free-standing NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoarrays via a facile modified hydrothermal synthesis method and their applications for lithium ion batteries and high-rate alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Qingyun Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Youming

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal-synthesized NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays exhibit porous structure and high capacity as well as good cycling life for lithium ion batteries and alkaline batteries. - Highlights: • Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays are prepared by a hydrothermal method. • NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show high capacity and good cycling life. • Porous nanoflake arrays structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays on nickel foam are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflakes with thicknesses of ∼25 nm grow vertically to the nickel foam substrate and form an interconnected porous network with pore diameters of 50–500 nm. As anode material of LIBs, the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show a high initial coulombic efficiency of 76%, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity of 880 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1}, and 523 mAh g{sup −1} at 1.5 A g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. As the cathode of alkaline batteries, a high capacity of 95 mAh g{sup −1} is achieved at 2 A g{sup −1} and 94% retention is maintained after 10,000 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique nanoflake arrays structure with large surface area and shorter diffusion length for mass and charge transport.

  6. Exploratory Boreholes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the hydrothermal flow system. References Gene A. Suemnicht, Michael L. Sorey, Joseph N. Moore, Robert Sullivan (2007) The Shallow Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera,...

  7. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the coso east flank hydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heat source Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  8. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng; Li Danzhen; Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi

    2012-06-15

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  9. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.; Begg, J.; Boggs, M.; Dai, Z.; Kersting, A. B.

    2015-05-27

    The testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), has led to the deposition of substantial quantities of plutonium into the environment. Approximately 2.8 metric tons (3.1×104 TBq) of Pu were deposited in the NNSS subsurface as a result of underground nuclear testing. While 3H is the most abundant anthropogenic radionuclide deposited in the NNSS subsurface (4.7×106 TBq), plutonium is the most abundant from a molar standpoint. The only radioactive elements in greater molar abundance are the naturally occurring K, Th, and U isotopes. 239Pu and 240Pu represent the majority of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes. The extreme temperatures associated with underground nuclear tests and the refractory nature of Pu results in most of the Pu (98%) being sequestered in melted rock, referred to as nuclear melt glass (Iaea, 1998). As a result, Pu release to groundwater is controlled, in large part, by the leaching (or dissolution) of nuclear melt glass over time. The factors affecting glass dissolution rates have been studied extensively. The dissolution of Pu-containing borosilicate nuclear waste glasses at 90ºC has been shown to lead to the formation of dioctahedral smectite colloids. Colloid-facilitated transport of Pu at the NNSS has been observed. Recent groundwater samples collected from a number of contaminated wells have yielded a wide range of Pu concentrations from 0.00022 to 2.0 Bq/L. While Pu concentrations tend to fall below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water (0.56 Bq/L), we do not yet understand what factors limit the Pu concentration or its transport behavior. To quantify the upper limit of Pu concentrations produced as a result of melt glass dissolution and determine the nature of colloids and Pu associations, we performed a 3 year nuclear melt glass dissolution experiment across a range of temperatures (25-200 °C) that represent hydrothermal conditions representative of the underground nuclear test cavities (when groundwater has re-saturated the nuclear melt glass and glass dissolution occurs). Colloid loads and Pu concentrations were monitored along with the mineralogy of both the colloids and the secondary mineral phases. The intent was to establish an upper limit for Pu concentrations at the NNSS, provide context regarding the Pu concentrations observed at the NNSS to date and the Pu concentrations that may be observed in the future. The results provide a conceptual model for the risks posed by Pu migration at the NNSS.

  10. Tectonic & Structural Controls of Great Basin Geothermal Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Terranes track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic ...

  11. Exploration Guides For Active High-Temperature Geothermal Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    field (or ore deposit), iv) hydrothermal fluids and their surface expression, and v) geothermal reservoirs as against epithermal orebodies, have enabled us to formulate...

  12. Hydrothermal Reservoirs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 km below the Earth's surface where there is heat, water and a permeable material (permeability in rock formations results from fractures, joints, pores, etc.). Often,...

  13. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  14. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    produces more than 6 million MCFd of methane - Continue growing to 25% of US demand by ... pre-treater depending on refinery * Methane can be used several ways - Use as fuel ...

