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Sample records for hydrothermal system beneath

  1. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    more vigorous and energetic fluid circulation beneath the resurgent dome. Although this system apparently died off as a result of mineral deposition and cooling (andor...

  2. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on Openei | Open Energy InformationHydrothermal System

  3. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  4. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    around 1980 and has included periods of intense seismicity and ground deformation. Uplift totaling more than 0.7 m has been centered on the caldera's resurgent dome, and is...

  5. Mapping the Hydrothermal System Beneath the Western Moat of Long...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    under the Magma Energy Program, and by the DOE Office of Energy Research, Division of Engineering and Geosciences (DEG), along with the USGS and NSE, under the Continental...

  6. New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera, California, From Wells, Fluid Sampling, Electrical Geophysics, And Age Determinations Of Hot-Spring Deposits Jump to: navigation,...

  7. Temporal Relations of Volcanism and Hydrothermal Systems in Two...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geology, 1989 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Temporal Relations of Volcanism and Hydrothermal Systems in Two Areas of...

  8. Hydrology of Hydrothermal Systems in the Long Valley Caldera Hydrothermal activity in the Long Valley Caldera has had many different periods in its history of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    the temperatures of the hydrothermal fluid. The geothermal systems and hydrothermal systems have been documented that the temperatures would be extremely high, akin to Yellowstone. But what they found were temperatures much lower). Hydrothermal Systems Summary Geothermal systems and the hydrothermal systems are an occurrence that happens

  9. Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    analysis also suggests that it might be more feasible to detect large-scale heating or cooling of the hydrothermal system by tracking changes in gas and steam flux than by...

  10. Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Magnus Hindsberger Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-112 Interconnected hydro-thermalsystems #12;Technical University of Denmark 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk IMM-PHD-2003-112 ISSN 0909-3192 #12;Interconnected hydro

  11. POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY C.C. Car e1, M.P. Nowak2, W. Romisch2 and pumped-storage hydro units is developed. For its compu- tational solution two di erent decompo- sition-burning) thermal units, pumped-storage hydro plants and delivery con- tracts and describe an optimization model

  12. Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1995-01-26

    Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

  13. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John P. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Sims, Kenneth W.W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). School of Energy Resources; Pluda, Allison R. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Wyoming High-Precision Isotope Lab.

    2014-03-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  14. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Sims, Kenneth W.W.; Pluda, Allison R.

    2014-06-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  15. The magmatic plumbing system beneath Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala Jeannie A.J. Scott a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    The magmatic plumbing system beneath Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala Jeannie A.J. Scott a, , Tamsin, Guatemala City, Guatemala a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 9 September 2011 storage Ascent path The silicic dome complex of Santiaguito, Guatemala, has exhibited continuous extrusive

  16. Depth determinations of shallow hydrothermal systems by self-potential and multi-scale wavelet tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams-Jones, Glyn

    to significantly enhance our ability to locate geothermal systems and monitor active volcanoes. © 2010 Elsevier BDepth determinations of shallow hydrothermal systems by self-potential and multi-scale wavelet studies, the depth of the hydrothermal system is always required, but rarely known via traditional

  17. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than during the deposition of natural calcite-opal deposits.

  18. POWER MANAGEMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY BY LAGRANGIAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    POWER MANAGEMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY BY LAGRANGIAN RELAXATION NICOLE GR power in a hydro-thermal system under uncertainty in load, inflow to reservoirs and prices for fuel to successive decom- position into single thermal and hydro unit subproblems that are solved by dynamic

  19. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Build and demonstrate a working prototype hydrothermal spallation drilling unit that will accelerate commercial deployment of EGS as a domestic energy resource.

  20. Geochemical Modeling of the Near-Surface Hydrothermal System Beneath the

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway EditOpen

  1. Mapping the Hydrothermal System Beneath the Western Moat of Long Valley

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5TransportManitouChange |Maplewood Park,Caldera Using

  2. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on Openei |sourceAnd CentralWorld BankTerms andValley

  3. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on Openei |sourceAnd CentralWorld BankTerms andValleyValley

  4. Carbon geochemistry of serpentinites in the Lost City Hydrothermal System (30N, MAR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Massif (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N) was exam- ined to characterize carbon sources and speciation in oceanic. The speciation of carbon de- pends on the chemical and physical conditions prevailing in the reservoir, and itsCarbon geochemistry of serpentinites in the Lost City Hydrothermal System (30°N, MAR) Ade

  5. PRIMAL AND DUAL METHODS FOR UNIT COMMITMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL POWER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    PRIMAL AND DUAL METHODS FOR UNIT COMMITMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL POWER SYSTEM R. Gollmer1 , A. Moller comprising thermal and pumped-storage hydro units a large-scale mixed-integer optimization model is developed hydro units. The variable ut i 2 f0;1g; i = 1;:::;I;t = 1;:::;T indicates whether the thermal unit i

  6. Melt zones beneath five volcanic complexes in California: an assessment of shallow magma occurrences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Flexser, S.

    1984-12-01

    Recent geological and geophysical data for five magma-hydrothermal systems were studied for the purpose of developing estimates for the depth, volume and location of magma beneath each area. The areas studied were: (1) Salton Trough, (2) The Geysers-Clear Lake, (3) Long Valley caldera, (4) Coso volcanic field, and (5) Medicine Lake volcano, all located in California and all selected on the basis of recent volcanic activity and published indications of crustal melt zones. 23 figs.

  7. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spallation Drilling System for EGS Project Type Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and DevelopmentAnalysis Project Type Topic 2 Drilling...

  8. POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDRO­THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY C.C. Carøe 1 , M.P. Nowak 2 , W. R: A multi­stage stochastic pro­ gramming model for power scheduling un­ der uncertainty in a generation system comprising thermal and pumped­storage hydro units is developed. For its compu­ tational solution

  9. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstrumentsArea (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation,SystemMEQ in EGSProject |

  10. A decomposition approach to the economic dispatch of hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, M.U.F.; Pinto, L.M.

    1982-10-01

    The objective of the predispatch of a hydroelectric system is to produce an hourly generation schedule that does not violate electrical constraints and meets weekly generation targets for each hydro plant. The predispatch can therefore be seen as a link between operation planning and the on-line generation scheduling. This paper presents a decomposition approach to the solution of the predispatch problem, which is modeled as a large-scale linear program and solved by Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition. The subproblems in this decompositon correspond to hourly optimal rescheduling problems and are solved by an efficient version of the Dual Simplex method. Core and CPU requirements are thus greatly reduced. A case study with the Brazilian Southeast network is presented and discussed.

  11. Hydrothermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2011-03-11

    This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

  12. Faults and gravity anomalies over the East Mesa hydrothermal-geothermal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Carle, S.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed interpretations of gravity anomalies over geothermal systems may be extremely useful for mapping the fracture or fault systems that control the circulation of the thermal waters. This approach seems to be particularly applicable in areas like the Salton Trough where reactions between the thermal waters and the porous sediments produce authigenic-hydrothermal minerals in sufficient quantity to cause distinct gravity anomalies at the surface. A 3-D inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly over the East Mesa geothermal field was made to examine the densified volume of rock. We show that the data not only resolve a north-south and an intersecting northwest structure, but that it may be possible to distinguish between the active present-day hydrothermal system and an older and cooler part of the system. The densified region is compared spatially to self-potential, thermal and seismic results and we find a good concordance between the different geophysical data sets. Our results agree with previous studies that have indicated that the main feeder fault recharging the East Mesa reservoir dips steeply to the west.

  13. A genetic algorithm for solving the unit commitment problem of a hydro-thermal power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolf, A.; Bayrleithner, R.

    1999-11-01

    The paper presents a two layer approach to solve the unit commitment problem of a hydro-thermal power system. The first layer uses a genetic algorithm (GA) to decide the on/off status of the units. The second layer uses a non-linear programming formulation solved by a Lagrangian relaxation to perform the economic dispatch while meeting all plant and system constraints. In order to deal effectively with the constraints of the problem and prune the search space of the GA in advance, the difficult minimum up/down-time constraints of thermal generation units and the turbine/pump operating constraint of storage power stations are embedded in the binary strings that are coded to represent the on/off-states of the generating units. The other constraints are handled by integrating penalty costs into the fitness function. In order to save execution time, the economic dispatch is only performed if the given unit commitment schedule is able to meet the load balance, energy, and begin/end level constraints. The proposed solution approach was tested on a real scaled hydro-thermal power system over a period of a day in half-hour time-steps for different GA-parameters. The simulation results reveal that the features of easy implementation, convergence within an acceptable execution time, and highly optimal solution in solving the unit commitment problem can be achieved.

  14. The boron isotope systematics of the Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming) hydrothermal system: A reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, M.R. (Bristol Univ. (England)); Sturchio, N.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Boron concentrations and isotope compositions have been measured in fourteen hot spring waters, two drill hole waters, an unaltered rhyolite flow, and hydrothermally altered rhyolite from the geothermal system in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The samples are representative of the major thermal areas within the park and span the range of fluid types. For the fluids, the B concentrations range from 0.043-2.69 mM/kg, and the {delta}{sup 11}B values range from {minus}9.3 to +4.4{per thousand}. There is no relationship between the dissolved B concentrations or isotope compositions with the concentration of any major element (other than Cl) or physical property. Each basin is characterized by a restricted range in B/Cl ratios and {delta}{sup 11}B values. Hot spring waters from the Norris Basin, Upper Geyser Basin, Calcite Springs, and Clearwater have {delta}{sup 11}B values close to that of unaltered rhyolite ({minus}5.2{per thousand}) and are interpreted to have derived their B from this source. Waters from Mammoth Hot Springs, Sheepeater, and Rainbow Springs have lower {delta}{sup 11}B values close to {minus}8{per thousand}. These lower values may reflect leaching of B from sedimentary rocks outside the Yellowstone caldera, but they are similar to the {delta}{sup 11}B value of hydrothermally altered rhyolite ({minus}9.7{per thousand}). Hence, the light boron isotope compositions recorded in these hot spring waters may reflect leaching of previously deposited hydrothermal minerals. Cooler springs along the Yellowstone River just outside the park boundary have lower B concentrations and higher {delta}{sup 11}B values that may reflect mixing with shallow meteoric water.

  15. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  16. A core hole into the hydrothermal system of the Long Valley caldera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollenberg, H.; White, A.; Flexser, S.; Sorey, M.; Farrar, C.

    1987-03-01

    To investigate the present-day hydrothermal system, the ''Shady Rest'' hole was continuously cored 715m into the southwestern moat of the Long Valley caldera. The hole intersected 100m of glacial till and 300m of postcaldera rhyolite before entering the welded Bishop Tuff and bottoming in that unit. A sharp temperature rise over the upper 350m, and near-isothermal conditions below reflect the presence of approx.200/sup 0/C water moving through open, calcite-lined fractures in silicified Early Rhyolite and Bishop Tuff. The depth to the Bishop is the shallowest encountered in holes in the caldera, and the temperatures measured are among the hottest observed in wells drilled within the caldera.

  17. Eruptive history and petrochemistry of the Bulusan volcanic complex: Implications for the hydrothermal system and volcanic hazards of Mt. Bulusan, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delfin, F.G. Jr.; Panem, C.C.; Defant, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Two contrasting conceptual models of the postcaldera magmatic system of the Bulusan volcanic complex are constructed on the basis of a synthesis of volcanological, petrochemical, and petrologic data. These models predict that hydrothermal convection below the complex will occur either in discrete, structurally-focused zones or over a much broader area. Both models, however, agree that hydrothermal fluids at depth will be highly acidic and volcanic-related. Future ash-fall eruptions and mudflows are likely to affect the area previously chosen for possible drilling. Such risks, combined with the expected acidic character of the hydrothermal system, argue against drilling into this system.

  18. Effects of glacial ice on subsurface temperatures of hydrothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: Fluid-inclusion evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bargar, K.E.; Fournier, R.O. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Hydrothermal quartz and fluorite crystals containing liquid-rich fluid inclusions (coexisting vapor-rich fluid inclusions were not observed) were found in drill cores from eight relatively shallow research holes drilled by the US Geological Survey in and near major geyser basins of Yellowstone National Park. Homogenization temperatures (T{sub h}) for mostly secondary fluid inclusions show variations in temperature that have occurred at give depths since precipitation of the host minerals. Within major hydrothermal upflow zones, fluid-inclusion T{sub h} values all were found to be equal to or higher (commonly 20-50 C and up to 155 C higher) than present temperatures at the depths sampled. During periods when thick glacial ice covered the Yellowstone National Park region, pore-fluid pressures in the underlying rock were increased in proportion to the weight of the overlying column of ice. Accordingly, theoretical reference boiling-point curves that reflect the maximum temperature attainable in a hot-water geothermal system at a given depth were elevated, and temperatures within zones of major hydrothermal upflow (drill holes Y-2, Y-3, Y-6, Y-11, Y-13, and upper part of Y-5) increased. The thicknesses of ice required to elevate boiling-point curves sufficiently to account for the observed fluid-inclusion T{sub h} values are within the ranges estimated by glacial geologic studies. At the margins of major hydrothermal upflow zones (drill holes Y-4 and Y-9), fluid-inclusion T{sub h} values at given depths range from 57 C lower to about the same as the current temperature measurements because of a previous decrease in the rate of discharge of warm water and/or an increase in the rate of recharge of cold water into the hydrothermal system.

  19. EDDY CURRENT SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF CRACKING BENEATH BRAIDING IN CORRUGATED METAL HOSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wincheski, Buzz [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Simpson, John [Lockheed Martin Space Operations, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Hall, George [George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20052 (United States)

    2009-03-03

    In this paper an eddy current system for the detection of partially-through-the-thickness cracks in corrugated metal hose is presented. Design criteria based upon the geometry and conductivity of the part are developed and applied to the fabrication of a prototype inspection system. Experimental data are used to highlight the capabilities of the system and an image processing technique is presented to improve flaw detection capabilities. A case study for detection of cracking damage in a space shuttle radiator retract flex hoses is also presented.

  20. Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system, Leyte Province, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.G.; Giggenbach, W.F.; Saleras, J.R.M.; Salonga, N.D.; Vergara, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    Based on detailed petrological information on secondary mineral assemblages and the composition of fluids trapped in inclusions and discharged from five wells, the Alto Peak geothermal field was found to represent a combined vapor and liquid-dominated system. A central core or chimney, with a diameter of about 1 km, a height of some 3 km and occupied by a high gas vapor (1.1 to 5.6 molal CO{sub 2}), is surrounded by an envelope of intermediate salinity water (7,000 mg/kg Cl) with temperatures between 250 and 350 C. The transition from purely vapor-dominated to liquid-dominated zones takes place via two-phase zones occupied by fluid mixtures of highly variable compositions. Much of the lower temperature, mature neutral pH Cl water is likely to have formed during an earlier stage in the evolution of the system. High temperatures of > 300 C, and associated alteration, are limited to wells AP-1D and the lower parts of AP-2D and are ascribed to re-heating by recent magmatic intrusions. The isotopic composition of the well discharges suggests that they contain some 40 to 50% of magmatic water. Alto Peak is considered a typical example of hydrothermal systems associated with many dormant volcanoes.

  1. Laboratory and field-based investigations of subsurface geochemical processes in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Eoghan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of four discrete investigations into processes governing the organic and inorganic chemical composition of seafloor hydrothermal fluids in a variety of geologic settings. Though Chapters 2 ...

  2. The role of oxalic acid on the dissolution of granitic sand: an experimental investigation in a hydrothermal flow-through system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christy Lynn

    1990-01-01

    THE ROLE OF OXALIC ACID ON THE DISSOLUTION OF GRANITIC SAND: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION IN A HYDROTHERMAL FLOW-THROUGH SYSTEM A Thesis by CHRISTY LYNN REED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Geology THE ROLE OF OXALIC ACID ON THE DISSOLUTION OF GRANITIC SAND: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION IN A HYDROTHERMAL FLOW-THROUGH SYSTEM A Thesis...

  3. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-08-31

    This two-page fact sheet provides an overview of hydrothermal resources and hydrothermal reservoir creation and operation.

  4. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    long-lived hydrothermal flow despite potential clogging of fractures due to mineral precipitation. As fault systems evolve, propagation, interaction, and linkage of fault segments...

  5. Hydrothermal changes related to earthquake activity at Mud Volcano, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitt, A.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1982-04-10

    The Mud Volcano hydrothermal area in Yellowstone National Park is near the intersection of a 20-km-long zone of northeast trending normal faults with the eastern resurgent dome within the 600,000-year-odd Yellowstone caldera. Recent crustal uplift along the northeast trending axis of the caldera is at a maximum (700 mm since 1923) near the Mud Volcano area. From 1973 through April 1978, less than 10 earthquakes (largest M 2.4) were located within 3 km of the Mud Volcano area. In May 1978, earthquakes began occurring beneath the hydrothermal area at depths of 1 to 5 km. The seismic activity continued until the end of November with intense swarms (100 events per hour) occurring on October 23 and November 7. The largest event (M 3.1) occured on November 14 and at least 8 events were M 2.5 or larger. In December 1978, heat flux in the Mud Volcano hydrothermal features began increasing along a 2-km-long northeast trending zone. Existing mud cauldrons became more active, new mud cauldrons and fumeroles were formed, and vegetation (primarily lodgepole pine) was killed by increased soil temperature. The increase in heat flux continued through July 1979 then gradually declined, reaching the early 1978 level by June 1980. The spatial and temporal association of earthquakes and increased hydrothermal activity at Mud Volcano suggests that the seismic activity expanded preexisting fracture systems, premitting increased fluid flow from depths of several kilometers.

  6. A New Type of Two-Dimensional Metal Coordination Systems: Hydrothermal Synthesis and Properties of the First Oxalate-bpy Mixed-Ligand Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    A New Type of Two-Dimensional Metal Coordination Systems: Hydrothermal Synthesis and Properties, 290 °C; II, 340 °C; III, 350 °C; and IV, 290 °C). Introduction Investigation of novel inorganic-organic hybrid framework assemblies represents one of the most active areas of materials science and chemical

  7. Luminescent nanocrystals in the rare-earth niobate–zirconia system formed via hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Masanori Dozono, Hayato

    2013-08-15

    Luminescent nanocrystals based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}, were hydrothermally formed as cubic phase under weakly basic conditions at 240 °C. The lattice parameter of the as-prepared nanoparticles corresponding to the composition of Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7}–4ZrO{sub 2} that was estimated as a single phase of cubic gradually increased as the content of europium x increased. The existence of small absorbance peaks at 395 and 466 nm corresponding to the Eu{sup 3+7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}L{sub 6}, and {sup 7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}D{sub 2} excitation transition, respectively, was clearly observed in the diffuse reflectance spectra of the as-prepared samples containing europium. The optical band gap of the as-prepared samples was in the range from 3.5 to 3.7 eV. The photoluminescence spectra of the as-prepared nanocrystals containing europium showed orange and red luminescences with main peaks at 590 and 610 nm, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions of Eu{sup 3+}, respectively, under excitation at 395 nm Xe lamp. The emission intensity corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition increased as heat-treatment temperature rose from 800 to 1200 °C. - Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract shows the excitation and emission spectra and a transmission electron microscopy image of nanocrystals (with composition based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}) formed via hydrothermal route. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nanocrystals composed of 50 mol% Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2} was directly formed. • The nanocrystals were hydrothermally formed under weakly basic conditions at 240 °C. • The Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} showed an UV-blue and broad-band emission under excitation at 240 nm. • The emission is originated from the niobate octahedral group [NbO{sub 6}]{sup 7?}. • The nanocrystals showed orange and red luminescences ({sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} , Eu{sup 3+})

  8. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

  9. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L. (eds.)

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  10. In situ ore formation experiment: Amino acids and amino sugars trapped in artificial chimneys on deep-sea hydrothermal systems at Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takano,; Marumo,; K.,; Ebashi,; T.,; Gupta,; P., L; Kawahata,; H.,; Kobayashi,; K.,; Yamagishi,; A.,; Kuwabara,; T,

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the bio-organic composition of a deep-sea venting hydrothermal system originating from arc volcanism; the origin of the particulates in hydrothermal fluids from the Suiyo Seamount in the southern Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) Arc is discussed with regard to amino compounds. Chimney samples on deep-sea hydrothermal systems and core samples at Suiyo Seamount were determined for amino acids, and occasionally amino sugars. Two types of chimney samples were obtained from active hydrothermal systems by submersible vehicles: one was natural chimney (NC) on a hydrothermal natural vent; the other was artificial chimneys (AC), mainly formed by the growth and deposition of sulfide-rich particulate components in a Kuwabara-type in situ incubator (KI incubator). Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) and hydrolyzed hexosamines (HA) in AC ranged from 10.7 nmol/g to 64.0 nmol/g and from 0 nmol/g to 8.1 nmol/g, respectively, while THAA in hydrothermally altered core samples ranged from 26.0 nmol/g to 107.4 ...

  11. Hydrothermal spallation drilling and advanced energy conversion technologies for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustine, Chad R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the various factors affecting the economic and technical feasibility of Engineered Geothermal Systems, with a special emphasis on advanced drilling technologies. The first part of ...

  12. Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal System- A Case Study Of The Geysers Geothermal Field, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  13. GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, IDAHO Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: GEOLOGY...

  14. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  15. Behavior of nuclear waste elements during hydrothermal alteration of glassy rhyolite in an active geothermal system: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-12-31

    The behavior of a group of nuclear waste elements (U, Th, Sr, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, and Sm) during hydrothermal alteration of glassy rhyolite is investigated through detailed geochemical analyses of whole rocks, glass and mineral separates, and thermal waters. Significant mobility of U, Sr, Sb, Cs, and Ba is found, and the role of sorption processes in their observed behavior is identified. Th, Zr, and Sm are relatively immobile, except on a microscopic scale. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. The BGU/CERN solar hydrothermal reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertolucci, Sergio; Caspers, Fritz; Garb, Yaakov; Gross, Amit; Pauletta, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel solar hydrothermal reactor (SHR) under development by Ben Gurion University (BGU) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. We describe in broad terms the several novel aspects of the device and, by extension, of the niche it occupies: in particular, enabling direct off-grid conversion of a range of organic feedstocks to sterile useable (solid, liquid) fuels, nutrients, products using only solar energy and water. We then provide a brief description of the high temperature high efficiency panels that provide process heat to the hydrothermal reactor, and review the basics of hydrothermal processes and conversion taking place in this. We conclude with a description of a simulation of the pilot system that will begin operation later this year.

  17. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Whole Algae Hydrothermal...

  18. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  19. Predicting Groundwater Contamination beneath Stormwater Infiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Predicting Groundwater Contamination beneath Stormwater Infiltration Activities Shirley E. Clark, Penn State Harrisburg Robert Pitt, University of Alabama Pollutants of Concern · Classes of stormwaterHighest Observed Concentration Metal Are these waters infiltration quality? Benefits of Urban Stormwater

  20. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls -Hydro-PacHydronic Systems:TechnologyHydrothermal

  1. P-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Iceland from local earthquake tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yang

    P-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Iceland from local earthquake and uppermost mantle beneath Iceland, the keys to understanding the magma plumbing system of the hotspot develop a three-dimensional P-wave velocity model of the Icelandic crust and uppermost mantle from

  2. Hydrothermal vents of Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplinski, M.A.; Morgan, P. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems within Yellowstone Lake are located within the Yellowstone caldera in the northeastern and West Thumb sections of the lake. The vent systems lie within areas of extremely high geothermal gradients (< 1,000 C/km) in the lake sediments and occur as clusters of individual vents that expel both hydrothermal fluids and gas. Regions surrounding the vents are colonized by unique, chemotropic biologic communities and suggest that hydrothermal input plays an important role in the nutrient dynamics of the lake's ecosystem. The main concentration of hydrothermal activity occurs in the northeast region of the main lake body in a number of locations including: (1) along the shoreline from the southern edge of Sedge Bay to the inlet of Pelican Creek; (2) the central portion of the partially submerged Mary Bay phreatic explosion crater, within deep (30--50 m) fissures; (3) along the top of a 3 km long, steep-sided ridge that extends from the southern border of Mary Bay, south-southeast into the main lake basin; and (4) east of Stevenson Island along the lower portion of the slope (50--107 m) into the lake basin, within an anastomosing series of north to northwest trending, narrow troughs or fissures. Hydrothermal vents were also located within, and surrounding the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake, with the main concentration occurring the offshore of the West Thumb and Potts Geyser Basin. Hydrothermal vents in Yellowstone Lake occur along fractures that have penetrated the lake sediments or along the tops of ridges and near shore areas. Underneath the lake, rising hydrothermal fluids encounter a semi-permeable cap of lake sediments. Upwardly convecting hydrothermal fluid flow may be diverted by the impermeable lake sediments along the buried, pre-existing topography. These fluids may continue to rise along topography until fractures are encountered, or the lake sediment cover is thinned sufficiently to allow egress of the fluids.

  3. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

  4. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas: EnergyHunterdonHutto,FuelEnergyGabbsequal to

  5. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas: EnergyHunterdonHutto,FuelEnergyGabbsequal

  6. Impact-induced hydrothermal activity on early Mars Oleg Abramov and David A. Kring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abramov, Oleg

    Impact-induced hydrothermal activity on early Mars Oleg Abramov and David A. Kring Lunar time for colonization of impact-induced hydrothermal systems by thermophilic organisms, provided they existed on early Mars. The habitable volume reaches a maximum of 6,000 km3 8,500 years after the impact

  7. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  8. Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.; Evans, W.C. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California (United States)] Kennedy, B.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States)] Farrar, C.D. [U.S. Geological Survey, Carnelian Bay, California (United States)] Hainsworth, L.J. [Chemistry Department, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia (United States)] Hausback, B. [Geology Department, California State University, Sacramento

    1998-07-01

    Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source ({delta}thinsp{sup 13}C={minus}4.5 to {minus}5{per_thousand}, {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He=4.5 to 6.7 R{sub A}) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO{sub 2} discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills arc associated with CO{sub 2} concentrations of 30{endash}90{percent} in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 gthinspm{sup {minus}2}thinspd{sup {minus}1} at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO{sub 2} discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO{sub 2} flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30{endash}50 t/d of CO{sub 2} are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N{sub 2}/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  9. Injection of carbon from the shelf to offshore beneath the euphotic zone in the California Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasubramanian, Ravi

    Injection of carbon from the shelf to offshore beneath the euphotic zone in the California Current concentrations of chlorophyll are found in the California Current System over 300 km offshore, far from the coast and transported offshore in the meandering California Current jet. Chlorophyll is forced downward

  10. Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    structure in the shallow crust beneath the region containing the Coso volcanic-geothermal area of eastern California. SV and P wave amplitudes were measured from...

  11. Evidence For Gas And Magmatic Sources Beneath The Yellowstone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of magma beneath the Yellowstone caldera. Authors Stephan Husen, Robert B. Smith and Gregory P. Waite Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research,...

  12. Crust and Upper Mantle P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Valles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crust and Upper Mantle P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Valles Caldera, New Mexico- Results from the Jemez Teleseismic Tomography Experiment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  13. Temporal Velocity Variations beneath the Coso Geothermal Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temporal Velocity Variations beneath the Coso Geothermal Field Observed using Seismic Double Difference Tomography of Compressional and Shear Wave Arrival Times Jump to:...

  14. Structure and Stratigraphy Beneath a Young Phreatic Vent: South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Structure and Stratigraphy Beneath a Young Phreatic Vent: South Inyo Crater, Long Valley Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  15. Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to exist beneath the western moat, perhaps beneath Mammoth Mountain. Authors Brian M. Smith and Gene A. Suemnicht Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal...

  16. Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Knowledge Exchange on Openei Abstract Though exploring for hydrothermal resources is not new, advances in exploration technologies and the pursuit of less visible resources have...

