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Sample records for hydrothermal outflow fracture

  1. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  2. Hydrothermally altered and fractured granite as an HDR reservoir in the EPS-1 borehole, Alsace,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genter, A.; Traineau, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the European Hot Dry Rocks Project, a second exploration borehole, EPS-1, has been cored to a depth of 2227 m at Soultz-sous-Forets (France). The target was a granite beginning at 1417 m depth, overlain by post-Paleozoic sedimentary cover. Structural analysis and petrographic examination of the 800-m porphyritic granite core, have shown that this rock has undergone several periods of hydrothermal alteration and fracturing. More than 3000 natural structures were recorded, whose distribution pattern shows clusters where low-density fracture zones (less than 1 per meter) alternate with zones of high fracture density (more than 20 per meter). Vein alteration, ascribed to paleohydrothermal systems, developed within the hydrothermally altered and highly fractured zones, transforming primary biotite and plagioclase into clay minerals. One of these zones at 2.2 km depth produced a hot-water outflow during coring, indicating the existence of a hydrothermal reservoir. Its permeability is provided by the fracture network and by secondary porosity of the granitic matrix resulting from vein alteration. This dual porosity in the HDR granite reservoir must be taken into account in the design of the heat exchanger, both for modeling the water-rock interactions and for hydraulic testing.

  3. Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature anomaly has been mapped. A group of subtle temperature anomalies along Simpson Pass, south of the current production area, are interpreted as an upwelling zone with...

  4. Geothermal hydrothermal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The geothermal hydrothermal section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  5. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-08-31

    This two-page fact sheet provides an overview of hydrothermal resources and hydrothermal reservoir creation and operation.

  6. The Hydrothermal Outflow Plume of Valles Caldera, New Mexico...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that they can be as old as 106 years and display episodic behavior. Authors Fraser E. Goff, Lisa Shevenell, Jamie N. Gardner, Francois D. Vuataz and Charles O. Grigsby Published...

  7. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Process Design and Economics for Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction, a paper from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  8. Field Mapping (Curewitz & Karson, 1997) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jeffrey A. Karson (1997) Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Additional References Retrieved...

  9. Hydrothermal Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Projects Hydrothermal Projects Hydrothermal Projects Geothermal electricity production has grown steadily, tapping a reliable, nearly inexhaustible reserve of hydrothermal systems where fluid, heat, and permeability intersect naturally in the subsurface. The United States Geological Survey estimates that 30 GW of hydrothermal resources lie beneath the surface--ten times the current installed capacity. Hydrothermal Projects Projects Database Program Links What is Play Fairway

  10. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS A protostellar jet and outflow...

  11. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity....

  12. Hydrothermal Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About the Geothermal Technologies Office » Hydrothermal Resources Hydrothermal Resources The Geysers geothermal field in California is still the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The Geysers geothermal field in California is still the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The development of advanced exploration tools and technologies will accelerate the discovery and utilization of the U.S. Geological Survey's estimated 30,000 MWe of undiscovered hydrothermal

  13. Hydrothermal Alteration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    been provided for this term. Add a Definition Opalized rock is often valued for its spectacular colors and it may indicate past hydrothermal activity (reference: https:...

  14. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with

  15. Colorado's Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado's Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment Author...

  16. Other Hydrothermal Deposits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capping Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products Colorful hydrothermal deposits dot the landscape at the Hverir Geothermal Area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified field...

  17. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Whole Algae Hydrothermal...

  18. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet Overview of hydrothermal resources Hydrothermal Fact Sheet.pdf (3.53 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment was addressed at the State of the Industry Geothermal Briefing in Washington, DC on February 24, 2015. Eric Hass, hydrothermal program manager for the Geothermal Technologies Office presented. Exploration drilling in the Wind River Valley basin validates the

  19. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

  20. METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINING THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF FRACTURED POROUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.

    2013-09-30

    Plausible, but unvalidated, theoretical model constructs for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fractured porous media are currently used in Performance Assessment (PA) modeling for cracked saltstone and concrete (Flach 2011). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed concern about the lack of model support for these assumed Moisture Characteristic Curves (MCC) data, as noted in Requests for Additional Information (RAIs) PA-8 and SP-4 (Savannah River Remediation, LLC, 2011). The objective of this task was to advance PA model support by developing an experimental method for determining the hydraulic conductivity of fractured cementitious materials under unsaturated conditions, and to demonstrate the technique on fractured saltstone samples. The task was requested through Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0016 and conducted in accordance with Task Technical & Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-TR-2012-00090. Preliminary method development previously conducted by Kohn et al. (2012) identified transient outflow extraction as the most promising method for characterizing the unsaturated properties of fractured porous media. While the research conducted by Kohn et al. (2012) focused on fractured media analogs such as stacked glass slides, the current task focused directly on fractured saltstone. For this task, four sample types with differing fracture geometries were considered: 1) intact saltstone, 2) intact saltstone with a single saw cut, smooth surface fracture, 3) micro-fractured saltstone (induced by oven drying), and 4) micro-fractured saltstone with a single, fully-penetrating, rough-surface fracture. Each sample type was tested initially for saturated hydraulic conductivity following method ASTM D 5084 using a flexible wall permeameter. Samples were subsequently tested using the transient outflow extraction method to determine cumulative outflow as a function of time and applied pressure. Of the four sample types tested, two yielded

  1. Property:IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ntifiedHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from identified hydrothermal sites, as determined by the...

  2. Transparency parameters from relativistically expanding outflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bgu, D. [University of Roma "Sapienza," I-00185, p.le A. Moro 5, Rome (Italy); Iyyani, S. [Department of Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    In many gamma-ray bursts a distinct blackbody spectral component is present, which is attributed to the emission from the photosphere of a relativistically expanding plasma. The properties of this component (temperature and flux) can be linked to the properties of the outflow and have been presented in the case where there is no sub-photospheric dissipation and the photosphere is in coasting phase. First, we present the derivation of the properties of the outflow for finite winds, including when the photosphere is in the accelerating phase. Second, we study the effect of localized sub-photospheric dissipation on the estimation of the parameters. Finally, we apply our results to GRB 090902B. We find that during the first epoch of this burst the photosphere is most likely to be in the accelerating phase, leading to smaller values of the Lorentz factor than the ones previously estimated. For the second epoch, we find that the photosphere is likely to be in the coasting phase.

  3. Property:UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Type Quantity Description Estimated conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from undiscovered hydrothermal sites, as determined by...

  4. Hydrothermal Reservoirs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 km below the Earth's surface where there is heat, water and a permeable material (permeability in rock formations results from fractures, joints, pores, etc.). Often,...

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hierarchical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ANNEALING; BISMUTH COMPOUNDS; CATALYSTS; CITRATES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS; ION ...

  6. Fracturing And Liquid CONvection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-02-29

    FALCON has been developed to enable simulation of the tightly coupled fluid-rock behavior in hydrothermal and engineered geothermal system (EGS) reservoirs, targeting the dynamics of fracture stimulation, fluid flow, rock deformation, and heat transport in a single integrated code, with the ultimate goal of providing a tool that can be used to test the viability of EGS in the United States and worldwide. Reliable reservoir performance predictions of EGS systems require accurate and robust modelingmore » for the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Conventionally, these types of problems are solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulator with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. FALCON eliminates the need for using operator-splitting methods to simulate these systems, and the scalability of the underlying MOOSE architecture allows for simulating these tightly coupled processes at the reservoir scale, allowing for examination of the system as a whole (something the operator-splitting methodologies generally cannot do).« less

  7. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than

  8. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machida, Masahiro N.

    2014-11-20

    A protostellar jet and outflow are calculated for ?270yr following the protostar formation using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation, in which both the protostar and its parent cloud are spatially resolved. A high-velocity (?100 km s{sup 1}) jet with good collimation is driven near the disk's inner edge, while a low-velocity (? 10 km s{sup 1}) outflow with a wide opening angle appears in the outer-disk region. The high-velocity jet propagates into the low-velocity outflow, forming a nested velocity structure in which a narrow high-velocity flow is enclosed by a wide low-velocity flow. The low-velocity outflow is in a nearly steady state, while the high-velocity jet appears intermittently. The time-variability of the jet is related to the episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which is caused by gravitational instability and magnetic effects such as magnetic braking and magnetorotational instability. Although the high-velocity jet has a large kinetic energy, the mass and momentum of the jet are much smaller than those of the low-velocity outflow. A large fraction of the infalling gas is ejected by the low-velocity outflow. Thus, the low-velocity outflow actually has a more significant effect than the high-velocity jet in the very early phase of the star formation.

  9. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS AND RADIATIVE FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J. E-mail: Harold.W.Yorke@jpl.nasa.gov

    2015-02-20

    We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the ''flashlight effect'', or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass.

  10. HOT ELECTROMAGNETIC OUTFLOWS. II. JET BREAKOUT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2013-08-20

    We consider the interaction between radiation, matter, and a magnetic field in a compact, relativistic jet. The entrained matter accelerates outward as the jet breaks out of a star or other confining medium. In some circumstances, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the magnetization of the jet is greatly reduced by an advected radiation field while the jet is optically thick to scattering. Where magnetic flux surfaces diverge rapidly, a strong outward Lorentz force develops and radiation and matter begin to decouple. The increase in magnetization is coupled to a rapid growth in Lorentz factor. We take two approaches to this problem. The first examines the flow outside the fast magnetosonic critical surface, and calculates the flow speed and the angular distribution of the radiation field over a range of scattering depths. The second considers the flow structure on both sides of the critical surface in the optically thin regime, using a relaxation method. In both approaches, we find how the terminal Lorentz factor and radial profile of the outflow depend on the radiation intensity and optical depth at breakout. The effect of bulk Compton scattering on the radiation spectrum is calculated by a Monte Carlo method, while neglecting the effects of internal dissipation. The peak of the scattered spectrum sits near the seed peak if radiation pressure dominates the acceleration, but is pushed to a higher frequency if the Lorentz force dominates. The unscattered seed radiation can form a distinct, low-frequency component of the spectrum, especially if the magnetic Poynting flux dominates.

  11. RECONNECTION OUTFLOW GENERATED TURBULENCE IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrs, Z.; Sasunov, Y. L.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Khodachenko, M.; Semenov, V. S.; Bruno, R.

    2014-12-10

    Petschek-type time-dependent reconnection (TDR) and quasi-stationary reconnection (QSR) models are considered to understand reconnection outflow structures and the generation of local turbulence in the solar wind. Comparing TDR/QSR model predictions of the outflow structures with actual measurements shows that both models can explain the data equally well. It is demonstrated that the outflows can often generate more or less spatially extended turbulent boundary layers. The structure of a unique extended reconnection outflow is investigated in detail. The analysis of spectral scalings and spectral break locations shows that reconnection can change the local field and plasma conditions which may support different local turbulent dissipation mechanisms at their characteristic wavenumbers.

  12. Magnetic reconnection with asymmetry in the outflow direction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetic reconnection with asymmetry in the outflow direction N. A. Murphy, 1,2,3 C. R. Sovinec, 1,4 and P. A. Cassak 5 Received 9 December 2009; revised 23 March 2010; accepted 11 May 2010; published 4 September 2010. [1] Magnetic reconnection with asymmetry in the outflow direction occurs in the Earth's magnetotail, coronal mass ejections, flux cancellation events, astrophysical disks, spheromak merging experiments, and elsewhere in nature and the laboratory. A control volume analysis is

  13. A THEORY OF PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM RELATIVISTIC OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffini, R.; Siutsou, I. A.; Vereshchagin, G. V.

    2013-07-20

    We derive the optical depth and photospheric radius of relativistic outflows using a model of a relativistic wind with a finite duration. We also discuss the role of radiative diffusion in such an outflow. We numerically solve the radiative transfer equation and obtain light curves and observed spectra of the photospheric emission. The spectra we obtain are nonthermal and in some cases have Band shapes.

  14. RADIATION TRANSPORT FOR EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOWS: OPACITY REGROUPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollaeger, Ryan T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison 1500 Engineering Drive, 410 ERB, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Van Rossum, Daniel R., E-mail: wollaeger@wisc.edu, E-mail: daan@flash.uchicago.edu [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) are methods used to stochastically solve the radiative transport and diffusion equations, respectively. These methods combine into a hybrid transport-diffusion method we refer to as IMC-DDMC. We explore a multigroup IMC-DDMC scheme that in DDMC, combines frequency groups with sufficient optical thickness. We term this procedure ''opacity regrouping''. Opacity regrouping has previously been applied to IMC-DDMC calculations for problems in which the dependence of the opacity on frequency is monotonic. We generalize opacity regrouping to non-contiguous groups and implement this in SuperNu, a code designed to do radiation transport in high-velocity outflows with non-monotonic opacities. We find that regrouping of non-contiguous opacity groups generally improves the speed of IMC-DDMC radiation transport. We present an asymptotic analysis that informs the nature of the Doppler shift in DDMC groups and summarize the derivation of the Gentile-Fleck factor for modified IMC-DDMC. We test SuperNu using numerical experiments including a quasi-manufactured analytic solution, a simple 10 group problem, and the W7 problem for Type Ia supernovae. We find that opacity regrouping is necessary to make our IMC-DDMC implementation feasible for the W7 problem and possibly Type Ia supernova simulations in general. We compare the bolometric light curves and spectra produced by the SuperNu and PHOENIX radiation transport codes for the W7 problem. The overall shape of the bolometric light curves are in good agreement, as are the spectra and their evolution with time. However, for the numerical specifications we considered, we find that the peak luminosity of the light curve calculated using SuperNu is ?10% less than that calculated using PHOENIX.

  15. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Success Stories Hydrothermal Success Stories June 9, 2015 Hydrothermal Success Stories Energy Department Honored for Inroads in Geothermal Energy As renewable energy takes a stronger role in supplying the U.S. grid, geothermal power could support a more flexible role to balance the intermittent and variable capacity of wind and solar. June 5, 2015 Geothermal energy, traditionally a baseload power source among renewables, is poised to emerge also as a flexible power source, balancing

  16. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for

  17. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis presentation by Kate Young, Dan Getman, and Ariel Esposito at the 2012 Peer Review Meeting on May 10, 2012

  18. Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration Products Numerous types of colorful hydrothermal alterations compose the landscape at Kerlingarfjoll Geothermal area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified...