  15. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: US Geothermal Resources Review and Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Entingh, Dan; McLarty, Lynn

    2000-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to lay the groundwork for an emerging process to assess U.S. geothermal resources that might be suitable for development as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Interviews of leading geothermists indicate that doing that will be intertwined with updating assessments of U.S. higher-quality hydrothermal resources and reviewing methods for discovering ''hidden'' hydrothermal and EGS resources. The report reviews the history and status of assessment of high-temperature geothermal resources in the United States. Hydrothermal, Enhanced, and Hot Dry Rock resources are addressed. Geopressured geothermal resources are not. There are three main uses of geothermal resource assessments: (1) They inform industry and other interest parties of reasonable estimates of the amounts and likely locations of known and prospective geothermal resources. This provides a basis for private-sector decisions whether or not to enter the geothermal energy business at all, and for where to look for useful resources. (2) They inform government agencies (Federal, State, local) of the same kinds of information. This can inform strategic decisions, such as whether to continue to invest in creating and stimulating a geothermal industry--e.g., through research or financial incentives. And it informs certain agencies, e.g., Department of Interior, about what kinds of tactical operations might be required to support such activities as exploration and leasing. (3) They help the experts who are performing the assessment(s) to clarify their procedures and data, and in turn, provide the other two kinds of users with a more accurate interpretation of what the resulting estimates mean. The process of conducting this assessment brings a spotlight to bear on what has been accomplished in the domain of detecting and understanding reservoirs, in the period since the last major assessment was conducted.

  16. Electrical resistivity and magnetic investigations of the geothermal systems in the Rotorua area, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibby, H.M. ); Dawson, G.B.; Rayner, H.H.; Bennie, S.L.; Bromley, C.J. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that electrical and magnetic data are used in an investigation of a 450 km{sup 2} region in order to delineate the Rotorua City Geothermal system and determine its relationship with other geothermal systems in the region. Three distinct regions of low ({lt}30 Omega m) apparent resistivity are delineated. The southern of these outlines the Rotorua City Geothermal System which has an area of about 18 km{sup 2}, with the northern third covered by Lake Rotorua. The boundary of the system is characterized by a rapid lateral change in apparent resistivity which can be modeled as a single, near vertical zone in which the distance between hot and cold water is very narrow. Magnetic properties also change in the vicinity of the discontinuity in some areas, consistent with hydrothermal alteration having destroyed the magnetite in the rocks of the geothermal system. Hot water is believed to be rising, driven by buoyancy forces across the whole of the low resistivity region. There is some indication, particularly in the south, that the boundary between hot and cold fluids dips away from the field. A second low resistivity zone (the East Lake Rotorua anomaly) with an area of about 8 km{sup 2}, is believed to outline a second independent geothermal system, with surface manifestations on Mokoia Island, and on the eastern shore of the lake. High heat flow in lake bottom sediments, and a reduction in magnetic signature over this region supports this conclusion. A third resistivity low under the west of Lake Rotorua has no associated thermal features and is believed to be a fossil hydrothermal system. There is no apparent relationship between the location of the geothermal systems and the Rotorua caldera. The aeromagnetic measurements have delineated several highly magnetic bodies which cannot be linked with surface geology. These are believed to be caused by buried rhyolite dome complexes at shallow depth.

  17. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Centers for Reliable Grid Operations: Global Best Practices, Examples of Excellence and Lessons Learned Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Strategies and...

  18. A highly coercive carbon nanotube coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Huiqun; Zhu Meifang Li Yaogang; Liu Jianhong; Ni Zhuo; Qin Zongyi

    2007-11-15

    Novel magnetic composites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process. The composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), etc. A temperature of about 200 deg. C was identified to be an appropriate hydrothermal condition to obtain Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs, being lower than the synthesis temperature of a single-phase Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. The sizes of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the composites were smaller than those of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals in single phase. The composites exhibited more superparamagnetic than Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals in their relaxation behaviors. The magnetic properties measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the composites had a high coercive field of 386.0 Oe at room temperature, higher than those of MWCNT and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. - Graphical abstract: Novel magnetic composites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process. The composites had a high coercive field of 386.0 Oe, higher than those of MWCNT and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals.

  19. Geology, hydrothermal petrology, stable isotope geochemistry, and fluid inclusion geothermometry of LASL geothermal test well C/T-1 (Mesa 31-1), East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, K.R.; Elders, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    Borehole Mesa 31-1 (LASL C/T-1) is an 1899-m (6231-ft) deep well located in the northwestern part of the East Mesa Geothermal Field. Mesa 31-1 is the first Calibration/Test Well (C/T-1) in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. The purpose of this study is to provide a compilation of drillhole data, drill cuttings, well lithology, and formation petrology that will serve to support the use of well LASL C/T-1 as a calibration/test well for geothermal logging. In addition, reviews of fluid chemistry, stable isotope studies, isotopic and fluid inclusion geothermometry, and the temperature log data are presented. This study provides the basic data on the geology and hydrothermal alteration of the rocks in LASL C/T-1 as background for the interpretation of wireline logs.