  17. Stratigraphy, Structure, Hydrothermal Alteration and Ore Mineralizatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stratigraphy, Structure, Hydrothermal Alteration and Ore Mineralization Encountered in CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) Corehole VC-2A, Sulphur Springs Area, Valles...

  18. Mantle transition zone topography and structure beneath the Yellowstone hotspot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dueker, Ken

    Mantle transition zone topography and structure beneath the Yellowstone hotspot David Fee and Ken ± 1.6 km, with 36­40 km of peak to peak topography. This topography is spatially uncorrelated, providing no evidence for a lower mantle plume currently beneath the hotspot. The topography suggests

  19. Fluid-inclusion gas composition from an active magmatic-hydrothermal system: a case study of The Geysers, California geothermal field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Joseph N.; Norman, David I.; Kennedy, B. Mack.

    2001-01-01

    Ed. . , Active geothermal systems and gold–mercury depositsEd. . , Active Geothermal Systems and Gold– Mercury Depositsassoci- ated geothermal systems, alteration, mineralization,

  20. Mapping bedrock beneath glacial till using CDP seismic reflection methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiswetter, Dean; Black, Ross A.; Steeples, Don W.

    1994-03-01

    This paper is a case history demonstrating the applicability of the common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to image bedrock beneath glacial till in northwestern Iowa. Reflections from the base of the 40-m thick ...

  1. Laboratory simulation of subsurface airflow beneath a building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corsello, Joseph William

    2014-01-01

    Vapor intrusion is the vapor-phase migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings due to subsurface soil or groundwater contamination. Oxygen replenishment rates beneath a building are significant for ...

  2. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-18

    Wet macroalgal slurries can be converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable oil product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 ?C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics. As a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  3. Biomass reforming processes in hydrothermal media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Andrew A

    2009-01-01

    While hydrothermal technologies offer distinct advantages in being able to process a wide variety of biomass feedstocks, the composition of the feedstock will have a large effect on the processing employed. This thesis ...

  4. Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of aqueous species in the geothermal fluids were combined with activity phase diagrams accounting for hydrothermal sericite compositions to determine a pH of 6.1 for the...

  5. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  6. Geochemical tracers of processes affecting the formation of seafloor hydrothermal fluids and deposits in the Manus back-arc basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craddock, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    Systematic differences in trace element compositions (rare earth element (REE), heavy metal, metalloid concentrations) of seafloor vent fluids and related deposits from hydrothermal systems in the Manus back-arc basin ...

  7. Chars produced by slow pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization vary in carbon sequestration potential and greenhouse gases emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malghani, S; Gleixner, G; Trumbore, SE

    2013-01-01

    of biochar from fast pyrolysis and gasi?cation systems.Effects of slow and fast pyrolysis biochar on soil C and Ncarbonaceous products obtained by pyrolysis and hydrothermal

  8. The solubility of natural quartz sand at 100?C, and 150?C, 345 bars: an experimental investigation in a flow-through hydrothermal system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Gregory Lee

    1989-01-01

    geothermometers and mixing for geothermal systems. Geothermi cs 5, 41-50. Foumier R. O. and Potter R. W. II (1982) An equation correlating the solubility of quartz in water from 25' to 900' C at pressures up to 10, 000 bars, Geochim. Cosrnochim. Acta 46, 1969...

  9. Reconnaissance of the hydrothermal resources of Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rush, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic factors in the Basin and Range province in Utah are more favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources than in other areas on the Colorado Plateaus or in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These geologic factors are principally crustal extension and crustal thinning during the last 17 million years. Basalts as young as 10,000 years have been mapped in the area. High-silica volcanic and intrusive rocks of Quaternary age can be used to locate hydrothermal convection systems. Drilling for hot, high-silica, buried rock bodies is most promising in the areas of recent volcanic activity. Southwestern Utah has more geothermal potential than other parts of the Basin and Range province in Utah. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area, the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale area, and the area to the north as far as 60 kilometers from them probably have the best potential for geothermal development for generation of electricity. Other areas with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C are Thermo, Monroe, Red Hill (in the Monroe-Joseph Known Geothermal Resource Area), Joseph Hot Springs, and the Newcastle area. The rates of heat and water discharge are high at Crater, Meadow, and Hatton Hot Springs, but estimated reservoir temperatures there are less than 150/sup 0/C. Additional exploration is needed to define the potential in three additional areas in the Escalante Desert. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst Examines the effect of hydrothermal aging on the Nox reduction over a commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst. deer11lee.pdf More...

  11. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  12. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-29

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  13. Imaging the mantle beneath Iceland using integrated seismological techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    head, this study presents a tomographic image of the mantle structure beneath Iceland to 400 km depth of the body wave and surface wave information reveals a predominantly horizontal low-velocity anomaly extending from the Moho down to $250 km depth, interpreted as a plume head. Below the plume head a near

  14. Mantle structure beneath the western United States and its implications for convection processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Richard M.

    River Plain (ESRP) and the High Lava Plains, and a deep low velocity anomaly (>600 km) beneath the ESRP and dips toward the northwest; (3) shallow low velocity anomalies (upper 200 km) beneath the eastern Snake

  15. Hydro unit commitment in hydro-thermal optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, C.; Hsu, E.; Svoboda, A.J.; Tseng, C.; Johnson, R.B. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In this paper the authors develop a model and technique for solving the combined hydro and thermal unit commitment problem, taking into full account the hydro unit dynamic constraints in achieving overall economy of power system operation. The combined hydrothermal unit commitment problem is solved by a decomposition and coordination approach. Thermal unit commitment is solved using a conventional Lagrangian relaxation technique. The hydro system is divided into watersheds, which are further broken down into reservoirs. The watersheds are optimized by Network Flow Programming (NFP). Priority-list-based Dynamic Programming is used to solve the Hydro Unit Commitment (HUC) problem at the reservoir level. A successive approximation method is used for updating the marginal water values (Lagrange multipliers) to improve the hydro unit commitment convergence, due to the large size and multiple couplings of water conservation constraints. The integration of the hydro unit commitment into the existing Hydro-Thermal Optimization (HTO) package greatly improves the quality of its solution in the PG and E power system.

  16. Hydrothermal stability of high silica zeolites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, David

    1988-01-01

    This thesis concerns the hydrothermal stability of two zeolite molecular sieves with the MFI structure, ZSM-5 and its 'aluminium free' form silicalite. Silicalite was synthesised from low pH alkali metal free aqueous gels at 95°C and characterised...

  17. Imaging seismic velocity structure beneath the Iceland hot spot: A finite frequency approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yang

    Imaging seismic velocity structure beneath the Iceland hot spot: A finite frequency approach Shu and S wave speeds extending from shallow mantle to 400 km depth beneath Iceland. In reality, seismic waves anomaly beneath Iceland and its geodynamic implications. We developed a tomographic method that utilizes

  18. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    were designed to assess the Long Valley hydrothermal system and to identify possible deep geothermal drilling targets beneath the western portion of the caldera. Notes The...

  19. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  20. Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:Hydrothermally Deposited Rock Jump to: navigation,

  1. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReport FY2014 -Energy Costs by IncreasingWhole Algae Hydrothermal

  2. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContractingManagement »Hydrogen and FuelHydrothermal

  3. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  4. The Hydrothermal Outflow Plume of Valles Caldera, New Mexico...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are parents to mixed fluids flowing in the hydrothermal plume. However, isotopic data, borehole data, basic geology, and inverse relations between temperature and chloride...

  5. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States...

  6. Altered Tectonic and Hydrothermal Breccias in Corehole VC-1,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    origin. Hydrothermal breccias and associated crackle zones or stockworks created by hydraulic fracturing can provide significant secondary permeability, as demonstrated by...

  7. An Overview of Hydrothermal Alteration and Vein Mineralization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Overview of Hydrothermal Alteration and Vein Mineralization in Continental Scientific Drilling Program Core Hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search...

  8. Robust optimization based self scheduling of hydro-thermal Genco ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dec 29, 2013 ... Abstract: This paper proposes a robust optimization model for optimal self scheduling of a hydro-thermal generating company. The proposed ...

  9. On the Turbulence Beneath Finite Amplitude Water Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babanin, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    The paper by Beya et al. (2012, hereinafter BPB) has a general title of Turbulence Beneath Finite Amplitude Water Waves, but is solely dedicated to discussing the experiment by Babanin and Haus (2009, hereinafter BH) who conducted measurements of wave-induced non-breaking turbulence by particle image velocimetry (PIV). The authors of BPB conclude that their observations contradict those of BH. Here we argue that the outcomes of BPB do not contradict BH. In addition, although the main conclusion of BPB is that there is no turbulence observed in their experiment, it actually is observed.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of hexagonal magnesium hydroxide nanoflakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qwchem@gmail.com [Laboratory for Micro-sized Functional Materials and College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Li, Chunhong [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, Ming [Laboratory for Micro-sized Functional Materials and College of Elementary Education, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Sun, Lingna [ShenZhen Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Hu, Changwen [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education of China, The Institute for Chemical Physics and Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of PEG-20,000. Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake yielded different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. - Highlights: • Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of hexagonal nanostructure. • Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes show different crystalline structures at different positions. • The probable formation mechanism of hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes was reported. - Abstract: Hexagonal magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene glycol 20,000 (PEG-20,000). Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The composition, morphologies and structure of the Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake show different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were performed to investigate the porous structure and surface area of the as-obtained nanoflakes.

  11. Crustal and Uppermost Mantle Structure beneath the Western United States from USArray Regional Phase Analysis /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehler, Janine Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    SN), Mojave (M), Snake River Plain. (SRP), Northern Rockysplitting beneath the Snake River Plain suggests a mantleSierra Nevada (SN), Snake River Plain (SRP), Northern Rocky

  12. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-05-15

    The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and up/down-conversion luminescence of barium rare earth fluoride nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Li-Ping; Zhang, Qiang [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse (Tongji University) (China); Yan, Bing, E-mail: byan@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse (Tongji University) (China)

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Lanthanide ions doped bare earth rare earth fluoride nanocrystals are synthesized by hydrothermal technology and characterized. The down/up-conversion luminescence of them are discussed. - Highlights: • Mixed hydrothermal system H{sub 2}O–OA (EDA)–O-A(LO-A) is used for synthesis. • Barium rare earth fluoride nanocrystals are synthesized comprehensively. • Luminescence for down-conversion and up-conversion are obtained for these systems. - Abstract: Mixed hydrothermal system H{sub 2}O–OA (EDA)–O-A(LO-A) is developed to synthesize barium rare earth fluorides nanocrystals (OA = oleylamine, EDA = ethylenediamine, O-A = oleic acid and LO-A = linoleic acid). They are presented as BaREF{sub 5} (RE = Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Tm, Lu) and Ba{sub 2}REF{sub 7} (RE = La, Sm, Ho, Er, Yb). The influence of reaction parameters (rare earth species, hydrothermal system and temperature) is checked on the phase and shape evolution of the fluoride nanocrystals. It is found that reaction time and temperature of these nanocrystals using EDA (180 °C, 6 h) is lower than those of them using OA (220 °C, 10 h). The photoluminescence properties of these fluorides activated by some rare earth ions (Nd{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) are studied, and especially up-conversion luminescence of the four fluoride nanocrystal systems (Ba{sub 2}LaF{sub 7}:Yb, Tm(Er), Ba{sub 2}REF{sub 7}:Yb, Tm(Er) (RE = Gd, Y, Lu)) is observed.

  14. ILLITE-SMECTITE MIXED-LAYER MINERALS IN HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF VOLCANIC ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    diagenesis, low-grade metamorphism, contact metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration. Despite extensive

  15. Plume-lithosphere interaction beneath a fast moving plate Catherine Thoraval,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommasi, Andrea

    , beneath Hawaii, towards Kauai, where the lithosphere is reduced by half [Li et al., 2004]. Heat flow data studies beneath Hawaii lead to opposite conclusions. Surface-wave dispersion as well as sP converted waves also lead to contradictory conclusions. Comparison of on-swell and off-swell data for the Hawaii

  16. Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritsema, Jeroen

    Upper mantle Q and thermal structure beneath Tanzania, East Africa from teleseismic P wave spectra-focus earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations of the Tanzania network to estimate regional variation of sublithospheric mantle attenuation beneath the Tanzania craton and the eastern branch of the East African Rift

  17. Horizontal subduction and truncation of the Cocos Plate beneath central Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Robert W.

    Horizontal subduction and truncation of the Cocos Plate beneath central Mexico Xyoli Pe from a trans-Mexico temporary broadband seismic network centered on Mexico City, we report that the subducting Cocos Plate beneath central Mexico is horizontal, and tectonically underplates the base

  18. Influence of tides on melting and freezing beneath FilchnerRonne Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, David

    Influence of tides on melting and freezing beneath FilchnerRonne Ice Shelf, Antarctica Keith doubles. With tidal forcing, the spatial pattern and magnitude of basal melting and freezing generally), Influence of tides on melting and freezing beneath FilchnerRonne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett

  19. Thermal, hydrous, and mechanical states of the mantle transition zone beneath southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yang

    Thermal, hydrous, and mechanical states of the mantle transition zone beneath southern Africa John cratons in southern Africa; consequently, the mantle transition zone is 20 km thicker than beneath post: lithosphere; upper mantle; transition zone; cratoni convection; Southern Africa 1. Introduction The upper

  20. Seismic tomography shows that upwelling beneath Iceland is confined to the upper mantle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Richard M.

    Seismic tomography shows that upwelling beneath Iceland is confined to the upper mantle G. R of Iceland, Bustadavegi 9, Reykjavik, Iceland 5 National Energy Authority, Grensasvegi 9, Reykjavik, Iceland of the highest-resolution teleseismic tomography study yet performed of the upper mantle beneath Iceland

  1. Belt-parallel mantle flow beneath a halted continental collision: The Western Alps Guilhem Barruol a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Belt-parallel mantle flow beneath a halted continental collision: The Western Alps Guilhem Barruol belts, is a particularly important objective of "mantle tectonics" that may bring a depth extent a coherent picture of upper mantle anisotropy beneath the belt. The large-scale anisotropy pattern

  2. Above the Roof, Beneath the Law: Perceived Justice behind Disruptive Tactics of Migrant Wage Claimants in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, X; Wang, L; Su, Y

    2013-01-01

    bs_bs_banner Above the Roof, Beneath the Law: Perceivedmigrant workers perch on roof tops or towering construction

  3. Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sefiane K.; Moffat J.R.; Matar O.K.; Craster R.V.

    2008-08-01

    Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both ...

  4. Direct use of hydrothermal energy: a review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.; Layton, D.

    1981-08-28

    The potential environmental impacts of the exploration, development, and production of hydrothermal geothermal energy for direct use applications are reviewed and evaluated. Mitigation strategies and research and development needs are included. (MHR)

  5. Hydrothermal Alteration and Past and Present Thermal Regimes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Valley Caldera Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Alteration and Past and Present Thermal Regimes in the Western...

  6. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  7. Seismic Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial Magma Chamber At The Southern East Pacific Rise Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd...

  8. Rational control of hydrothermal nanowire synthesis and its applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Jaebum

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothermal nanowire synthesis is a rapidly emerging nanowire discipline that enables low temperature growth and batch process. It has a major impact on the development of novel energy conversion devices, high density ...

  9. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Chris M. (Shakopee, MN); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND); Mann, Michael D. (Thompson, ND); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Richter, John J. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); Willson, Warrack G. (Fairbanks, AK)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

  10. Hydrothermally altered and fractured granite as an HDR reservoir in the EPS-1 borehole, Alsace,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genter, A.; Traineau, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the European Hot Dry Rocks Project, a second exploration borehole, EPS-1, has been cored to a depth of 2227 m at Soultz-sous-Forets (France). The target was a granite beginning at 1417 m depth, overlain by post-Paleozoic sedimentary cover. Structural analysis and petrographic examination of the 800-m porphyritic granite core, have shown that this rock has undergone several periods of hydrothermal alteration and fracturing. More than 3000 natural structures were recorded, whose distribution pattern shows clusters where low-density fracture zones (less than 1 per meter) alternate with zones of high fracture density (more than 20 per meter). Vein alteration, ascribed to paleohydrothermal systems, developed within the hydrothermally altered and highly fractured zones, transforming primary biotite and plagioclase into clay minerals. One of these zones at 2.2 km depth produced a hot-water outflow during coring, indicating the existence of a hydrothermal reservoir. Its permeability is provided by the fracture network and by secondary porosity of the granitic matrix resulting from vein alteration. This dual porosity in the HDR granite reservoir must be taken into account in the design of the heat exchanger, both for modeling the water-rock interactions and for hydraulic testing.

  11. Grenville foreland thrust belt hidden beneath the eastern US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Grenville foreland thrust structures are observed beneath the eastern US midcontinent on COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) line OH-1 and a short seismic line in southwest Ohio. These structures represent the first evidence for a significant Grenville foreland thrust belt preserved in eastern North America. On the COCORP lines, the structures include a thrust ramp anticline and an associated asymmetric syncline. The Grenville front tectonic zone appears to truncate these foreland structures, indicating a later, second phase expressed as a deeply penetrating, out-of-sequence thrust zone associated with the main uplift of the Grenville province on the east. A short, shallow seismic line in southwestern Ohio reveals an east-dipping sequence of prominently layered rocks that may lie above a footwall ramp to a deeper Grenville thrust fault. A drill hole into the less reflective top of this dipping sequence encountered unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks like those increasingly reported from other drill holes in southwestern Ohio and adjacent states. Although possibly part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift, these clastic sedimentary rocks may instead preserve evidence of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin in eastern North America. Alternatively these Precambrian sedimentary rocks together with an underlying, but yet undrilled, strongly layered sequence may correlate with similarly layered rocks observed on COCORP and industrial seismic lines within the Middle Proterozoic granite-rhyolite province to the west in Indiana and Illinois and indicate that unmetamorphosed sedimentary material is an important constituent of the granite-rhyolite province. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Imaging crust and upper mantle beneath Mount Fuji, Japan, by receiver functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aoki, Yosuke

    , resulting in little knowledge about the seismic structure there. To gain more insight into the magma with magmatic differentiation is suppressed. Fujii [2007] concluded that the magma reservoir beneath Mount Fuji

  13. Layered rocks beneath the Phanerozoic platform of the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-03-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks lies hidden beneath the Phanerozoic cover of the central US over large regions. A thick sequence of Precambrian layered rocks in imaged on the COCORP transect across southern Illinois and Indiana. The thickness of this layered sequence varies from 1-3 times the thickness of the overlying Phanerozoic section of the Illinois basin. The layered sequence is observed for close to 200 km in an east-west direction. Similar layered reflections are seen on the COCORP data from Hardeman Co., TX, and neighboring southwest Oklahoma. Both of these known occurrences lie within the region of the middle Proterozoic Granite/Rhyolite province of the US midcontinent, an area within which scattered wells to basement commonly encounter 1.3-1.5 Ga undeformed granite and/or compositionally similar rhyolite. Therefore, these layered assemblages may comprise a thick sequence of silicic volcanic and sedimentary rocks (perhaps also injected by mafic sills) between scattered volcanic-intrusive centers, such as exposed in the St. Francois Mountains of southeast Missouri. However, in places such as Illinois and Indiana, the near absence of deep wells leaves the possibility that the upper portion of these layered rocks may locally be of late Proterozoic or earliest Paleozoic age. The reprocessing of available industry data, analyzed in conjunction with the existing COCORP data, includes extended vibroseis correlation. These industry data are invaluable in the author's effort to expand the known distribution of these layered rocks (e.g., into north-central Illinois) and to map their structures.

  14. Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR coolant environments in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article: Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR coolant environments in the absence of irradiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR...

  15. Distal transport of dissolved hydrothermal iron in the deep South Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.

    Until recently, hydrothermal vents were not considered to be an important source to the marine dissolved Fe (dFe) inventory because hydrothermal Fe was believed to precipitate quantitatively near the vent site. Based on ...

  16. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Wednesday, 29 April 2009 00:00...

  17. A Serendipitous, Long-Term Infiltration Experiment: Water and Tritium Circulation Beneath the CAMBRIC Ditch at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, R M; Tompson, A B; Kollet, S J

    2008-11-20

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. A sixteen year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in groundwater beneath Frenchman Flat in 1965, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport, tailored specifically for large scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate radionuclide travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the ditch and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the ditch, the water table, and monitoring wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing accurate interpretations and forecasts of contaminant migration processes.

  18. Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toussaint, Renaud

    Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706 PARTICIPANT ORGANIZATION NAME: CNRS Synthetic 2nd year report Related with Work Package............ HYDRO-THERMAL FLOW in the influence of a realistic geometry of the fracture on its hydro-thermal response. Several studies have

  19. Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming Henrik Svensen a carbon cycle. The event lasted for approximately 200,000 years and was manifested by a global warming, and the Toarcian global warming. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: climate change; Toarcian

  20. Geographic Information System At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    over the Dixie Valley hydrothermal convection system, and if so, are they related with soil geochemical, vegetal-spectral, soil spectral, and biogeochemical anomalies. Other goals...

  1. The entrainment of oil droplets in flow beneath an oil slick 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Chien-Hwa

    1973-01-01

    THE ENTRAINMENT OF OIL DROPLETS IN PLOW BENEATH AN OIL SLICK A Thesis by CHIEN-HWA CHAO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE August 1973 Ma...)or Sub)ect: Mechanical Engineering THE ENTRAINMENT OF OIL DROPLETS IN FLOW BENEATH AN OIL SLICK A Thesis CHIEN-HWA CHAD Approved as to style and content by: ( hairman o Committee) (Head of De tment) C ( (Member) ber) (Member) August 1973...

  2. Rapid generation of high-frequency internal waves beneath a wind and wave forced oceanic surface mixed layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Jerome A.

    Rapid generation of high-frequency internal waves beneath a wind and wave forced oceanic surface the wind) generates high- frequency internal waves in the stratified fluid below. The internal waves evolveKinnon, and A. E. Tejada-Marti´nez (2008), Rapid generation of high-frequency internal waves beneath a wind

  3. Exponential growth of ``snow molds'' at sub-zero temperatures: an explanation for high beneath-snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Exponential growth of ``snow molds'' at sub-zero temperatures: an explanation for high beneath organisms of the beneath-snow microbial community, ``snow molds'', exhibit robust exponential growth to -0.3°C for these snow molds vary from 22 to 330. Third, we derive an analytical equation

  4. Evidence from P-to-S mantle converted waves for a flat b660-kmQ discontinuity beneath Iceland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    Evidence from P-to-S mantle converted waves for a flat b660-kmQ discontinuity beneath Iceland Z. Du; accepted 19 September 2005 Available online 22 November 2005 Editor: R.D. van der Hilst Abstract Iceland discontinuity beneath central Iceland is shallow relative to peripheral regions and this was interpreted

  5. Global warming of the mantle beneath continents back to the Archaean Nicolas Coltice a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming of the mantle beneath continents back to the Archaean Nicolas Coltice a, , Hervé triggering melting events without the involvement of hot plumes. This model, called mantle global warming.R., Bertrand, H., Ricard, Y., Rey, P. (2007) Global warming of the mantle at the origin of flood basalts over

  6. Potential for storage of carbon dioxide in the rocks beneath the East Irish Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Research and British Geological Survey Keyworth Nottingham NG12 5GG Email: klsh@bgs.ac.uk Tyndall CentrePotential for storage of carbon dioxide in the rocks beneath the East Irish Sea Karen Kirk February 2006 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 100 #12;Potential for storage

  7. Fossil flat-slab subduction beneath the Illinois basin, USA Heather Bedle , Suzan van der Lee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Lee, Suzan

    .tecto.2006.06.003 #12;basin and mechanisms of basin formation, and interpret the Illinois basinFossil flat-slab subduction beneath the Illinois basin, USA Heather Bedle , Suzan van der Lee August 2006 Abstract The Illinois basin is one of several well-studied intracratonic sedimentary basins

  8. The electrical resistivity structure of the crust beneath the northern Main Ethiopian Rift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The electrical resistivity structure of the crust beneath the northern Main Ethiopian Rift K- long profile crossing the NMER in an approxi- mately NW­SE direction, to image subsurface electrical plateau to try to understand the mechanism for plateau uplift. The MT method provides information

  9. Distribution of magma beneath the Toba caldera complex, north Sumatra, Indonesia, constrained by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaffrey, Robert

    Distribution of magma beneath the Toba caldera complex, north Sumatra, Indonesia, constrained and Geophysical Agency, Jakarta, Indonesia R. McCaffrey, D. A. Wark, and S. W. Roecker Department of Earth@rpi.edu) Fauzi and G. Ibrahim Meteorological and Geophysical Agency, Jakarta, Indonesia (fauzi@bmg.go.id) Sukhyar

  10. Supplemental Figures Seismic imaging of the laterally varying D" region beneath the Cocos Plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnero, Ed

    Supplemental Figures Seismic imaging of the laterally varying D" region beneath the Cocos Plate-474-1882 Fax: 907-474-5618 Email: mthorne@gi.alaska.edu #12;Supplement A. Transverse component velocity.9982 at 80º. #12;Supplement B. Transverse component displacement synthetics are shown. Synthetics for PREM

  11. Distinctive upper mantle anisotropy beneath the High Lava Plains and Eastern Snake River Plain,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distinctive upper mantle anisotropy beneath the High Lava Plains and Eastern Snake River Plain and continuing with the still- ongoing volcanism in the High Lava Plains (HLP) and eastern Snake River Plain (SRP waves; shear wave splitting; high lava plains; Snake River Plain; Yellowstone. Index Terms: 8137

  12. On the vertical extent of the large low shear velocity province beneath the South Pacific Superswell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barruol, Guilhem

    , the southwestern Pacific events recorded by seismic arrays in southeastern Asia sample its western rim [Takeuchi et the western rim to the southern rim of the Pacific LLSVP is proposed as a result of forward modeling [HeOn the vertical extent of the large low shear velocity province beneath the South Pacific

  13. A Post-Perovskite Lens and D Heat Flux Beneath the Central Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnero, Ed

    A Post-Perovskite Lens and Dµ Heat Flux Beneath the Central Pacific Thorne Lay,1 * John Hernlund,2 are attributed to a phase change from perovskite to post-perovskite and then back to perovskite as the temperature increases with depth. Iron enrichment could explain the occurrence of post-perovskite several

  14. Hydrogeochemical niches associated with hyporheic exchange beneath an acid mine drainage-contaminated stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgos, William

    Hydrogeochemical niches associated with hyporheic exchange beneath an acid mine drainage can be used for remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD), however, as sediment depth increases, Fe that generate acidity, frequently referred to as acid mine drainage (AMD) or, more specifically, coal mine

  15. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000032 The Immobility of CO2 in Marine Sediments Beneath 1500

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrag, Daniel

    -than-sea- water CO2 in deep-sea sediments is inherently more secure then storing buoyant supercritical CO2 with the mobility of supercritical CO2 that has been injected into geologically equivalent (i.e., identical porosityDOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000032 The Immobility of CO2 in Marine Sediments Beneath 1500 Meters of Water

  16. Seismic evidence for a tilted mantle plume and north^south mantle ow beneath Iceland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yang

    Seismic evidence for a tilted mantle plume and north^south mantle £ow beneath Iceland Yang Shen a.W., Washington, DC 20015, USA c Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland d Department, Grensasvegi 9, Reykjavik, Iceland f Meteorological O/ce of Iceland, Bustadavegi 9, Reykjavik, Iceland g US

  17. Mantle upwellings and convective instabilities revealed by seismic tomography and helium isotope geochemistry beneath eastern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montagner, Jean-Paul

    geochemistry beneath eastern Africa Jean-Paul Montagner,1 Bernard Marty,2 Ele´onore Stutzmann,1 De for North and East Africa using a high resolution three-dimensional anisotropic tomographic model derived from seismic data of a French experiment ``Horn of Africa'' and existing broadband data. The joint

  18. Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration in stormwater runoff and a decrease in groundwater recharge. Stormwater runoff contains pollutants (nutrients to the degradation of surface waters below stormwater pipe outfalls. Infiltrating stormwater has been shown

  19. Mantle flow beneath northwestern Venezuela: Seismic evidence for a deep origin of the Mrida Andes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    Mantle flow beneath northwestern Venezuela: Seismic evidence for a deep origin of the Mérida Andes University, Houston, TX, USA b Fundación de Investigaciones Simológicas (FUNVISIS), Caracas, Venezuela a b wave splitting from SKS data recorded by the national seismic network of Venezuela and a linear

  20. Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhe; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Guangci; Hu, Xiaofu; Liu, Chenguang

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? The ?-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ? Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ? Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ? A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup ?} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the ?-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

  1. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 ?C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of zirconia based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caillot, T. Salama, Z.; Chanut, N.; Cadete Santos Aires, F.J.; Bennici, S.; Auroux, A.