  19. Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Paleochori, Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermally deposited rock includes rocks and minerals that have precipitated from...

  20. Hydrothermally Altered Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paleochori cliffs Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermal alteration refers to rocks that have been altered from their original...

  1. Basement Structure and Implications for Hydrothermal Circulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Abstract Detailed surface mapping, subsurface drill hole data, and geophysical modeling are the basis of a structural and hydrothermal model for the western part of Long...

  2. Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  3. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update GTP Peer Review Lunch Presentation Westminster, CO Kate Young Dan Getman Ariel Esposito May 10, 2012 2 Data Gap Analysis PROJECT ...

  4. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federrath, Christoph; Schrn, Martin; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ?1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ?1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ? three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  5. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal resource base---an assessment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment Author...

  6. Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Rainier, Washington Abstract A once massive hydrothermal system was disgorged from the summit of Mount Rainier in a highly...

  7. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Project objective: Build and demonstrate a working prototype ...

  8. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  9. SUPERNOVAE AND AGN DRIVEN GALACTIC OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Mahavir; Nath, Biman B. E-mail: biman@rri.res.in

    2013-01-20

    an appropriate relation between M {sub .} and M{sub h} and an appropriate opacity of dust grains in infrared (K band), this ratio has the attractive property of being minimum at a certain halo mass scale (M{sub h} {approx} 10{sup 12}-10{sup 12.5} M {sub Sun }) that signifies the crossover of AGN domination in outflow properties from starburst activity at lower masses. We find that stellar mass for massive galaxies scales as M {sub *}{proportional_to}M {sup 0.26} {sub h}, and for low-mass galaxies, M {sub *}{proportional_to}M {sup 5/3} {sub h}.

  10. THE ANATOMY OF THE YOUNG PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HH 211

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappe, A.; Forbrich, J.; Lada, C. J.; Martin, S.; Yuan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope 5-36 {mu}m mapping observations toward the southeastern lobe of the young protostellar outflow HH 211. The southeastern terminal shock of the outflow shows a rich mid-infrared spectrum including molecular emission lines from OH, H{sub 2}O, HCO{sup +}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and HD. The spectrum also shows a rising infrared continuum toward 5 {mu}m, which we interpret as unresolved emission lines from highly excited rotational levels of the CO v = 1-0 fundamental band. This interpretation is supported by a strong excess flux observed in the Spitzer/IRAC 4-5 {mu}m channel 2 image compared to the other IRAC channels. The extremely high critical densities of the CO v = 1-0 ro-vibrational lines and a comparison to H{sub 2} and CO excitation models suggest jet densities larger than 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} in the terminal shock. We also observed the southeastern terminal outflow shock with the Submillimeter Array and detected pure rotational emission from CO 2-1, HCO{sup +} 3-2, and HCN 3-2. The rotationally excited CO traces the collimated outflow backbone as well as the terminal shock. HCN traces individual dense knots along the outflow and in the terminal shock, whereas HCO{sup +} solely appears in the terminal shock. The unique combination of our mid-infrared and submillimeter observations with previously published near-infrared observations allow us to study the interaction of one of the youngest known protostellar outflows with its surrounding molecular cloud. Our results help us to understand the nature of some of the so-called green fuzzies (Extended Green Objects), and elucidate the physical conditions that cause high OH excitation and affect the chemical OH/H{sub 2}O balance in protostellar outflows and young stellar objects. In an appendix to this paper, we summarize our Spitzer follow-up survey of protostellar outflow shocks to find further examples of highly excited OH occurring together with H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}.

  11. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  12. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  13. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  14. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Hydrothermal Exploration at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal Technologies Office, Department of Energy, explored hydrothermal potential at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska and discovered a resource siginificant enough for a spectrum of geothermal energy developments, including on-site power generation.

  16. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  17. Simulations reveal fast mode shocks in magnetic reconnection outflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Workman, Jared C.; Blackman, Eric G.; Ren, Chuang

    2011-09-15

    Magnetic reconnection is commonly perceived to drive flow and particle acceleration in flares of solar, stellar, and astrophysical disk coronae but the relative roles of different acceleration mechanisms in a given reconnection environment are not well understood. While outflow fast mode shocks have been predicted analytically, we show for the first time via direct numerical simulations that such shocks do indeed occur in the outflows of fast reconnection when an obstacle is present. These shocks are distinct from the slow mode Petschek inflow shocks. If Fermi acceleration of electrons operates in the weak fast shocks, the associated compression ratios will induce a Fermi acceleration particle spectrum that is significantly steeper than strong fast shocks commonly studied, but consistent with the demands of solar flares. While this is not the only acceleration mechanism operating in a reconnection environment, it is plausibly a ubiquitous one.

  18. Fracture detection logging tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benzing, William M.

    1992-06-09

    A method and apparatus by which fractured rock formations are identified and their orientation may be determined includes two orthogonal motion sensors which are used in conjunction with a downhole orbital vibrator. The downhole vibrator includes a device for orienting the sensors. The output of the sensors is displayed as a lissajou figure. The shape of the figure changes when a subsurface fracture is encountered in the borehole. The apparatus and method identifies fractures rock formations and enables the azimuthal orientation of the fractures to be determined.

  19. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-29

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  20. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  1. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  2. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Liquefaction Technology Pathway Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Whole Algae Hydrothermal

  3. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with

  4. The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Examines the effect of hydrothermal aging on the Nox reduction over a commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst.

  5. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  6. Induced fractures: well stimulation through fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanold, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Seven fracture stimulation treatments were planned and executed under the Department of Energy-funded Geothermal Well Stimulation Program. The objective of this program is to demonstrate that geothermal well stimulation offers a technical alternative to additional well drilling and redrilling for productivity enhancement which can substantially reduce development costs. Well stimulation treatments have been performed at Raft River, Idaho; East Mesa, California; The Geysers, California; and the Baca Project Area in New Mexico. Six of the seven stimulation experiments were technically successful in stimulating the wells. The two fracture treatments in East Mesa more than doubled the production rate of the previously marginal producer. The two fracture treatments at Raft River and the two at Baca were all successful in obtaining significant production from previously nonproductive intervals. The acid etching treatment in the well at the Geysers did not have any material effect on production rate.

  7. Spectroscopic observation of simultaneous bi-directional reconnection outflows in a laboratory plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. R.; Cothran, C. D.; Gray, T.; Myers, C. E.; Belova, E. V.

    2012-08-15

    We report a precise, direct spectroscopic measurement of simultaneous bi-directional outflows from a reconnection event in a laboratory plasma. Outflow speeds are as Alfvenic and Abel analysis shows that the outflows are generated in the plasma core. A Sweet-Parker like analysis of outflow speed coupled with external measurements of reconnection electric field and assumption of Spitzer resistivity predict an aspect ratio of the reconnection layer and reconnection rate that are close to that measured in the experiment and in simulations. However, this analysis underestimates the absolute scale of the layer, indicating other than 2D resistive physics is at play.

  8. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  9. Fracture mechanics: 26. volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, W.G.; Underwood, J.H.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The original objective of these symposia was to promote technical interchange between researchers from the US and worldwide in the field of fracture. This objective was recently expanded to promote technical interchange between researchers in the field of fatigue and fracture. The symposium began with the Swedlow Memorial Lecture entitled ``Patterns and Perspectives in Applied Fracture Mechanics.`` The remaining 42 papers are divided into the following topical sections: Constraint crack initiation; Constraint crack growth; Weldments; Engineered materials; Subcritical crack growth; Dynamic loading; and Applications. Papers within the scope of the Energy Data Base have been processed separately.

  10. Seismicity and Reservoir Fracture Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for Seismicity and Reservoir Fracture Characterization.

  11. Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Glenn T.; Zilberstein, Vladimir A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

  12. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  13. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  14. DETECTION OF HIGH VELOCITY OUTFLOWS IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Mrk 590

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, A.; Mathur, S.; Krongold, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the detection of ultra-fast outflows in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 590. These outflows are identified through highly blueshifted absorption lines of O VIII and Ne IX in the medium energy grating spectrum and Si XIV and Mg XII in the high energy grating spectrum on board the Chandra X-ray observatory. Our best-fit photoionization model requires two absorber components at outflow velocities of 0.176c and 0.0738c and a third tentative component at 0.0867c. The components at 0.0738c and 0.0867c have high ionization parameters and high column densities, similar to other ultra-fast outflows detected at low resolution by Tombesi et al. We also found suggestive evidence for super-solar silicon in these components. These outflows carry sufficient mass and energy to provide effective feedback proposed by theoretical models. The component at 0.176c, on the other hand, has a low ionization parameter and low column density, similar to those detected by Gupta et al. in Ark 564. These absorbers occupy a different locus on the velocity versus ionization parameter plane and have opened up a new parameter space of active galactic nucleus (AGN) outflows. The presence of ultra-fast outflows in moderate luminosity AGNs poses a challenge to models of AGN outflows.

  15. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  16. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.

    2012-01-10

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 {mu}m. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 {mu}m. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of {approx}3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s{sup -1} for the jet material gives an age of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  17. UNDERSTANDING GALAXY OUTFLOWS AS THE PRODUCT OF UNSTABLE TURBULENT SUPPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scannapieco, Evan

    2013-02-01

    The interstellar medium is a multiphase gas in which turbulent support is as important as thermal pressure. Sustaining this configuration requires both continuous turbulent stirring and continuous radiative cooling to match the decay of turbulent energy. While this equilibrium can persist for small turbulent velocities, if the one-dimensional velocity dispersion is larger than Almost-Equal-To 35 km s{sup -1}, the gas moves into an unstable regime that leads to rapid heating. I study the implications of this turbulent runaway, showing that it causes a hot gas outflow to form in all galaxies with a gas surface density above Almost-Equal-To 50 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, corresponding to a star formation rate per unit area of Almost-Equal-To 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. For galaxies with v{sub esc} {approx}> 200 km s{sup -1}, the sonic point of this hot outflow should lie interior to the region containing cold gas and stars, while for galaxies with smaller escape velocities, the sonic point should lie outside this region. This leads to efficient cold cloud acceleration in higher mass galaxies, while in lower mass galaxies, clouds may be ejected by random turbulent motions rather than accelerated by the wind. Finally, I show that energy balance cannot be achieved at all for turbulent media above a surface density of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}.

  18. Synthesis of Nanoparticles via Solvothermal and Hydrothermal Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jianlin; Wu, Qingliu; Wu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the synthesis of various types of nanoparticles as well as surface modifications of nanomaterials using hydrothermal and solvothermal methods. First, the definition, history, instrumentation, and mechanism of hydrothermal and solvothermal methods as well as the important parameters af-fecting the nucleation and crystal growth of nanomaterials are briefly introduced. Then the specific hydrothermal and solvothermal methods used to grow oxides, Group II-VI, III-V, IV, transitional metals, and metal-organic framework nanoparticles are summarized. Finally, the hydrothermal and solvothermal strategies used for the surface modification of nanomaterials are discussed.

  19. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  20. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  1. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In...

  2. Characterization of past hydrothermal fluids in the Humboldt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    has permitted hydrothermal circulation, producing both the geothermal area and nearby gold deposits. A total of five wells have been drilled with three obtaining core....

  3. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Valley Caldera, East-Central California, USA, From Recent Pumping Tests And Geochemical Sampling Jump to:...

  4. The Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera, California |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a deep subsystem or hydrothermal reservoir in the welded tuff containing relatively hot ground water. Hydrologic, isotopic, and thermal data indicate that recharge to the...

  5. Clay Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante Geothermal Field (Guadeloupe) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  6. A Hydrothermal Model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Area, Utah...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal system appears to be controlled to some extent by the details of the permeability structure in the immediate vicinity if the high surface heat flow region. Authors...

  7. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

    2007-12-15

    We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

  8. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boning; Herbold, Eric B.; Homel, Michael A.; Regueiro, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  9. Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas

    2000-01-18

    In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

  10. Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Massive Star Formation with Protostellar Outflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, A J; Klein, R I; Krumholz, M R; McKee, C F

    2011-03-02

    We report the results of a series of AMR radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive star forming clouds using the ORION code. These simulations are the first to include the feedback effects protostellar outflows, as well as protostellar radiative heating and radiation pressure exerted on the infalling, dusty gas. We find that that outflows evacuate polar cavities of reduced optical depth through the ambient core. These enhance the radiative flux in the poleward direction so that it is 1.7 to 15 times larger than that in the midplane. As a result the radiative heating and outward radiation force exerted on the protostellar disk and infalling cloud gas in the equatorial direction are greatly diminished. The simultaneously reduces the Eddington radiation pressure barrier to high-mass star formation and increases the minimum threshold surface density for radiative heating to suppress fragmentation compared to models that do not include outflows. The strength of both these effects depends on the initial core surface density. Lower surface density cores have longer free-fall times and thus massive stars formed within them undergo more Kelvin contraction as the core collapses, leading to more powerful outflows. Furthermore, in lower surface density clouds the ratio of the time required for the outflow to break out of the core to the core free-fall time is smaller, so that these clouds are consequently influenced by outflows at earlier stages of collapse. As a result, outflow effects are strongest in low surface density cores and weakest in high surface density one. We also find that radiation focusing in the direction of outflow cavities is sufficient to prevent the formation of radiation pressure-supported circumstellar gas bubbles, in contrast to models which neglect protostellar outflow feedback.