  20. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} and its defect chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Woodward, David I.; Peel, Martin D.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-11-15

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} (0?x?1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce{sup 3+} there is evidence for Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetic Ce{sup 3+} affects the chemical shift and line width of {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. {sup 2}H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D{sub 2}O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D{sub 2}O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce{sup 4+} to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce{sup 3+} on the {sup 23}Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from {sup 2}H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetism of Ce{sup 3+} shifts and broadens the {sup 23}Na solid-state NMR. The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect.

  1. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and/or injected fluids is critical to predict important chemical behaviors affecting fluid flow, such as mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. We successfully achieved the project goal and objectives by demonstrating the ability of our modeling technology to correctly predict the complex pH dependent solution chemistry of the Al3+ cation and its hydrolysis species: Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)30, and Al(OH)4- as well as the solubility of common aluminum hydroxide and aluminosilicate minerals in aqueous brines containing components (Na, K, Cl) commonly dominating hydrothermal fluids. In the sodium chloride system, where experimental data for model parameterization are most plentiful, the model extends to 300°C. Determining the stability fields of aluminum species that control the solubility of aluminum-containing minerals as a function of temperature and composition has been a major objective of research in hydrothermal chemistry.

  2. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Behavior in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Reimus, P. W.; Newell, D.; Watson, Tom B.

    2010-06-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the United States while incurring minimal environmental impacts. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distributions, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for commercial development of geothermal energy. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. Modeling capabilities are being developed as part of this project to support laboratory and field testing to characterize engineered geothermal systems in single- and multi-well tests using tracers. The objective of this report is to describe the simulation plan and the status of model development for simulating tracer tests for characterizing EGS.

  3. Theory and experiments on the effects of perturbations on nonlinear chemical systems: Generation of multiple attractors and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjelmfelt, A.; Harding, R.H.; Tsujimoto, K.K.; Ross, J. (Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (US))

    1990-03-15

    Periodic perturbations are applied to the input fluxes of reactants in a system which exhibits autonomous oscillations, the combustion of acetaldehyde (ACH) and oxygen, and a system which exhibits damped oscillations, the combustion of methane and oxygen. The ACH system is studied by experiments and numerical analysis and the methane system is studied by numerical analysis. The periodic perturbations are in the form of a two-term Fourier series. Such perturbations may generate multiple attractors, which are either periodic or chaotic. We discuss two types of bistable responses: a new phase bistability, in which a subharmonic frequency is added to a sinusoidal perturbation at different phases relative to the periodic response; and jump phenomena, in which the resonant frequency of a nonlinear oscillator depends on the amplitude of the periodic perturbation. Both the ACH and the methane systems confirm the phase bistability. The additional complex behavior of bistability due to jump phenomena is seen only in calculations in the methane system. In both types of bistability a hysteresis loop is formed as we vary the form of the periodic perturbation. In the methane system, we find period doubling to chaos occuring on one branch of the hysteresis loop while the other branch remains periodic. The methane system has been studied in the context of the efficiency of power production. We calculate the efficiency corresponding to each bistable attractor and find one branch of each pair to be the more efficient mode of operation. In the case of the coexisting periodic and chaotic attractors the chaotic attractor is the more efficient mode of operation.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a new inorganic/organic hybrid of scandium sulfate: (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Jianjiang [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: j.lu@anl.gov; Schlueter, John A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Geiser, Urs [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The first organically templated layered structure of scandium sulfate, (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}, (en=ethylenediamine) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the title compound, scandium ions are bridged by sulfate groups with a ratio of 1:2 into a 4{sub 3}{sup 6} layer structure. These layers are parallel packed and separated from each other by ethylenediammonium dications and water molecules. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c, with cell parameters a=8.5966(13)A, b=5.1068(8)A, c=18.847(3)A, {beta}=91.210(3){sup o}, V=827.2(2)A{sup 3} and Z=2. Refinement gave R{sub 1}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0354 and wR{sub 2}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0878. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that this material is thermally stable to above 400 deg. C.

  5. Life-cycle analysis results for geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems: Part II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J.L.; Clark, C.E.; Yuan, L.; Han, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-02-08

    A study has been conducted on the material demand and life-cycle energy and emissions performance of power-generating technologies in addition to those reported in Part I of this series. The additional technologies included concentrated solar power, integrated gasification combined cycle, and a fossil/renewable (termed hybrid) geothermal technology, more specifically, co-produced gas and electric power plants from geo-pressured gas and electric (GPGE) sites. For the latter, two cases were considered: gas and electricity export and electricity-only export. Also modeled were cement, steel and diesel fuel requirements for drilling geothermal wells as a function of well depth. The impact of the construction activities in the building of plants was also estimated. The results of this study are consistent with previously reported trends found in Part I of this series. Among all the technologies considered, fossil combustion-based power plants have the lowest material demand for their construction and composition. On the other hand, conventional fossil-based power technologies have the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, followed by the hybrid and then two of the renewable power systems, namely hydrothermal flash power and biomass-based combustion power. GHG emissions from U.S. geothermal flash plants were also discussed, estimates provided, and data needs identified. Of the GPGE scenarios modeled, the all-electric scenario had the highest GHG emissions. Similar trends were found for other combustion emissions.