    2013-07-15

    In this work, three equimolar mixed oxides ZrO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a reference ZrO{sub 2} have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. The structural and surface properties of these materials have been fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, surface area measurement, chemical analysis, XPS, infrared spectroscopy after adsorption of pyridine and adsorption microcalorimetry of NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} probe molecules. All investigated mixed oxides are amphoteric and possess redox centers on their surface. Moreover, hydrothermal synthesis leads to catalysts with higher surface area and with better acid–base properties than classical coprecipitation method. Both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites are present on the surface of the mixed oxides. Compared to the other samples, the ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} material appears to be the best candidate for further application in acid–base catalysis. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous amorphous phase with a high surface area of titania zirconia mixed oxide obtained by hydrothermal preparation. - Highlights: • Three zirconia based catalysts and a reference were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. • Mixed oxides present larger surface areas than the reference ZrO{sub 2}. • ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents a mesoporous structure with high surface area. • ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents simultaneously strong acidic and basic properties.

  3. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the Bill FinancingDepartmentDatabase| Department ofHydropowerHydrothermal

  4. A Transient Model of the Geothermal System of the Long Valley...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    beneath the resurgent dome. Whether the high temperatures in the current geothermal system reflect cooling of magma associated with MonoInyo craters or merely fracturing and...

  5. The Shallow Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera, California | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe Needles GeothermalFinance |RuhlinEnergy

  6. Ecological and Geochemical Aspects of Terrestrial Hydrothermal Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Matthew James

    exploitation of nearby geothermal energy resources. Dixieexploitation of nearby geothermal energy resources. In Napachange (USFWS, 2009), geothermal energy development (BLM,

  7. Ecological and Geochemical Aspects of Terrestrial Hydrothermal Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Matthew James

    Yellowstone Ecosystem, A. boreas breed predominantly in geothermalYellowstone Ecosystem, A. boreas breed predominantly in geothermalYellowstone Ecosystem, A. boreas breed predominantly in geothermal

  8. Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    trace-element dispersion patterns. Multielement analyses of surface rock samples, soil samples and drill cuttings from deep exploration wells provide a three-dimensional...

  9. Hydrothermal systems on Mars:an assessment of present evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Jack D.

    , and as a possible origin for iron oxide-rich spectralunits on the floorsof somerifted basins (chasmata of methods developed by the mining industry to look for similar deposits on Earth. But Earth

  10. Geochemical Modeling of the Near-Surface Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in petrographic studies. Results of this study show that the mineralogy and fluid chemistry observed in the shallow reservoir at Long Valley caldera are formed in an open...

  11. Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that the ammonium feldspar, buddingtonite, occurs as fine-grained euhedral crystals coating larger sulfide and quartz crystals. Ammonium feldspar seems to precipitate relatively...

  12. Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    include smectite, halloysite and disordered kaolinite, cristobalite, tridymite, opal, alunite, gibbsite, and calcite.2. (2) A small area (less than 500 m2) of heated ground...

  13. Present State of the Hydrothermal System in Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Abstract Results of test drilling to depths of 2 km and data on the chemical and isotopic content of waters from hot springs and fumaroles permit a conceptual...

  14. Hydrothermal Convection Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater than or

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas: EnergyHunterdonHutto,FuelEnergyGabbsequal to 90

  15. Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems In The

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-b <Refurbished Projects WindEnergyWestern Us | Open

  16. Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbHSoloPage Edit with formYellowstone National Park-

  17. Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEuropeEnergy InformationSunrainSampling JumpRainier,

  18. The Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera, California | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ AutomationTexas/Wind Resources <forGerman WindCombustion

  19. GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprint VenturesColorado:Georgia:FutureG2FOR EGSIDAHO |

  20. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park. 1: The origin of thiosulfate in hot spring waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Y.; Schoonen, M.A.A. [SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Geosciences] [SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Geosciences; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W. [Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States). Water Resources Div.] [Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States). Water Resources Div.

    1998-12-01

    Thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), polythionate (S{sub x}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), dissolved sulfide (H{sub 2}S), and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) concentrations in thirty-nine alkaline and acidic springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were determined. The analyses were conducted on site, using ion chromatography for thiosulfate, polythionate, and sulfate, and using colorimetry for dissolved sulfide. Thiosulfate was detected at concentrations typically less than 2 {micro}mol/L in neutral and alkaline chloride springs with low sulfate concentrations (Cl{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} > 25). The thiosulfate concentration levels are about one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentration of dissolved sulfide in these springs. In most acid sulfate and acid sulfate-chloride springs (Cl{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} < 10), thiosulfate concentrations were also typically lower than 2 {micro}mol/L. However, in some chloride springs enriched with sulfate (Cl{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} between 10 and 25), thiosulfate was found at concentrations ranging from 9 to 95 {micro}mol/L, higher than the concentrations of dissolved sulfide in these waters. Polythionate was detected only in Cinder Pool, Norris Geyser basin, at concentrations up to 8 {micro}mol/L, with an average S-chain-length from 4.1 to 4.9 sulfur atoms. The results indicate that no thiosulfate occurs in the deeper parts of the hydrothermal system. Thiosulfate may form, however, from (1) hydrolysis of native sulfur by hydrothermal solutions in the shallower parts (<50 m) of the system, (2) oxidation of dissolved sulfide upon mixing of a deep hydrothermal water with aerated shallow groundwater, and (3) the oxidation of dissolved sulfide by dissolved oxygen upon discharge of the hot spring. Upon discharge of a sulfide-containing hydrothermal water, oxidation proceeds rapidly as atmospheric oxygen enters the water. The transfer of oxygen is particularly effective if the hydrothermal discharge is turbulent and has a large surface area.

  1. A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrotherm...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal...

  2. K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole VC-2B, Valles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    However, the range of ages obtained from illites in Permian sands and pebbles and from Precambrian crystalline rocks indicates that Valles hydrothermal activity is overwhelming...

  3. Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, J. G.

    Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking ...

  4. Characterizing Microbial Community and Geochemical Dynamics at Hydrothermal Vents Using Osmotically Driven Continuous Fluid Samplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robidart, Julie C.; Callister, Stephen J.; Song, Peng F.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wheat, Charles G.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2013-05-07

    Microbes play a key role in mediating all aquatic biogeochemical cycles, and ongoing efforts are aimed at better understanding the relationships between microbial phylogenetic and physiological diversity, and habitat physical and chemical characteristics. Establishing such relationships is facilitated by sampling and studying microbiology and geochemistry at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales, to access information on the past and current environmental state that contributes to observed microbial abundances and activities. A modest number of sampling systems exist to date, few of which can be used in remote, harsh environments such as hydrothermal vents, where the ephemeral nature of venting underscores the necessity for higher resolution sampling. We have developed a robust, continuous fluid sampling system for co-registered microbial and biogeochemical analyses. The osmosis-powered bio-osmosampling system (BOSS) use no electricity, collects fluids with daily resolution or better, can be deployed in harsh, inaccessible environments and can sample fluids continuously for up to five years. Here we present a series of tests to examine DNA, RNA and protein stability over time, as well as material compatability, via lab experiments. We also conducted two field deployments at deep-sea hydrothermal vents to assess changes in microbial diversity and protein expression as a function of the physico-chemical environment. Our data reveal significant changes in microbial community composition co-occurring with relatively modest changes in the geochemistry. These data additionally provide new insights into the distribution of an enigmatic sulfur oxidizing symbiont in its free-living state. Data from the second deployment reveal differences in the representation of peptides over time, underscoring the utility of the BOSS in meta-proteomic studies. In concert, these data demonstrate the efficacy of this approach, and illustrate the value of using this method to study microbial and geochemical phenomena.

  5. Supergranular-scale magnetic flux emergence beneath an unstable filament

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palacios, J; Guerrero, A; Saiz, E; Cerrato, Y

    2015-01-01

    Here we report evidence of a large solar filament eruption on 2013, September 29. This smooth eruption, which passed without any previous flare, formed after a two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection towards Earth. The coronal mass ejection generated a moderate geomagnetic storm on 2013, October 2 with very serious localized effects. The whole event passed unnoticed to flare-warning systems. We have conducted multi-wavelength analyses of the Solar Dynamics Observatory through Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. The AIA data on 304, 193, 211, and 94 \\AA sample the transition region and the corona, respectively, while HMI provides photospheric magnetograms, continuum, and linear polarization data, in addition to the fully inverted data provided by HMI. [...] We have observed a supergranular-sized emergence close to a large filament in the boundary of the active region NOAA11850. Filament dynamics and magnetogram results suggest that the magnetic flux emergenc...

  6. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase III final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Wartman, B.L.; Anderson, S.B.

    1982-08-01

    The hydrothermal resources of North Dakota were evaluated. This evaluation was based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples were done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those holes-of-convenience cased.

  7. Analysis of Fracture in Cores from the Tuff Confining Unit beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance Prothro

    2008-03-01

    The role fractures play in the movement of groundwater through zeolitic tuffs that form the tuff confining unit (TCU) beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, is poorly known. This is an important uncertainty, because beneath most of Yucca Flat the TCU lies between the sources of radionuclide contaminants produced by historic underground nuclear testing and the regional carbonate aquifer. To gain a better understanding of the role fractures play in the movement of groundwater and radionuclides through the TCU beneath Yucca Flat, a fracture analysis focusing on hydraulic properties was performed on conventional cores from four vertical exploratory holes in Area 7 of Yucca Flat that fully penetrate the TCU. The results of this study indicate that the TCU is poorly fractured. Fracture density for all fractures is 0.27 fractures per vertical meter of core. For open fractures, or those observed to have some aperture, the density is only 0.06 fractures per vertical meter of core. Open fractures are characterized by apertures ranging from 0.1 to 10 millimeter, and averaging 1.1 millimeter. Aperture typically occurs as small isolated openings along the fracture, accounting for only 10 percent of the fracture volume, the rest being completely healed by secondary minerals. Zeolite is the most common secondary mineral occurring in 48 percent of the fractures observed.

  8. Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on Openei | Open Energy InformationHydrothermal

  9. Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes in hydrothermal sediments: potential influences on sulfur cycling and microbial diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, MM; Hoarfrost, AL; Bose, A; Joye, SB; Girguis, PR

    2013-05-14

    Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C-2), propane (C-3), and butane (C-4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C-1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C-1-C-4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C-1-C-4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75 degrees C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C-2-C-4 alkanes. Maximum C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55 degrees C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C-3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C-4, C-2, and C-1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C-2-C(4)alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C-1 derived from these hydrothermal systems.

  10. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 13, PAGES 2485-2488, JUL 1, 2001 Tectospheric structure beneath southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Lee, Suzan

    beneath southern Africa D. E. James,1 M. J. Fouch,1,2 J. C. VanDecar,1,3 S. van der Lee4 and Kaapvaal Seismic Group5 Abstract. P-wave and S-wave delay times from the broad- band data of the southern Africa in the mantle beneath southern Africa. High velocity mantle roots appear to extend to depths of at least 250 km

  11. Aalborg Universitet Hydrothermal Processing of Lignin for Bio-Crude Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosendahl, Lasse

    Aalborg Universitet Hydrothermal Processing of Lignin for Bio-Crude Production Grigoras, Ionela.aau.dk on: juli 04, 2015 #12;Hydrothermal Processing of Lignin for Bio-crude Production Ionela F. Grigoras) per day, and with an oil production capacity questioned constantly, together with the increasing CO2

  12. A new hydrothermal scenario for the 2006 Lusi eruption, Indonesia. Insights from gas geochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Adriano

    acquired a wide set of data of molecular and isotopic composition of gas sampled in several Lusi vents, in the surrounding mud volcanoes, in the closest natural gas field (Wunut), and in the hydrothermal ventsA new hydrothermal scenario for the 2006 Lusi eruption, Indonesia. Insights from gas geochemistry

  13. Discovery of new hydrothermal vent sites in Branseld Strait, G.P. Klinkhammer aY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Randall A

    ¨ Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, France Received 24 January 2001; accepted 1 October 2001 Abstract We carried out a search for hydrothermal vents in the Central Basin of Bransfield Strait of dredges. Hydrothermal plumes over Hook Ridge at the eastern end of the basin are confined to the E ridge

  14. Raman spectroscopic investigations of hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    There is still very little information about the stoichiometries, structures and stabilities of metal complexes at high temperatures and pressures. Raman spectroscopy is ideally suited to probe and study concentrated electrolyte solutions at the molecular level. This thesis includes the design and construction of a Raman cell operable up to 300C and 15MPa. In order to obtain quantitative thermodynamic information from Raman spectroscopic measurements, a chemically inert internal standard must be used. Perchlorate is commonly used for this purpose at low temperatures, but it may be unstable at high temperatures and its explosive properties make it undesirable. A new preferred internal standard; trifluoromethanesulfonic acid is introduced and its spectra p to 300C discussed. The use of this compound as a high temperature internal standard enabled stepwise stability constants of zinc-bromo complexes to be determined. Although bromide is not an important ligand in geologic systems, its chemical similarity to chloride can provide insights into the study of zinc-chloro species which do not have very informative Raman spectra. The importance of organic ligands in geologic settings such as the Mississippi-Valley Type Pb-Zn sulfide deposits is now being realized. Chapter four presents the first high temperature spectroscopic measurements of lead and zinc acetate aqueous solutions. Not only do these studies verify the stability of lead and zinc acetate complexes up to 250 C but they also show that the type of complex formed is a function of pH, metal-ligand ratio and temperature, thus having important implications for zoning of Pb-Zn sulfide deposits.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods using pyridoxal-5?-phosphate as a phosphorus source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhu, Ying-Jie, E-mail: y.j.zhu@mail.sic.ac.cn; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Chen, Feng; Qi, Chao; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Jin

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Hydroxyapatite nanorods are synthesized using biocompatible biomolecule pyridoxal-5?-phosphate as a new organic phosphorus source by the hydrothermal method. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods is reported. • Biocompatible pyridoxal-5?-phosphate is used as an organic phosphorus source. • This method is simple, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite nanorods are synthesized by the hydrothermal method using biocompatible biomolecule pyridoxal-5?-phosphate (PLP) as a new organic phosphorus source. In this method, PLP biomolecules are hydrolyzed to produce phosphate ions under hydrothermal conditions, and these phosphate ions react with pre-existing calcium ions to form hydroxyapatite nanorods. The effects of experimental conditions including hydrothermal temperature and time on the morphology and crystal phase of the products are investigated. This method is simple, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly. The products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis.

  16. Characterization and catalytic properties of hydrothermally dealuminated MCM-22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meriaudeau, P.; Tuan, V.A.; Nghiem, V.T.; Ha, V.T. [IRC/NCRS, Villeurbanne (France)] [IRC/NCRS, Villeurbanne (France); Lefevbre, F. [Univ. Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France)] [Univ. Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France)

    1999-07-25

    Zeolite MCM-22 was recently patented as a useful catalyst for alkylation and isomerization reactions and for conversion of methanol or olefins to hydrocarbons. MCM-22 has been synthesized and dealuminated by hydrothermal treatments. The resulting solids were characterized by different techniques in order to know how the acid properties of the dealuminated solids were modified. It appears that the number of acid sites was decreased by hydrothermal treatments but the acid strength was not modified. Nondealuminated and dealuminated solids were used in the n-octane hydroconversion. Results suggested that for both types of solids the hydroisomerization is mainly occurring in the 10-membered ring (MR) channels whereas the hydrocracking is mainly coming from acid sites located in 12-membered ring channels. According to the observed distribution of monobranched isomers, MCM-22 shows some ``shape-selective`` character typical of the pentasil family, whereas, according to the absolute yield of isopentane in the hydrocracked products at low hydrocracking conversions, MCM-22 behaves more like a 12 MR zeolite.

  17. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  18. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary?) beneath the midcontinent region of the US. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan?) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  19. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary ) beneath the midcontinent region of the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  20. Hydrothermal growth of single crystals of the quantum magnets: Clinoatacamite, paratacamite, and herbertsmithite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Peter

    In this report, we describe crystal growth technology and characterizations of clinoata- camite, paratacamiteHydrothermal growth of single crystals of the quantum magnets: Clinoatacamite, paratacamite and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA 2 Department

  1. Geochemistry of deep-sea hydrothermal vent fluids from the Mid-Cayman Rise, Caribbean Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDermott, Jill Marie

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the controls on organic, inorganic, and volatile species distributions in hydrothermal fluids venting at Von Damm and Piccard, two recently discovered vent fields at the ultra slow spreading Mid-Cayman ...

  2. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  3. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA)

    2003-12-23

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  4. Oil & Natural Gas Technology Temporal Characterization of Hydrates System Dynamics beneath Seafloor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 -Workers'OfficialSan Miguel CountyOklahoma City,Oil

  5. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged Cu/Beta Zeolite Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun; Burton, Sarah D.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Jen, H. W.; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine

    2012-04-30

    The hydrothermal stability of Cu/beta NH3 SCR catalysts are explored here. In particular, this paper focuses on the interesting ability of this catalyst to maintain and even enhance high-temperature performance for the "standard" SCR reaction after modest (900 °C, 2 hours) hydrothermal aging. Characterization of the fresh and aged catalysts was performed with an aim to identify possible catalytic phases responsible for the enhanced high temperature performance. XRD, TEM and 27Al NMR all showed that the hydrothermally aging conditions used here resulted in almost complete loss of the beta zeolite structure between 1 and 2 hours aging. While the 27Al NMR spectra of 2 and 10 hour hydrothermally-aged catalysts showed significant loss of a peak associated with tetrahedrally-coordinated Al species, no new spectral features were evident. Two model catalysts, suggested by these characterization data as possible mimics of the catalytic phase formed during hydrothermal aging of Cu/beta, were prepared and tested for their performance in the "standard" SCR and NH3 oxidation reactions. The similarity in their reactivity compared to the 2 hour hydrothermally-aged Cu/beta catalyst suggests possible routes for preparing multi-component catalysts that may have wider temperature windows for optimum performance than those provided by current Cu/zeolite catalysts.

  6. Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread precambrian layered rocks (sedimentary ?) beneath the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1992-05-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the U.S. midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1-3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the U.S. midcontinent, and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).

  7. Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread Precambrian layered rocks (Sedimentary ) beneath the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1992-01-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the US midcontinent and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).

  8. Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread Precambrian layered rocks (Sedimentary ?) beneath the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1992-06-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the US midcontinent and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).

  9. Radium-thorium disequilibrium and zeolite-water ion exchange in a Yellowstone hydrothermal environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.; Bohlke, J.K. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (USA)); Binz, C.M. (Loras College, Dubuque, IA (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Whole rock samples of hydrothermally altered Biscuit Basin rhyolite from Yellowstone drill cores Y-7 and Y-8 were analyzed for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 230}Th to determine the extent of radioactive disequilibrium and its relation to the rates and mechanisms of element transport in the shallow portion of an active hydrothermal system. The ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) activity ratios range from 0.73 to 1.46 and are generally correlated with Th-normalized Ba concentrations (Ba{sub N}). Compositions of clinoptilolite and mordenite in these samples are consistent with ion exchange equilibrium between zeolites and coexisting thermal waters. Average K{sup Ba}{sub d mineral-water} values are 1.0 {center dot} 10{sup 5} mL/g for clinoptilolite and 1.4 {center dot} 10{sup 4} mL/g for mordenite. Apparent diffusivities through matrix porosity estimated for R and Ba range from {approximately}10{sup {minus}12} to {approximately}10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} in thoroughly zeolitic rhyolite; these rates of diffusion are too low to account for the observed distance scale of ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) disequilibrium. The correlated values of ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) disequilibrium and Ba{sub N} represent zeolite-water ion exchange equilibrium that is caused by porous flow of water through the rock matrix and by the relatively rapid diffusion of cations within the zeolite lattices. A water flux of at least {approximately}2.5 (cm{sup 3}{sub water}/cm{sup 3}{sub rock}) yr{sup {minus}1} is required to produce measurable ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) disequilibrium, whereas at least {approximately}23 (cm{sup 3}{sub water}/cm{sup 3}{sub rock}) yr{sup {minus}1} is required for the sample exhibiting the most extreme ({sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th) disequilibrium; these fluxes are much higher than those that can be inferred from net mass transfers of stable species.

  10. Seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath Southeast Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Lianxing

    Seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath Southeast t We constrain seismic structure and ultra-low velocity zones near the Earth's core-mantle boundary that the strong scatterers represent ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs). We suggest that the seismic structure

  11. Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late-than early-successional stage biological soil crusts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts Brian J. Darby a,*, Deborah A. Neher a , Jayne Belnap b a Department of Plant and Soil; accepted 12 April 2006 Abstract Biological soil crusts are key mediators of carbon and nitrogen inputs

  12. Groundwatergroundwater Groundwater refers to the saturated layer of Earth's crust extending beneath the land surface to a depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Christopher

    Groundwatergroundwater Groundwater refers to the saturated layer of Earth's crust extending beneath. The widespread geographical distribution of groundwater and its usually high quality for human consumption and glaciers. The spatial occurrence and quality of groundwater are not uniform, which is the result of geology

  13. On soliton structure of higher order (2+1)-dimensional equations of a relaxing medium beneath high-frequency perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuetche Kamgang Victor; Bouetou Bouetou Thomas; Timoleon Crepin Kofane

    2007-09-27

    We investigate the soliton structure of novel (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear partial differential evolution(NLPDE) equations which may govern the behavior of a barothropic relaxing medium beneath high-frequency perturbations. As a result, we may derive some soliton solutions amongst which three typical pattern formations with loop-, cusp- and hump-like shapes.

  14. Seismic anisotropy in the wedge above the Philippine Sea slab beneath Kanto and southwest Japan derived from shear wave splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seno, Tetsuzo

    Seismic anisotropy in the wedge above the Philippine Sea slab beneath Kanto and southwest Japan generated by shallow and intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in the subducting Philippine Sea are further divided into PHS1 and PHS2 (upper and lower planes of the double seismic zone in the Philippine

  15. Application of Gaussian-Beam Migration to Multiscale Imaging of the Lithosphere beneath the Hi-CLIMB Array in Tibet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowack, Robert L.

    Application of Gaussian-Beam Migration to Multiscale Imaging of the Lithosphere beneath the Hi Tibet using data from the Hi-CLIMB experiment. We use teleseismic P waves from three groups of earthquakes to the southeast, northeast, and northwest of the Hi-CLIMB array, each within a narrow range

  16. Seismic imaging of deep low-velocity zone beneath the Dead Sea basin and transform fault: Implications for strain localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ten Brink, Uri S.

    consisted of two wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction profiles: a 280-km-long profile along vertical 4.5 Hz geophone, buried, and placed at intervals of 0.65­0.75 km along the profile. The data wereSeismic imaging of deep low-velocity zone beneath the Dead Sea basin and transform fault

  17. P-and S-Wave Receiver Function Images of Crustal Imbrication beneath the Cheyenne Belt in Southeast Wyoming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dueker, Ken

    P- and S-Wave Receiver Function Images of Crustal Imbrication beneath the Cheyenne Belt estimation to constrain the crustal structure across the Archean­Proterozoic Cheyenne belt suture of Proterozoic lower crust across the Chey- enne belt. Both P and S-wave receiver function images delineate

  18. The dynamics of silica deposition in fractures: Oxygen isotope ratios in hydrothermal silica from Yellowstone drill core Y-13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturchio, N.C.; Keith, T.E.C.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1988-01-01

    The delta/sup 18/O values of 22 samples of hydrothermal chalcedony and quartz from Y-13 drill core range from /minus/7.5 to /minus/1.3/per thousand/. Most samples could not be in mineral-water isotopic equilibrium under present conditions. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures in quartz indicate precipitation at or above temperatures measured during drilling. Most silica appears to have precipitated from water enriched in /sup 18/O relative to present thermal water. Inferred /sup 18/O enrichments are too large in many cases to be explained by boiling and steam separation. The apparent /sup 18/O enrichment in thermal water may represent a transient dynamic effect that occurs when new fractures open, as disequilibrium increases and the local system is temporarily perturbed. This interpretation is consistent with the observed sequence of mineral deposition and delta/sup 18/O within individual fractures. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Water Distribution System Monitoring and Decision Support Using a Wireless Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Michael

    Water distribution systems comprise labyrinthine networks of pipes, often in poor states of repair, that are buried beneath our city streets and relatively inaccessible. Engineers who manage these systems need reliable ...

  20. Preliminary conceptual design for the destruction of organic/ferrocyanide constituents in the Hanford tank waste with low-temperature hydrothermal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Jones, E.O.; Orth, R.J.; Cox, J.L.; Elmore, M.E.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Meng, C.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical processing method that can be employed to destroy organic and ferrocyanide constituents in Hanford tank waste by using the abundant existing oxidants in the tank waste such as nitrite and nitrate. Use-temperature HTP effectively destroys organics at temperatures from 250{degree}C to 400{degree}C to eliminate safety hazards and improve further processing. This proposal describes a conceptual design of a low-temperature HTP system (including a preliminary flow diagram and plot plan, equipment descriptions and sizes, utility requirements, and costs); the experimental work supporting this effort at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL); the reaction chemistry and kinetics; the technical maturity of the process; and a preliminary assessment of maintenance, operation, and safety of a system. Nitrate destruction using organic reductants is also described. The low-temperature hydrothermal program at PNL was initiated in January 1993. It is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies, which was originally funded by Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System program and then was transferred to the Initial Pretreatment (IPM) project. As described in the document, low-temperature HTP (1) meets or exceeds system requirements in organic, ferrocyanide, and nitrate destruction, and processing rate; (2) is technically mature with little additional technology development required; (3) is a simple process with good operational reliability; (4) is flexible and can be easily integrated in the system; (5) has reasonable costs and utility requirements; and (6) is safe and environmentally-benign.

  1. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-10

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  2. Physical properties of upper oceanic crust: Ocean Drilling Program Hole 801C and the waning of hydrothermal circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrams, Lewis J.

    alteration continues, at a decreasing rate, throughout the lifetime of oceanic crust. INDEX TERMS: 3015 Marine Geology and Geophysics: Heat flow (benthic) and hydrothermal processes; 7220 Seismology: Oceanic, decreased porosity and permeability, and oxidation of magnetic minerals [e.g., Jacobson, 1992]. Hydrothermal

  3. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  4. Hydrothermal formation of Clay-Carbonate alteration assemblages in the Nili Fossae region of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Adrian J; Baldridge, Alice M; Crowley, James K; Bridges, Nathan T; Thomson, Bradley J; Marion, Giles M; Filho, Carlos R de Souza; Bishop, Janice L

    2014-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has returned observations of the Nili Fossae region indicating the presence of Mg- carbonate in small (characterize these carbonate-bearing units. We applied absorption band mapping techniques to investigate a range of possible phyllosilicate and carbonate minerals that could be present in the Nili Fossae region. We also describe a clay-carbonate hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblage in the Archean Warrawoona Group of Western Australia that is a potential Earth analog to the Nili Fossae carbonate-bearing rock units. We discuss the geological and biological implications for hydrothermal processes on Noachian Mars.