  11. A SEARCH FOR 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Cong-Gui; Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Ye; Ju, Bing-Gang

    2013-01-20

    We have observed a sample of 288 molecular outflow sources including 123 high-mass and 165 low-mass sources in order to search for class I methanol masers at the 95 GHz transition and to investigate the relationship between outflow characteristics and class I methanol maser emission with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. Our survey detected 62 sources with 95 GHz methanol masers above a 3{sigma} detection limit, which includes 47 high-mass sources and 15 low-mass sources. Therefore, the detection rate is 38% for high-mass outflow sources and 9% for low-mass outflow sources, suggesting that class I methanol masers are relatively easily excited in high-mass sources. There are 37 newly detected 95 GHz methanol masers (including 27 high-mass and 10 low-mass sources), 19 of which are newly identified (i.e., first identification) class I methanol masers (including 13 high-mass and 6 low-mass sources). A statistical analysis of the distributions of maser detections with the outflow parameters reveals that the maser detection efficiency increases with the outflow properties (e.g., mass, momentum, kinetic energy, mechanical luminosity of outflows, etc.). Systematic investigations of the relationships between the intrinsic luminosity of methanol masers and the outflow properties (including mass, momentum, kinetic energy, bolometric luminosity, and mass-loss rate of the central stellar sources) indicate a positive correlation. This further supports the theory that class I methanol masers are collisionally pumped and associated with shocks when outflows interact with the surrounding ambient medium.

  12. Faults and gravity anomalies over the East Mesa hydrothermal-geothermal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Carle, S.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed interpretations of gravity anomalies over geothermal systems may be extremely useful for mapping the fracture or fault systems that control the circulation of the thermal waters. This approach seems to be particularly applicable in areas like the Salton Trough where reactions between the thermal waters and the porous sediments produce authigenic-hydrothermal minerals in sufficient quantity to cause distinct gravity anomalies at the surface. A 3-D inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly over the East Mesa geothermal field was made to examine the densified volume of rock. We show that the data not only resolve a north-south and an intersecting northwest structure, but that it may be possible to distinguish between the active present-day hydrothermal system and an older and cooler part of the system. The densified region is compared spatially to self-potential, thermal and seismic results and we find a good concordance between the different geophysical data sets. Our results agree with previous studies that have indicated that the main feeder fault recharging the East Mesa reservoir dips steeply to the west.

  13. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  14. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for ...

  15. Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization; ...

  16. Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various Sintering Additives Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of ...

  17. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  18. Injection through fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johns, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    Tracer tests are conducted in geothermal reservoirs as an aid in forecasting thermal breakthrough of reinjection water. To interpret tracer tests, mathematical models have been developed based on the various transport mechanisms in these highly fractured reservoirs. These tracer flow models have been applied to interpret field tests. The resulting matches between the model and field data were excellent and the model parameters were used to estimate reservoir properties. However, model fitting is an indirect process and the model's ability to estimate reservoir properties cannot be judged solely on the quality of the match between field data and model predictions. The model's accuracy in determining reservoir characteristics must be independently verified in a closely controlled environment. In this study, the closely controlled laboratory environment was chosen to test the validity and accuracy of tracer flow models developed specifically for flow in fractured rocks. The laboratory tracer tests were performed by flowing potassium iodide (KI) through artificially fractured core samples. The tracer test results were then analyzed with several models to determine which best fit the measured data. A Matrix Diffusion model was found to provide the best match of the tracer experiments. The core properties, as estimated by the Matrix Diffusion model parameters generated from the indirect matching process, were then determined. These calculated core parameters were compared to the measured core properties and were found to be in agreement. This verifies the use of the Matrix Diffusion flow model in estimating fracture widths from tracer tests.

  19. OUTFLOWS IN {rho} OPHIUCHI AS SEEN WITH THE SPITZER INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Miaomiao; Wang Hongchi

    2009-12-15

    Using the IRAC images from the Spitzer c2d program, we have made a survey of mid-infrared outflows in the {rho} Ophiuchi molecular cloud. Extended objects that have prominent emission in IRAC channel 2 (4.5 {mu}m) compared to IRAC channel 1 (3.6 {mu}m) and stand out as green objects in the three-color images (3.6 {mu}m in blue, 4.5 {mu}m in green, 8.0 {mu}m in red) are identified as mid-infrared outflows. As a result, we detected 13 new outflows in the {rho} Ophiuchi molecular cloud that have not been previously observed in either the optical or the near-infrared. In addition, at the positions of previously observed HH objects or near-infrared emission, we detected 31 mid-infrared outflows, among which seven correspond to previously observed HH objects and 30 to near-infrared emission. Most of the mid-infrared outflows detected in the {rho} Ophiuchi cloud are concentrated in the L1688 dense core region. In combination with the survey results for young stellar objects (YSOs) and millimeter and submillimeter sources, the distribution of mid-infrared outflows in the {rho} Ophiuchi molecular complex hints a propagation of star formation in the cloud in the direction from the northwest to the southeast, as suggested by previous studies of the region.

  20. Probabilistic oil outflow analysis of alternative tanker designs. Addendum 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report is an addendum to Probabilistic Oil Outflow Analysis of Alternative Tanker Designs, U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast Guard, Report No. CG-D-14-92, July 1992. It covers the effects of design modifications to the Double Hull, Mid-Deck and Underpressure (MARPOL) designs for the 272,000 DWT size, and clarifies the evaluation made of the underpressure concept. The design modifications were made so that these ships would meet the requirements of Regulation 23 of the MARPOL 73/78 Annex for hypothetical outflow of oil. Results for two other designs, the Coulombi Egg and POLMIS, are also presented. A probabilistic approach has been adopted for these analyses, utilizing statistical data for tanker casualties developed for the International Maritime Organization. Both side and bottom damage were considered. Loss calculations were based on hydrostatic balance principles. Initial oil loss at impact and dynamic losses due to current and waves were computed based on model tests. Plots illustrating the cumulative oil outflow for each damage condition are presented. Three figures of merit were computed for each damage condition. These are: the probability of zero outflow, the mean outflow, and the extreme (1/10) outflow.

  1. Hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field: Sulphur Springs and the Cochiti mining district

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.

    1989-03-01

    K/Ar dates and oxygen isotope data were obtained on 13 clay separates (<2 ..mu..m) of thermally altered mafic and silicic rocks from the Cochiti mining district (SE Jemez Mountains) and Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP) core hole VC-2A (Sulphur Springs, Valles caldera). Illite with K/sub 2/O contents of 6.68%--10.04% is the dominant clay in the silicic rocks, whereas interstratified illite/smectites containing 1.4%--5.74% K/sub 2/O constitute the altered andesites. Two hydrothermal alteration events are recognized at the Cochiti area (8.07 m.y., n = 1, and 6.5--5.6 m.y., n = 6). The older event correlates with the waning stages of Paliza Canyon Formation andesite volcanism (greater than or equal to13 to less than or equal to8.5 m.y.), whereas the younger event correlates with intrusions and gold- and silver-bearing quartz veins associated with the Bearhead Rhyolite (7.54--5.8 m.y.). The majority of K/Ar dates in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A (0.83--0.66 m.y., n = 4) indicate that hydrothermal alteration developed contemporaneously with resurgence and ring fracture Valles Rhyolite domes (0.89--0.54 m.y.). One date of 0 +- 0.10 m.y. in acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole probably correlates with Holocene hydrothermal activity possibly associated with the final phases of the Valles Rhyolite (0.13 m.y.).

  2. Device for fracturing silicon-carbide coatings on nuclear-fuel particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, L.J.; Willey, M.G.; Tiegs, S.M.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    This invention is a device for fracturing particles. It is designed especially for use in hot cells designed for the handling of radioactive materials. In a typical application, the device is used to fracture a hard silicon-carbide coating present on carbon-matrix microspheres containing nuclear-fuel materials, such as uranium or thorium compounds. To promote remote control and facilitate maintenance, the particle breaker is pneumatically operated and contains no moving parts. It includes means for serially entraining the entrained particles on an anvil housed in a leak-tight chamber. The flow rate of the gas is at a value effecting fracture of the particles; preferably, it is at a value fracturing them into product particulates of fluidizable size. The chamber is provided with an outlet passage whose cross-sectional area decreases in the direction away from the chamber. The outlet is connected tangentially to a vertically oriented vortex-flow separator for recovering the product particulates entrained in the gas outflow from the chamber. The invention can be used on a batch or continuous basis to fracture the silicon-carbide coatings on virtually all of the particles fed thereto.

  3. Method for fracturing silicon-carbide coatings on nuclear-fuel particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Lloyd J.; Willey, Melvin G.; Tiegs, Sue M.; Van Cleve, Jr., John E.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a device for fracturing particles. It is designed especially for use in "hot cells" designed for the handling of radioactive materials. In a typical application, the device is used to fracture a hard silicon-carbide coating present on carbon-matrix microspheres containing nuclear-fuel material, such as uranium or thorium compounds. To promote remote control and facilitate maintenance, the particle breaker is pneumatically operated and contains no moving parts. It includes means for serially entraining the entrained particles on an anvil housed in a leak-tight chamber. The flow rate of the gas is at a value effecting fracture of the particles; preferably, it is at a value fracturing them into product particulates of fluidizable size. The chamber is provided with an outlet passage whose cross-sectional area decreases in the direction away from the chamber. The outlet is connected tangentially to a vertically oriented vortex-flow separator for recovering the product particulates entrained in the gas outflow from the chamber. The invention can be used on a batch or continuous basis to fracture the silicon-carbide coatings on virtually all of the particles fed thereto.

  4. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  5. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williford, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  6. Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture SNL has 40+ years ...

  7. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  8. PROPER MOTIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OUTFLOWS IN THE MID-INFRARED WITH SPITZER (IRAC). I. THE NGC 1333 REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raga, A. C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Arce, H. G. E-mail: alberto@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: hector.arce@yale.edu

    2013-02-01

    We use two 4.5 {mu}m Spitzer (IRAC) maps of the NGC 1333 region taken over a {approx}7 yr interval to determine proper motions of its associated outflows. This is a first successful attempt at obtaining proper motions of stellars' outflow from Spitzer observations. For the outflow formed by the Herbig-Haro objects HH7, 8, and 10, we find proper motions of {approx}9-13 km s{sup -1}, which are consistent with previously determined optical proper motions of these objects. We determine proper motions for a total of eight outflows, ranging from {approx}10 to 100 km s{sup -1}. The derived proper motions show that out of these eight outflows, three have tangential velocities {<=}20 km s{sup -1}. This result shows that a large fraction of the observed outflows have low intrinsic velocities and that the low proper motions are not merely a projection effect.

  9. Direct use of hydrothermal energy: a review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.; Layton, D.

    1981-08-28

    The potential environmental impacts of the exploration, development, and production of hydrothermal geothermal energy for direct use applications are reviewed and evaluated. Mitigation strategies and research and development needs are included. (MHR)

  10. The Near-Surface Hydrothermal Regime of Long Valley Caldera ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Long Valley Caldera Citation Arthur H. Lachenbruch,Michael L. Sorey,Robert Edward Lewis,John H. Sass. 1976. The Near-Surface Hydrothermal Regime of Long Valley Caldera....

  11. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  12. Collimated Jet Or Expanding Outflow: Possible Origins of GRBs And X-Ray Flashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuta, Akira; Yamasaki, Tatsuya; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Mineshige, Shin; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto

    2006-08-10

    We investigate the dynamics of an injected outflow propagating in a progenitor in the context of the collapsar model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through two dimensional axisymmetric relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. Initially, we locally inject an outflow near the center of a progenitor. We calculate 25 models, in total, by fixing its total input energy to be 10{sup 51} ergs s{sup -1} and radius of the injected outflow to be 7 x 10{sup 7} cm while varying its bulk Lorentz factor, {Lambda}{sub 0} = 1.05 {approx} 5, and its specific internal energy, {epsilon}{sub 0}/c{sup 2} 30 (with c being speed of light). The injected outflow propagates in the progenitor and drives a large-scale outflow or jet. We find a smooth but dramatic transition from a collimated jet to an expanding outflow among calculated models. The opening angle of the outflow ({theta}{sub sim}) is sensitive to {Lambda}{sub 0}; we find {theta}{sub sim} < 2{sup o} for {Lambda}{sub 0} {approx}> 3. The maximum Lorentz factor is, on the other hand, sensitive to both of {Lambda}{sub 0} and {epsilon}{sub 0}; roughly {Lambda}{sub max} {approx} {Lambda}{sub 0}(1 + {epsilon}{sub 0}/c{sup 2}). In particular, a very high Lorentz factor of {Lambda}{sub max} {approx}> 100 is achieved in one model. A variety of opening angles can arise by changing {epsilon}{sub 0}, even when the maximum Lorentz factor is fixed. The jet structure totally depends on {Lambda}{sub 0}. When {Lambda}{sub 0} is high, a strong bow shock appears and generates a back flow. High pressure progenitor gas heated by the bow shock collimates the outflow to form a narrow, relativistic jet. A number of internal oblique shocks within the jet are generated by the presence of the back flow and/or shear instability. When {Lambda}{sub 0} is low, on the contrary, the outflow expands soon after the injection, since the bow shock is weak and thus the pressure of the progenitor gas is not high enough to confine the flow. Our finding will explain a smooth

  13. OUTFLOWS FROM EVOLVED STARS: THE RAPIDLY CHANGING FINGERS OF CRL 618

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balick, Bruce; Huarte-Espinosa, Martin; Frank, Adam; Gomez, Thomas; Alcolea, Javier; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Vinkovic, Dejan E-mail: martinHE@pas.rochester.edu E-mail: gomezt@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: rcorradi@iac.es

    2013-07-20

    Our ultimate goal is to probe the nature of the collimator of the outflows in the pre-planetary nebula CRL 618. CRL 618 is uniquely suited for this purpose owing to its multiple, bright, and carefully studied finger-shaped outflows east and west of its nucleus. We compare new Hubble Space Telescope images to images in the same filters observed as much as 11 yr ago to uncover large proper motions and surface brightness changes in its multiple finger-shaped outflows. The expansion age of the ensemble of fingers is close to 100 yr. We find strong brightness variations at the fingertips during the past decade. Deep IR images reveal a multiple ring-like structure of the surrounding medium into which the outflows propagate and interact. Tightly constrained three-dimensional hydrodynamic models link the properties of the fingers to their possible formation histories. We incorporate previously published complementary information to discern whether each of the fingers of CRL 618 are the results of steady, collimated outflows or a brief ejection event that launched a set of bullets about a century ago. Finally, we argue on various physical grounds that fingers of CRL 618 are likely to be the result of a spray of clumps ejected at the nucleus of CRL 618 since any mechanism that form a sustained set of unaligned jets is unprecedented.