  6. System Diagram

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Diagram System Diagram Diagram of IO architecture on Hopper Diagram of external IO services on the Hopper system Last edited: 2011-04-14 15:11:1...

  7. File Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on PDSF please see Eliza File Systems and Other File Systems. Below is a summary of how ATLAS uses the various systems: common In the past ATLAS used common primarily for their...

  8. System Diagram

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Diagram System Diagram Diagram of I/O architecture on Hopper Diagram of external I/O services on the Hopper system Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:23

  9. Computer System,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    undergraduate summer institute http:isti.lanl.gov (Educational Prog) 2016 Computer System, Cluster, and Networking Summer Institute Purpose The Computer System,...

  10. The Role of Low-Angle Extensional Tectonics, Flat Fracture Domains, and Gravity Slides in Hydrothermal and EGS Resources of the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Moore

    2011-08-24

    The Steamboat Springs geothermal system provides the most dramatic example of subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in crystalline rock in the Basin and Range, but this is by no means an isolated case. Similar but more diffuse subhorizontal permeability has been reported at Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove-Fort Sulphurdale, Utah; and a km-scale gravity-slide block channels injectate at Dixie Valley, Nevada. During the course of this phase of the project 2543 reports including text, figures and large format enclosures, 1428 maps, and 698 well logs were scanned. The information is stored in a Microsoft Access Database on the Geothermal Server. Detailed geologic cross sections of the Desert Peak geothermal field were developed to identify the structural controls on the geothermal system and locate possible fluid flow paths. The results of this work were published by Lutz and others (2009, Appendix 1) in the Stanford Reservoir Engineering Conference Proceedings.

  11. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2014-01-02

    FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  12. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  13. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.

    2011-12-31

    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper-try sealers. Two specific additives without sodium silicate as alkaline additive were developed in this project: One additive was the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as self-degradation promoting additive; the other was the hard-burned magnesium oxide (MgO) made from calcinating at 1,000-1,500 C as an expansive additive. The AASC and AASF cementitious sealers made by incorporating an appropriate amount of these additives met the following six criteria: 1) One dry mix component product; 2) plastic viscosity, 20 to 70 cp at 300 rpm; 3) maintenance of pumpability for at least 1 hour at 85 C; 4) compressive strength >2000 psi; 5) self-degradable by injection with water at a certain pressure; and 6) expandable and swelling properties; {ge}0.5% of total volume of the sealer.

  14. Barbara McClintock, Jumping Genes, and Transposition

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Barbara McClintock and Transposable Genetic Elements McClintock Honored * Woman of Science * Educational Material * Resources with Additional Information Barbara McClintock's remarkable life spanned the history of genetics in the twentieth century. ... [T]he science of genetics, to which McClintock made seminal contributions both experimental and conceptual, has come to dominate all of the biological sciences, from molecular biology, through cell and developmental biology, to medicine and

  15. Eleven Tribes Jump START Clean Energy Projects, Summer 2012 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.

  16. Eleven Tribes Jump START Clean Energy Projects, Summer 2012 ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and Kevin Davidson of the Hualapai Tribe Planning and Economic Development Department discuss utility-scale solar and wind project potential during a START site visit in Arizona. ...

  17. Scattering universality classes of side jump in the anomalous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 83; ... Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly Accessible Full Text Accepted ...

  18. Hanford's Recovery Act Payments Jump Past $1 Billion

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and research. * Demolished 56 facilities, which reduces surveillance and maintenance costs. * Completed expansion of Hanford's Environmental Restoration Disposal Facil- ity...

  19. Hanford's Recovery Act Payments Jump Past $1 Billion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Richland Operations Office's (RL) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act payments at Hanford recently surpassed $1 billion.

  20. Quantum Darwinism, Decoherence, and the Randomness of Quantum Jumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2014-06-05

    Tracing flows of information in our quantum Universe explains why we see the world as classical. Quantum principle of superposition decrees every combination of quantum states a legal quantum state. This is at odds with our experience. Decoherence selects preferred pointer states that survive interaction with the environment. They are localized and effectively classical. They persist while their superpositions decohere. Here we consider emergence of `the classical' starting at a more fundamental pre-decoherence level, tracing the origin of preferred pointer states and deducing their probabilities from the core quantum postulates. We also explore role of the environment as medium through which observers acquire information. This mode of information transfer leads to perception of objective classical reality.