  5. Enhanced performance of wearable piezoelectric nanogenerator fabricated by two-step hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Yu; Lei, Jixue; Yin, Bing; Zhang, Heqiu; Ji, Jiuyu; Hu, Lizhong, E-mail: lizhongh@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); The Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yang, Dechao [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, Jiming; Liu, Yanhong; Zhao, Yu; Luo, Yingmin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-03-17

    A simple two-step hydrothermal process was proposed for enhancing the performance of the nanogenerator on flexible and wearable terylene-fabric substrate. With this method, a significant enhancement in output voltage of the nanogenerator from ?10?mV to 7?V was achieved, comparing with the one by conventional one-step process. In addition, another advantage with the devices synthesized by two-step hydrothermal process was that their output voltages are only sensitive to strain rather than strain rate. The devices with a high output voltage have the ability to power common electric devices and will have important applications in flexible electronics and wearable devices.

  6. Distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former Los Alamos liquid waste disposal site after 33 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Abeele, W.V.; Trujillo, G.; Herrera, W.J.; Wheeler, M.L.; Booth, J.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1984-07-01

    The distribution of radionuclides and water in Bandelier Tuff beneath a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos was investigated. The waste use history of the site was described, as well as several pertinent laboratory and field studies of water and radionuclide migration in Bandelier Tuff. The distribution of plutonium, /sup 241/Am, and water was determined in a set of about 800 tuff samples collected to sampling depths of 30 m beneath two absorption beds. These data were then related to site geohydrologic data. Water and radionuclide concentrations found after 33 years were compared with the results of similar studies previously performed at this site, and the implications of these comparisons are discussed relative to nuclear waste management. 19 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  7. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 13,PAGES 2485-2488, JULY 1,2001 Tectospheric structure beneath southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Stephen Shangxing

    beneath southern Africa D. E. James,1M. J. Fouch,1'2J. C. VanDecar, KaapvaalSeismicGroup5 S. van der Lee4 and Abstract. P-wave and S-wavedelay times from the broad- band data of the southern Africa seismicexperiment southern Africa. High velocity mantle roots appear to extend to depths of at least 250 km, and locally

  8. Data Package for Past and Current Groundwater Flow and Contamination beneath Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, Duane G.

    2007-03-16

    This appendix summarizes historic and recent groundwater data collected from the uppermost aquifer beneath the 200 East and 200 West Areas. Although the area of interest is the Hanford Site Central Plateau, most of the information discussed in this appendix is at the scale of individual single-shell tank waste management areas. This is because the geologic, and thus the hydraulic, properties and the geochemical properties (i.e., groundwater composition) are different in different parts of the Central Plateau.

  9. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of the three-layered sodium cobaltite P3-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x ? 0.60)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miclau, M.; Bokinala, K.; Miclau, N.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We report direct synthesis of the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}. • The hydrothermal synthesis of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} involves one step and low temperature. • The yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been builded up to 250 °C. • We propose a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory. • The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of HT-XRD. - Abstract: In order to obtain the layered sodium cobalt oxide materials by hydrothermal synthesis, the yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been built and studied. In the same time, the well-known data of Co–H{sub 2}O system have been extended at 250 °C in basic solution. We had first synthesized directly the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} by a one-step low-temperature hydrothermal method. The rhombohedral structure of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the purity of phases has been confirmed by XPS. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction in 298–873 K range and when the temperature has reached 723 K, the completely transformation of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} in the rhombohedral stable phase ?-NaCoO{sub 2} (space group R-3m) was observed. Also, a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory in the hydrothermal process was proposed.

  10. Rheological study of comingled biomass and coal slurries with hydrothermal pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei He; Chan S. Park; Joseph M. Norbeck [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Bourns College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology

    2009-09-15

    Gasification of comingled biomass and coal feedstock is an effective means of reducing the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in the coal gasification process while maintaining its inherent benefits of abundance and high-energy density. However, feeding a comingled biomass and coal feedstock into a pressurized gasification reactor poses a technical problem. Conventional dry feeding systems, such as lock hoppers and pressurized pneumatic transport, are complex and operationally expensive. A slurry formation of comingled biomass and coal feedstock can be easily fed into the gasification reactor but, in normal conditions, only allows for a small portion of biomass in the mixture. This is a consequence of the hydroscopic and hydrophilic nature of the biomass. The College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) at the University of California, Riverside, has developed a process producing high solid content biomass-water slurry using a hydrothermal pretreatment process. In this paper, the systematic investigation of the rheological properties (e.g., shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity) of coal-water slurries, biomass-water slurries, and comingled biomass and coal-water slurries is reported. The solid particle size distribution in the slurry and the initial solid/water ratio were investigated to determine the impact on shear rate and viscosity. This was determined using a rotational rheometer. The experimental results show that larger particle size offers better pumpability. The presence of a high percentage of biomass in solid form significantly decreases slurry pumpability. It is also shown that the solid loading of the biomass-water slurry can be increased to approximately 35 wt % with viscosity of less than 0.7 Pa.s after the pretreatment process. The solid loading increased to approximately 45 wt % when the biomass is comingled with coal. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Improvement of Hydrothermal Stability of Mesoporous Silica Using Salts: Reinvestigation for Time-Dependent Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ji Man

    compounds with aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide.5 However, the structure of the TiMCM-41 is reported and Center for Molecular Science, Korea AdVanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon 305-701, Korea of hydrothermal stability of mesoporous silica using salts solutions (Ryoo, R.; Jun, S. J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101

  12. Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

    2012-10-16

    A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

  13. Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect on Cellulose Hydrolysis, and Underlying Mechanisms Hongjia Li,1,2,4 Yunqiao Pu,3,4 Rajeev Kumar,1,2,4 Arthur J to form droplets that deposit on the cellulose surface and retard enzymatic digestion of cellulose

  14. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  15. Silicic magma petrogenesis in Iceland by remelting of hydrothermally altered crust based on oxygen isotope diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bindeman, Ilya N.

    Silicic magma petrogenesis in Iceland by remelting of hydrothermally altered crust based on oxygen, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland; 6 Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, CNRS-Universite´ Blaise rocks (e.g. Gillis and Coogan, 2002; Jonasson, 2007; Wanless et al., 2010). Iceland represents the only

  16. Synthesis of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by hydrothermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machmudah, Siti Widiyastuti, W. Prastuti, Okky Putri Nurtono, Tantular Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2014-02-24

    Zirconium oxide (zirconia, ZrO{sub 2}) is the most common material used for electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Zirconia has attracted attention for applications in optical coatings, buffer layers for growing superconductors, thermal-shield, corrosion resistant coatings, ionic conductors, and oxygen sensors, and for potential applications including transparent optical devices and electrochemical capacitor electrodes, fuel cells, catalysts, and advanced ceramics. In this work, zirconia particles were synthesized from ZrCl{sub 4} precursor with hydrothermal treatment in a batch reactor. Hydrothermal treatment may allow obtaining nanoparticles and sintered materials with controlled chemical and structural characteristics. Hydrothermal treatment was carried out at temperatures of 150 – 200°C with precursor concentration of 0.1 – 0.5 M. Zirconia particles obtained from this treatment were analyzed by using SEM, PSD and XRD to characterize the morphology, particle size distribution, and crystallinity, respectively. Based on the analysis, the size of zirconia particles were around 200 nm and it became smaller with decreasing precursor concentration. The increasing temperature caused the particles formed having uniform size. Zirconia particles formed by hydrothermal treatment were monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic crystal.

  17. Chemical structure and properties of low-rank coals treated by hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohki, A.; Xie, X.F.; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Maeda, Shigeru [Kagoshima Univ., Korimoto, Kagoshima (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Several methods for upgrading low-rank coals, in which the hygroscopicity is irreversibly reduced into a level for high-rank coals, have been developed. A hydrothermal treatment of coal, such as hot water drying (HWD), is one of the most promising upgrading methods. The HWD method involves a treatment of low-rank coals under high temperature (300-350 C) and high pressure (80-180 kg/cm{sup 2}). Two low-rank coals, Loy Yang coal and Yallourn coal were hydrothermally treated at 150--350 C. The chemical structure and properties of these treated coals have been examined. The analysis of coal includes hygroscopicity, elemental analysis, the content of oxygenic functional groups measured by chemical analysis, FTIR analysis, CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR analysis, specific surface area, maceral composition, and vitrinite reflectance. When the low-rank coals are hydrothermally treated, the hygroscopicity of coal remarkably decreases. The content of carboxyl group in coal greatly decreases as heat treatment temperature (HTT) is raised. The difference in carboxyl group content in the 350 C-treated coal between from the chemical analysis and from {sup 13}C NMR and FTIR analyses is explained. From these results, the change in chemical structure and properties of coal during the hydrothermal treatment is discussed.

  18. Review and model-based analysis of factors influencing soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A simple, multi-compartment model was developed to predict soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) plantations in the southeastern United States. Soil carbon sequestration is an important component of sustainable switchgrass production for bioenergy because soil organic matter promotes water retention, nutrient supply, and soil properties that minimize erosion. A literature review was included for the purpose of model parameterization and five model-based experiments were conducted to predict how changes in environment (temperature) or crop management (cultivar, fertilization, and harvest efficiency) might affect soil carbon storage and nitrogen losses. Predictions of soil carbon sequestration were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass production, and temperature. Predictions of ecosystem nitrogen loss were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the soil C/N ratio, and nitrogen remobilization efficiency (i.e., nitrogen cycling within the plant). Model-based experiments indicated that 1) soil carbon sequestration can be highly site specific depending on initial soil carbon stocks, temperature, and the amount of annual nitrogen fertilization, 2) response curves describing switchgrass yield as a function of annual nitrogen fertilization were important to model predictions, 3) plant improvements leading to greater belowground partitioning of biomass could increase soil carbon sequestration, 4) improvements in harvest efficiency have no indicated effects on soil carbon and nitrogen, but improve cumulative biomass yield, and 5) plant improvements that reduce organic matter decomposition rates could also increase soil carbon sequestration, even though the latter may not be consistent with desired improvements in plant tissue chemistry to maximize yields of cellulosic ethanol.

  19. Supply of geothermal power from hydrothermal sources: A study of the cost of power in 20 and 40 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petty, S. (Petty (Susan) Consulting, Solano Beach, CA (United States)); Livesay, B.J. (Livesay Consultants, Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States)); Long, W.P. (Carlin Gold Co., Inc., Grass Valley, CA (United States)); Geyer, J. (Geyer (John) and Associates, Vancouver, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    This study develops estimates for the amount of hydrothermal geothermal power that could be on line in 20 and 40 years. This study was intended to represent a snapshot'' in 20 and 40 years of the hydrothermal energy available for electric power production should a market exist for this power. This does not represent the total or maximum amount of hydrothermal power, but is instead an attempt to estimate the rate at which power could be on line constrained by the exploration, development and support infrastructure available to the geothermal industry, but not constrained by the potential market for power.

  20. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broadband seismic stations. From the 1-D shear wave velocity models, we obtain new insights into the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle across Cameroon. After briefly reviewing the geological framework of Cameroon, we describe the data and the joint inversion method, and then interpret variations in crustal structure found beneath Cameroon in terms of the tectonic history of the region.

  1. Chars produced by slow pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization vary in carbon sequestration potential and greenhouse gases emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malghani, S; Malghani, S; Gleixner, G; Trumbore, SE

    2013-01-01

    of slow and fast pyrolysis biochar on soil C and N turnoverpyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonisation of corn stover. Soilmatter. Slow pyrolysis char is more stable in soil and had

  2. Biotic and abiotic interactions of deep-sea hydrothermal vent-endemic fish on the East Pacific Rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckman, Kate Lynn

    2009-01-01

    A study of the ecology of fish endemic to hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise was undertaken utilizing a variety of techniques, focusing on the bythitid Thermichthys hollisi. Stable isotope and gut content analyses ...

  3. Spatial and temporal population genetics at deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise and Galápagos Rift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusaro, Abigail Jean

    2008-01-01

    Ecological processes at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges are punctuated by frequent physical disturbance. Larval dispersal among disjunct vent sites facilitates the persistence of sessile ...

  4. A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System. Geothermics. () . Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (4) Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Laney, 2005) Isotopic...

  5. FTIR study of the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene over UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} nanoballs synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zhengru [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Qidong; Qu, Zhenping; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Ling [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Chen, Guohua [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, photocatalysts of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs were obtained via a hydrothermal treating of commercial P25 in alkaline solution, and then characterized with SEM, XRD, BET and surface photovoltage spectroscopy techniques. The UV-assisted photodegradation of gaseous benzene over P25 and the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs was monitored by an in situ infrared technique. The results demonstrated that the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs in anatase form were more active than commercial P25 in photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous benzene. The promoted activity of the hydrothermal-treated TiO{sub 2} is attributed to the increasing specific surface area and larger band gap induced by the reduced crystallite size. The spectra of FTIR indicated that weakly adsorbed phenol was formed as the reaction progress. Hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs are able to react with photo-produced phenol, which is then retained on the catalyst surface leading to the progressive deactivation of the catalyst in the gas-solid system.

  6. Sonochemical and hydrothermal synthesis of PbTe nanostructures with the aid of a novel capping agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fard-Fini, Shahla Ahmadian; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Mohandes, Fatemeh

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PbTe nanostructures were prepared with the aid of Schiff-base compound. • Sonochemical and hydrothermal methods were employed to fabricate PbTe nanostrucrues. • The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of PbTe was investigated. - Abstract: In this work, a new Schiff-base compound derived from 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde marked as (2-HyNa)-(DaDo) was synthesized, characterized, and then used as capping agent for the preparation of PbTe nanostructures. To fabricate PbTe nanostructures, two different synthesis methods; hydrothermal and sonochemical routes, were applied. To further investigate, the effect of preparation parameters like reaction time and temperature in hydrothermal synthesis and sonication time in the presence of ultrasound irradiation on the morphology and purity of the final products was tested. The products were analyzed with the aid of SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, and EDS. Based on the obtained results, it was found that pure cubic phased PbTe nanostructures have been obtained by hydrothermal and sonochemical approaches. Besides, SEM images showed that cubic-like and rod-like PbTe nanostructures have been formed by hydrothermal and sonochemical methods, respectively. Sonochemical synthesis of PbTe nanostructures was favorable, because the synthesis time of sonochemical method was shorter than that of hydrothermal method.

  7. Numerical-Model Investigation of the Hydrothermal Regime of a Straight-Through Shallow Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, A. S. [JSC 'VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva' (Russian Federation)] [JSC 'VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva' (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    A mathematic model based on solution of hydrodynamics and heat-transfer equations by the finite-element method is constructed to predict the hydrothermal regime of a straight-through shallow cooling pond, which provides cooling circulating water to a repository of spent nuclear fuel. Numerical experiments made it possible to evaluate the influence exerted by wind conditions and flow rate of water in the river on the temperature of the circulating water.

  8. Short-time hydrothermal synthesis and delamination of ion exchangeable Mg/Ga layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unal, Ugur [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ugurunal@chem.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-09-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis of magnesium-gallium layered double hydroxides (Mg/Ga LDHs) was studied under static and agitated conditions. Not only well-crystallized and large-sized Mg/Ga LDHs having hexagonal morphology were obtained but also the reaction time was comparatively decreased from 24 to 2 h by means of agitation during hydrothermal synthesis. In static conditions, mainly GaOOH and magnesite phases were formed. The elemental analysis results show that the final Mg/Ga ratio is significantly different from the initial ratio. The reason was attributed to the difference in the hydrolytic behavior of Mg{sup 2+} and Ga{sup 3+}. Furthermore, the anion exchange studies with glycine, dodecyl sulfate, ferrocyanide and ferricyanide were performed to investigate the intercalation behavior of the anions into Mg/Ga LDHs. In addition, delamination of Mg/Ga LDHs was performed in formamide for the glycine exchanged forms. Large size of nanosheets thus obtained can be utilized in the fabrication of functional thin films. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis under agitation resulted in highly crystalline Mg/Ga LDHs slabs in a short time. The LDHs slabs were delaminated into two-dimensional nanosize sheets.

  9. Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymers with One-Dimensional Magnetic Chains: Hydrothermal Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic and Thermal Properties of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    commonly employed in the synthesis of numerous solid-state inorganic materials. ComparablyTwo-Dimensional Coordination Polymers with One-Dimensional Magnetic Chains: Hydrothermal Synthesis

  10. A Demonstration Project for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, MT

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives. Demonstrate performance of heat pumps in a large HVAC system in a heating-dominated climate.

  11. track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReport FY2014 -EnergyEnergy 1: systems analysis | geothermal 20152:

  12. Mass transfer during drying of colloidal film beneath a patterned mask that contains a hexagonal array of holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarasevich, Yuri Yu

    2015-01-01

    We simulated an experiment in which a thin colloidal sessile droplet is allowed to dry out on a horizontal hydrophilic surface when a mask just above the droplet predominantly allows evaporation from the droplet free surface directly beneath the holes in the mask [Harris D J, Hu H, Conrad J C and Lewis J A 2007 \\textit{Phys. Rev. Lett.} \\textbf{98} 148301]. We considered one particular case when centre-to-centre spacing between the holes is much less than the drop diameter. In our model, advection, diffusion, and sedimentation were taken into account. FlexPDE was utilized to solve an advection-diffusion equation using the finite element method. The simulation demonstrated that the colloidal particles accumulate below the holes as the solvent evaporates. Diffusion can reduce this accumulation.

  13. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnitedVairexVertVillageVitex Systems Jump to:

  14. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla,Thermal GradientChateau Tebeau LLC JumpSystem at Long

  15. Fluid origin, gas fluxes and plumbing system in the sediment-hosted Salton Sea Geothermal System (California, USA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    Fluid origin, gas fluxes and plumbing system in the sediment-hosted Salton Sea Geothermal System Available online 12 June 2011 Keywords: Salton Sea Geothermal System hydrothermal seeps gas and water geochemistry flux measurements mantle The Salton Sea Geothermal System (California) is an easily accessible

  16. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglin, Eric J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is working to develop improved methods for producing high-value hydrocarbon fuels. The development of one such method, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process, is being led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The HTL process uses a wet biomass slurry at elevated temperatures (i.e., 300 to 360°C [570 to 680°F]) and pressures above the vapor pressure of water (i.e., 15 to 20 MPa [2200 to 3000 psi] at these temperatures) to facilitate a condensed-phase reaction medium. The process has been successfully tested at bench-scale and development and testing at a larger scale is required to prove the viability of the process at production levels. Near-term development plans include a pilot-scale system on the order of 0.5 to 40 gpm, followed by a larger production-scale system on the order of 2000 dry metric tons per day (DMTPD). A significant challenge to the scale-up of the HTL process is feeding a highly viscous fibrous biomass wood/corn stover feedstock into a pump system that provides the required 3000 psi of pressure for downstream processing. In October 2011, PNNL began investigating commercial feed and pumping options that would meet these HTL process requirements. Initial efforts focused on generating a HTL feed and pump specification and then providing the specification to prospective vendors to determine the suitability of their pumps for the pilot-scale and production-scale plants. Six vendors were identified that could provide viable equipment to meet HTL feed and/or pump needs. Those six vendors provided options consisting three types of positive displacement pumps (i.e., diaphragm, piston, and lobe pumps). Vendors provided capabilities and equipment related to HTL application. This information was collected, assessed, and summarized and is provided as appendices to this report.

  17. F A S T -T R A C K P A P E R The seismic anomaly beneath Iceland extends down to the mantle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    of the upper mantle yet performed in Iceland, which reveals details of the morphology, temperature and melt distribution beneath the Iceland hotspot and the adjacent oceanic plate boundaries. T H E T O M O G R A P H Y E in size. Timing was provided by GPS, and the data were downloaded to SUN workstations. We hand

  18. Interannual Changes in Seasonal Ground Freezing and Near-surface Heat Flow Beneath Bottom-fast Ice in the Near-shore Zone, Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorman, Brian

    Interannual Changes in Seasonal Ground Freezing and Near-surface Heat Flow Beneath Bottom-fast Ice Resources Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada ABSTRACT Interannual changes in seasonal ground freezing. KEY WORDS: seasonal ground freezing; permafrost; bottom-fast ice; Mackenzie Delta INTRODUCTION Arctic

  19. F A S T -T R A C K P A P E R The seismic anomaly beneath Iceland extends down to the mantle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Richard M.

    F A S T - T R A C K P A P E R The seismic anomaly beneath Iceland extends down to the mantle, NJ 08544±5807, USA 4 Meteorological Of®ce of Iceland, Bustadavegi 9, Reykjavik, Iceland 5 National Energy Authority, Grensasvegi 9, Reykjavik, Iceland Accepted 2000 June 15. Received 2000 June 8

  20. Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-2, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bargar, K.E.; Beeson, M.H.

    1981-05-01

    Y-2, a US Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, was drilled to a depth of 157.4 meters. The hole penetrated interbedded siliceous sinter and travertine to 10.2 m, glacial sediments of the Pinedale Glaciation interlayered with pumiceous tuff from 10.2 to 31.7 m, and rhyolitic lavas of the Elephant Back flow of the Central Plateau Member and the Mallard Lake Member of the Pleistocene Plateau Rhyolite from 31.7 to 157.4 m. Hydrothermal alteration is pervasive in most of the nearly continuous drill core. Rhyolitic glass has been extensively altered to clay and zeolite minerals (intermediate heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite, montmorillonite, mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite, and illite) in addition to quartz and adularia. Numerous veins, vugs, and fractures in the core contain these and other minerals: silica minerals (opal, ..beta..-cristobalite, ..cap alpha..-cristobalite, and chalcedony), zeolites (analcime, wairakite, dachiardite, laumontite, and yugawaralite), carbonates (calcite and siderite), clay (kaolinite and chlorite), oxides (hematite, goethite, manganite, cryptomelane, pyrolusite, and groutite), and sulfides (pyrhotite and pyrite) along with minor aegirine, fluorite, truscottite, and portlandite. Interbedded travertine and siliceous sinter in the upper part of the drill core indicate that two distinct types of thermal water are responsible for precipitation of the surficial deposits, and further that the water regime has alternated between the two thermal waters more than once since the end of the Pinedale Glaciation (approx. 10,000 years B.P.). Alternation of zones of calcium-rich and sodium- and potassium-rich hydrothermal minerals also suggests that the calcium-rich and sodium- and potassium-rich hydrothermal minerals also suggests that the water chemistry in this drill hole varies with depth.

  1. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinbo; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Wu, Lili; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Zou, Ke; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  2. Discernment of two opposing reports on the hydrological effects of a hydrothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Two evaluations to determine the hydrological effects of a 50-megawatt hydrothermal power plant in the Jemez Mountains give dramatically different results. One shows little effect; the other, a large one. The treatments agree on some thermal-zone water supplies to the Jemez River but not on the expected changes in these flows. The primary areas of disagreement appear to be the total volume of water in the reservoir and the movement of this water to the point of withdrawal. The author (a nonhydrologist) has compared these reports but leaves final judgment of the accuracy of either evaluation for some erudite hydrologists, as some experimental data and model development are needed.

  3. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the

  4. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite

  5. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide and study of their optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.; Gharbi, N.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured ZnO were successfully obtained by a hydrothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic precursor and molar ratio are key factors for morphology and particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties were also studied. -- Abstract: Nanostructured ZnO (nanorods, nanoshuttles) have been synthesized by hydrothermal approach using ZnCl{sub 2} or Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as zinc sources and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. Techniques X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the nanostructured zinc oxide. The optical properties of the as-obtained materials were also studied and showing that it is possible to apply the ZnO nanoshuttles and nanorods on the UV filter, photocatalysis, and special optical devices.

  7. Sound field near hydrothermal vents on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, S.A.; Stolzenbach, K.D.; Purdy, G.M.

    1990-08-10

    High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active hydrothermal vent on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring hydrothermal vent activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of vent signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the calders wall. No continuous vent signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 0.0001 Pa sq/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. The frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities. Keywords: Seamounts; Flow noise; Underwater acoustics; Acoustic measurement; Geothermy/noise; Ocean ridges; Underwater sound signals; Reprints; North Pacific Ocean. (EDC).

  8. Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. • Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. • ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

  9. Unsaturated Groundwater Flow Beneath Upper Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dander, D.C.

    1998-10-15

    Mortandad Canyon is a discharge site for treated industrial effluents containing radionuclides and other chemicals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. This study was conducted to develop an understanding of the unsaturated hydrologic behavior below the canyon floor. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the hypothetical performance of the vadose zone above the water table. Numerical simulations of unsaturated groundwater flow at the site were conducted using the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer (FEHM) code. A two-dimensional cross-section along the canyon's axis was used to model flow between an alluvial groundwater system and the regional aquifer approximately 300 m below. Using recharge estimated from a water budget developed in 1967, the simulations showed waters from the perched water table reaching the regional aquifer in 13.8 years, much faster than previously thought. Additionally, simulations indicate that saturation is occurring in the Guaje pumice bed an d that the Tshirege Unit 1B is near saturation. Lithologic boundaries between the eight materials play an important role in flow and solute transport within the system. Horizontal flow is shown to occur in three thin zones above capillary barriers; however, vertical flow dominates the system. Other simulations were conducted to examine the effects of changing system parameters such as varying recharge inputs, varying the distribution of recharge, and bypassing fast-path fractured basalt of uncertain extent and properties. System sensitivity was also explored by changing model parameters with respect to size and types of grids and domains, and the presence of dipping stratigraphy.

  10. An Interior-Point Method for Long Term Scheduling of Large Scale Hydrothermal System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, Aurélio R. L.

    that embraces time frames ranging from the long term energy hydroelectric resources control to electric of the reservoirs in order to maximize the hydroelectric production and, as a result, minimize the thermoelectric storage target. It should comprise a detailed representation of both: hydroelectric plants hydraulic

  11. Dynamics of hydrothermal seeps from the Salton Sea geothermal system (California, USA) constrained by temperature monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podladchikov, Yuri

    by temperature monitoring and time series analysis Henrik Svensen,1 Øyvind Hammer,1 Adriano Mazzini,1 Nathan by monitoring the temperature of two pools and two gryphons for 2180 h (90.8 days) in the period from December is evident from a second period of temperature monitoring of one of the pools from December 2007 to April

  12. Temporal Relations of Volcanism and Hydrothermal Systems in Two Areas of

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) | Opensource History View NewsourceUsa, 1980-1994 | Open

  13. Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin Film SolarTown of Skiatook, OklahomaInformationToyolaUtah

  14. New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera, California,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to: navigation,National MarineUSAIDCanaan, Connecticut:NewNewFrom Wells,

  15. Present State of the Hydrothermal System in Long Valley Caldera, California

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly SmartDB-2, BluePoulsen Hybrid,Areas- CovePrescienceGeodetically|

  16. Particle trajectories beneath small amplitude shallow water waves in constant vorticity flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delia Ionescu-Kruse

    2011-06-20

    We investigate the particle trajectories in a constant vorticity shallow water flow over a flat bed as periodic waves propagate on the water's free surface. Within the framework of small amplitude waves, we find the solutions of the nonlinear differential equations system which describes the particle motion in the considered case, and we describe the possible particle trajectories. Depending on the relation between the initial data and the constant vorticity, some particle trajectories are undulating curves to the right, or to the left, others are loops with forward drift, or with backward drift, others can follow some peculiar shapes.