  14. Probabilistic oil-outflow analysis of alternative tanker designs. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandates double hulls for all newly constructed tankers calling in U.S. waters. This study addresses the equivalence of four proposed alternatives to the Double Hull design, based on projected oil outflow resulting from groundings and collisions. The four alternative designs were the Mid-Deck tanker, an underpressure system fitted to a MARPOL tanker, and two proprietary tankage configurations, the Coulombi Egg and POLMIS tankers. Three sizes of vessels, with cargo capacities of 50,000, 150,000, and 272,000 metric tons, were investigated. A probabilistic approach has been adopted for these analyses, utilizing statistical data for tanker casualties developed for the International Maritime Organization. Both side and bottom damage were considered. Loss calculations were based on hydrostatic balance principles. Initial oil loss at impact and dynamic losses due to current and waves were computed based on model tests. Plots illustrating the cumulative oil outflow for each damage condition are presented. Three figures of merit were computed for each damage condition. These are: the probability of zero outflow, the mean outflow, and the extreme (1/10) outflow.

  15. THE GAS INFLOW AND OUTFLOW RATE IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ? 1.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabe, Kiyoto; Ohta, Kouji; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Akiyama, Masayuki; Tamura, Naoyuki; Yuma, Suraphong; Dalton, Gavin; Lewis, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We try to constrain the gas inflow and outflow rate of star-forming galaxies at z ? 1.4 by employing a simple analytic model for the chemical evolution of galaxies. The sample is constructed based on a large near-infrared spectroscopic sample observed with Subaru/FMOS. The gas-phase metallicity is measured from the [N II]?6584/H? emission line ratio and the gas mass is derived from the extinction corrected H? luminosity by assuming the Kennicutt-Schmidt law. We constrain the inflow and outflow rate from the least-?{sup 2} fittings of the observed gas-mass fraction, stellar mass, and metallicity with the analytic model. The joint ?{sup 2} fitting shows that the best-fit inflow rate is ?1.8 and the outflow rate is ?0.6 in units of star-formation rate. By applying the same analysis to the previous studies at z ? 0 and z ? 2.2, it is shown that both the inflow and outflow rates decrease with decreasing redshift, which implies the higher activity of gas flow process at higher redshift. The decreasing trend of the inflow rate from z ? 2.2 to z ? 0 agrees with that seen in previous observational works with different methods, though the absolute value is generally larger than in previous works. The outflow rate and its evolution from z ? 2.2 to z ? 0 obtained in this work agree well with the independent estimations in previous observational works.

  16. NGC 7538 IRS. 1. Interaction of a polarized dust spiral and a molecular outflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, M. C. H.; Hull, Charles L. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pillai, Thushara [Max Planck Institut fr Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hgel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhao, Jun-Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sandell, Gran, E-mail: jzhao@cfa.harvard.edu [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Building N232, Room 146, PO Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present dust polarization and CO molecular line images of NGC 7538 IRS 1. We combined data from the Submillimeter Array, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to make images with ?2.''5 resolution at 230 and 345 GHz. The images show a remarkable spiral pattern in both the dust polarization and molecular outflow. These data dramatically illustrate the interplay between a high infall rate onto IRS 1 and a powerful outflow disrupting the dense, clumpy medium surrounding the star. The images of the dust polarization and the CO outflow presented here provide observational evidence for the exchange of energy and angular momentum between the infall and the outflow. The spiral dust pattern, which rotates through over 180 from IRS 1, may be a clumpy filament wound up by conservation of angular momentum in the infalling material. The redshifted CO emission ridge traces the dust spiral closely through the MM dust cores, several of which may contain protostars. We propose that the CO maps the boundary layer where the outflow is ablating gas from the dense gas in the spiral.

  17. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Chris M.; Musich, Mark A.; Mann, Michael D.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Richter, John J.; Potas, Todd A.; Willson, Warrack G.

    2000-01-01

    Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

  18. track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review Inability to accurately predict temperature and permeability of the geothermal reservoir from the surface is a major cost and exploration risk for geothermal systems. While the majority of known geothermal resources across America have been identified, the USGS predicts that more than 30 gigawatts of geothermal energy potential - enough to power about 30 million homes - resides deep in the earth in

  19. Fracture optimization on every well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, J.W.; Tiner, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Since hydraulic fracturing was introduced in 1947, significant advances have been made in the area of fracture diagnostics, particularly in the last 20 years. Common diagnostic procedures used today to quantify fracture geometry and fracture fluid efficiency are listed in a table. During the past several years, the most popular procedure was to conduct most or all of the diagnostics on one well in a field, and apply the results to subsequent wells. However, experience has shown that critical factors can change drastically, even in fields with minimal well spacing. Although some variations in relative rock stresses have been seen, rock properties typically remain fairly consistent within a designated area. However, the factor that changes drastically from well to well--even in spacing as small as 10 acres--is fracture fluid efficiency. As much as a 60% change in fluid efficiencies has been noted for offset wells. Because of these variations, a new procedure has been developed in which fracture treatments on individual wells can be optimized on the day of the fracture treatment. The paper describes this fracture optimization procedure.

  20. The two-way relationship between ionospheric outflow and the ring current

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Welling, Daniel T.; Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Glocer, Alex; Toth, Gabor; Liemohn, Michael W.; Weimer, Dan R.

    2015-06-01

    It is now well established that the ionosphere, because it acts as a significant source of plasma, plays a critical role in ring current dynamics. However, because the ring current deposits energy into the ionosphere, the inverse may also be true: the ring current can play a critical role in the dynamics of ionospheric outflow. This study uses a set of coupled, first-principles-based numerical models to test the dependence of ionospheric outflow on ring current-driven region 2 field-aligned currents (FACs). A moderate magnetospheric storm event is modeled with the Space Weather Modeling Framework using a global MHD code (Block Adaptivemore » Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), a polar wind model (Polar Wind Outflow Model), and a bounce-averaged kinetic ring current model (ring current atmosphere interaction model with self-consistent magnetic field, RAM-SCB). Initially, each code is two-way coupled to all others except for RAM-SCB, which receives inputs from the other models but is not allowed to feed back pressure into the MHD model. The simulation is repeated with pressure coupling activated, which drives strong pressure gradients and region 2 FACs in BATS-R-US. It is found that the region 2 FACs increase heavy ion outflow by up to 6 times over the non-coupled results. The additional outflow further energizes the ring current, establishing an ionosphere-magnetosphere mass feedback loop. This study further demonstrates that ionospheric outflow is not merely a plasma source for the magnetosphere but an integral part in the nonlinear ionosphere-magnetosphere-ring current system.« less

  1. The two-way relationship between ionospheric outflow and the ring current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welling, Daniel T.; Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Glocer, Alex; Toth, Gabor; Liemohn, Michael W.; Weimer, Dan R.

    2015-06-01

    It is now well established that the ionosphere, because it acts as a significant source of plasma, plays a critical role in ring current dynamics. However, because the ring current deposits energy into the ionosphere, the inverse may also be true: the ring current can play a critical role in the dynamics of ionospheric outflow. This study uses a set of coupled, first-principles-based numerical models to test the dependence of ionospheric outflow on ring current-driven region 2 field-aligned currents (FACs). A moderate magnetospheric storm event is modeled with the Space Weather Modeling Framework using a global MHD code (Block Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), a polar wind model (Polar Wind Outflow Model), and a bounce-averaged kinetic ring current model (ring current atmosphere interaction model with self-consistent magnetic field, RAM-SCB). Initially, each code is two-way coupled to all others except for RAM-SCB, which receives inputs from the other models but is not allowed to feed back pressure into the MHD model. The simulation is repeated with pressure coupling activated, which drives strong pressure gradients and region 2 FACs in BATS-R-US. It is found that the region 2 FACs increase heavy ion outflow by up to 6 times over the non-coupled results. The additional outflow further energizes the ring current, establishing an ionosphere-magnetosphere mass feedback loop. This study further demonstrates that ionospheric outflow is not merely a plasma source for the magnetosphere but an integral part in the nonlinear ionosphere-magnetosphere-ring current system.

  2. Reconnaissance of the hydrothermal resources of Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rush, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic factors in the Basin and Range province in Utah are more favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources than in other areas on the Colorado Plateaus or in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These geologic factors are principally crustal extension and crustal thinning during the last 17 million years. Basalts as young as 10,000 years have been mapped in the area. High-silica volcanic and intrusive rocks of Quaternary age can be used to locate hydrothermal convection systems. Drilling for hot, high-silica, buried rock bodies is most promising in the areas of recent volcanic activity. Southwestern Utah has more geothermal potential than other parts of the Basin and Range province in Utah. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area, the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale area, and the area to the north as far as 60 kilometers from them probably have the best potential for geothermal development for generation of electricity. Other areas with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C are Thermo, Monroe, Red Hill (in the Monroe-Joseph Known Geothermal Resource Area), Joseph Hot Springs, and the Newcastle area. The rates of heat and water discharge are high at Crater, Meadow, and Hatton Hot Springs, but estimated reservoir temperatures there are less than 150/sup 0/C. Additional exploration is needed to define the potential in three additional areas in the Escalante Desert. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Characterization of Fractures in Geothermal Reservoirs Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract The optimal design of production in fractured geothermal reservoirs requires knowledge of the resource's connectivity, therefore making fracture characterization highly...

  4. Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: To understand how EGS fracture networks develop; To develop technology to determine accurate absolute three-dimensional positions of EGS fracture networks.

  5. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS ... Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs Seismic ...

  6. HiRes deconvolved Spitzer images of 89 protostellar jets and outflows: New data on the evolution of the outflow morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Thompson, T. E-mail: William.D.Langer@jpl.nasa.gov

    2014-03-01

    To study the role of protosellar jets and outflows in the time evolution of the parent cores and the protostars, the astronomical community needs a large enough database of infrared images of protostars at the highest spatial resolution possible to reveal the details of their morphology. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features, however, its spatial resolution is limited by its 0.85 m mirror. Here, we use a high-resolution deconvolution algorithm, 'HiRes,' to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in the IRAC bands) and removing the contaminating side lobes from bright sources in a sample of 89 protostellar objects. These reprocessed images are useful for detecting (1) wide-angle outflows seen in scattered light, (2) morphological details of H{sub 2} emission in jets and bow shocks, and (3) compact features in MIPS 24 μm images as protostar/disk and atomic/ionic line emission associated with the jets. The HiRes FITS image data of such a large homogeneous sample presented here will be useful to the community in studying these protostellar objects. To illustrate the utility of this HiRes sample, we show how the opening angle of the wide-angle outflows in 31 sources, all observed in the HiRes-processed Spitzer images, correlates with age. Our data suggest a power-law fit to opening angle versus age with an exponent of ∼0.32 and 0.02, respectively, for ages ≤8000 yr and ≥8000 yr.

  7. Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Brian Somerday, Chris San Marchi, and Dorian Balch Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, GA August 30-31, 2005 SNL has 40+ years experience with effects of high-pressure hydrogen gas on materials * Design and maintenance of welded stainless steel pressure vessels for containment of high-pressure H 2 isotopes - Extensive testing of stainless steels exposed to

  8. DIAGNOSTICS OF AGN-DRIVEN MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN ULIRGs FROM HERSCHEL-PACS OBSERVATIONS OF OH AT 119 ?m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spoon, H. W. W.; Lebouteiller, V.; Farrah, D.; Gonzlez-Alfonso, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Urrutia, T.; Rigopoulou, D.; Verma, A.; Westmoquette, M. S.; Smith, H. A.; Afonso, J.; Pearson, C.; Cormier, D.; Efstathiou, A.; Borys, C.; Etxaluze, M.; Clements, D. L.

    2013-10-01

    We report on our observations of the 79 and 119 ?m doublet transitions of OH for 24 local (z < 0.262) ULIRGs observed with Herschel-PACS as part of the Herschel ULIRG Survey (HERUS). Some OH 119 ?m profiles display a clear P-Cygni shape and therefore imply outflowing OH gas, while other profiles are predominantly in absorption or are completely in emission. We find that the relative strength of the OH emission component decreases as the silicate absorption increases. This result locates the OH outflows inside the obscured nuclei. The maximum outflow velocities for our sources range from less than 100 to ?2000 km s{sup 1}, with 15/24 (10/24) sources showing OH absorption at velocities exceeding 700 km s{sup 1} (1000 km s{sup 1}). Three sources show maximum OH outflow velocities exceeding that of Mrk231. Since outflow velocities above 500-700 km s{sup 1} are thought to require an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to drive them, about two-thirds of our ULIRG sample may host AGN-driven molecular outflows. This finding is supported by the correlation we find between the maximum OH outflow velocity and the IR-derived bolometric AGN luminosity. No such correlation is found with the IR-derived star formation rate. The highest outflow velocities are found among sources that are still deeply embedded. We speculate that the molecular outflows in these sources may be in an early phase of disrupting the nuclear dust veil before these sources evolve into less-obscured AGNs. Four of our sources show high-velocity wings in their [C II] fine-structure line profiles, implying neutral gas outflow masses of at least (2-4.5) 10{sup 8} M{sub ?}.

  9. Hydraulic fracturing utilizing a refractory proppant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R.; Stowe, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for hydraulically fracturing a formation where a fused refractory proppant is used. It comprises: placing into a fracturing fluid a fused refractory proppant consisting essentially of silicon carbide or silicon nitride having a mohs hardness of about 9 and in an amount sufficient to prop a created fracture where the proppant is substantially crush and acid resistant; injecting into the formation the fracturing fluid with the proppant therein under a pressure sufficient to fracture the formation; and fracturing the formation and thereafter causing the pressure to be released thereby propping at least one fracture which proppant provides for increased heat transfer into the formation.

  10. LOW-ALTITUDE RECONNECTION INFLOW-OUTFLOW OBSERVATIONS DURING A 2010 NOVEMBER 3 SOLAR ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, Sabrina L.; Holman, Gordon; Su, Yang; Seaton, Daniel B.; McKenzie, David E.

    2012-07-20

    For a solar flare occurring on 2010 November 3, we present observations using several SDO/AIA extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) passbands of an erupting flux rope followed by inflows sweeping into a current sheet region. The inflows are soon followed by outflows appearing to originate from near the termination point of the inflowing motion-an observation in line with standard magnetic reconnection models. We measure average inflow plane-of-sky speeds to range from {approx}150 to 690 km s{sup -1} with the initial, high-temperature inflows being the fastest. Using the inflow speeds and a range of Alfven speeds, we estimate the Alfvenic Mach number which appears to decrease with time. We also provide inflow and outflow times with respect to RHESSI count rates and find that the fast, high-temperature inflows occur simultaneously with a peak in the RHESSI thermal light curve. Five candidate inflow-outflow pairs are identified with no more than a minute delay between detections. The inflow speeds of these pairs are measured to be {approx}10{sup 2} km s{sup -1} with outflow speeds ranging from {approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}-indicating acceleration during the reconnection process. The fastest of these outflows are in the form of apparently traveling density enhancements along the legs of the loops rather than the loop apexes themselves. These flows could possibly either be accelerated plasma, shocks, or waves prompted by reconnection. The measurements presented here show an order of magnitude difference between the retraction speeds of the loops and the speed of the density enhancements within the loops-presumably exiting the reconnection site.

  11. Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

  12. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal...

  13. Altered Tectonic and Hydrothermal Breccias in Corehole VC-1,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or stockworks created by hydraulic fracturing can provide significant secondary permeability, as demonstrated by their frequent occurrence as ore hosts (Sillitoe, 1985)....

  14. An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Hydrothermal Alteration In The Lake...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    near-vertical fractures intersect the megabreccia units. Authors Peter B. Larson and Hugh P. Taylor Jr Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal...

  15. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Hydrothermal Alteration Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This is a hydrothermal alteration map of the Tularosa Basin area, New Mexico and Texas that was created using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) multispectral data band ratios based upon diagnostic features of clay, calcite, silica, gypsum, ferric iron, and ferrous iron. Mesoproterozoic granite in the San Andreas Range often appeared altered, but this may be from clays produced by weathering or, locally, by hydrothermal alteration. However, no field checking was done. This work was done under U.S. D.O.E. Contract #DE-EE0006730

  16. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  17. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 | Department of Energy Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing highly stable, sulfur-tolerant oxidation catalysts that use less Pt via surface modification of silica supports

  18. Fracture permeability in the Matalibong-25 corehole, Tiwi geothermal field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Clemente, Wilson C.; Moore, Joseph N.; Powell, Thomas S.

    1996-01-24

    The Tiwi geothermal field is located in southern Luzon on the northeast flank of Mt. Malinao, an andesitic volcano that was active 0.5 to 0.06 Ma. Matalibong-25 (Mat-25) was drilled through the Tiwi reservoir to investigate lithologic and fracture controls on reservoir permeability and to monitor reservoir pressure. Continuous core was collected from 2586.5 to 8000 feet (789 to 2439 meters) with greater than 95% recovery. The reservoir rocks observed in Mat-25 consist mainly of andesitic and basaltic lavas and volcaniclastic rocks above 6600 feet depth (2012 meters) and andesitic sediments below, with a transition from subaerial to subaqueous (marine) deposition at 5250 feet (1601 meters). The rocks in the reservoir interval are strongly altered and veined. Common secondary minerals include chlorite, illite, quartz, calcite, pyrite, epidote, anhydrite, adularia and wairakite. An 39Ar/40Ar age obtained on adularia from a quartz-adularia-cemented breccia at a depth of 6066 feet (2012 meters) indicates that the hydrothermal system has been active for at least 320,000 years. Fractures observed in the core were classified as either veins (sealed) or open fractures, with the latter assumed to represent fluid entries in the geothermal system. Since the core was not oriented, only fracture frequency and dip angle with respect to the core axis could be determined. The veins and open fractures are predominantly steeply dipping and have a measured density of up to 0.79 per foot in the vertical well. Below 6500 feet (1982 meters) there is a decrease in fracture intensity and in fluid inclusion temperatures.

  19. Fracture permeability in the Matalibong-25 corehole, Tiwi geothermal field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, D.L.; Moore, J.N.; Clemente, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    The Tiwi geothermal field is located in southern Luzon on the northeast flank of Mt. Malinao, an andesitic volcano that was active 0.5 to 0.06 Ma. Matalibong-25 (Mat-25) was drilled through the Tiwi reservoir to investigate lithologic and fracture controls on reservoir permeability and to monitor reservoir pressure. Continuous core was collected from 2586.5 to 8000 feet (789 to 2439 meters) with greater than 95% recovery. The reservoir rocks observed in Mat-25 consist mainly of andesitic and basaltic lavas and volcaniclastic rocks above 6600 feet depth (2012 meters) and andesitic sediments below, with a transition from subaerial to subaqueous (marine) deposition at 5250 feet (1601 meters). The rocks in the reservoir interval are strongly altered and veined. Common secondary minerals include chlorite, illite, quartz, calcite rite, epidote, anhydrite, adularia and wairakite. An {sup 39}Ar/{sup 40}Ar age obtained on adularia from a quartz-adularia-cemented breccia at a depth of 6066 feet (2012 meters) indicates that the hydrothermal system has been active for at least 320,000 years. Fractures observed in the core were classified as either veins (sealed) or open fractures, with the latter assumed to represent fluid entries in the geothermal system. Since the core was not oriented, only fracture frequency and dip angle with respect to the core axis could be determined. The veins and open fractures are predominantly steeply dipping and have a measured density of up to 0.79 per foot in the vertical well. Below 6500 feet (1982 meters) there is a decrease in fracture intensity and in fluid inclusion temperatures.

  20. JETS AND WIDE-ANGLE OUTFLOWS IN CEPHEUS E: NEW EVIDENCE FROM SPITZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Grave, J. M. C. E-mail: William.D.Langer@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: jgrave@astro.up.pt

    2011-11-01

    Outflows and jets are believed to play a crucial role in determining the mass of the central protostar and its planet-forming disk by virtue of their ability to transport energy, mass, and momentum of the surrounding material, and thus terminate the infall stage in star and disk formation. In some protostellar objects both wide-angle outflows and collimated jets are seen, while in others only one is observed. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features. Here, we use HiRes deconvolution to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands) and removing the contaminating sidelobes from bright sources. We apply this approach to study the jet and outflow features in Cep E, a young, energetic Class 0 protostar. In the reprocessed images we detect (1) wide-angle outflow seen in scattered light, (2) morphological details on at least 29 jet-driven bow shocks and jet heads or knots, (3) three compact features in 24 {mu}m continuum image as atomic/ionic line emission coincident with the jet heads, and (4) a flattened {approx}35'' size protostellar envelope seen against the interstellar background polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission as an absorption band across the protostar at 8 {mu}m. By separating the protostellar photospheric scattered emission in the wide-angle cavity from the jet emission we show that we can study directly the scattered light spectrum. We present the H{sub 2} emission line spectra, as observed in all IRAC bands, for 29 knots in the jets and bow shocks and use them in the IRAC color-color space as a diagnostic of the thermal gas in the shocks driven by the jets. The data presented here will enable detailed modeling of the individual shocks retracing the history of the episodic jet activity and the associated accretion on to the protostar. The Spitzer data analysis presented here shows the richness of its

  1. Establishment of Stress-Permeabilty relationship of fractured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... hydraulic conductivity for intact and fractured ... D, Hayashi K, Effect of thermal deformation on fracture ... constant (K) Fracture density* (m -2 ) Mean trace ...

  2. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting Fractures ...

  3. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  4. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study ...

  5. A PROPER MOTION STUDY OF THE HARO 6-10 OUTFLOW: EVIDENCE FOR A SUBARCSECOND BINARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Gerling, Bradley M.; Gibb, Erika; Marvel, Kevin B.; Claussen, Mark J.; Wootten, Alwyn E-mail: bmg5333@truman.edu E-mail: marvel@aas.org E-mail: awootten@nrao.edu

    2012-07-10

    We present single-dish and very long baseline interferometry observations of an outburst of water maser emission from the young binary system Haro 6-10. Haro 6-10 lies in the Taurus molecular cloud and contains a visible T Tauri star with an infrared companion 1.''3 north. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we obtained five observations spanning three months and derived absolute positions for 20 distinct maser spots. Three of the masers can be traced over three or more epochs, enabling us to extract absolute proper motions and tangential velocities. We deduce that the masers represent one side of a bipolar outflow that lies nearly in the plane of the sky with an opening angle of {approx}45 Degree-Sign . They are located within 50 mas of the southern component of the binary, the visible T Tauri star Haro 6-10S. The mean position angle on the sky of the maser proper motions ({approx}220 Degree-Sign ) suggests they are related to the previously observed giant Herbig-Haro (HH) flow which includes HH 410, HH 411, HH 412, and HH 184A-E. A previously observed HH jet and extended radio continuum emission (mean position angle of {approx}190 Degree-Sign ) must also originate in the vicinity of Haro 6-10S and represent a second, distinct outflow in this region. We propose that a yet unobserved companion within 150 mas of Haro 6-10S is responsible for the giant HH/maser outflow while the visible star is associated with the HH jet. Despite the presence of H{sub 2} emission in the spectrum of the northern component of the binary, Haro 6-10N, none of outflows/jets can be tied directly to this young stellar object.

  6. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Valorso, R.

    2015-01-16

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for multiple days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (~50%) and of shorter duration (1–2 days). The multiday production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction productsmore » of both aromatics and alkanes, especially those with relatively low carbon numbers (C4–15). In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions and different vapor pressure schemes, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.« less

  7. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Valorso, R.

    2014-07-03

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for several days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (∼50%) and of shorter duration (1–2 days). The production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction products ofmore » both aromatics and alkanes. In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.« less

  8. OBSERVATIONS OF MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN CAR 291.6-01.9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saul, M.; Saul, L. E-mail: luke.saul@space.unibe.ch

    2012-01-20

    We report the first observations of a dense molecular gas nebula and bipolar outflow in Car 291.6-01.9, showing characteristics of an embedded young stellar object (YSO). Using the Mopra radio telescope near Coonabarabaran, Australia, we image the kinematic structure of several emission features to examine physical properties within a molecular clump of mass {approx}3.2 {+-} 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} in which a stellar cluster may be forming. Motivated by acquiring a more thorough understanding of star formation we ask what may have initiated collapse in the clump; observed outflow alignment is suggestive of {approx}1.0 pc distant massive star HD 308280 radiative-driven compression as a formation trigger for the dense core. An outflow derived age of <10{sup 6} years, together with significant C{sup 18}O and SO core depletion, support the case for the core as the host of an extremely YSO cluster.

  9. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE OUTFLOW FROM SOURCE I IN THE ORION-KL REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Menten, Karl M.; Curiel, Salvador

    2012-07-20

    In this Letter, we present sensitive millimeter SiO (J = 5-4; {nu} = 0) line observations of the outflow arising from the enigmatic object Orion Source I made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The observations reveal that at scales of a few thousand AU, the outflow has a marked 'butterfly' morphology along a northeast-southwest axis. However, contrary to what is found in the SiO and H{sub 2}O maser observations at scales of tens of AU, the blueshifted radial velocities of the moving gas are found to the northwest, while the redshifted velocities are in the southeast. The ALMA observations are complemented with SiO (J = 8-7; {nu} = 0) maps (with a similar spatial resolution) obtained with the Submillimeter Array. These observations also show a similar morphology and velocity structure in this outflow. We discuss some possibilities to explain these differences at small and large scales across the flow.

  10. Method for directional hydraulic fracturing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swanson, David E.; Daly, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

  11. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Michael J.

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  12. Hydraulic Fracturing | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydraulic Fracturing Home Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150) Contributor 30 June, 2015 - 03:49 Shale Gas Application in Hydraulic Fracturing Market is likely to grow...

  13. Hydraulic Fracturing Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydraulic Fracturing Market Home Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150) Contributor 30 June, 2015 - 03:49 Shale Gas Application in Hydraulic Fracturing Market is likely...

  14. OUTFLOWS AND YOUNG STARS IN ORION'S LARGE COMETARY CLOUDS L1622 AND L1634

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bally, John; Walawender, Josh; Reipurth, Bo; Megeath, S. Thomas E-mail: joshw@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: megeath@physics.utoledo.edu

    2009-04-15

    New observations of protostellar outflows associated with young stars in two of Orion's outlying cometary clouds, L1622 and L1634, are presented. The H{alpha} surface brightness of the bright rims are used to argue that both clouds are located at a distance of about 400 pc in the interior of the Orion superbubble where they are illuminated by Orion's massive stars. Spitzer IRAC and MIPS images reveal 28 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs). Combined with the 14 spectroscopically confirmed T Tauri stars, there are at least 34 YSOs in L1622. Narrow-band images have led to the identification of about a dozen shock complexes in L1622. At least six belong to a highly collimated externally irradiated, bipolar jet, HH 963, that is powered by a low-luminosity Class II YSO located outside the projected edge of the L1622 dark cloud. However, the sources of most shocks remain unclear. The Spitzer/IRAC images reveal a compact, highly obscured, S-symmetric outflow brightest in the 4.5 {mu}m images. A faint [S II] counter part, HH 962, is associated with the western end of this flow which appears to be powered by an obscured source in the L1622 cloud interior. The currently identified sample of YSOs implies a star formation efficiency of about 4% for L1622. The L1634 cloud contains nine YSOs and three outflows, including the well known HH 240/241 system. A new flow, HH 979, is powered by the embedded YSO IRS7 in L1634 and crosses the eastern lobe of the HH 240 outflow. Spitzer/IRAC images show 4.5 {mu}m emission indicating molecular shocks from the Herbig-Haro objects closest to IRS 7. A YSO embedded in a condensation located 5' north of HH 240/241 is identified in the Spitzer images. This source drives an irradiated outflow, HH 980, whose lobes emerge into the ionized environment of the Orion-Eridanus superbubble interior. The star formation efficiency of L1634 is estimated to be about 3%.