  17. Small-amplitude capillary-gravity water waves: exact solutions and particle motion beneath such waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delia Ionescu-Kruse

    2011-06-20

    Two-dimensional periodic surface waves propagating under the combined influence of gravity and surface tension on water of finite depth are considered. Within the framework of small-amplitude waves, we find the exact solutions of the nonlinear differential equation system which describes the particle motion in the considered case, and we describe the possible particle trajectories. The required computations involve elliptic integrals of the first kind, the Legendre normal form and a solvable Abel differential equation of the second kind. Some graphs of the results are included.

  18. Airflow-terrain interactions through a mountain gap, with an example of eolian activity beneath an atmospheric hydraulic jump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaylord, D.R.; Dawson, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    The integration of atmospheric soundings from a fully instrumented aircraft with detailed sedimentary and geomorphic analyses of eolian features in the Ferris dune field of south-central Wyoming lends insight into the manner in which topography interacts with airflow to modify eolian activity. Topographically modified airflow results in zones of airflow deceleration, acceleration, and enhanced atmospheric turbulence, all of which influence the surface morphology and sedimentology. Extreme lateral confluence of prevailing airflow produces accelerated, unidirectional winds. These winds correlate with unusually continuous and elongate parabolic dunes that extend into a mountain gap (Windy Gap). Persistently heightened winds produced at the entrance to Windy Gap have resulted in a concentration of active sand dunes that lack slipfaces. Common development of a strongly amplified atmospheric wave analogous to a hydraulic jump in the gap contributes to the formation of a variety of eolian features that mantle the surface of Windy Gap and the Ferris dune field tail. Heightened, unidirectional winds in this zone promote grain-size segregation, the formation of elongated and aligned sand drifts, climbing and falling dunes, elongate scour streaks, and parabolic dunes that have low-angle (< 20/sup 0/) cross-stratification. Deflation of bedrock and loose sediment has been enhanced in the zone of maximum turbulence beneath the hydraulic jump.

  19. Crustal structure beneath RSTN stations inferred from teleseismic P-waveforms: preliminary results at RSCP, RSSD, and RSNY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, T.J.; Taylor, S.R.; Zandt, G.

    1983-08-08

    We have modeled teleseismic P-waveforms recorded at three Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) stations (RSCP, Cumberland Plateau Observatory, TN; RSSD, Black Hills, SD; RSNY, Adirondack Mtns, NY) to determine local crustal structures. After source effects are removed by deconvolution, seismograms from events clustered in both distance and back azimuth were stacked to enhance the signal and improve confidence in interpreting converted phases at each station. Preliminary analysis indicates that seismograms from RSCP and RSNY generally exhibit less well-developed converted and reflected phases from the crust-mantle boundary than are observed at RSSD and LLNL broadband station ELK (Elko, NV). These differences are likely due to a gradational crust-mantle boundary in the eastern United States. Comparisons of seismograms recorded at the RSTN stations indicate that the waveforms at RSSD and RSCP are much more complex than waveforms from RSNY. This complexity is largely due to low-velocity sedimentary layers at the RSSD and RSCP sites, whereas RSNY is located directly on crystalline basement. At RSCP, we find a crustal thickness of 41 km, which agrees with early refraction profiles in the area. Our data require a 10 km thick transition zone between the crust and upper mantle beneath RSCP. The crustal thickness determined at RSSD is 47 to 50 km. 14 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  20. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobhani, Azam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

  1. Ordovician carbonate formation waters in the Illinois Basin: Chemical and isotopic evolution beneath a regional aquitard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stueber, A.M. ); Walter, L.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Formation waters from carbonate reservoirs in the upper Ordovician Galena Group of the Illinois Basin have been analyzed geochemically to study origin of salinity, chemical and isotopic evolution, and relation to paleohydrologic flow systems. These carbonate reservoirs underlie the Maquoketa Shale Group of Cincinnatian age, which forms a regional aquitard. Cl-Br relations and Na/Br-Cl/Br systematics indicate that initial brine salinity resulted from subaerial evaporation of seawater to a point not significantly beyond halite saturation. Subsequent dilution in the subsurface by meteoric waters is supported by delta D-delta O-18 covariance. Systematic relations between Sr-87/Sr-86 and 1/Sr suggest two distinct mixing events: introduction of a Sr-87 enriched fluid from a siliciclastic source, and a later event which only affected reservoir waters from the western shelf of the basin. The second mixing event is supported by covariance between Sr-87/Sr-86 and concentrations of cations and anions; covariance between Sr and O-D isotopes suggests that the event is related to meteoric water influx. Systematic geochemical relations in ordovician Galena Group formation waters have been preserved by the overlying Maquoketa shale aquitard. Comparison with results from previous studies indicates that waters from Silurian-Devonian carbonate strata evolved in a manner similar to yet distinct from that of the Ordovician carbonate waters, whereas waters from Mississippian-Pennsylvanian strata that overlie the New Albany Shale Group regional aquitard are marked by fundamentally different Cl-Br-Na and Sr isotope systematics. Evolution of these geochemical formation-water regimes apparently has been influenced significantly by paleohydrologic flow systems.

  2. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. lifecycleanalysisofgeothermalsystemsdraft.pdf More Documents & Publications Life-Cycle Analysis Results of...

  3. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. lifecycleanalysisofgeothermalsystems.pdf More Documents & Publications Life-Cycle Analysis Results of...

  4. Real-Space Microscopic Electrical Imaging of n+-p Junction Beneath Front-Side Ag Contact of Multicrystalline Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Li, Z. G.; Moutinho, H. R.; Liang, L.; Ionkin, A.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2012-04-15

    We investigated the quality of the n+-p diffused junction beneath the front-side Ag contact of multicrystalline Si solar cells by characterizing the uniformities of electrostatic potential and doping concentration across the junction using the atomic force microscopy-based electrical imaging techniques of scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy. We found that Ag screen-printing metallization fired at the over-fire temperature significantly degrades the junction uniformity beneath the Ag contact grid, whereas metallization at the optimal- and under-fire temperatures does not cause degradation. Ag crystallites with widely distributed sizes were found at the Ag-grid/emitter-Si interface of the over-fired cell, which is associated with the junction damage beneath the Ag grid. Large crystallites protrude into Si deeper than the junction depth. However, the junction was not broken down; instead, it was reformed on the entire front of the crystallite/Si interface. We propose a mechanism of junction-quality degradation, based on emitter Si melting at the temperature around the Ag-Si eutectic point during firing, and subsequent re-crystallization with incorporation of Ag and other impurities and with formation of crystallographic defects during quenching. The effect of this junction damage on solar cell performance is discussed.

  5. Improvement of thermal properties of low-rank coals treated by hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, X.F.; Ohki, A.; Maeda, S.

    1999-07-01

    Australian low-rank coals, Loy Yang coal, Yallourn coal and Indonesian Adaro coal are hydrothermally treated at 200-350 C. The simultaneous TG/DTA is used to investigate the thermal properties, which include the volatile release profile under a nitrogen atmosphere and the burning profile under an air atmosphere. It is found that the temperature of volatile matter combustion (Ti1) of the hot water dried coals (upgraded coals) increases with heat treatment temperature (HTT), whereas the temperature of char combustion (Ti2), the temperature of maximum reaction (Tmax) and the temperature of char burn out (Tout) do not have large increase on the HTT. These results suggest that the HWD process can raise the volatile matter ignition temperature, resulting in improving the spontaneous ignition temperature, but it still maintains the original combustion behavior. Results from TG-DTA measurements are consistent with those determined by FTIR and solid state {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR.

  6. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  7. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  8. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds for photovoltaic applications and solar energy conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Murugesan, Sankaran

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to formation of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds, such as bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, via a hydrothermal synthesis process, with the resulting compound(s) having multifunctional properties such as being useful in solar energy conversion, environmental remediation, and/or energy storage, for example. In one embodiment, a hydrothermal method is disclosed that transforms nanoparticles of TiO.sub.2 to bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, optionally loaded with palladium nanoparticles. The method includes reacting titanium dioxide nanotubes with a bismuth salt in an acidic bath at a temperature sufficient and for a time sufficient to form bismuth titanate crystals, which are subsequently annealed to form bismuth titanate nanocubes. After annealing, the bismuth titanate nanocubes may be optionally loaded with nano-sized metal particles, e.g., nanosized palladium particles.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles and their application for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Zhigang, E-mail: xh168688@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qiannan Normal College for Nationalities, Duyun 558000 (China); Zheng, Feng, E-mail: fzheng@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, Hongchun; Jiang, Ziran [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Kanglian [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qiannan Normal College for Nationalities, Duyun 558000 (China)

    2013-02-15

    SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles consist of tetragonal nanorods with size readily tunable. Their electrochemical properties and application as anode for lithium-ion battery were evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge testing and cycle voltammetry. SnO{sub 2} nanorod flowers possess improved discharge capacity of 694 mA h g{sup ?1} up to 40th cycle at 0.1 C. - Highlights: ? The flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles with tunable size by controlling concentration of SnCl{sub 4}. ? A probable formation mechanism of SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles has been proposed.

  11. Ion dynamics in nanocrystalline LiMnPO{sub 4} synthesised by novel template free hydrothermal approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayan, Lakshmi, E-mail: lakshmivijayan@gmail.com [St. Aloysius' College, Edathua, Alappuzha-689 573, Kerala (India); Cheruku, Rajesh; Govindaraj, G. [Department of Physics, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences, Pondicherry University, R.V. Nagar, Kalapet, Pondicherry -605 014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A dense core rectangular shaped nanocrystalline LiMnPO{sub 4} material was synthesized by template free sucrose assisted hydrothermal synthesis. The material possess orthorhombic crystal structure with Pnma, space group having four formula units. The structural characterization was accomplished through X-ray diffraction, thermo gravimetry/differential thermal analysis. Morphology was identified by the SEM, VSM was used to verify the magnetic behavior of the material and electrical characterization was done through impedance spectroscopy and the results were reported.

  12. Comparison of LiMnPO4 made by Combustion and Hydrothermal Syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiajun; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-05-15

    Among the olivine-structured metal phosphate family, LiMnPO{sub 4} exhibits a high discharge potential (4V), which is still compatible with common electrolytes, making it interesting for use in the next generation of Li ion batteries. The extremely low electronic conductivity of this material severely limits its electrochemical performance, however. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to make LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticulate to decrease the diffusion distance. Another is to add a carbon or other conductive coating in intimate contact with the nanoparticles of the main phase, as is commonly done with LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} is highly dependent on the quality of the carbon coatings on the particles [1-2], among other variables. Combustion synthesis allows the co-synthesis of nanoparticles coated with carbon in one step. Hydrothermal synthesis is used industrially to make LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials [3] and affords a good deal of control over purity, crystallinity, and particle size. A wide range of olivine-structured materials has been successfully prepared by this technique [4], including LiMnPO{sub 4} in this study. In this paper, we report on the new synthesis of nano-LiMnPO{sub 4} by a combustion method. The purity is dependent upon the conditions used for synthesis, including the type of fuel and precursors that are chosen. The fuel to nitrate ratio influences the combustion temperature, which determines the type and amount of carbon found in the LiMnPO{sub 4} composites. This can further be modified by use of carbon structural modifiers added during a subsequent (optional) calcination step. Figure 1 shows a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the spherical nano-sized LiMnPO{sub 4} particles typically formed by combustion synthesis. The average particle size is around 30 nm, in agreement with values obtained by the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. The small size of the particles cause the peak broadening evident in the pattern of combustion formed LiMnPO{sub 4}, shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 also shows a pattern of hydrothermally prepared LiMnPO{sub 4}, which is sub-micron in size. In this presentation, we will show how the crystallographic parameters, particle size, particle morphology, and carbon content and structure impact the electrochemical properties of the LiMnPO{sub 4}/C composites produced by these methods.

  13. Comparison of LiMnPO4 made by Combustion and Hydrothermal Syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiajun; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-10-12

    Among the olivine-structured metal phosphate family, LiMnPO{sub 4} exhibits a high discharge potential (4V), which is still compatible with common electrolytes, making it interesting for use in the next generation of Li ion batteries. The extremely low electronic conductivity of this material severely limits its electrochemical performance, however. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to make LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticulate to decrease the diffusion distance. Another is to add a carbon or other conductive coating in intimate contact with the nanoparticles of the main phase, as is commonly done with LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} is highly dependent on the quality of the carbon coatings on the particles, among other variables. Combustion synthesis allows the co-synthesis of nanoparticles coated with carbon in one step. Hydrothermal synthesis is used industrially to make LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials and affords a good deal of control over purity, crystallinity, and particle size. A wide range of olivine-structured materials has been successfully prepared by this technique, including LiMnPO{sub 4} in this study. In this paper, we report on the new synthesis of nano-LiMnPO{sub 4} by a combustion method. The purity is dependent upon the conditions used for synthesis, including the type of fuel and precursors that are chosen. The fuel to nitrate ratio influences the combustion temperature, which determines the type and amount of carbon found in the LiMnPO{sub 4} composites. This can further be modified by use of carbon structural modifiers added during a subsequent (optional) calcination step. Figure 1 shows a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the spherical nano-sized LiMnPO{sub 4} particles typically formed by combustion synthesis. The average particle size is around 30 nm, in agreement with values obtained by the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. The small size of the particles cause the peak broadening evident in the pattern of combustion formed LiMnPO{sub 4}, shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 also shows a pattern of hydrothermally prepared LiMnPO{sub 4}, which is sub-micron in size. In this presentation, we will show how the crystallographic parameters, particle size, particle morphology, and carbon content and structure impact the electrochemical properties of the LiMnPO{sub 4}/C composites produced by these methods.

  14. Hydrothermal growth and morphology evolution of CePO{sub 4} aggregates by a complexing method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Lin [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen Weixiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: weixiangchen@css.zju.edu.cn; Zheng Yifan [Institute of Industrial Catalysis, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Xu Zhude [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2008-11-03

    A facile hydrothermal route assisted by Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium) has been successfully developed to prepare uniform cerium phosphate (CePO{sub 4}) aggregates with different morphologies, such as peanut-like and spindle-like. It was found that the as-prepared uniform CePO{sub 4} aggregates were constructed with many nearly parallel aligned nanorods. The molar ratio of EDTA/Ce{sup 3+}, solution pH and reaction time had great influences on the morphologies and sizes of the CePO{sub 4} samples. In our process of synthesis, Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA played important roles as complexing reagent and inducing agent on the formation of CePO{sub 4} aggregates. The possible growth mechanism for CePO{sub 4} aggregates was presented. Ce{sub 0.9}Tb{sub 0.1}PO{sub 4} aggregates with different morphologies were also prepared and their photoluminescence properties were characterized.

  15. Textural properties of synthetic nano-calcite produced by hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German; Charlet, L; Tisserand, Delphine; Renard, F

    2008-01-01

    The hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 1/4 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used to synthesize fine particles of calcite. This method allows a high carbonation efficiency (about 95% of Ca(OH)2-CaCO3 conversion), a significant production rate (48 kg/m3 h) and high purity of product (about 96%). However, the various initial physicochemical conditions have a strong influence on the crystal size and surface area of the synthesized calcite crystals. The present study is focused on the estimation of the textural properties of synthesized calcite (morphology, specific surface area, average particle size, particle size distribution and particle size evolution with reaction time), using Rietveld refinements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations. This study demonstrate that the pressure, the temperatu...

  16. Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in bisulfate and about one-half-order in initial dextrose concentration, and shows a very strong dependence on pH. The kinetics of sulfate reduction by fructose at 250C are virtually the same. The lack of sulfate reduction by formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 250 C indicates that the reducing power of dextrose and fructose cannot be attributed to carbonyl, carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups. The form of the rate law for sulfate reduction by dextrose and the presence of an induction period rather suggest that the initial reduction of sulfate occurs with free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of the hexoses or their alteration products. The inferred sulfate-reduction reaction mechanism suggest that aqueous sulfate may be reduced to sulfide in geologic environments such as deep sedimentary basins. The observed acid-catalysis of the reaction in the laboratory may be supplanted by clay-mineral catalysis in geologic environments. Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during the reduction of sulfate by dextrose under hydrothermal conditions. Computer simulations of the isotopic evolution of the experiments suggest that sulfate-sulfide isotopic exchange largely controls the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide. The extent of isotopic fractionation due solely to sulfate reduction thus cannot be determined from the experiments

  17. Realization of single-termination SrTiO{sub 3} (100) surfaces by a microwave-induced hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasco-Davalos, Ivan; Thomas, Reji; Ruediger, Andreas, E-mail: ruediger@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada)] [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada)

    2013-11-11

    A microwave-induced hydrothermal etching of SrTiO{sub 3} (100) single crystal surfaces in deionized water and subsequent annealing in oxygen atmosphere results in single-terminated and atomically flat terraces for pure and niobium-doped substrates as confirmed through one unit-cell step height and uniform phase by atomic force microscopy. This process that requires 3?min of moderate microwave radiation completely avoids the use of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and related point defects due to fluorine in the crystal surface. The advantages of a safe, inexpensive, and environmentally neutral process hold promise to replace the existing standard protocol for substrate preparation based on buffered HF.

  18. Pajarito Plateau Groundwater Flow and Transport Modeling Process-Level and Systems Models of Groundwater Flow and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhiming

    Pajarito Plateau Groundwater Flow and Transport Modeling 1 Process-Level and Systems Models of Groundwater Flow and Transport Beneath the Pajarito Plateau: Migration of High Explosives from Technical Area Groundwater Modeling Project Systems Model Vadose Zone Model Regional Aquifer Model #12;Pajarito Plateau

  19. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Novel Zn-Triazole-Benzenedicarboxylate Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hyunsoo; Moureau, David M.; Parise, John B.

    2008-10-03

    Three new metal-organic coordination polymers were synthesized hydrothermally using Zn2+ ion, 1,2,4-triazole, and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC): Zn5(H2O)2(C2H2N3)4(C8H4O4)3 {center_dot} 3.9H2O (1), Zn2(C2H2N3)2(C2H3N3)(C8H4O4) {center_dot} 2.5H2O (2), and Zn4(H2O)2(C2H2N3)4(C8H4O4)2 {center_dot} 14H2O (3). Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their thermal properties were examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Structure 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group with a = 10.192(2) {angstrom}, b = 17.764(4) {angstrom}, c = 24.437(5) {angstrom}, {beta} = 91.19(3){sup o}, and V = 4423.3(15) {angstrom}3. Structure 2 crystallizes in the triclinic P space group with a = 7.797(2) {angstrom}, b = 10.047(2) {angstrom}, c = 13.577(3) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 110.18(3){sup o}, {beta} = 105.46(3){sup o}, {gamma} = 93.90(3){sup o}, and V = 947.0(3) {angstrom}3. Structure 3 crystallizes in monoclinic P21/n space group with a = 13.475(3) {angstrom}, b = 26.949(5) {angstrom}, c = 13.509(3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 95.18(3){sup o}, and V = 4885.7(17) {angstrom}3. In structure 1, the units of the triazole-Zn polyhedra are linked by BDC in a zigzag fashion to create the stacking of phenyl groups along the a axis. In structure 2, both triazole and BDC bridge Zn polyhedra in the (011) plane, resulting in the eight-membered channels along the a axis. In the case of structure 3, the BDC links the Zn polyhedra along the b axis to form a pillared open framework. This structure is the most porous of the compounds presented in this work.

  20. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals synthesized by the microwave-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, M.A.P. [INCTMN-DQ-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, SP (Brazil)] [INCTMN-DQ-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, SP (Brazil); Cavalcante, L.S., E-mail: laeciosc@bol.com.br [INCTMN-Universidade Estadual, Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Morilla-Santos, C.; Filho, P.N. Lisboa [MAv-Universidade Estadual, Paulista, P.O. Box 473, 17033-360, Bauru, SP (Brazil)] [MAv-Universidade Estadual, Paulista, P.O. Box 473, 17033-360, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Beltran, A.; Andres, J.; Gracia, L. [Department de Quimica Fisica i Analitica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castello (Spain)] [Department de Quimica Fisica i Analitica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castello (Spain); Longo, E. [INCTMN-DQ-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, SP (Brazil) [INCTMN-DQ-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, SP (Brazil); INCTMN-Universidade Estadual, Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    This communication reports that FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by the microwave-hydrothermal method at 443 K for 1 h. The structure and shape of these nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results and first principles calculations were combined to explain the electronic structure and magnetic properties. Experimental data were obtained by magnetization measurements for different applied magnetic fields. Theoretical calculations revealed that magnetic properties of FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals can be assigned to two magnetic orderings with parallel or antiparallel spins in adjacent chains. These factors are crucial to understanding of competition between ferro- and antiferromagnetic behavior. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monophasic FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by the microwave-hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement and clusters model for monoclinic structure Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals at different temperatures.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn vanadate nanosheets and visible-light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.Z. Xie, Y.K.; Pei, Y.Q.; Jiang, Y.X.; Yu, H.Y.; Cai, Z.Y.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. • The formation of Mn vanadate nanosheets can be controlled by growth conditions. • Mn vanadate nanosheets exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. - Abstract: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route using ammonium metavanadate and Mn acetate as the raw materials, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the Mn vanadate nanosheets are composed of monoclinic MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicates that the nanosheets have the average thickness of about 50 nm, length of 2–10 ?m and width of 800 nm to 2 ?m. The growth process of the Mn vanadate nanosheets has also been discussed based on the analysis of the roles of the growth conditions on the formation of the Mn vanadate nanosheets. The nanosheets show good photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. About 72.96% MB can be degraded after visible light irradiation for 1 h over 10 mg Mn vanadate nanosheets in 10 mL MB solution with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup ?1}.

  2. Adams-R-D, Thickness of the earth's crust beneath the Pacific-Antarctic ridge, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics. 7; 3, Pages 529-542. 1964.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menke, William

    Journal of Geology and Geophysics. 7; 3, Pages 529-542. 1964. Allen,-R-M., The mantle plume beneath-frequency traveltimes; I, Theory, Geophysical Journal International. 141; 1, Pages 157-174. 2000. Forsyth-D-W , Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity Variations in a Regionalized Pacific, Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union

  3. Cutting-Edge Savannah River Site Project Avoids Millions in Costs, Removes Chemical Solvents from Underground: Project avoided costs totaling more than $15 million, removed tons of chemical solvents from beneath the Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – Workers recently completed a multiyear project that removed more than 33,000 gallons of non-radioactive chemical solvents from beneath a portion of the Savannah River Site (SRS), preventing those pollutants from entering the local water table and helping the site avoid costs of more than $15 million.

  4. flow beneath the East Pacific Rise. Nature 402, 282285 (1999). 14. Grove, T. L., Kinzler, R. J. & Bryan, W. B. in Mantle Flow and Melt Generation at Mid-Ocean Ridges (eds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01

    flow beneath the East Pacific Rise. Nature 402, 282­285 (1999). 14. Grove, T. L., Kinzler, R. J. & Bryan, W. B. in Mantle Flow and Melt Generation at Mid-Ocean Ridges (eds Morgan, J. P., Blackman, D. K. Dick, H. J. B. in Magmatism in the Ocean Basins (eds Sounders, A. D. & Norry, M. J.) 71­105 (Geol. Soc

  5. Mantle flow in subduction systems: The subslab flow field and implications for mantle dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mantle flow in subduction systems: The subslab flow field and implications for mantle dynamics 2009; published 28 October 2009. [1] The character of the mantle flow field in subduction zones remains, little attention has been paid to mantle flow beneath subducting slabs. In order to identify processes

  6. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  7. Synthesis of ZnO nanorod–nanosheet composite via facile hydrothermal method and their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Wai Kian; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia; Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-03-15

    ZnO composite films consisting of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets were prepared by low-temperature hydrothermal processing at 80 °C on seeded glass substrates. The seed layer was coated on glass substrates by sol–gel dip-coating and pre-heated at 300 °C for 10 min prior to hydrothermal growth. The size of the grain formed after pre-heat treatment was ?40 nm. A preferred orientation seed layer at the c-axis was obtained, which promoted vertical growth of the ZnO nanorod arrays and formation of the ZnO nanosheets. X-ray diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) images confirmed that the ZnO nanorods and nanosheets consist of single crystalline and polycrystalline structures, respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO nanorod–nanosheet composite films exhibited band-edge ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission (blue and green) indicating the formation of ZnO crystals with good crystallinity and are supported by Raman scattering results. The formation of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays and two-dimensional (2D) ZnO nanosheet films using seeded substrates in a single low-temperature hydrothermal step would be beneficial for realization of device applications that utilize substrates with limited temperature stability. The ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure demonstrated higher photocatalytic activity during degradation of aqueous methylene blue under visible-light irradiation. -- Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of ZnO nanorod–nanosheet composite structure formation by hydrothermal at low-temperature of 80 °C against time. Highlights: • Novel simultaneous formation of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure. • Facile single hydrothermal step formation at low-temperature. • Photoluminescence showed ultraviolet and visible emission. • Feasible application on substrates with low temperature stability. • Improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation.

  8. Elliptic and hyperelliptic functions describing the particle motion beneath small-amplitude water waves with constant vorticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delia Ionescu-Kruse

    2011-08-24

    We provide analytic solutions of the nonlinear differential equation system describing the particle paths below small-amplitude periodic gravity waves travelling on a constant vorticity current. We show that these paths are not closed curves. Some solutions can be expressed in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, others in terms of hyperelliptic functions. We obtain new kinds of particle paths. We make some remarks on the stagnation points which could appear in the fluid due to the vorticity.

  9. Using electromagnetic sensors (magnetometers and dielectrometers) to detect corrosion beneath and moisture within paint coatings on aircraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldfine, N.; Greig, N.A.

    1994-12-31

    Current nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques, such as visual inspection, ultrasonic testing, and eddy current testing, do not adequately detect the early stages of hidden corrosion under paint in critical structures such as airframes. This paper proposes a sensor system that uses meandering winding magnetometers (MWMs) and interdigital electrode dielectrometers (IDEDs) to detect hidden corrosion under paint and to measure the depth of moisture within barrier paint coatings. The MWM uses magnetic fields and inductive coupling to measure profiles of the properties of conducting media (such as the reduced conductivity near a metal surface caused by an oxygen diffusion layer resulting from early-stage corrosion). The IDED uses electric fields and capacitive coupling to measure the properties of multiple-layered insulating media, such as paint or the metal oxides formed during corrosion. MWM and IDED sensor designs permit Cartesian coordinate modal continuum modeling, which takes advantage of sensor geometries to provide more precise response predictions than are generally possible with conventional eddy current probes. Data are presented to describe the limitations of current NDI techniques, address the need for a new type of corrosion-detection system and discuss the underlying theory and potential of using MWMs and IDEDs to detect corrosion.

  10. 1256 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 18, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2003 Short-Term Hydrothermal Generation Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    , and economic load dispatch. Considering a scheduling horizon period of a week, hourly generation schedules

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of HCl and some metal chlorides in magmatic/hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical analysis is given for calculating the composition of the aqueous vapor and the saline brine (hydrosaline liquid) present at run pressure and temperature in the experiment. The mixture of aqueous vapor and brine is homogenized upon quench. The method for calculating the concentration of HCl and NaCl in the coexisting aqueous vapor and brine is shown.

  12. Identification of chemoautotrophic microorganisms from a diffuse flow hydrothermal vent at EPR 9° north using ¹³C DNA stable isotope probing and catalyzed activated reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richberg, Kevin Patrick

    2010-01-01

    At deep-sea hydrothermal vents chemolithoautotrophic microbes mediate the transfer of geothermal chemical energy to higher trophic levels. To better understand these underlying processes and the organisms catalyzing them, ...

  13. Life-cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Clark, C. E.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-11

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other life-cycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the GREET model shows that fossil thermal plants have fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output about one order of magnitude higher than renewable power systems, including geothermal power.

  14. Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment" by Yuri Dublyansky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.