  15. SPITZER AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF A NEW BIPOLAR PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW IN THE ROSETTE MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ybarra, Jason E.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Fleming, Scott W.; Balog, Zoltan; Phelps, Randy L.

    2010-05-01

    We present and discuss Spitzer and near-infrared H{sub 2} observations of a new bipolar protostellar outflow in the Rosette Molecular Cloud. The outflow is seen in all four InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) bands and partially as diffuse emission in the MIPS 24 {mu}m band. An embedded MIPS 24 {mu}m source bisects the outflow and appears to be the driving source. This source is coincident with a dark patch seen in absorption in the 8 {mu}m IRAC image. Spitzer IRAC color analysis of the shocked emission was performed from which thermal and column density maps of the outflow were constructed. Narrowband near-infrared (NIR) images of the flow reveal H{sub 2} emission features coincident with the high temperature regions of the outflow. This outflow has now been given the designation MHO 1321 due to the detection of NIR H{sub 2} features. We use these data and maps to probe the physical conditions and structure of the flow.

  16. Fractured shale reservoirs: Towards a realistic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton-Smith, T.

    1996-09-01

    Fractured shale reservoirs are fundamentally unconventional, which is to say that their behavior is qualitatively different from reservoirs characterized by intergranular pore space. Attempts to analyze fractured shale reservoirs are essentially misleading. Reliance on such models can have only negative results for fractured shale oil and gas exploration and development. A realistic model of fractured shale reservoirs begins with the history of the shale as a hydrocarbon source rock. Minimum levels of both kerogen concentration and thermal maturity are required for effective hydrocarbon generation. Hydrocarbon generation results in overpressuring of the shale. At some critical level of repressuring, the shale fractures in the ambient stress field. This primary natural fracture system is fundamental to the future behavior of the fractured shale gas reservoir. The fractures facilitate primary migration of oil and gas out of the shale and into the basin. In this process, all connate water is expelled, leaving the fractured shale oil-wet and saturated with oil and gas. What fluids are eventually produced from the fractured shale depends on the consequent structural and geochemical history. As long as the shale remains hot, oil production may be obtained. (e.g. Bakken Shale, Green River Shale). If the shale is significantly cooled, mainly gas will be produced (e.g. Antrim Shale, Ohio Shale, New Albany Shale). Where secondary natural fracture systems are developed and connect the shale to aquifers or to surface recharge, the fractured shale will also produce water (e.g. Antrim Shale, Indiana New Albany Shale).

  17. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-18

    Wet macroalgal slurries can be converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable oil product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics. As a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  18. Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1995-01-26

    Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of zirconia based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caillot, T. Salama, Z.; Chanut, N.; Cadete Santos Aires, F.J.; Bennici, S.; Auroux, A.

    2013-07-15

    In this work, three equimolar mixed oxides ZrO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a reference ZrO{sub 2} have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. The structural and surface properties of these materials have been fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, surface area measurement, chemical analysis, XPS, infrared spectroscopy after adsorption of pyridine and adsorption microcalorimetry of NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} probe molecules. All investigated mixed oxides are amphoteric and possess redox centers on their surface. Moreover, hydrothermal synthesis leads to catalysts with higher surface area and with better acidbase properties than classical coprecipitation method. Both Lewis and Brnsted acid sites are present on the surface of the mixed oxides. Compared to the other samples, the ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} material appears to be the best candidate for further application in acidbase catalysis. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous amorphous phase with a high surface area of titania zirconia mixed oxide obtained by hydrothermal preparation. - Highlights: Three zirconia based catalysts and a reference were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. Mixed oxides present larger surface areas than the reference ZrO{sub 2}. ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents a mesoporous structure with high surface area. ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents simultaneously strong acidic and basic properties.

  20. Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhnenko, R.; Nikolskiy, D.; Mogilevskaya, S.; Labuz, J.

    2012-11-30

    The project supported graduate students working on experimental and numerical modeling of rock fracture, with the following objectives: (a) perform laboratory testing of fluid-saturated rock; (b) develop predictive models for simulation of fracture; and (c) establish educational frameworks for geologic sequestration issues related to rock fracture. These objectives were achieved through (i) using a novel apparatus to produce faulting in a fluid-saturated rock; (ii) modeling fracture with a boundary element method; and (iii) developing curricula for training geoengineers in experimental mechanics, numerical modeling of fracture, and poroelasticity.

  1. Petroleum generation and migration in submarine hydrothermal systems; An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. )

    1990-03-01

    The conversion of organic matter to petroleum by hydrothermal activity is an easy process,occurring in nature in many types of environments. Geologically immature organic matter of mariner sediments is being altered by this process in Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California), Escanaba Trough and Middle Valley (northeast Pacific), Bransfield Strait (Antarctica), and Atlantis II and Kebrit Deeps (Red Sea). Contemporary organic detritus and viable microorganisms are also converted in part to petroleum-like products by the same process when present to become entrained, as for example on the East Pacific Rise at 13{degrees}N and 21{degrees}N and on the mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26{degrees}N. The hydrocarbon products (methane to asphalt) generated in all these areas have been elucidated in terms of composition, organic matter sources, and analogy to reservoir petroleum. This petroleum represents a major input of carbon to the primary chemosynthetic productivity of hydrothermal vent systems and may be important to interactions with metals in hydrothermal ore formation.

  2. Method for enhancement of sequential hydraulic fracturing using control pulse fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Strubhar, M.K.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for creating multiple sequential hydraulic fractures via hydraulic fracturing combined with controlled pulse fracturing where two wells are utilized comprising: (a) drilling and completing a first and second well so that the wells will be in fluid communication with each other after subsequent fracturing in each well; (b) creating more than two simultaneous multiple vertical fractures via a controlled pulse fracturing method in the second well; (c) thereafter hydraulically fracturing the reservoir via the first well thereby creating fractures in the reservoir and afterwards shutting-in the first well without any induced pressure; (d) applying thereafter hydraulic pressure to the reservoir via the second well in an amount sufficient to fracture the reservoir thereby forming a first hydraulic fracture perpendicular to the least principal in-situ stress; (e) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the reservoir while pumping via the second well alternate slugs of a thin-fluid spacer and a temporary blocking agent having a proppant therein whereupon a second hydraulic fracture is initiated; (f) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the second well while pumping alternate slugs of spacer and blocking agent into the second hydraulic fracture thereby causing the second hydraulic fracture to propagate away from the first hydraulic fracture in step (e) in a curved trajectory which intersects a fracture created in the first well; (g) maintaining the hydraulic pressure while pumping as in step (f) whereupon another hydraulic fracture initiates causing another curved fracture trajectory to form and intersect the fracture created in the first well; and (h) repeated steps (f) and (g) until a desired number of hydraulic fractures are created which allows a substantial improvement in removing a natural resource from the reservoir.

  3. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  4. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition tomore » the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.« less

  5. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO? sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  6. RESEARCH PROGRAM ON FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2002-04-12

    Numerical simulation of water injection in discrete fractured media with capillary pressure is a challenge. Dual-porosity models in view of their strength and simplicity can be mainly used for sugar-cube representation of fractured media. In such a representation, the transfer function between the fracture and the matrix block can be readily calculated for water-wet media. For a mixed-wet system, the evaluation of the transfer function becomes complicated due to the effect of gravity. In this work, they use a discrete-fracture model in which the fractures are discretized as one dimensional entities to account for fracture thickness by an integral form of the flow equations. This simple step greatly improves the numerical solution. Then the discrete-fracture model is implemented using a Galerkin finite element method. The robustness and the accuracy of the approach are shown through several examples. First they consider a single fracture in a rock matrix and compare the results of the discrete-fracture model with a single-porosity model. Then, they use the discrete-fracture model in more complex configurations. Numerical simulations are carried out in water-wet media as well as in mixed-wet media to study the effect of matrix and fracture capillary pressures.

  7. AN OUTFLOW PERPENDICULAR TO THE RADIO JET IN THE SEYFERT NUCLEUS OF NGC5929

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riffel, Rogemar A.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogrio E-mail: thaisa@ufrgs.br

    2014-01-10

    We report the observation of an outflow perpendicular to the radio jet in near-infrared integral field spectra of the inner 250pc of the Seyfert2 galaxy NGC5929. The observations were obtained with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph at a spatial resolution of ?20pc and spectral resolution of R ? 5300 and reveal a region ?50pc wide crossing the nucleus and extending by ?300pc perpendicularly to the known radio jet in this galaxy. Along this structurewhich we call the south-east-north-west (SE-NW) stripthe emission line profiles show two velocity components, one blueshifted and the other redshifted by 150km s{sup 1} and 150km s{sup 1}, respectively, relative to the systemic velocity. We interpret these two components as being due to an outflow perpendicular to the radio jet, which is supported by low-frequency radio emission observed along the same region. We attribute this feature to the interaction of ambient gas with an ''equatorial outflow'' predicted in recent accretion disk and torus wind models. Perpendicularly to the SE-NW strip, thus approximately along the radio jet, single-component profiles show blueshifts of ? 150km s{sup 1} to the north-east and similar redshifts to the south-west, which can be attributed to gas counter-rotating relative to the stellar kinematics. More double-peaked profiles are observed in association with the two radio hot spots, attributed to interaction of the radio jet with the surrounding gas.

  8. A submillimeter galaxy illuminating its circumgalactic medium: Ly? scattering in a cold, clumpy outflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geach, J. E.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Smith, D. J. B.; Bower, R. G.; Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Blain, A. W.; Bremer, M. N.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Dunlop, J. S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Micha?owski, M. J.; Farrah, D.; Jenness, T.; Robson, E. I.; Scott, D.; Spaans, M.; Van der Werf, P.

    2014-09-20

    We report the detection at 850 ?m of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal 'Lyman-? Blob' (LAB), a 100 kpc scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z = 3.1. The flux density of the source, S {sub 850} = 4.6 1.1 mJy, implies the presence of a galaxy or group of galaxies with a total luminosity of L {sub IR} ? 10{sup 12} L {sub ?}. The position of an active source at the center of a ?50 kpc radius ring of linearly polarized Ly? emission detected by Hayes et al. suggests that the central source is leaking Ly? photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in H I clouds at a large galactocentric radius. The Ly? morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of a biconical outflow, and the average Ly? line profiles of the two 'lobes' are dominated by a red peak, which is expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Ly? emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Ly?: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?.

  9. Permeability Calculation in a Fracture Network - 12197

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Cheo Kyung; Kim, Hyo Won [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung Paal [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Laminar flow of a viscous fluid in the pore space of a saturated fractured rock medium is considered to calculate the effective permeability of the medium. The effective permeability is determined from the flow field which is calculated numerically by using the finite element method. The computation of permeability components is carried out with a few different discretizations for a number of fracture arrangements. Various features such as flow field in the fracture channels, the convergence of permeability, and the variation of permeability among different fracture networks are discussed. The longitudinal permeability in general appears greater than the transverse ones. The former shows minor variations with fracture arrangement whereas the latter appears to be more sensitive to the arrangement. From the calculations of the permeability in a rock medium with a fracture network (two parallel fractures aligned in the direction of 45-deg counterclockwise from the horizontal and two connecting fractures(narrowing, parallel and widening) the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium not only depends on the primary orientation of the main fractures but also is noticeably influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The transverse permeability (the permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the externally imposed macro-scale pressure gradient) is only a fraction of the longitudinal one, but is sensitive to the arrangement of the connecting fractures. 3. It is important to figure out the pattern of the fractures that connect (or cross) the main fractures for reliable calculation of the transverse permeability. (authors)

  10. Probabilistic oil outflow analysis of double hull with mid-deck tanker design. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-11-24

    The risk of environmental damage from tankers has been the subject of considerable research and debate. Quantitative methods are important because the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA `90) regulations mandate that a study be carried out to determine whether other structural or operational tank vessel requirements would provide protection to the environment equal to, or greater than, double hull tanker designs. To evaluate alternative designs a rationally developed methodology based on expected oil outflow should be used. Herbert Engineering Corp. (HEC) was tasked to use this methodology to study five design variations of three tanker sizes utilizing damage statistics for tankers. A total of fifteen design configurations were studied.

  11. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John P. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Sims, Kenneth W.W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). School of Energy Resources; Pluda, Allison R. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Wyoming High-Precision Isotope Lab.

    2014-03-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  12. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Sims, Kenneth W.W.; Pluda, Allison R.

    2014-06-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  13. Contact metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals in the SH2 deep well, Sabatini Volcanic District, Latium, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavarretta, G.; Tecce, F.

    1987-01-01

    Metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals were logged throughout the SH2 geothermal well, which reached a depth of 2498 m in the Sabatini volcanic district. Below 460 m of volcanics, where the newly formed minerals were mainly chlorite, calcite and zeolites (mostly phillipsite), drilling entered the Allochthonous Flysch Complex. Evidence of the ''Cicerchina facies'' was found down to 1600 m depth. Starting from 1070 m, down to hole bottom, a contact metasomatic complex was defined by the appearance of garnet. Garnet together with K-fledspar, vesuvianite, wilkeite, cuspidine, harkerite, wollastonite and apatite prevail in the top part of the contact metasomatic complex. Vesuvianite and phlogopite characterize the middle part. Phlogopite, pyroxene, spinel and cancrinite predominate in the bottom part. The 1500 m thick metasomatic complex indicates the presence at depth of the intrusion of a trachytic magma which released hot fluids involved in metasomatic mineral-forming reactions. Minerals such as harkerite, wilkeite, cuspidine, cancrinite, vesuvianite and phlogopite indicate the intrusive melt had a high volatile content which is in agreement with the very high explosivity index of this volcanic district. The system is at present sealed by abundant calcite and anhydrite. It is proposed that most, if not all, of the sulphates formed after reaction of SO/sub 2/ with aqueous calcium species rather than from sulphates being remobilized from evaporitic (Triassic) rocks as previously inferred. The hypothesis of a CO/sub 2/-rich deep-derived fluid ascending through major fracture systems and contrasting cooling in the hottest areas of Latium is presented.

  14. Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

  15. Hydrothermal energy extraction, Auburn, New York: Final report: Volume 2, Chapters 6-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castor, T.P.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses a hydrothermal energy extraction system in detail. General topics covered are: Reservoir circulation loop; HVAC buffer loop; and automatic temperature control system. (LSP)

  16. (Fracture mechanics of inhomogeneous materials)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, B.R.

    1990-10-01

    Discussions were held with Japanese researchers concerning (1) the Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics in Inhomogeneous Materials and Structures (EPI) Program, and (2) ongoing large-scale pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) experiments in Japan. In the EPI Program, major activities in the current fiscal year include round-robin analyses of measured data from inhomogeneous base metal/weld metal compact- tension (CT) specimens fabricated from welded plates of A533 grade B class 1 steel. The round-robin task involves participants from nine research organizations in Japan and is scheduled for completion by the end of 1990. Additional experiments will be performed on crack growth in inhomogeneous CT specimens and three-point bend (3PB) specimens 10 mm thick. The data will be compared with that generated previously from 19-mm-thick-specimens. A new type of inhomogeneous surface-cracked specimen will be tested this year, with ratio of crack depth to surface length (a/c) satisfying 0.2 {le} (a/c) {le} 0. 8 and using a 3PB type of applied load. Plans are under way to fabricate a new welded plate of A533 grade B class 1 steel (from a different heat than that currently being tested) in order to provide an expanded fracture-toughness data base. Other topics concerning fracture-prevention issues in reactor pressure vessels were discussed with each of the host organizations, including an overview of ongoing work in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program.

  17. Fluid Flow Within Fractured Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G.; Smith, D.H.; Bromhal, G.S.

    2006-10-01

    Fractures provide preferential flow paths to subterranean fluid flows. In reservoir scale modeling of geologic flows fractures must be approximated by fairly simple formulations. Often this is accomplished by assuming fractures are parallel plates subjected to an applied pressure gradient. This is known as the cubic law. An induced fracture in Berea sandstone has been digitized to perform numerical flow simulations. A commercially available computational fluid dynamics software package has been used to solve the flow through this model. Single phase flows have been compared to experimental works in the literature to evaluate the accuracy with which this model can be applied. Common methods of fracture geometry classification are also calculated and compared to experimentally obtained values. Flow through regions of the fracture where the upper and lower fracture walls meet (zero aperture) are shown to induce a strong channeling effect on the flow. This model is expanded to include a domain of surrounding porous media through which the flow can travel. The inclusion of a realistic permeability in this media shows that the regions of small and zero apertures contribute to the greatest pressure losses over the fracture length and flow through the porous media is most prevalent in these regions. The flow through the fracture is shown to be the largest contributor to the net flow through the media. From this work, a novel flow relationship is proposed for flow through fractured media.

  18. Natural fracture characterization using passive seismic illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihei, K.T.

    2003-01-08

    The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

  19. Outflow structure of the quiet sun corona probed by spacecraft radio scintillations in strong scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imamura, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Toda, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Masato; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Shiota, Daikou; Isobe, Hiroaki; Asai, Ayumi; Miyamoto, Mayu; Husler, Bernd; Ptzold, Martin; Nabatov, Alexander; Yaji, Kentaro; Yamada, Manabu

    2014-06-20

    Radio scintillation observations have been unable to probe flow speeds in the low corona where the scattering of radio waves is exceedingly strong. Here we estimate outflow speeds continuously from the vicinity of the Sun to the outer corona (heliocentric distances of 1.5-20.5 solar radii) by applying the strong scattering theory to radio scintillations for the first time, using the Akatsuki spacecraft as the radio source. Small, nonzero outflow speeds were observed over a wide latitudinal range in the quiet-Sun low corona, suggesting that the supply of plasma from closed loops to the solar wind occurs over an extended area. The existence of power-law density fluctuations down to the scale of 100 m was suggested, which is indicative of well-developed turbulence which can play a key role in heating the corona. At higher altitudes, a rapid acceleration typical of radial open fields is observed, and the temperatures derived from the speed profile show a distinct maximum in the outer corona. This study opened up a possibility of observing detailed flow structures near the Sun from a vast amount of existing interplanetary scintillation data.

  20. Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warpinski, Norman R.; Steinfort, Terry D.; Branagan, Paul T.; Wilmer, Roy H.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture.

  1. Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warpinski, N.R.; Steinfort, T.D.; Branagan, P.T.; Wilmer, R.H.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture. 13 figs.

  2. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Systems (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Executive Summary The overall objective of this work was the development of surface and borehole seismic methodologies using both compressional and shear waves for characterizing faults and fractures in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. We used both

  3. MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, W C; Levatin, J L

    2006-08-14

    Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.

  4. Hydraulic Fracturing Poster | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydraulic Fracturing Poster Hydraulic Fracturing Poster InDepth Shale Fracking Poster (2016).jpg Educational poster graphically displaying the key components of hydraulic fracturing. Teachers: If you would like hard copies of this poster sent to you, please contact the FE Office of Communications. InDepth Shale Fracking Poster (2016).pdf (651.91 KB) More Documents & Publications Carbon Capture and Storage Poster How is shale gas produced? 90-day Interim Report on Shale Gas Production -

  5. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrasonic Fracture Imager Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager Development of a downhole wireline tool to characterize fractures in EGS wells in temperatures up to 300°C and depths up to 10; 000 m. high_patterson_gufi.pdf (321.57 KB) More Documents & Publications Waveguide-based Ultrasonic and Far-field Electromagnetic Sensors for Downhole Reservoir Characterization Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring High Temperature ESP Monitoring

  6. Hydrothermal industrialization electric-power systems development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The nature of hydrothermal resources, their associated temperatures, geographic locations, and developable capacity are described. The parties involved in development, required activities and phases of development, regulatory and permitting requirements, environmental considerations, and time required to complete development activities ae examined in detail. These activities are put in proper perspective by detailing development costs. A profile of the geothermal industry is presented by detailing the participants and their operating characteristics. The current development status of geothermal energy in the US is detailed. The work on market penetration is summarized briefly. Detailed development information is presented for 56 high temperature sites. (MHR)

  7. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal

  8. Naked-eye optical flash from gamma-ray burst 080319B: Tracing the decaying neutrons in the outflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Yizhong; Zhang Bing; Wei Daming

    2009-01-15

    For an unsteady baryonic gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflow, the fast and slow proton shells collide with each other and produce energetic soft gamma-ray emission. If the outflow has a significant neutron component, the ultrarelativistic neutrons initially expand freely until decaying at a larger radius. The late-time proton shells ejected from the GRB central engine, after powering the regular internal shocks, will sweep these {beta}-decay products and give rise to very bright UV/optical emission. The naked-eye optical flash from GRB 080319B, an energetic explosion in the distant Universe, can be well explained in this way.

  9. NEW PERSPECTIVE ON GALAXY OUTFLOWS FROM THE FIRST DETECTION OF BOTH INTRINSIC AND TRAVERSE METAL-LINE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Cooke, Jeff; Martin, Crystal L.; Ho, Stephanie H.; Bouch, Nicolas; LeReun, Audrey; Schroetter, Ilane; Churchill, Christopher W.; Klimek, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    We present the first observation of a galaxy (z = 0.2) that exhibits metal-line absorption back-illuminated by the galaxy (down-the-barrel) and transversely by a background quasar at a projected distance of 58 kpc. Both absorption systems, traced by Mg II, are blueshifted relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The quasar sight line, which resides almost directly along the projected minor axis of the galaxy, probes Mg I and Mg II absorption obtained from the Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer as well as Ly?, Si II, and Si III absorption obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. For the first time, we combine two independent models used to quantify the outflow properties for down-the-barrel and transverse absorption. We find that the modeled down-the-barrel deprojected outflow velocities range between V {sub dtb} = 45-255 km s{sup 1}. The transverse bi-conical outflow model, assuming constant-velocity flows perpendicular to the disk, requires wind velocities V {sub outflow} = 40-80 km s{sup 1} to reproduce the transverse Mg II absorption kinematics, which is consistent with the range of V {sub dtb}. The galaxy has a metallicity, derived from H? and N II, of [O/H] = 0.21 0.08, whereas the transverse absorption has [X/H] = 1.12 0.02. The galaxy star formation rate is constrained between 4.6-15 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} while the estimated outflow rate ranges between 1.6-4.2 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} and yields a wind loading factor ranging between 0.1-0.9. The galaxy and gas metallicities, the galaxy-quasar sight-line geometry, and the down-the-barrel and transverse modeled outflow velocities collectively suggest that the transverse gas originates from ongoing outflowing material from the galaxy. The ?1 dex decrease in metallicity from the base of the outflow to the outer halo suggests metal dilution of the gas by the time it reached 58 kpc.

  10. A compendium of fracture flow models, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diodato, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    The report is designed to be used as a decision-making aid for individuals who need to simulate fluid flow in fractured porous media. Fracture flow codes of varying capability in the public and private domain were identified in a survey of government, academia, and industry. The selection and use of an appropriate code requires conceptualization of the geology, physics, and chemistry (for transport) of the fracture flow problem to be solved. Conceptual models that have been invoked to describe fluid flow in fractured porous media include explicit discrete fracture, dual continuum (porosity and/or permeability), discrete fracture network, multiple interacting continua, multipermeability/multiporosity, and single equivalent continuum. The explicit discrete-fracture model is a ``near-field`` representation, the single equivalent continuum model is a ``far-field`` representation, and the dual-continuum model is intermediate to those end members. Of these, the dual-continuum model is the most widely employed. The concept of multiple interacting continua has been applied in a limited number of examples. Multipermeability/multiporosity provides a unified conceptual model. The ability to accurately describe fracture flow phenomena will continue to improve as a result of advances in fracture flow research and computing technology. This improvement will result in enhanced capability to protect the public environment, safety, and health.

  11. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O.

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  12. Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large increase in the use of hydraulic fracture stimulation of these inherently low permeability reservoir rocks. Operators and service companies require data that can be used to...

  13. SWIFT J164449.3+573451: A PLUNGING EVENT WITH A POYNTING-FLUX-DOMINATED OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Weihong

    2012-12-20

    Swift J164449+573451 is a peculiar outburst which is most likely powered by the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole. Within the tidal disruption scenario, we show that the periastron distance is considerably smaller than the disruption radius and the outflow should be launched mainly via magnetic activities (e.g., the Blandford-Znajek process), otherwise the observed long-lasting X-ray afterglow emission satisfying the relation L{sub X}{proportional_to} M-dot cannot be reproduced, where L{sub X} is the X-ray luminosity and M-dot is the accretion rate. We also suggest that L{sub X}{proportional_to} M-dot may hold in the quick decline phase of gamma-ray bursts.

  14. SIMULATION OF DESCENDING MULTIPLE SUPRA-ARCADE RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecere, M.; Schneiter, M.; Costa, A.; Elaskar, S.; Maglione, S.

    2012-11-10

    After recent Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations by Savage, McKenzie, and Reeves, we revisit the scenario proposed by us in previous papers. We have shown that sunward, generally dark plasma features that originated above posteruption flare arcades are consistent with a scenario where plasma voids (which we identify as supra-arcade reconnection outflows, SAROs) generate the bouncing and interfering of shocks and expansion waves upstream of an initial localized deposition of energy that is collimated in the magnetic field direction. In this paper, we analyze the multiple production and interaction of SAROs and their individual structures that make them relatively stable features while moving. We compare our results with observations and with the scenarios proposed by other authors.

  15. INTERMEDIATE-MASS HOT CORES AT {approx}500 AU: DISKS OR OUTFLOWS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Fuente, Asuncion; Alonso-Albi, Tomas; Fontani, Francesco; Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Boissier, Jeremie; Pietu, Vincent; Neri, Roberto; Busquet, Gemma; Estalella, Robert; Zapata, Luis A.; Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P.; Audard, Marc

    2011-12-20

    Observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration toward two intermediate-mass star-forming regions, IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, reveal the presence of several complex organic molecules at {approx}500 AU scales, confirming the presence of hot cores in both regions. The hot cores are not rich in CN-bearing molecules, as often seen in massive hot cores, and are mainly traced by CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH, (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OH, with, additionally, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 3}OD, and HCOOD for IRAS 22198+6336, and C{sub 6}H and O{sup 13}CS for AFGL 5142. The emission of complex molecules is resolved down to sizes of {approx}300 and {approx}600 AU, for IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, respectively, and most likely is tracing protostellar disks rather than flattened envelopes or toroids as is usually found. This is especially clear for the case of IRAS 22198+6336, where we detect a velocity gradient for all the mapped molecules perpendicular to the most chemically rich outflow of the region, yielding a dynamic mass {approx}> 4 M{sub Sun }. As for AFGL 5142, the hot core emission is resolved into two elongated cores separated {approx}1800 AU. A detailed comparison of the complex molecule peaks to the new CO (2-1) data and H{sub 2}O maser data from the literature suggests also that for AFGL 5142 the complex molecules are mainly associated with disks, except for a faint and extended molecular emission found to the west, which is possibly produced in the interface between one of the outflows and the dense surrounding gas.