    2008-11-17

    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  15. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–CNTs nanocomposites: Inorganic dispersant assisted hydrothermal synthesis and application in lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Qixun, E-mail: qxguo@xmu.edu.cn; Guo, Pengfei; Li, Juntao, E-mail: jtli@xmu.edu.cn; Yin, Hao; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Feilong; Shen, Daoxiang; Li, Ning

    2014-05-01

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–CNTs nanocomposites with a particle size of ?80 nm have been synthesized through an organic-free hydrothermal synthesis strategy by using Sn(OH){sub 6}{sup 2?} as an inorganic dispersant, and served as anode materials of lithium ion batteries. Nano-sized and micro-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} without CNTs have also been prepared for comparison. The cycle performances of the as-obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} are highly size-dependent. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–CNTs nanocomposites can deliver reversible discharge capacity of ?700 mA h/g at a current density of 50 mA/g after 50 cycles. The discharge capacity of the micro-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} decreased to 171 mA h/g after 50 cycles. Our work not only provides new insights into the inorganic dispersant assisted hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxides nanocrystals but also gives guidance for finding new nanocomposites as anode materials of lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–CNTs nanocomposites have been prepared through an inorganic dispersant assisted hydrothermal synthesis strategy, and served as anode materials of lithium ion batteries with enhanced performance. - Highlights: • Sn(OH){sub 6}{sup 2?} is a good inorganic dispersant for the hydrothermal synthesis of nano Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • The cycle performances of nano Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} anode are much better than that of micro Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} anode. • Compositing CNTs can enhance the cycle performances of nano Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} anode.

  16. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phasesmore »changed to plate-shape around 2 ?m in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of 3-D hydrated bismuth oxalate coordination polymers with open-channel structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xinxiang; Cao Yanning; Zhang Hanhui Chen Yiping; Chen Xuehuan; Chai Xiaochuan

    2008-05-15

    Two new 3-D porous bismuth coordination polymers, (C{sub 5}NH{sub 6}){sub 2}[Bi{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 4}].2H{sub 2}O 1 and (NH{sub 4})[Bi(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O 2, have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic symmetry, P2{sub 1}/c space group with a=10.378(2) A, b=17.285(3) A, c=16.563(5) A, {alpha}=90 deg., {beta}=119.66(2) deg., {gamma}=90 deg., V=2581.8(10) A{sup 3}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0355 and wR{sub 2}=0.0658 for unique 4713 reflections I >2{sigma}(I). Compound 2 crystallizes in the tetragonal symmetry, I4{sub 1}/amd space group with a=11.7026(17) A, b=11.7026(17) A, c=9.2233(18) A, {alpha}=90 deg., {beta}=90 deg., {gamma}=90 deg., V=1263.1(4) A{sup 3}, Z=32, R{sub 1}=0.0208 and wR{sub 2}=0.0518 for unique 359 reflections I> 2{sigma}(I). Compounds 1 and 2 are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6{sup 6} uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers, study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by K{sup +} on potassium ion exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the open-channel frameworks are thermally stable up to 200 deg. C, and other characterizations are also described by elemental analysis, IR and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectionintegral spectrum (UV-Vis DRIS). - Graphical abstract: Two novel 3-D extended porous coordination polymers have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. Both compounds are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6{sup 6} uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers. Study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by K{sup +} on potassium ion exchange.

  18. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured Na-birnessites and phase transformation by arsenic(III) oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dias, Anderson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: anderson_dias@iceb.ufop.br; Sa, Rodrigo G.; Spitale, Matheus C.; Athayde, Maycon; Ciminelli, Virginia S.T. [DEMET, UFMG, Rua Espirito Santo 35, Sala 206, 30160-030 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2008-06-03

    Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis was employed to produce Na-birnessites. Crystalline, single-phase materials were obtained at temperatures as low as 120 deg. C and times as short as 1 min. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural features of the nanostructured powders. Birnessites possessed a monoclinic structure in space group C2/m with nine Raman-active bands, all of which were observed for the first time due to optimized acquisition of the spectroscopic data. The highly reactive materials produced were submitted to sorption experiments with As(III). An oxidative precipitation occurred with the production of Mn(II) arsenate at higher arsenic concentrations. In addition, the formation of hausmannite (Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}) was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman analyses of the reacted solid phase. The observed 14 Raman-active modes were adjusted according to the tetragonal I4{sub 1}/amd space group for hausmannite. An additional band related to the breathing mode of the arsenate was observed, leading to the conclusion that adsorption onto hausmannite takes place in addition to the oxidative precipitation of manganese arsenate.

  19. Recovery Act. Development and Validation of an Advanced Stimulation Prediction Model for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutierrez, Marte

    2013-12-31

    This research project aims to develop and validate an advanced computer model that can be used in the planning and design of stimulation techniques to create engineered reservoirs for Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The specific objectives of the proposal are to; Develop a true three-dimensional hydro-thermal fracturing simulator that is particularly suited for EGS reservoir creation; Perform laboratory scale model tests of hydraulic fracturing and proppant flow/transport using a polyaxial loading device, and use the laboratory results to test and validate the 3D simulator; Perform discrete element/particulate modeling of proppant transport in hydraulic fractures, and use the results to improve understand of proppant flow and transport; Test and validate the 3D hydro-thermal fracturing simulator against case histories of EGS energy production; and Develop a plan to commercialize the 3D fracturing and proppant flow/transport simulator. The project is expected to yield several specific results and benefits. Major technical products from the proposal include; A true-3D hydro-thermal fracturing computer code that is particularly suited to EGS; Documented results of scale model tests on hydro-thermal fracturing and fracture propping in an analogue crystalline rock; Documented procedures and results of discrete element/particulate modeling of flow and transport of proppants for EGS applications; and Database of monitoring data, with focus of Acoustic Emissions (AE) from lab scale modeling and field case histories of EGS reservoir creation.

  20. Hydrothermal coupling in a self-affine rough fracture A. Neuville,* R. Toussaint, and J. Schmittbuhl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    - thermics is an intensively developing field. Deep enhanced geothermal systems EGSs are based on the energy the hydraulic flow and subse- quently to enhance the thermal exchange. Fracture roughness might, in the opposite as an ellipse or a poly- hedron. This is the case in most fracture network models used for geothermal 10

  1. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Philip R; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Polsky, Yarom

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or engineered within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  2. Development of Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading Technologies for Lipid-Extracted Algae Conversion to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-10-01

    Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrotreating liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available test results. The system assumes an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric ton/day and that the feedstock is converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrate that HTL would be an effective option to convert LEA to liquid fuel. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent and the overall energy efficiency at higher heating value basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $0.75/L with LEA feedstock price at $33.1 metric ton at dry basis and 10% internal rate of return. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the largest effects to production cost would come from the final products yields and the upgrading equipments cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

  3. Topologically novel copper molybdate phases based on 3,4'-dipyridylketone: Hydrothermal synthesis, structural characterization, and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montney, Matthew R. [Lyman Briggs College and Department of Chemistry, E-30 Holmes Hall, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48825 (United States); LaDuca, Robert L. [Lyman Briggs College and Department of Chemistry, E-30 Holmes Hall, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48825 (United States)], E-mail: laduca@msu.edu

    2008-04-15

    Hydrothermal treatment of CuCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, MoO{sub 3}, and 3,4'-dipyridylketone (3,4'-dpk) in 1:1:2 mole ratio afforded the new mixed metal oxide phases [Cu{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}(3,4'-dpk)(H{sub 2}O)] (1) or [Cu{sub 4}(3,4'-dpk){sub 4}(Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26})] (2), depending on the pH of the initial reaction mixture. Compound 1 possesses unique one-dimensional (1-D) [Cu{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} ribbons constructed from the linkage of {l_brace}Cu{sup II}{sub 4}O{sub 6}{r_brace} tetrameric units through isolated [MoO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} tetrahedra. These ribbons in turn are connected into a two-dimensional (2-D) coordination polymer structure by tethering 3,4'-dpk ligands. Compound 2, containing monovalent copper ions, manifests an unprecedented 'X-rail' 1-D extended structure with (6{sup 2}8){sub 4}(6{sup 6}) topology formed from the bracketing of discrete [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} anions by four [Cu{sup I}(3,4{sup '}-dpk)]{sub n}{sup n+} chains. The variable temperature magnetic susceptibility behavior of 1 was fit to a linear tetramer model, with g=2.03(3), J{sub 1}=25.8(7) cm{sup -1} and J{sub 2}=-46(1) cm{sup -1}. Antiferromagnetic inter-tetramer interactions (zJ'=-0.21(3) cm{sup -1}) were also evident. Crystallographic data: 1 monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/c, a=10.3911(11) A, b=6.9502(6) A, c=22.958(2) A, {beta}=100.658(7){sup o}, V=1629.5(3) A{sup 3}, R{sub 1}=0.1256, and wR{sub 2}=0.2038; 2 triclinic, P1-bar,a=10.9000(3) A, b=11.7912(4) A, c=13.5584(4) A, {alpha}=102.482(2){sup o}, {beta}=102.482(2){sup o}, {gamma}=117.481(2){sup o}, V=1450.98(8) A{sup 3}, R{sub 1}=0.0428, and wR{sub 2}=0.0630. - Graphical abstract: [Cu{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}(3,4'-dpk)(H{sub 2}O)] (1, 3,4'-dpk=3,4'-dipyridylketone) and [Cu{sub 4}(3,4'-dpk){sub 4}(Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26})] (2) have been prepared by hydrothermal methods. 1 possesses 1-D [Cu{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} ribbons containing magnetically interacting {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 6}{r_brace} tetramers. The ribbons are connected into 2-D by 3,4'-dpk ligands. The reduced phase 2 manifests an unprecedented 1-D 'X-rail' chain motif.

  4. Energy Department Addresses Largest Gathering of Geothermal Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to commercial readiness, including conventional hydrothermal technology and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) - which significantly expands conventional hydrothermal resources by...

  5. ITN Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:HydrothermallyIFB Agro IndustriesISI SolarSystems Jump

  6. Methane and methanol oxidation in supercritical water: Chemical kinetics and hydrothermal flame studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeper, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for the treatment of wastes in the presence of a large concentration of water at conditions above water`s thermodynamic critical point. A high-pressure, optically accessible reaction cell was constructed to investigate the oxidation of methane and methanol in this environment. Experiments were conducted to examine both flame and non-flame oxidation regimes. Optical access enabled the use of normal and shadowgraphy video systems for visualization, and Raman spectroscopy for in situ measurement of species concentrations. Flame experiments were performed by steadily injecting pure oxygen into supercritical mixtures of water and methane or methanol at 270 bar and at temperatures from 390 to 510{degrees}C. The experiments mapped conditions leading to the spontaneous ignition of diffusion flames in supercritical water. Above 470{degrees}C, flames spontaneously ignite in mixtures containing only 6 mole% methane or methanol. This data is relevant to the design and operation of commercial SCWO processes that may be susceptible to inadvertent flame formation. Non-flame oxidation kinetics experiments measured rates of methane oxidation in supercritical water at 270 bar and at temperatures from 390 to 442{degrees}C. The initial methane concentration was nominally 0.15 gmol/L, a level representative of commercial SCWO processes. The observed methane concentration histories were fit to a one-step reaction rate expression indicating a reaction order close to two for methane and zero for oxygen. Experiments were also conducted with varying water concentrations (0 to 8 gmol/L) while temperature and initial reactant concentrations were held constant. The rate of methane oxidation rises steadily with water concentration up to about 5 gmol/L and then abruptly falls off at higher concentrations.

  7. Hydrothermal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improved geochemical techniques to estimate reservoir temperatures and processes Remote Sensing High-resolution remote sensing data and reliable automated processing...

  8. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to TappingWORKof71 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Successone of theResources

  9. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) well construction technology evaluation report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capuano, Louis, Jr.; Huh, Michael; Swanson, Robert; Raymond, David Wayne; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2008-12-01

    Electricity production from geothermal resources is currently based on the exploitation of hydrothermal reservoirs. Hydrothermal reservoirs possess three ingredients critical to present day commercial extraction of subsurface heat: high temperature, in-situ fluid and high permeability. Relative to the total subsurface heat resource available, hydrothermal resources are geographically and quantitatively limited. A 2006 DOE sponsored study led by MIT entitled 'The Future of Geothermal Energy' estimates the thermal resource underlying the United States at depths between 3 km and 10 km to be on the order of 14 million EJ. For comparison purposes, total U.S. energy consumption in 2005 was 100 EJ. The overwhelming majority of this resource is present in geological formations which lack either in-situ fluid, permeability or both. Economical extraction of the heat in non-hydrothermal situations is termed Enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The technologies and processes required for EGS are currently in a developmental stage. Accessing the vast thermal resource between 3 km and 10 km in particular requires a significant extension of current hydrothermal practice, where wells rarely reach 3 km in depth. This report provides an assessment of well construction technology for EGS with two primary objectives: (1) Determining the ability of existing technologies to develop EGS wells. (2) Identifying critical well construction research lines and development technologies that are likely to enhance prospects for EGS viability and improve overall economics. Towards these ends, a methodology is followed in which a case study is developed to systematically and quantitatively evaluate EGS well construction technology needs. A baseline EGS well specification is first formulated. The steps, tasks and tools involved in the construction of this prospective baseline EGS well are then explicitly defined by a geothermal drilling contractor in terms of sequence, time and cost. A task and cost based analysis of the exercise is subsequently conducted to develop a deeper understanding of the key technical and economic drivers of the well construction process. Finally, future research & development recommendations are provided and ranked based on their economic and technical significance.

  10. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  11. A National-Scale Comparison of Resource and Nutrient Demands for Algae-Based Biofuel Production by Lipid Extraction and Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-01

    Algae’s high productivity provides potential resource advantages over other fuel crops. However, demand for land, water, and nutrients must be minimized to avoid impacts on food production. We apply our national-scale, open-pond, growth and resource models to assess several biomass to fuel technological pathways based on Chlorella. We compare resource demands between hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and lipid extraction (LE) to meet 1.89E+10 and 7.95E+10 L yr-1 biofuel targets. We estimate nutrient demands where post-fuel biomass is consumed as co-products and recycling by anaerobic digestion (AD) or catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG). Sites are selected through prioritization based on fuel value relative to a set of site-specific resource costs. The highest priority sites are located along the Gulf of Mexico coast, but potential sites exist nationwide. We find that HTL reduces land and freshwater consumption by up to 46% and saline groundwater by around 70%. Without recycling, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) demand is reduced 33%, but is large relative to current U.S. agricultural consumption. The most nutrient-efficient pathways are LE+CHG for N and HTL+CHG for P (by 42%). Resource gains for HTL+CHG are offset by a 344% increase in N consumption relative to LE+CHG (with potential for further recycling). Nutrient recycling is essential to effective use of alternative nutrient sources. Modeling of utilization availability and costs remains, but we find that for HTL+CHG at the 7.95E+10 L yr-1 production target, municipal sources can offset 17% of N and 40% of P demand and animal manures can generally meet demands.

  12. Flower-like nanostructure MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (M = Mn, Zn) with high surface area: Hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xue; Jing, Yan; Yang, Jia [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ju, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cong, Rihong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Gao, Wenliang, E-mail: gaowl@cqu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Tao, E-mail: taoyang@cqu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} was prepared by a mild two-step hydrothermal method. • Their flower-like nanostructure morphology was studied by SEM and TEM. • High BET surface areas for MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (?50 m{sup 2}/g) and ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (?100 m{sup 2}/g). • Band gap energies were estimated by UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. • Photocatalytic activities were evaluated under UV-light irradiation. - Abstract: Nano-scaled MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (M = Mn, Zn) was successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal method. It is important to control the exact pH of the reaction solution in order to obtain pure products. The as-prepared samples both crystallize in the columbite structure. Interestingly, the products possess a flower-like morphology in a pseudo-six-fold symmetry, which is in fact arrayed by two-dimensional nanosheets. Their surface areas (51 m{sup 2}/g for MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and 103 m{sup 2}/g for ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are about 25–50 times of those prepared by solid state reaction. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra show the nano-scaled sample has a stronger absorption and a narrower band gap than its bulk form. The estimated band gap energies are 2.70 eV (MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) and 3.77 eV (ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}), respectively. The nano-scaled ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} exhibits a double enhancement of photocatalytic activity in the decolorization of methylene blue than bulk ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}.

  13. The midcontinent rift system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Schmus, W. R.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    ). Subsequently, deep seismic reflection profiling by the Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) identified a structural trough containing layered formations beneath the Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks and coinciding with the mid-Michigan anomaly...). Subsequently, deep seismic reflection profiling by the Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) identified a structural trough containing layered formations beneath the Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks and coinciding with the mid-Michigan anomaly...

  14. Crustal-scale degassing due to magma system destabilisation and magma-gas decoupling at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, T. E.; Blundy, J.; Cashman, K.; Cole, P.; Edmonds, M.; Smith, P. J.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Stinton, A.

    2015-06-11

    are consistent with internal modifications to the mush system, such as melt and gas migration from one level to another, but without discharge to the surface. Uranium-series isotope data indicate long crustal residence times of the andesite magma (105... for hydrothermal ore formation associated with arc volcanoes. Porphyry copper deposits are widely viewed as giant sulfur anomalies (Hunt, 1977) and are therefore likely to be related in origin to the excess sulfur phenomenon of arc volcanoes (Wallace, 2005...

  15. Effect of calcination temperature on structural and photocatalyst properties of nanofibers prepared from low-cost natural ilmenite mineral by simple hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpraditpan, Athapon; Wirunmongkol, Thanakorn; Pavasupree, Sorapong; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanofibers were prepared from low-cost ilmenite mineral via simple hydrothermal. • High photocatalyst nanofibers were prepared via post heat treatment method. • The nanofibers calcined at 100–700 °C for 2 h maintained nanofiber structure. • The calcined nanofibers at 400 °C showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanate nanofibers were synthesized via the hydrothermal method (120 °C for 72 h) using natural ilmenite mineral (FeTiO{sub 3}) as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) for specific surface area. The nanofibers were 20–90 nm in diameter and 2–7 ?m in length. The as-synthesized nanofibers calcined at 300–400 °C showed TiO{sub 2} (B) whereas the nanofibers calcined at 500 °C revealed a mixture of two phases of TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase. The nanofibers calcined at high temperature of 600–1000 °C showed a mixture of tri-crystalline of anatase, rutile, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The rutile phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The nanofibers calcined at 300–700 °C maintained their structure while the morphology of the nanofibers calcined at 800–1000 °C transformed into submicron rod-like structure. This increase of calcination temperature led to the phase transformation from thermodynamically metastable anatase to the most stable form of rutile phase. The crystallite size of prepared samples increased with increasing calcination temperature. Interestingly, with increasing calcination temperature, the absorption edge of the prepared samples shows an obvious shift to visible light region due to the change of crystallite phase and increased crystallite size. Therefore, the band gap energy of the prepared samples became narrower with increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the nanofibers calcined at 400 °C for 2 h was found to be not merely higher than those of the commercially available TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles powders (P-25, JRC-01, and JRC-03) but also the highest of all the samples in this study.

  16. Co-hydrolysis of hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated Populus slurries to support development of a high-throughput pretreatment system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Studer, Michael H; Brethauer, Simone; DeMartini, Jaclyn D; McKenzie, Heather L; Wyman, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    process samples. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for approxi-the standard National Renewable Energy Laboratory method [

  17. EIS-0066: The Role of Bonneville Power Administration in the Pacific Northwest Power Supply System- including its Participation in a Hydro-Thermal Power Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepared this EIS to examine the environmental impacts of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act, which will foster regional electric power planning in the four Northwest states, as well as increase BPA’s authority to address future power needs.

  18. In situ hydrothermal growth of hierarchical ZnO nanourchin for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Instruction One-dimensional (1D) nanostructured metal oxides functional materials for applications in photocatalysis, gas sensors, electrochromic devices, light-emitting diodes, field emitters, and energy conversion and storage systems [1e10]. Among these applications, 1D

  19. Methane clathrates in the Solar System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousis, Olivier; Holm, Nils G; Bouquet, Alexis; Waite, Jack Hunter; Geppert, Wolf Dietrich; Picaud, Sylvain; Aikawa, Yuri; Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Charlou, Jean-Luc; Rousselot, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We review the reservoirs of methane clathrates that may exist in the different bodies of the Solar System. Methane was formed in the interstellar medium prior to having been embedded in the protosolar nebula gas phase. This molecule was subsequently trapped in clathrates that formed from crystalline water ice during the cooling of the disk and incorporated in this form in the building blocks of comets, icy bodies, and giant planets. Methane clathrates may play an important role in the evolution of planetary atmospheres. On Earth, the production of methane in clathrates is essentially biological, and these compounds are mostly found in permafrost regions or in the sediments of continental shelves. On Mars, methane would more likely derive from hydrothermal reactions with olivine-rich material. If they do exist, martian methane clathrates would be stable only at depth in the cryosphere and sporadically release some methane into the atmosphere via mechanisms that remain to be determined.

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oil and Hydrotreated Product from Pine Feedstock Characterized by Heteronuclear Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Cort, John R.; Hallen, Richard T.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) crude oil and hydrotreated product from pine tree farm waste (forest product residual, FPR) have been analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes and high-resolution twodimensional heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. FT-ICR MS resolves thousands of compounds in complex oils and provides unparalleled compositional details for individual molecules for identification of compound class (heteroatom content), type (number of rings plus double bonds to carbon or double bond equivalents (DBE) and carbon number (degree of alkylation). Heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy provides one-bond and multiple-bond correlations between pairs of 1H and 13C chemical shifts that are characteristic of different organic functional groups. Taken together this information provides a picture of the chemical composition of these oils. Pyrolysis crude oil product from pine wood was characterized for comparison. Generally, pyrolysis oil is comprised of a more diverse distribution of heteroatom classes with higher oxygen number relative to HTL oil as shown by both positive- and negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS. A total of 300 N1, 594 O1 and 267 O2 compounds were observed as products of hydrotreatment. The relative abundance of N1O1, N1O2, N1O3, N2, N2O1, N2O2 and O3 compounds are reduced to different degrees after hydrotreatment and other higher heteroatom containing species (O4-O10, N1O4, N1O5 and N2O3) are completely removed by hydrotreatment.

  1. SCATTERING BY CRACKS BENEATH FLUIDSOLID INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craster, Richard

    , and accurately determine the position of, cracks. The non­destructive testing of a solid to detect such flaws as the fluid coupling tends to zero is non­uniform, that is, the Rayleigh wave is not related to the Sch

  2. PhotobyMBrandon Beneath the Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Gwyn

    Terschelling Autosub campaign March 00 Text message on cell phone #12;Phytoplankton analysis: Flow cytometry rating J 1000 litres payload J 700 km range J 3 - 4 kt speed J Primary cell battery #12;Fisheries radiated noise 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 100 1000 10000 Centre Frequency (Hz) Measured

  3. Microbes: Life Deep Beneath the Seafloor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, David C.

    to acceptor is captured to provide the energy to support basic metabolic functions. Microorganisms-dwelling organisms rely on oxygen, microbes use compounds of sulfur, manganese, iron, and carbon dioxide

  4. Long Fingers of Heat Beneath Earth's Surface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCenter (LMI-EFRC)Lodging LodgingLogistics Logistics TheAbout

  5. Comparison of effectiveness of sub-slab ventilation systems for indoor radon mitigation: A numerical study; Comparaison a l`aide d`un outil numerique de l`efficacite des systemes de ventilation active du sol limitant la penetration du radon dans l`habitat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnefous, Y.C. [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l`Etat, 69 - Vaulx en Velin (France). Lab. Sciences de l`Habitat]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Gadgil, A.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Allard, F. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1992-04-01

    The functioning of an active sub-slab ventilation system (SVS) has been studied successfully with the help of a previously evaluated numerical model. The parameters explored are the permeability of the sub-slab and the gravel placed beneath it, the amplitude of applied pressure at the installation point of the system and the functioning method: depressurization or pressurization. The mechanisms contributing to the success of the two systems are identified. This numerical study shows that the presence of a layer of gravel beneath the sub-slab considerably improves the performance of the SVS. Considered separately from the extremely permeable sub-slabs, the depressurization systems perform better than the pressurization systems. 17 refs. [Francais] Le fonctionnement des Systemes de Ventilation active du Sol (SVS) a ete etudie a l`aide d`un outil numerique precedemment evalue avec succes. Les parametres explores sont les permeabilites du sol et du gravier place sous plancher bas, l`amplitude de la pression appliquee au point d`installation du systeme, et le mode de fonctionnement: Depressurisation ou Pressurisation. Les mecanismes contribuant au succes des deux systemes sont identifies. Cette etude numerique montre que la presence d`une couche de gravier sous plancher bas ameliore de facon considerable les performances des SVS. Mis a part le cas des sols extremement permeables, les systemes de Depressurisation ont de meilleures performances que les systemes de Pressurisation. 17 refs.

  6. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: Monitoring EGS-Related Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLarty, Lynn; Entingh, Daniel; Carwile, Clifton

    2000-09-29

    This report reviews technologies that could be applicable to Enhanced Geothermal Systems development. EGS covers the spectrum of geothermal resources from hydrothermal to hot dry rock. We monitored recent and ongoing research, as reported in the technical literature, that would be useful in expanding current and future geothermal fields. The literature review was supplemented by input obtained through contacts with researchers throughout the United States. Technologies are emerging that have exceptional promise for finding fractures in nonhomogeneous rock, especially during and after episodes of stimulation to enhance natural permeability.

  7. Hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in uranium ores, Elliot Lake, Canada: Implications for selected organic-rich deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mossman, D.J. [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada)] [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada); Nagy, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States); Davis, D.W. [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-07-01

    Organic matter in the uraniferous Matinenda Formation, Elliot Lake, is preserved in the forms of syngenetic kerogen and solid bitumen as it is in many of the Oklo uranium deposits and in the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores. The Elliot Lake kerogen is a vitrinite-like material considered to be remnants of the Precambrian cyanobacterial mats. The kerogen at Elliot Lake has reflectances (in oil) ranging from 2.63-7.31% RO{sub max}, high aromaticity, relatively low (0.41-0.60) atomic H/C ratios, and it contains cryptocrystalline graphite. Bitumen, present primarily as dispersed globules (up to 0.5 mm dia.), has reflectances from 0.72-1.32% RO{sub max}, atomic H/C ratios of 0.71-0.81, and is somewhat less aromatic than the kerogen. Overall similarity in molecular compositions indicates that liquid bitumen was derived from kerogen by processes similar to hydrous pyrolysis. The carbon isotopic composition of kerogen ({minus}15.62 to {minus}24.72%), and the now solid bitumen ({minus}25.91 to {minus}33.00%) are compatible with these processes. Despite having been subjected to several thermal episodes, ca. 2.45 Ga old kerogen of microbiological origin here survived as testimony of the antiquity of life on Earth. U-Pb isotopic data from discrete kerogen grains at Elliot Lake form a scattered array intersecting concordia at 2130 {+-} 100 Ma, correspond to the Nipissing event. U-Pb systems were totally reset by this event. Uranium and lead show subsequently partial mobility, the average of which is indicated by the lower concordia intersect of 550 {+-} 260 Ma. The migrated bitumen contains virtually no uranium and thorium but has a large excess of {sup 206}Pb, which indicates that the once liquid bitumen must have acted as a sink for mobile intermediate decay products of {sup 238}U. Emplacement of the Nipissing diabase may have been responsible for producing the bitumen and, indirectly, for its enrichment in {sup 206}Pb as a result of outgassing of {sup 222}Rn.

  8. A hydrogeological and geochemical model of the high-temperature geothermal system of Amatitlan, Guatemala

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima, E.; Fujino, T. [West Japan Engineering Consultants, Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); McNitt, J.R.; Klein, C.W. [GeothermEx, Inc., Richmond, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical data from deep and shallow wells indicate the presence of a large geothermal system fed by upflow beneath Volcan de Pacaya, with source temperatures {ge} 330{degrees}C and chloride contents on the order of 2,500 mg/l. A considerable contribution of magmatic water is suggested by chemical and isotopic data, provided that water-rock interactions have substantially neutralized the acidity of the magmatic component. The areal extent of the upflow zone is unknown, and can only be delimited by further drilling to the south and southeast of deep well AMF-2, which encounters the two-phase upflow zone. Outflow is directed to the north, towards Lago de Amatitlan. The outflow path is long (more than 7 km), and lateral cooling occurs both via conduction and dilution with cool groundwater. Vertical cooling is also indicated by temperature reversals of up to 60{degrees}C beneath the outflow tongue, attributed to a regional underflow of cool groundwater. Outflow paths do not appear to be controlled by geologic structures or aquifers; instead, the hot water appears to {open_quotes}float{close_quotes} on top of the gently sloping unconfined groundwater table. These aspects of the geothermal system were used to develop the numerical model of the Amatitlan geothermal system, which is the subject of a separate paper.

  9. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng; Li Danzhen; Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi

    2012-06-15

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  10. Convective heat transport in geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1986-08-01

    Most geothermal systems under exploitation for direct use or electrical power production are of the hydrothermal type, where heat is transferred essentially by convection in the reservoir, conduction being secondary. In geothermal systems, buoyancy effects are generally important, but often the fluid and heat flow patterns are largely controlled by geologic features (e.g., faults, fractures, continuity of layers) and location of recharge and discharge zones. During exploitation, these flow patterns can drastically change in response to pressure and temperature declines, and changes in recharge/discharge patterns. Convective circulation models of several geothermal systems, before and after start of fluid production, are described, with emphasis on different characteristics of the systems and the effects of exploitation on their evolution. Convective heat transport in geothermal fields is discussed, taking into consideration (1) major geologic features; (2) temperature-dependent rock and fluid properties; (3) fracture- versus porous-medium characteristics; (4) single- versus two-phase reservoir systems; and (5) the presence of noncondensible gases.

  11. A New Natural Gamma Radiation Measurement System for Marine Sediment and Rock Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasiliev, M A; Chubarian, G; Olsen, R; Bennight, C; Cobine, T; Fackler, D; Hastedt, M; Houpt, D; Mateo, Z; Vasilieva, Y B

    2010-01-01

    A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to background ratio is maximized with passive lead shielding, including both ordinary and low-activity lead. Large-area plastic scintillator active shielding filters background associated with the high-energy part of cosmic radiation. The new system has at least an order of magnitude higher statistical reliability and significantly enhances data quality compared to other offshore natural gamma radiation (NGR) systems designed to measure geological core samples. Reliable correlations and interpretations of cored intervals are ...

  12. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  13. Hydrothermal Alteration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:

  14. Hydrothermal Reservoirs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on Openei | Open Energy Information

  15. Hydrothermal Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContractingManagement »Hydrogen and Fuel

  16. Hydrothermal Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancial OpportunitiesDepartment ofScienceHow MuchResearch

  17. Toner, B.M., M.A. Marcus, K.J. Edwards, O. Rouxel, and C.R. German. 2012. Measuring the form of iron in hydrothermal plume particles. Oceanography 25(1):209212, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the form of iron in hydrothermal plume particles. Oceanography 25(1):209­212, http://dx.doi.org/10 in Oceanography, Volume 25, Number 1, a quarterly journal of The Oceanography Society. Copyright 2012 by The Oceanography Society. All rights reserved. USAGE Permission is granted to copy this article for use in teaching

  18. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: US Geothermal Resources Review and Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Entingh, Dan; McLarty, Lynn

    2000-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to lay the groundwork for an emerging process to assess U.S. geothermal resources that might be suitable for development as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Interviews of leading geothermists indicate that doing that will be intertwined with updating assessments of U.S. higher-quality hydrothermal resources and reviewing methods for discovering ''hidden'' hydrothermal and EGS resources. The report reviews the history and status of assessment of high-temperature geothermal resources in the United States. Hydrothermal, Enhanced, and Hot Dry Rock resources are addressed. Geopressured geothermal resources are not. There are three main uses of geothermal resource assessments: (1) They inform industry and other interest parties of reasonable estimates of the amounts and likely locations of known and prospective geothermal resources. This provides a basis for private-sector decisions whether or not to enter the geothermal energy business at all, and for where to look for useful resources. (2) They inform government agencies (Federal, State, local) of the same kinds of information. This can inform strategic decisions, such as whether to continue to invest in creating and stimulating a geothermal industry--e.g., through research or financial incentives. And it informs certain agencies, e.g., Department of Interior, about what kinds of tactical operations might be required to support such activities as exploration and leasing. (3) They help the experts who are performing the assessment(s) to clarify their procedures and data, and in turn, provide the other two kinds of users with a more accurate interpretation of what the resulting estimates mean. The process of conducting this assessment brings a spotlight to bear on what has been accomplished in the domain of detecting and understanding reservoirs, in the period since the last major assessment was conducted.

  19. A highly coercive carbon nanotube coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Huiqun; Zhu Meifang Li Yaogang; Liu Jianhong; Ni Zhuo; Qin Zongyi

    2007-11-15

    Novel magnetic composites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process. The composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), etc. A temperature of about 200 deg. C was identified to be an appropriate hydrothermal condition to obtain Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs, being lower than the synthesis temperature of a single-phase Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. The sizes of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the composites were smaller than those of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals in single phase. The composites exhibited more superparamagnetic than Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals in their relaxation behaviors. The magnetic properties measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the composites had a high coercive field of 386.0 Oe at room temperature, higher than those of MWCNT and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. - Graphical abstract: Novel magnetic composites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process. The composites had a high coercive field of 386.0 Oe, higher than those of MWCNT and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals.

  20. The role of convective geothermal systems in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulen, J.B. [Univ. of Utah Research Institute, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Modern convective geothermal systems (for example, at Yellowstone National Park) and their fossil equivalents, epithermal mineral deposits (like McLaughlin, California) have traditionally been considered poor petroleum prospects. The concentrated heat which drives these systems is commonly viewed as a negative influence: in other words, any oil initially present in or generated by these systems is quickly degraded to a useless carbonaceous residue. This is true in extreme cases, but numerous examples from the Great Basin, the northern California Coast Ranges, and elsewhere suggest that under certain circumstances, geothermal systems can efficiently generate, transport, and entrap significant quantities of producible petroleum. B.R.T. Simoneit has shown that oil can be hydrothermally generated in an {open_quotes} instant{close_quotes} of geologic time. It follows, then, that away from geothermal systems` high-temperature centers (or in wholly moderate-temperature systems), the encompassing shallow thermal anomalies can distill large volumes of oil from otherwise immature hydrocarbon source rocks. Transport of this newly-generated oil is enhanced by the buoyant upwelling of heated aqueous fluid. Porosity for oil transport and storage is created or increased by hydrothermal dissolution of rock-forming or secondary silicates and carbonates. Finally, geothermal {open_quotes}self-sealing{close_quotes} -- the deposition of secondary minerals (especially silica and clay) at the margins of a system -- can provide a very effective hydrocarbon seal. Lee Allison has noted the coincidence of igneous intrusions and oil reservoirs in Nevada. It is suggested that here and elsewhere, both igneous-related and amagmatic geothermal systems in otherwise favorable settings should be viewed as prime petroleum exploration targets.

  1. Electrical resistivity and magnetic investigations of the geothermal systems in the Rotorua area, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibby, H.M. ); Dawson, G.B.; Rayner, H.H.; Bennie, S.L.; Bromley, C.J. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that electrical and magnetic data are used in an investigation of a 450 km{sup 2} region in order to delineate the Rotorua City Geothermal system and determine its relationship with other geothermal systems in the region. Three distinct regions of low ({lt}30 Omega m) apparent resistivity are delineated. The southern of these outlines the Rotorua City Geothermal System which has an area of about 18 km{sup 2}, with the northern third covered by Lake Rotorua. The boundary of the system is characterized by a rapid lateral change in apparent resistivity which can be modeled as a single, near vertical zone in which the distance between hot and cold water is very narrow. Magnetic properties also change in the vicinity of the discontinuity in some areas, consistent with hydrothermal alteration having destroyed the magnetite in the rocks of the geothermal system. Hot water is believed to be rising, driven by buoyancy forces across the whole of the low resistivity region. There is some indication, particularly in the south, that the boundary between hot and cold fluids dips away from the field. A second low resistivity zone (the East Lake Rotorua anomaly) with an area of about 8 km{sup 2}, is believed to outline a second independent geothermal system, with surface manifestations on Mokoia Island, and on the eastern shore of the lake. High heat flow in lake bottom sediments, and a reduction in magnetic signature over this region supports this conclusion. A third resistivity low under the west of Lake Rotorua has no associated thermal features and is believed to be a fossil hydrothermal system. There is no apparent relationship between the location of the geothermal systems and the Rotorua caldera. The aeromagnetic measurements have delineated several highly magnetic bodies which cannot be linked with surface geology. These are believed to be caused by buried rhyolite dome complexes at shallow depth.

  2. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} and its defect chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Woodward, David I.; Peel, Martin D.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-11-15

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} (0?x?1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 °C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce{sup 3+} there is evidence for Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetic Ce{sup 3+} affects the chemical shift and line width of {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. {sup 2}H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D{sub 2}O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D{sub 2}O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce{sup 4+} to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 °C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce{sup 3+} on the {sup 23}Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from {sup 2}H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. • XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+}. • The paramagnetism of Ce{sup 3+} shifts and broadens the {sup 23}Na solid-state NMR. • The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect.

  3. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Behavior in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Reimus, P. W.; Newell, D.; Watson, Tom B.

    2010-06-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the United States while incurring minimal environmental impacts. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distributions, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for commercial development of geothermal energy. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. Modeling capabilities are being developed as part of this project to support laboratory and field testing to characterize engineered geothermal systems in single- and multi-well tests using tracers. The objective of this report is to describe the simulation plan and the status of model development for simulating tracer tests for characterizing EGS.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a new inorganic/organic hybrid of scandium sulfate: (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Jianjiang [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: j.lu@anl.gov; Schlueter, John A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Geiser, Urs [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The first organically templated layered structure of scandium sulfate, (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}, (en=ethylenediamine) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the title compound, scandium ions are bridged by sulfate groups with a ratio of 1:2 into a 4{sub 3}{sup 6} layer structure. These layers are parallel packed and separated from each other by ethylenediammonium dications and water molecules. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c, with cell parameters a=8.5966(13)A, b=5.1068(8)A, c=18.847(3)A, {beta}=91.210(3){sup o}, V=827.2(2)A{sup 3} and Z=2. Refinement gave R{sub 1}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0354 and wR{sub 2}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0878. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that this material is thermally stable to above 400 deg. C.

  5. lization was carried out at 453 K for 24 h by hydrothermal synthesis without agitation. The products were calcined in air at 773 K for 6 h

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Song

    . The products were calcined in air at 773 K for 6 h with a heating rate of 1 K min±1 . The products were) with a continuous flow system under atmospheric pressure. Equimolar reactants of toluene and methanol were fed2]: An Organic±Inorganic Hybrid Exhibiting Canted Antiferromagnetism** By Bin Zhang,* Zheming Wang

  6. The Role of Low-Angle Extensional Tectonics, Flat Fracture Domains, and Gravity Slides in Hydrothermal and EGS Resources of the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Moore

    2011-08-24

    The Steamboat Springs geothermal system provides the most dramatic example of subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in crystalline rock in the Basin and Range, but this is by no means an isolated case. Similar but more diffuse subhorizontal permeability has been reported at Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove-Fort Sulphurdale, Utah; and a km-scale gravity-slide block channels injectate at Dixie Valley, Nevada. During the course of this phase of the project 2543 reports including text, figures and large format enclosures, 1428 maps, and 698 well logs were scanned. The information is stored in a Microsoft Access Database on the Geothermal Server. Detailed geologic cross sections of the Desert Peak geothermal field were developed to identify the structural controls on the geothermal system and locate possible fluid flow paths. The results of this work were published by Lutz and others (2009, Appendix 1) in the Stanford Reservoir Engineering Conference Proceedings.

  7. GTP energy production from low-temperature resources, coproduced...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DISCLAIMER: Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  8. Energy Department Announces $3 Million to Support Clean Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Innovation Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  9. Energy Department Announces First-of-its-Kind, High-Temperature...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Director Position Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  10. Dominica Grants Geothermal Exploration and Development License...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Needs Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  11. Treasury, Energy Surpass $1 Billion Milestone in Recovery Act...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Projects Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  12. Doug Hollett Gives Keynote Presentation at Stanford Geothermal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Geothermal Energy Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  13. Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Projects Poster Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  14. Secretary Chu Announces Nearly $50 Million of Recovery Act Funding...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    State Capitol Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  15. Department of Energy Offers $102 Million Conditional Commitment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Geothermal Project Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  16. EERE PowerPoint 97-2004 Template: Green Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    resources * Relevant GTO Goals * Systems Analysis - Resource Assessment * Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) * Hydrothermal Resource Confirmation * Low Temperature, Co-Produced...

  17. Library System Library System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

  18. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus,

  19. Life-cycle analysis results for geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems: Part II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J.L.; Clark, C.E.; Yuan, L.; Han, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-02-08

    A study has been conducted on the material demand and life-cycle energy and emissions performance of power-generating technologies in addition to those reported in Part I of this series. The additional technologies included concentrated solar power, integrated gasification combined cycle, and a fossil/renewable (termed hybrid) geothermal technology, more specifically, co-produced gas and electric power plants from geo-pressured gas and electric (GPGE) sites. For the latter, two cases were considered: gas and electricity export and electricity-only export. Also modeled were cement, steel and diesel fuel requirements for drilling geothermal wells as a function of well depth. The impact of the construction activities in the building of plants was also estimated. The results of this study are consistent with previously reported trends found in Part I of this series. Among all the technologies considered, fossil combustion-based power plants have the lowest material demand for their construction and composition. On the other hand, conventional fossil-based power technologies have the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, followed by the hybrid and then two of the renewable power systems, namely hydrothermal flash power and biomass-based combustion power. GHG emissions from U.S. geothermal flash plants were also discussed, estimates provided, and data needs identified. Of the GPGE scenarios modeled, the all-electric scenario had the highest GHG emissions. Similar trends were found for other combustion emissions.

  20. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  1. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2014-01-02

    FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  2. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.

    2011-12-31

    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper-try sealers. Two specific additives without sodium silicate as alkaline additive were developed in this project: One additive was the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as self-degradation promoting additive; the other was the hard-burned magnesium oxide (MgO) made from calcinating at 1,000-1,500 C as an expansive additive. The AASC and AASF cementitious sealers made by incorporating an appropriate amount of these additives met the following six criteria: 1) One dry mix component product; 2) plastic viscosity, 20 to 70 cp at 300 rpm; 3) maintenance of pumpability for at least 1 hour at 85 C; 4) compressive strength >2000 psi; 5) self-degradable by injection with water at a certain pressure; and 6) expandable and swelling properties; {ge}0.5% of total volume of the sealer.

  3. DOE workshop: Sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    A DOE workshop on sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry was held July 15-16, 1993 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Papers were organized into several sections: Fundamental Properties, containing papers on the thermodynamics of brines, minerals and aqueous electrolyte solutions; Geochemical Transport, covering 3-D imaging of drill core samples, hydrothermal geochemistry, chemical interactions in hydrocarbon reservoirs, fluid flow model application, among others; Rock-Water Interactions, with presentations on stable isotope systematics of fluid/rock interaction, fluid flow and petotectonic evolution, grain boundary transport, sulfur incorporation, tracers in geologic reservoirs, geothermal controls on oil-reservoir evolution, and mineral hydrolysis kinetics; Organic Geochemistry covered new methods for constraining time of hydrocarbon migration, kinetic models of petroleum formation, mudstones in burial diagenesis, compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of petroleums, stability of natural gas, sulfur in sedimentary organic matter, organic geochemistry of deep ocean sediments, direct speciation of metal by optical spectroscopies; and lastly, Sedimentary Systems, covering sequence stratigraphy, seismic reflectors and diagenetic changes in carbonates, geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites, and evidence of large comet or asteroid impacts at extinction boundaries.

  4. National Geothermal Data System: Case Studies on Exploration and Development of Potential Geothermal Sites Through Distributed Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Arlene; Allison, Lee; Richard, Steve; Caudill-Daugherty, Christy; Patten, Kim

    2014-09-29

    The NGDS released version 1 of the system on April 30, 2014 using the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) as its data integration platform. NGDS supports the 2013 Open Data Policy, and as such, the launch was featured at the 2014 Energy Datapalooza. Currently, the NGDS features a comprehensive user interface for searching and accessing nearly 41,000 documents and more than 9 million data points shared by scores of data providers across the U.S. The NGDS supports distributed data sharing, permitting the data owners to maintain the raw data that is made available to the consumer. Researchers and industry have been utilizing the NGDS as a mechanism for promoting geothermal development across the country, from hydrothermal to ground source heat pump applications. Case studies in geothermal research and exploration from across the country are highlighted.

  5. Autosub missions beneath Polar Ice: Preparation and Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Gwyn

    events implemented (up from 1); ordered sequences of events to trigger next mission element added. J and shelf ice. 4 - 12 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler to obtain the stratigraphy within sediments Water

  6. Frequency-magnitude distribution of microearthquakes beneath the 9500

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne

    at shallow depths and relatively high stress levels (or low pore pressures) observed away from the axial zone there also exists significant spatial variability. This indicates that stress conditions and/or structural. As a byproduct of this b value analysis, the detection capabilities of the array are assessed empirically

  7. Evidence for Deep Magma Injection Beneath Lake Tahoe,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulds, James E.

    , and the consequent eastward collapse of the competent Sierra Nevada block. Paleozoic and Mesozoic roof pendants ( 1 and 2) compressive stresses (4, 5). The base of the seismogenic zone in the region varies locally from about 15 to 18 km (6). In the Lake Tahoe area, no crustal earth- quakes deeper than 20 km can

  8. Crustal and upper mantle structure beneath Antarctica and surrounding oceans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Nikolai

    that Antarctic ice sheets insulate geologists from direct crustal observation, but it is also related to the difficulty and expense of acquiring high-quality well- distributed seismic information across the continent. Controlled source seismic experiments (long baseline refraction and reflection profiles) have provided fairly

  9. Understanding what lies beneath: Groundwater critical to Texas water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    of organizations and programs associated with groundwater in Texas: Aquifers: Geological formations that can store, transmit, and yield groundwater to a well or spring. Groundwater comes from nine major and 21 minor aquifers in Texas. Confined aquifer: Layer... of water that is held between two layers of clay. The recharge area is limited to land surface where the aquifer?s geologic material is exposed to the land surface. Unconfined aquifer: Layer of water that has a confining layer on bottom and a layer...

  10. Connotation Lexicon: A Dash of Sentiment Beneath the Surface Meaning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard

    of sentiment beyond denotative or surface meaning of text. For instance, consider the following: Geothermal toward "geothermal". In order to sense the subtle overtone of sentiments, one needs to know that the word "emissions" has generally negative connota- tion, which geothermal reduces. In fact, depend- ing

  11. Beneath the Surface of Giant Planets: Evolution, Structure, and Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly Miller, Neil L.

    2013-01-01

    larger. 2. Tidal evolution deposits energy into the planetin combination with tidal dissipation to deposit energy intothe tidal-thermal evolution model, including energy-limited

  12. Temperatures at the Base of the Seismogenic Crust Beneath Long...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    flow for a given rock type, and it varies with both strain rate and water content. Earthquake activity and deformation accompanying recent unrest in Long Valley caldera,...

  13. Basal melt rates beneath Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beem, Lucas H.; Jezek, Ken C.; van der Veen, Cornelis J.

    2010-08-05

    and J.E. Mitchell. 1994. The role of the margins in the dynamics of an active ice stream. J. Glaciol., 40(136), 527–538. Engelhardt, H. 2004a. Ice temperature and high geothermal flux at Siple Dome, West Antarctica, from borehole measurements. J. Glaciol... ratio which varies laterally across the shear margin. Basal drag, ?b, basal velocity, U(b), basal temperature gradient, @T/@z(b), esti- mates of geothermal flux, G, plus knowledge of basal ice properties, density, ?, latent heat of fusion of ice, Li...

  14. Lithosphere structure beneath the Phanerozoic intracratonic basins of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminski, Edouard

    for vertical heat transport, each basin requires a different lithosphere thickness or a different boundary American craton, the lithosphere is too thick for the assumption of purely vertical heat transfer, the downward extrapolation of crustal geotherms deal with the upper part where heat transport occurs

  15. Beneath the Surface of Giant Planets: Evolution, Structure, and Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly Miller, Neil L.

    2013-01-01

    panel: ratio between tidal power injected into the planetpanel: ratio between tidal power injected into the planet2001) calculated the tidal power required to maintain the

  16. The 1989 Earthquake Swarm Beneath Mammoth Mountain, California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Abstract Mammoth Mountain is a 50,000- to 200,000-year-old cumulovolcano standing on the southwestern rim of Long Valley in eastern California. On 4 May 1989, two M ...

  17. Beneath the Surface of Giant Planets: Evolution, Structure, and Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly Miller, Neil L.

    2013-01-01

    The power ratio, tidal power to luminosity, describes howThe ratio of input tidal power to net radiated power is

  18. On isolated vorticity regions beneath the water surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Octavian G. Mustafa

    2011-03-12

    We present a class of vorticity functions that will allow for isolated, circular vorticity regions in the background of still water preceding the arrival of a tsunami wave at the shoreline.

  19. Slab plume interaction beneath the Pacific Northwest Mathias Obrebski,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Richard M.

    the Yellowstone Snake River Plain (YSRP) and second, that the subducting Juan de Fuca (JdF) slab is fragmented- canic outpouring that occurred 17 Ma. The Yellowstone Snake River Plain (YSRP) hosts a bimodal volcanic volcanic provinces. The Columbia River Basalts (CRB, Figure 1) is the product of a phase of massive vol

  20. Beneath the Surface of Giant Planets: Evolution, Structure, and Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly Miller, Neil L.

    2013-01-01

    evolution allows the planet to cool more efficiently attimes, which allows the planet to cool more efficiently andof these cases, the planet will later cool off before the

  1. A Preparation Zone For Volcanic Explosions Beneath Naka-Dake...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and in investigating the behaviors of magma and volcanic fluids. We carried out audio-frequency magnetotelluric surveys around the craters of Naka-dake in 2004 and 2005 to...

  2. Magmatichydrothermal evolution and devolatilization beneath Merapi volcano, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a supercritical fluid and that it subsequently exsolved into a H2O­Cl­F-rich brine and CO2­S-rich vapor. According °C fluid, although the presence of H2S, SO2 and CO2 may cause the supercritical fluid to unmix inclusions Volcanic gases Vapor-brine exsolution CO2­H2O barometry At Merapi volcano, Indonesia, explosive

  3. Melt zones beneath five volcanic complexes in California: an...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (2) The Geysers-Clear Lake, (3) Long Valley caldera, (4) Coso volcanic field, and (5) Medicine Lake volcano, all located in California and all selected on the basis of recent...

  4. Melt Zones Beneath Five Volcanic Complexes in California: An...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (2) The Geysers-Clear Lake, (3) Long Valley caldera, (4) Coso volcanic field, and (5) Medicine Lake volcano, all located in California and all selected on the basis of recent...

  5. Investigating the changing deformation mechanism beneath shallow foundations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madabhushi, Srikanth Satyanarayana Chakrapani; Haigh, Stuart Kenneth

    2015-06-02

    as the settlement increased. It was also shown the upper bound based load settlement predictions matched well with the finite element analyses of Gourvenec and Randolph (2003) and Taiebat and Carter (2000). McMahon et al (2013a) proposed a single design line... mechanism. E-grade Kaolin clay was consolidated from slurry to avoid soil strength and stiffness anisotropy. A consolidometer was used that applied a uniform stress via a hydraulic piston with the stress being applied increased in increasing stages...

  6. The 1989 Earthquake Swarm Beneath Mammoth Mountain, California: An Initial

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |Information 5th congressionalNIESLook at the 4 May Through

  7. Evidence For Gas And Magmatic Sources Beneath The Yellowstone Volcanic

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville,PowerEvaporative Coolers Jump to:WindEverguard

  8. Structure and Stratigraphy Beneath a Young Phreatic Vent: South Inyo

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbHSoloPageBeforeCreek WindInsulatedCrater, Long Valley

  9. Temporal Velocity Variations beneath the Coso Geothermal Field Observed

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJ Automation JumpSet RenewableFuelStandard Jump to:using Seismic

  10. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    followed by a dioxane water extraction, while Trajano et al.water, limited condensation reactions for both substrates, as evidenced by greater lignin extraction

  11. Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cross-cutting faults indicate a high probability of recenthot fluid escape. Authors T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, B. A. Martini, E. A. Silver and W. L. Pickles Published Journal...

  12. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    straw pretreated for bioethanol production. Biotechnologyof woody biomass for bioethanol production. Bioresources

  13. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Biddy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MICROALGAL-DERIVED BIOFUEL; HYDROCARBON FUEL; BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY; Bioenergy MICROALGAE;...

  14. Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Results from Two-Meter Temperature Data and Geologic Analysis at Lee Allen Springs and Salt Wells Basin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  15. Basement Structure and Implications for Hydrothermal Circulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    than along the axis of a single dike. Gravity modeling and subsurface data from deep geothermal wells indicate that the floor of the caldera is segmented into a number of...

  16. Comparison Of Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    With Outcrops From The Socorro Caldera, New Mexico Abstract Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) drill hole VC-2B (total depth 1761.7 m (5780 ft); maximum...

  17. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Dixie Valley Geothermal Plant in Nevada produces 60 MW of electricity. A Roadmap for Strategic Development of Geothermal Exploration Technologies Federal Interagency...

  18. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-04-01

    Industries and municipalities generate substantial amounts of biomass as high-moisture waste streams, such as animal manure, food processing sludge, stillage from ethanol production, and municipal wastewater sludge.

  19. Organic geochemical biosignatures in alkaline Hydrothermal ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Alexander Smith

    2008-01-01

    The 13C content of microbial products are controlled by many factors, including the 13C content of the growth substrate, growth rate, the flux of carbon through various parts of the biochemical network, and the isotopic ...

  20. Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Self-Potential (SP), CO2 soil diffuse degassing and soil temperature surveys. This complementary data set revealed...

  1. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    pretreated for bioethanol production. Biotechnology forwoody biomass for bioethanol production. Bioresources 2011,

  2. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Available electronically at http:www.osti.govbridge Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper, from: U.S. Department of...

  3. Hydrothermal coupling in a rough fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuville, A; Schmittbuhl, J; Neuville, Am\\'{e}lie; Toussaint, Renaud; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Heat exchange during laminar flow is studied at the fracture scale on the basis of the Stokes equation. We used a synthetic aperture model (a self-affine model) that has been shown to be a realistic geometrical description of the fracture morphology. We developed a numerical modelling using a finite difference scheme of the hydrodynamic flow and its coupling with an advection/conduction description of the fluid heat. As a first step, temperature within the surrounding rock is supposed to be constant. Influence of the fracture roughness on the heat flux through the wall, is estimated and a thermalization length is shown to emerge. Implications for the Soultz-sous-For\\^{e}ts geothermal project are discussed.

  4. Stratigraphy, Structure, Hydrothermal Alteration and Ore Mineralization

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren) JumpandStereoNewCreek Formation Grabens,

  5. Hydrothermally Altered Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:

  6. Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio Program | OpenWisconsin:New York: EnergyOssian,OtayVehicles

  7. Other Hydrothermal Deposits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio Program | OpenWisconsin:New York: EnergyOssian,OtayVehiclesOther

  8. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbHSoloPageBeforeCreek WindInsulated Panel

  9. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmall Reactor forPatents -SciTech

  10. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to TappingWORKof71 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Successone of

  11. Hydrothermal Photo Library | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWindUpcomingcanGridDoesHydrogen is a versatileleadFORO

  12. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContractingManagement »Hydrogen and

  13. Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems** Rustem F. Ismagilov* Keywords: analytical methods · enzymes · microfluidics · microreactors · protein structures Microfluidic systems use networks of channels thinner than a human hair to manipulate nanoliter volumes of re- agents. The goal of microfluidics

  14. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodlogy calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal systems in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. This Baseline Conceptual Model report summarizes the results of the first three project tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data, (2) design and populate a GIS database, and (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km. It presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  15. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2013-05-15

    The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodlogy calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal systems in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. This Baseline Conceptual Model report summarizes the results of the first three project tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data, (2) design and populate a GIS database, and (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km. It presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  16. Report for slot cutter proof-of-principle test, Buried Waste Containment System project. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-21

    Several million cubic feet of hazardous and radioactive waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches within many US Department of Energy (US DOE) sites. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. Many of the hazardous materials in these waste sites are migrating into groundwater systems through plumes and leaching. On-site containment is one of the options being considered for prevention of waste migration. This report describes the results of a proof-of-principle test conducted to demonstrate technology for containing waste. This proof-of-principle test, conducted at the RAHCO International, Inc., facility in the summer of 1997, evaluated equipment techniques for cutting a horizontal slot beneath an existing waste site. The slot would theoretically be used by complementary equipment designed to place a cement barrier under the waste. The technology evaluated consisted of a slot cutting mechanism, muck handling system, thrust system, and instrumentation. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate the performance parameters.

  17. Dan Asael Curriculum Vitae PERSONAL DETAILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of seafloor hydrothermal fluids and mineralization from the Back-arc Manus Basin hydrothermal system in all aspects of clean lab work and isotopic measurements. 2012-2013 Postdoctoral research scientist

  18. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

  19. Research Frontiers in Bioinspired Energy: Molecular-Level Learning from Natural Systems: A Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolandz, Dorothy

    2012-03-28

    An interactive, multidisciplinary, public workshop, organized by a group of experts in biochemistry, biophysics, chemical and biomolecular engineering, chemistry, microbial metabolism, and protein structure and function, was held on January 6-7, 2011 in Washington, DC. Fundamental insights into the biological energy capture, storage, and transformation processes provided by speakers was featured in this workshop?which included topics such as microbes living in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents or caustic soda lakes (extremophiles)? provided a fascinating basis for discussing the exploration and development of new energy systems. Breakout sessions and extended discussions among the multidisciplinary groups of participants in the workshop fostered information sharing and possible collaborations on future bioinspired research. Printed and web-based materials that summarize the committee?s assessment of what transpired at the workshop were prepared to advance further understanding of fundamental chemical properties of biological systems within and between the disciplines. In addition, webbased materials (including two animated videos) were developed to make the workshop content more accessible to a broad audience of students and researchers working across disciplinary boundaries. Key workshop discussion topics included: Exploring and identifying novel organisms; Identifying patterns and conserved biological structures in nature; Exploring and identifying fundamental properties and mechanisms of known biological systems; Supporting current, and creating new, opportunities for interdisciplinary education, training, and outreach; and Applying knowledge from biology to create new devices and sustainable technology.

  20. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

    1980-01-01

    A generally mushroom-shaped, open cycle OTEC system and distilled water producer which has a skirt-conduit structure extending from the enlarged portion of the mushroom to the ocean. The enlarged part of the mushroom houses a toroidal casing flash evaporator which produces steam which expands through a vertical rotor turbine, partially situated in the center of the blossom portion and partially situated in the mushroom's stem portion. Upon expansion through the turbine, the motive steam enters a shell and tube condenser annularly disposed about the rotor axis and axially situated beneath the turbine in the stem portion. Relatively warm ocean water is circulated up through the radially outer skirt-conduit structure entering the evaporator through a radially outer portion thereof, flashing a portion thereof into motive steam, and draining the unflashed portion from the evaporator through a radially inner skirt-conduit structure. Relatively cold cooling water enters the annular condenser through the radially inner edge and travels radially outwardly into a channel situated along the radially outer edge of the condenser. The channel is also included in the radially inner skirt-conduit structure. The cooling water is segregated from the potable, motive steam condensate which can be used for human consumption or other processes requiring high purity water. The expansion energy of the motive steam is partially converted into rotational mechanical energy of the turbine rotor when the steam is expanded through the shaft attached blades. Such mechanical energy drives a generator also included in the enlarged mushroom portion for producing electrical energy. Such power generation equipment arrangement provides a compact power system from which additional benefits may be obtained by fabricating the enclosing equipment, housings and component casings from low density materials, such as prestressed concrete, to permit those casings and housings to also function as a floating support vessel.

  1. HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN A FAULT-CONTROLLED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR CHARGED AT CONSTANT PRESSURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    in Hydrothermal Systems, Geothermal Resources (eds. L.1975. Heat Transfer in Geothermal Systems, 11 in Advances inI. G. , The Simulation of Geothermal Systems with a Simple

  2. Power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  3. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

    2013-05-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  4. Hydrovolt Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:Hydrothermally Deposited Rock Jump to:

  5. INI Power Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:HydrothermallyIFB Agro Industries Ltd

  6. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  7. Declarative Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Condie, Tyson

    2011-01-01

    Google and ibm join in cloud computing research, 2007. [61]task schedulers in a cloud computing system — that we feltturn to the topic of cloud computing [10] and introduce the

  8. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Improved seismic imaging of geology across high-velocity Earth surfaces will allow more rigorous evaluation of geothermal prospects beneath volcanic outcrops. Seismic-based quantification of fracture orientation and intensity will result in optimal positioning of geothermal wells.

  9. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  10. Department of Systems & Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    , communication systems, control systems, economic systems, energy and environmental systems, human factors systems, safety-critical systems, wireless communications, game theory and artificial intelligenceDeveloping Leaders of Innovation Department of Systems & Information Engineering #12;In the U

  11. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase 1 and Phase II. Final report. Volume III. Systems description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    The major fraction of hydrothermal resources that have the prospect of being economically useful for the generation of electricity are in the 300/sup 0/F to 425/sup 0/F temperature range. Cost-effective conversion of the geothermal energy to electricity requires the conception and reduction to practice of new ideas to improve conversion efficiency, enhance brine flow, reduce plant costs, increase plant availability, and shorten the time between investment and return. The problems addressed during past activities are those inherent in the geothermal environment, in the binary fluid cycle, in the difficulty of efficiently converting the energy of a low-temperature resource, and in geothermal economics. Explained in detail in this document, some of these problems are: the energy expended by the down-hole pump; the difficulty in designing reliable down-hole equipment; fouling of heat-exchanger surfaces by geothermal fluids; the unavailability of condenser cooling water at most geothermal sites; the large portion of the available energy used by the feed pump in a binary system; the pinch effect - a loss in available energy in transferring heat from water to an organic fluid; flow losses in fluids that carry only a small amount of useful energy to begin with; high heat-exchanger costs - the lower the temperature interval of the cycle, the higher the heat exchanger costs in $/kW (actually, more than inversely proportional); the complexity and cost of the many auxiliary elements of proposed geothermal plants; and the unfortunate cash flow vs. investment curve caused by the many years of investment required to bring a field into production before any income is realized.

  12. Strategies for Detecting Hidden Geothermal Systems by Near-Surface Gas Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2004-12-15

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are those systems above which hydrothermal surface features (e.g., hot springs, fumaroles, elevated ground temperatures, hydrothermal alteration) are lacking. Emissions of moderate to low solubility gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, He) may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. Detection of anomalous gas emissions related to hidden geothermal systems may therefore be an important tool to discover new geothermal resources. This study investigates the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring in the subsurface and above ground in the near-surface environment to serve as a tool to discover hidden geothermal systems. We focus the investigation on CO2 due to (1) its abundance in geothermal systems, (2) its moderate solubility in water, and (3) the wide range of technologies available to monitor CO2 in the near-surface environment. However, monitoring in the near-surface environment for CO2 derived from hidden geothermal reservoirs is complicated by the large variation in CO2 fluxes and concentrations arising from natural biological and hydrologic processes. In the near-surface environment, the flow and transport of CO2 at high concentrations will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration show that CO2 concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are primarily controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, and microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include (1) the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) for measurement of concentrations at point locations, (2) the accumulation chamber (AC) method for measuring soil CO2 fluxes at point locations, (3) the eddy covariance (EC) method for measuring net CO2 flux over a given area, (4) hyperspectral imaging of vegetative stress resulting from elevated CO2 concentrations, and (5) light detection and ranging (LIDAR) that can measure CO2 concentrations over an integrated path. Technologies currently in developmental stages that have the potential to be used for CO2 monitoring include tunable lasers for long distance integrated concentration measurements and micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) that can make widespread point measurements. To address the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring methodologies with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. Within the area targeted for geothermal exploration, point measurements of soil CO2 fluxes and concentrations using the AC method and a portable IRGA, respectively, and measurements of net surface flux using EC should be made. Also, the natural spatial and temporal variability of surface CO2 fluxes and subsurface CO2 concentrations should be quantified within a background area with similar geologic, climatic, and ecosystem characteristics to the area targeted for geothermal exploration. Statistical analyses of data collected from both areas should be used to guide sampling strategy, discern spatial patterns that may be indicative of geothermal CO2 emissions, and assess the presence (or absence) of geothermal CO2 within the natural background variability with a desired confidence level. Once measured CO2 concentrations and fluxes have been determined to be of anomalous geothermal origin with high confidence, more expensive vertical subsurface gas sampling and chemical and isotopic analyses can be undertaken. Integrated analysis of all measurements will d

  13. Department of Energy Announces Funding to Support the Next Generation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    May 7th SolarChat Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  14. Energy Transport Corridor Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in the West Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  15. Davis-Bacon Act - Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    NOTICE 10-003A Geothermal Home About the Geothermal Technologies Office Enhanced Geothermal Systems Hydrothermal Resources Low-Temperature & Coproduced Resources Systems...

  16. A re-evaluation of the Moyuta geothermal system, Southern Guatemala

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Janik, C.; Fahlquist, L. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Roldan, A.; Revolorio, M. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

    1991-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data from four fumarole sites combined with prefeasibility assessments obtained in the 1970s have resulted in a re-evaluation of the Moyuta geothermal system. Moyuta consists of an east-west trending complex of Quaternary andesite/dacite domes and flows cut by north-trending faults. Areas of fumaroles, acid springs, and bicarbonate-rich thermal springs flank the north and south sides of the volcanic complex. Chloride-rich thermal springs discharge along rivers at lower elevations around the Moyuta highland. The distribution of thermal features indicates that deep reservoir fluid rises convectively near the axis of volcanism. Geochemical data suggest that there are two subsystems having temperatures of about 210{degrees}C (north flank) and 170{degrees}C (south flank). Exploration wells sited near the most northerly fumarole (Azulco) achieved temperatures of {le}113{degrees}C at 1004 m depth. We suggest the fumaroles occur above hydrothermal outflow plumes confined to vertical, fault-controlled conduits. Better drilling sites occur closer to the intersections of the north trending faults and the Quaternary volcanic axis. 21 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  18. Gasification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  19. Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

  20. Power Systems Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems; steam, water, fuel, and environmental monitoring systems; alternative energy systems; reliability, availability, and maintainability assessments; and associated...

  1. Braking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  2. Accelerator Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge KiosksAbout UsAbout NewAccelerator Systems Accelerator

  3. File Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvan Racah861MayArtQuestionsFieldFiji Fiji IsFile Systems

  4. Transfer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurosawa, Kanji (Tokyo, JP); Koga, Bunichiro (Miyagi, JP); Ito, Hideki (Miyagi, JP); Kiriyama, Shigeru (Miyagi, JP); Higuchi, Shizuo (Kanagawa, JP)

    2003-05-20

    A transport system includes a traveling rail (1) which constitutes a transport route and a transport body (3) which is capable of traveling on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. Flexible drive tubes (5) are arranged on the traveling rail in the longitudinal direction of the traveling rail. The transport body includes a traveling wheel (4) which is capable of rolling on the traveling rail and drive wheels (2) which are capable of rolling on the drive tubes upon receiving the rotational drive power generated by pressure of a pressure medium supplied to the drive tubes while depressing the drive tubes. The traveling rail includes a plurality of transport sections and the transport body is capable of receiving a rotational drive force from the drive tubes at every transport sections. If necessary, a transport route changeover switch which changes over the transport route can be provided between the transport sections.

  5. Dixie Valley Engineered Geothermal System Exploration Methodology Project, Baseline Conceptual Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iovenitti, Joe

    2014-01-02

    The Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) Exploration Methodology Project is developing an exploration approach for EGS through the integration of geoscientific data. The Project chose the Dixie Valley Geothermal System in Nevada as a field laboratory site for methodology calibration purposes because, in the public domain, it is a highly characterized geothermal system in the Basin and Range with a considerable amount of geoscience and most importantly, well data. The overall project area is 2500km2 with the Calibration Area (Dixie Valley Geothermal Wellfield) being about 170km2. The project was subdivided into five tasks (1) collect and assess the existing public domain geoscience data; (2) design and populate a GIS database; (3) develop a baseline (existing data) geothermal conceptual model, evaluate geostatistical relationships, and generate baseline, coupled EGS favorability/trust maps from +1km above sea level (asl) to -4km asl for the Calibration Area at 0.5km intervals to identify EGS drilling targets at a scale of 5km x 5km; (4) collect new geophysical and geochemical data, and (5) repeat Task 3 for the enhanced (baseline + new ) data. Favorability maps were based on the integrated assessment of the three critical EGS exploration parameters of interest: rock type, temperature and stress. A complimentary trust map was generated to compliment the favorability maps to graphically illustrate the cumulative confidence in the data used in the favorability mapping. The Final Scientific Report (FSR) is submitted in two parts with Part I describing the results of project Tasks 1 through 3 and Part II covering the results of project Tasks 4 through 5 plus answering nine questions posed in the proposal for the overall project. FSR Part I presents (1) an assessment of the readily available public domain data and some proprietary data provided by Terra-Gen Power, LLC, (2) a re-interpretation of these data as required, (3) an exploratory geostatistical data analysis, (4) the baseline geothermal conceptual model, and (5) the EGS favorability/trust mapping. The conceptual model presented applies to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region. FSR Part II presents (1) 278 new gravity stations; (2) enhanced gravity-magnetic modeling; (3) 42 new ambient seismic noise survey stations; (4) an integration of the new seismic noise data with a regional seismic network; (5) a new methodology and approach to interpret this data; (5) a novel method to predict rock type and temperature based on the newly interpreted data; (6) 70 new magnetotelluric (MT) stations; (7) an integrated interpretation of the enhanced MT data set; (8) the results of a 308 station soil CO2 gas survey; (9) new conductive thermal modeling in the project area; (10) new convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (11) pseudo-convective modeling in the Calibration Area; (12) enhanced data implications and qualitative geoscience correlations at three scales (a) Regional, (b) Project, and (c) Calibration Area; (13) quantitative geostatistical exploratory data analysis; and (14) responses to nine questions posed in the proposal for this investigation. Enhanced favorability/trust maps were not generated because there was not a sufficient amount of new, fully-vetted (see below) rock type, temperature, and stress data. The enhanced seismic data did generate a new method to infer rock type and temperature. However, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator for this project, this new methodology needs to be tested and evaluated at other sites in the Basin and Range before it is used to generate the referenced maps. As in the baseline conceptual model, the enhanced findings can be applied to both the hydrothermal system and EGS in the Dixie Valley region.

  6. System architecture of offshore oil production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, James (James Thomas)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents an approach to applying Systems Architecture methods to the development of large, complex, commercial systems, particularly offshore oil and gas productions systems. The aim of this research was to ...

  7. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Spray distribution systems for wastewater are much like lawn sprinkler systems, in that they spray treated wastewater over the surface of a yard. This publication explains how spray distribution systems work, what their design requirements are...

  8. Examining Survivability of Systems of Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekdeci, Brian

    Previous research has identified design principles that enable survivability for systems, but it is unclear if these principles are appropriate and sufficient for systems of systems as well. This paper presents a preliminary ...

  9. Development of a structural health monitoring system for the life assessment of critical transportation infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Jauregui, David Villegas; Daumueller, Andrew Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    Recent structural failures such as the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge in Minnesota have underscored the urgent need for improved methods and procedures for evaluating our aging transportation infrastructure. This research seeks to develop a basis for a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to provide quantitative information related to the structural integrity of metallic structures to make appropriate management decisions and ensuring public safety. This research employs advanced structural analysis and nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for an accurate fatigue analysis. Metal railroad bridges in New Mexico will be the focus since many of these structures are over 100 years old and classified as fracture-critical. The term fracture-critical indicates that failure of a single component may result in complete collapse of the structure such as the one experienced by the I-35W Bridge. Failure may originate from sources such as loss of section due to corrosion or cracking caused by fatigue loading. Because standard inspection practice is primarily visual, these types of defects can go undetected due to oversight, lack of access to critical areas, or, in riveted members, hidden defects that are beneath fasteners or connection angles. Another issue is that it is difficult to determine the fatigue damage that a structure has experienced and the rate at which damage is accumulating due to uncertain history and load distribution in supporting members. A SHM system has several advantages that can overcome these limitations. SHM allows critical areas of the structure to be monitored more quantitatively under actual loading. The research needed to apply SHM to metallic structures was performed and a case study was carried out to show the potential of SHM-driven fatigue evaluation to assess the condition of critical transportation infrastructure and to guide inspectors to potential problem areas. This project combines the expertise in transportation infrastructure at New Mexico State University with the expertise at Sandia National Laboratories in the emerging field of SHM.

  10. Separation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

  11. ITN Energy Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:HydrothermallyIFB Agro IndustriesISI Solar

  12. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Entingh, Daniel J.

    1999-08-18

    The purpose of this workshop was to develop technical background facts necessary for planning continued research and development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). EGS are geothermal reservoirs that require improvement of their permeability or fluid contents in order to achieve economic energy production. The initial focus of this R&D program is devising and testing means to extract additional economic energy from marginal volumes of hydrothermal reservoirs that are already producing commercial energy. By mid-1999, the evolution of the EGS R&D Program, begun in FY 1988 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), reached the stage where considerable expertise had to be brought to bear on what technical goals should be pursued. The main purpose of this Workshop was to do that. The Workshop was sponsored by the Office of Geothermal Technologies of the Department of Energy. Its purpose and timing were endorsed by the EGS National Coordinating Committee, through which the EGS R&D Program receives guidance from members of the U.S. geothermal industry. Section 1.0 of this report documents the EGS R&D Program Review Session. There, managers and researchers described the goals and activities of the program. Recent experience with injection at The Geysers and analysis of downhole conditions at Dixie Valley highlighted this session. Section 2.0 contains a number of technical presentations that were invited or volunteered to illuminate important technical and economic facts and opportunities for research. The emphasis here was on fi.acture creation, detection, and analysis. Section 3.0 documents the initial general discussions of the participants. Important topics that emerged were: Specificity of defined projects, Optimizing cost effectiveness, Main technical areas to work on, Overlaps between EGS and Reservoir Technology R&D areas, Relationship of microseismic events to hydraulic fractures, and Defining criteria for prioritizing research thrusts. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 report the meat of the Workshop. Section 4.0 describes the nomination and clarification of technical thrusts, and Section 5.0 reports the results of prioritizing those thrusts via voting by the participants. Section 6.0 contains two discussions conducted after the work on research thrusts. The topics were ''Simulation'' and ''Stimulation''. A number of technical points that emerged here provide important guidance for both practical field work on EGS systems and for research.

  13. A VIRTUAL OPERATING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Unix time-sharing operating system. D. Hall, D. Scherrer, J.Prentice~Hall, Hansen, "Operating System Principles", Inc. ,of California. A Virtual Operating System Dennis E. Hall

  14. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    done using photovoltaic systems or by a photoelectrochemicalprocess. Of course, photovoltaic systems convert sunlightwill be powered by the photovoltaic system. Also, a typical

  15. Sandia Energy - Monitoring Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring Systems Home Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling Arctic Climate Measurements Monitoring Systems Monitoring Systemscwdd2015-06-02T22:40:49+00:00...

  16. Environmental Management System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Management System Environmental Management System An Environmental Management System is a systematic method for assessing mission activities, determining the environmental impacts...

  17. Franklin File Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Files systems Files systems NERSC's global home and project file systems are available on Franklin. Additionally, Franklin has over 400 TB of locally attached high-performance...

  18. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ.

  19. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ living --- HEATERâ??ACTIVE --- ACTIVATINGâ??HEATER --- HEATERâ??RUNNING ; #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION

  20. Complex System Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Christopher

    2004-07-24

    The use of terms such as “Engineering Systems”, “System of systems” and others have been coming into greater use over the past decade to denote systems of importance but with implied higher complexity than for the term ...

  1. Industrial and Systems engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Industrial and Systems engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING DepartmentofIndustrialandSystemsEngineering EDGE Engineering Entrepreneur Certificate Program is a great addition to an industrial and systems to expert clinical recommendations. engineering.wayne.edu/isefaculty Industrial and systems engineering

  2. Tracer Testing at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Using Pyrene Tetrasulfonate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir in order to determine fluid-flow processes and to evaluate candidate tracers for use in hydrothermal systems. These...

  3. Low-altitude aeromagnetic survey of a portion of the Coso Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is due, in part, to magnetite destruction by hydrothermal solutions associated with the geothermal system. The anomaly generally coincides with two other geophysical anomalies...

  4. Travertine Deposits of Soda Dam, New Mexico, and Their Implications...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the Valles caldera hydrothermal system. Soda Dam discharges from Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks in San Diego Canyon southwest of the caldera, and the canyon was filled...

  5. The Thermal Regime In The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature between measurements in consecutive years in three of the wells suggest slow cooling of the shallow hydrothermal flow system. By matching theoretical curves to...

  6. The Thermal Regime in the Resurgent Dome of Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature between measurements in consecutive years in three of the wells suggest slow cooling of the shallow hydrothermal flow system. By matching theoretical curves to...

  7. Geothermometry At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    stages of hydrothermal activity, flow, and recharge in the Long Valley caldera groundwater system. Fluids were sampled from LVEW during flow testing in May 2000, July 2000,...

  8. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    stages of hydrothermal activity, flow, and recharge in the Long Valley caldera groundwater system. Fluids were sampled from LVEW during flow testing in May 2000, July 2000,...

  9. EIS-0066: Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Role of Bonneville Power Administration in the Pacific Northwest Power Supply System - Including Its Participation in a Hydro-Thermal Power Program

  10. Climate Change Update: Baseload Geothermal is One of the Lowest...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    over 30 GWe from new hydrothermal resources, and more than 100 GWe from enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Together, these technologies could lead to greater than 10 percent of...

  11. Seismicity And Fluid Geochemistry At Lassen Volcanic National...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California- Evidence For Two Circulation Cells In The Hydrothermal System Abstract Seismic analysis and geochemical interpretations provide evidence that two separate...

  12. Paleomagnetic Measurements At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Geothermal Area. Notes Paleomagnetic dating performed by Brown (1977) on opal samples in order to date the age of the hydrothermal system. The results were highly...

  13. Geochemistry and Isotopes of Fluids from Sulphur Springs, Valles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    water are practically identical even though 18O contents range through 4, thus, precipitation on the resurgent dome of the caldera could recharge the hydrothermal system by...

  14. Chemistry Of Thermal And Nonthermal Springs In The Vicinity Of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal systems. These acid-sulfate waters are not generally useful for liquid chemical geothermometry, however, because their chemical compositions result from water-rock...

  15. Expert systems in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    The 5 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Knowledge representation and software selection for expert-systems design; Expert-system architecture for retaining-wall design; Development of expert-systems technology in the California Department of Transportation; Development of an expert system to assist in the interactive graphic transit system design process; Expert systems development for contingency transportation planing.

  16. Near-Surface CO2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-01-19

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are systems devoid of obvious surface hydrothermal manifestations. Emissions of moderate-to-low solubility gases may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. We investigate the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring below and above ground in the near-surface environment as an approach to exploration targeting hidden geothermal systems. We focus on CO2 because it is the dominant noncondensible gas species in most geothermal systems and has moderate solubility in water. We carried out numerical simulations of a CO2 migration scenario to calculate the magnitude of expected fluxes and concentrations. Our results show that CO2 concentrations can reach high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are predominantly controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include the infrared gas analyzer, the accumulation chamber method, the eddy covariance method, hyperspectral imaging, and light detection and ranging. To meet the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. The proposed monitoring plan initially focuses on rapid, economical, reliable measurements of CO2 subsurface concentrations and surface fluxes and statistical analysis of the collected data. Based on this analysis, are as with a high probability of containing geothermal CO2 anomalies can be further sampled and analyzed using more expensive chemical and isotopic methods. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The suitability of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be determined based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring program.

  17. An Evaluation of Long-Term Performance of Liner Systems for Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur S. Rood; Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-03-01

    Traditional liner systems consisting of a geosynthetic membrane underlying a waste disposal facility coupled with a leachate collection system have been proposed as a means of containing releases of low-level radioactive waste within the confines of the disposal facility and thereby eliminating migration of radionuclides into the vadose zone and groundwater. However, this type of hydraulic containment liner system is only effective as long as the leachate collection system remains functional or an overlying cover limits the total infiltration to the volumetric pore space of the disposal system. If either the leachate collection system fails, or the overlying cover becomes less effective during the 1,000’s of years of facility lifetime, the liner may fill with water and release contaminated water in a preferential or focused manner. If the height of the liner extends above the waste, the waste will become submerged which could increase the release rate and concentration of the leachate. If the liner extends near land surface, there is the potential for contamination reaching land surface creating a direct exposure pathway. Alternative protective liner systems can be engineered that eliminate radionuclide releases to the vadose zone during operations and minimizing long term migration of radionuclides from the disposal facility into the vadose zone and aquifer. Non-traditional systems include waste containerization in steel or composite materials. This type of system would promote drainage of clean infiltrating water through the facility without contacting the waste. Other alternatives include geochemical barriers designed to transmit water while adsorbing radionuclides beneath the facility. Facility performance for a hypothetical disposal facility has been compared for the hydraulic and steel containerization liner alternatives. Results were compared in terms of meeting the DOE Order 435.1 low-level waste performance objective of 25 mrem/yr all-pathways dose during the 1) institutional control period (0-100 years), compliance period (0-1000 years) and post-compliance period (>1000 years). Evaluation of the all pathway dose included the dose from ingestion and irrigation of contaminated groundwater extracted from a well 100 meters downgradient, in addition to the dose received from direct contact of radionuclides deposited near the surface resulting from facility overflow. Depending on the disposal facility radionuclide inventory, facility design, cover performance, and the location and environment where the facility is situated, the dose from exposure via direct contact of near surface deposited radionuclides can be much greater than the dose received via transport to the groundwater and subsequent ingestion.

  18. March 23, 2008 Databases: Information Systems 1 Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, Salah

    March 23, 2008 Databases: Information Systems 1 Information Systems #12;March 23, 2008 Databases: Information Systems 2 Objectives What is an Information System (IS) + Classification of Information Systems + Evolution of Information Systems + Information System Management + Performance Requirements of ISs + #12

  19. Influence strategies for systems of systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nirav Bharat, 1979-

    2013-01-01

    Distributed decision making has been identified as a source of managerial complexity for leaders of systems of systems (SoS). A new framework, AIR (Anticipation-Influence-Reaction), is proposed to capture the feedback ...

  20. IT Specialist (Systems Analysis/Systems Administration)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The incumbent in this position will serve as an IT Specialist (Systems Analysis/Systems Administration) in the Data Center Services organization of Information Technology. The Data Center Services...