  16. Geothermal Well Stimulated Using High Energy Gas Fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.Y.; Jacobson, R.D.; Warpinski, N.; Mohaupt, Henry

    1987-01-20

    This paper reports the result of an experimental study of the High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF) technique for geothermal well stimulation. These experiments demonstrated that multiple fractures could be created to link a water-filled borehole with other fractures. The resulting fracture network and fracture interconnections were characterized by flow tests as well as mine back. Commercial oil field fracturing tools were used successfully in these experiments. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Use of Tracers to Characterize Fractures in Engineered Geothermal Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Use of Tracers to Characterize Fractures in Engineered Geothermal Systems Use of Tracers to Characterize Fractures in Engineered Geothermal Systems Project Objectives: Measure interwell fracture surface area and fracture spacing using sorbing tracers; measure fracture surface areas adjacent to a single geothermal well using tracers and injection/backflow techniques; design, fabricate and test a downhole instrument for measuring fracture flow following a hydraulic

  18. PROBING THE FERMI BUBBLES IN ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION: A SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURE OF THE MILKY WAY'S BICONICAL NUCLEAR OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Hernandez, Svea; Tumlinson, Jason; Savage, Blair D.; Wakker, Bart P.; Lockman, Felix J.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Kim, Tae-Sun; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2015-01-20

    Giant lobes of plasma extend ?55 above and below the Galactic center, glowing in emission from gamma rays (the Fermi Bubbles) to microwaves and polarized radio waves. We use ultraviolet absorption-line spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope to constrain the velocity of the outflowing gas within these regions, targeting the quasar PDS456 (?, b = 10.4, +11.2). This sightline passes through a clear biconical structure seen in hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission near the base of the northern Fermi Bubble. We report two high-velocity metal absorption components, at v {sub LSR} = 235 and +250kms{sup 1}, which cannot be explained by co-rotating gas in the Galactic disk or halo. Their velocities are suggestive of an origin on the front and back side of an expanding biconical outflow emanating from the Galactic center. We develop simple kinematic biconical outflow models that can explain the observed profiles with an outflow velocity of ?900kms{sup 1} and a full opening angle of ?110 (matching the X-ray bicone). This indicates Galactic center activity over the last ?2.5-4.0Myr, in line with age estimates of the Fermi Bubbles. The observations illustrate the use of UV spectroscopy to probe the properties of swept-up gas venting into the Fermi Bubbles.

  19. MOSFIRE and LDSS3 spectroscopy for an [O II] Blob at z = 1.18: gas outflow and energy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harikane, Yuichi; Ouchi, Masami; Yuma, Suraphong; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Nakajima, Kimihiko

    2014-10-20

    We report our Keck/MOSFIRE and Magellan/Low-Dispersion Survey Spectrograph spectroscopy for an [O II] Blob, O II B 10, that is a high-z galaxy with spatially extended [O II] λλ3726, 3729 emission over 30 kpc recently identified by a Subaru large-area narrowband survey. The systemic redshift of O II B 10 is z = 1.18 securely determined with [O III] λλ4959, 5007 and Hβ emission lines. We identify Fe II λ2587 and Mg II λλ2796, 2804 absorption lines blueshifted from the systemic redshift by 80 ± 50 and 260 ± 40 km s{sup –1}, respectively, which indicates gas outflow from O II B 10 with the velocity of ∼80-260 km s{sup –1}. This outflow velocity is comparable with the escape velocity, 250 ± 140 km s{sup –1}, estimated under the assumption of a singular isothermal halo potential profile. Some fraction of the outflowing gas could escape from the halo of O II B 10, suppressing O II B 10's star-formation (SF) activity. We estimate a mass loading factor, η, that is a ratio of mass outflow rate to SF rate, and obtain η > 0.8 ± 0.1, which is relatively high compared with low-z starbursts including U/LIRGs and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The major energy source of the outflow is unclear with the available data. Although no signature of AGNs is found in the X-ray data, O II B 10 falls in the AGN/star-forming composite region in the line diagnostic diagrams. It is possible that the outflow is powered by SF and a type-2 AGN with narrow FWHM emission line widths of 70-130 km s{sup –1}. This is the first detailed spectroscopic study of oxygen-line blobs that includes analyses of the escape velocity, the mass loading factor, and the presence of an AGN, and is a significant step to understanding the nature of oxygen-line blobs and the relation between gas outflow and SF quenching at high redshift.

  20. Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study We ...

  1. Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical-mechanical couplings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fractured...

  2. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic ... Title: Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic ...

  3. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoirs Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs ... More Documents & Publications Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in ...

  4. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs Three-dimensional Modeling of ...

  5. Images of Fracture Sustainability Test on Stripa Granite

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tim Kneafsey

    2014-05-11

    Images of the Stripa Granite core before and after the fracture sustainability test. Photos of fracture faces of Stripa Granite core.

  6. Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels You are accessing a ...

  7. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cations in an Unsaturated Fractured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractured Soil Under Transient Conditions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cations in an Unsaturated Fractured Soil Under Transient ...

  8. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon ...

  9. Images of Fracture Sustainability Test on Stripa Granite

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tim Kneafsey

    Images of the Stripa Granite core before and after the fracture sustainability test. Photos of fracture faces of Stripa Granite core.

  10. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and ...

  11. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda PDF icon BES Report Controlling ...

  12. Joint inversion of electrical and seismic data for Fracture char...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Joint inversion of electrical and seismic data for Fracture char. and Imaging of Fluid Flow in Geothermal Systems Joint inversion of electrical and seismic data for Fracture char. ...

  13. High energy gas fracture experiments in liquid-filled boreholes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High energy gas fracture experiments in liquid-filled boreholes: potential geothermal application Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High energy gas fracture experiments in ...

  14. Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon mesoscale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon mesoscale pillars: roles of ultrathin ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of ...

  15. Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Abstract not provided. Authors: Somerday,...

  16. Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels You are accessing a document from the...

  17. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Stimulation in Engineered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sorbing tracers to determine the fracture-matrix interface area available for heat transfer; and; explore the feasibility of obtaining fracture-matrix interface area from ...

  18. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic...

  19. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic ...

  20. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong ...

  1. Fracture of solid state laser slabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    Fracture due to thermal stress limits the power output potential of modern, high average power slab lasers. Here the criteria for slab fracture and the nature of the surface flaws which constitute the strength-controlling defects are reviewed. Specific fracture data for gadolinium scandium gallium garnet and LHG-5 phosphate glass with different surface finishes are evaluated in the context of assigning appropriate slab operating parameters using Wiebull statistics. These examples illustrate both the danger of design using brittle components without adequate fracture testing, and the inadequacy of design methods which use a fixed safety factor, for this class of materials. Further consideration reveals that operation of slab lasers in contact with an aqueous coolant may lead to strength degradation with time. Finally, the evolution of the failure process in which a characteristic midplane crack forms is outlined, and the pertinent parameters for avoiding slab fracture are identified.

  2. New proppant for deep hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, K.; Underdown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Much work has focused on developing and evaluating various materials for use as proppants for hydraulic fracturing. Sand is used most often as a fracturing proppant in shallow wells. Deep wells with high closure stresses require a proppant, such as sintered bauxite, that will not crush under adverse conditions. Ceramic and zirconium oxide beads and resin-coated sand proppants also have been developed for deep hydraulic fracturing. A new fracturing proppant has been developed that exhibits the properties necessary for use in deep hydraulic fracturing. This proppant is produced by precuring a specially modified phenolformaldehyde resin onto sand. The new proppant maintains conductivity and resists crushing much better than does sand. The new proppant was compared to intermediate-density sintered bauxitic proppants and cured-in-place proppants and the tests were confirmed by an independent laboratory.

  3. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  4. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Demonstrated that active shallow hydrothermal systems with massive subsurface silica deposition are not in isostatic equilibrium. - Slimhole production well drilling proved the ...

  5. Fracture-resistant lanthanide scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2011-01-04

    Lanthanide halide alloys have recently enabled scintillating gamma ray spectrometers comparable to room temperature semiconductors (<3% FWHM energy resolutions at 662 keV). However brittle fracture of these materials upon cooling hinders the growth of large volume crystals. Efforts to improve the strength through non-lanthanide alloy substitution, while preserving scintillation, have been demonstrated. Isovalent alloys having nominal compositions of comprising Al, Ga, Sc, Y, and In dopants as well as aliovalent alloys comprising Ca, Sr, Zr, Hf, Zn, and Pb dopants were prepared. All of these alloys exhibit bright fluorescence under UV excitation, with varying shifts in the spectral peaks and intensities relative to pure CeBr.sub.3. Further, these alloys scintillate when coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and exposed to .sup.137Cs gamma rays.

  6. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  7. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  8. Vanadium oxides nanostructures: Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mjejri, I.; Etteyeb, N.; Sediri, F.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Vanadium oxides nanostructures were synthesized hydrothermally. • Reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process. • Doping/dedoping is easier for Li{sup +} to Na{sup +}. • Energy-related applications such as cathodes in lithium batteries. - Abstract: A facile and template-free one-pot strategy is applied to synthesize nanostructured vanadium oxide particles via a hydrothermal methodology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the structure and morphology of the samples. The products are gradually changed from sheet-shaped VO{sub 2}(B) to rod-like V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O with decreasing cyclohexanediol as both protective and reducing agent. The specific surface area of the VO{sub 2}(B) nanosheets and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O nanorods was found to be 22 and 16 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, respectively. Thin films of VO{sub 2}(B) and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O deposited on ITO substrates were electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The voltammograms show reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process corresponding to reversible cation intercalation/de-intercalation into the crystal lattice of the nanorods/nanosheets. This process is easier for the small Li{sup +} cation than larger ones Na{sup +}.

  9. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Wednesday, 29 April 2009 00:00 Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in

  10. Hydraulic-fracture propagation in layered rock: experimental studies of fracture containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teufel, L. W.; Clark, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Fracture geometry is an important concern in the design of a massive hydraulic fracture treatment for improved natural gas recovery from tight gas sands. Possible prediction of vertical fracture growth and containment in layered rock requires an improved understanding of the parameters which may control fracture growth across layer interfaces. We have conducted laboratory hydraulic fracture experiments and elastic finite element studies which show that at least two distinct geologic conditions may inhibit or contain the vertical growth of hydraulic fractures in layered rock; (1) a weak interfacial shear strength of the layers and (2) a compressional increase in the minimum horizontal stress in the bounding layer. The second condition is more important and more likely to occur at depth. Variations in the horizontal stress can result from differences in elastic properties of individual layers in a layered rock sequence. A compressional increase in the minimum horizontal stress can occur in going from high shear modulus into low shear modulus layers.

  11. Fracture porosimeter: a new tool for determining fracture conductivity under downhole stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendorff, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    This work describes a procedure for determining fracture conductivity at down-hole stresses. The embedment and crushing of proppant between rock samples from a specific formation are measured at closure stresses. The conductivities of fractures propped with various proppants can be determined rather quickly. As a result, the procedure can supply information useful in determining optimum fracture treatment for a specific well. In the procedure, samples of formation and proppants are placed in an appropriate confinement chamber. Closure stresses are applied and fracture conductivity can be calculated. The study includes examples of permeability and surface areas of conventional proppants. Fracture conductivity determinations, made with a variety of formations and proppants, indicate how this procedure can be useful when making decisions concerning fracture treatment design. An improvement in equipment design also is presented. 11 references.

  12. Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator for soft x-ray free-electron laser timing-observation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response-time...

  13. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Whole algae hydrothermal liquefaction is one of eight priority pathways chosen to convert biomass into hydrocarbon fuels by the Bioenergy Technologies Office. These pathways were down-selected from an initial list of 18.

  14. 3-D description of fracture surfaces and stress-sensitivity analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, S.Q.; Jioa, D.; Meng, Y.F.; Fan, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Three kinds of reservoir cores (limestone, sandstone, and shale with natural fractures) were used to study the effect of morphology of fracture surfaces on stress sensitivity. The cores, obtained from the reservoirs with depths of 2170 to 2300 m, have fractures which are mated on a large scale, but unmated on a fine scale. A specially designed photoelectric scanner with a computer was used to describe the topography of the fracture surfaces. Then, theoretical analysis of the fracture closure was carried out based on the fracture topography generated. The scanning results show that the asperity has almost normal distributions for all three types of samples. For the tested samples, the fracture closure predicted by the elastic-contact theory is different from the laboratory measurements because plastic deformation of the aspirates plays an important role under the testing range of normal stresses. In this work, the traditionally used elastic-contact theory has been modified to better predict the stress sensitivity of reservoir fractures. Analysis shows that the standard deviation of the probability density function of asperity distribution has a great effect on the fracture closure rate.

  15. Infiltration and Seepage Through Fractured Welded Tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.A. Ghezzehei; P.F. Dobson; J.A. Rodriguez; P.J. Cook

    2006-06-20

    The Nopal I mine in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico, contains a uranium ore deposit within fractured tuff. Previous mining activities exposed a level ground surface 8 m above an excavated mining adit. In this paper, we report results of ongoing research to understand and model percolation through the fractured tuff and seepage into a mined adit both of which are important processes for the performance of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Travel of water plumes was modeled using one-dimensional numerical and analytical approaches. Most of the hydrologic properly estimates were calculated from mean fracture apertures and fracture density. Based on the modeling results, we presented constraints for the arrival time and temporal pattern of seepage at the adit.

  16. Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    become an important source of basic data that can be used to help characterize the nature and extent of hydraulic conductivity in fractured rocks. We plan to continue to...

  17. Fracture of surface cracks loaded in bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Y.J.; Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical background of the constraint effect in brittle fracture of solids is reviewed. Fracture test data from D6-aC, a high strength steel, using three-point-bend (SE(B)) specimens and surface cracked plate (SC(B)) specimens under bending are presented. It is shown that the SE(B) data has an elevated fracture toughness for increasing a/W, i.e., a crack geometry with a larger T/K corresponds to a higher K{sub c} which is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The fundamental fracture properties, i.e., the critical strain and the critical distance, determined from the SE(B) test data are then applied to the interpretation and prediction of the SC(B) test data. Reasonable agreement is achieved for the crack growth initiation site and the load.

  18. Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization; 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review seismic_021_foulger.pdf (194.38 KB) More Documents & Publications Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing Enhanced

  19. Poroelastic response of orthotropic fractured porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-12-01

    An algorithm is presented for inverting either laboratory or field poroelastic data for all the drained constants of an anisotropic (specifically orthotropic) fractured poroelastic system. While fractures normally weaken the system by increasing the mechanical compliance, any liquids present in these fractures are expected to increase the stiffness somewhat, thus negating to some extent the mechanical weakening influence of the fractures themselves. The analysis presented quantifies these effects and shows that the key physical variable needed to account for the pore-fluid effects is a factor of (1 - B), where B is Skempton's second coe#14;fficient and satisfies 0 {<=} #20; B < 1. This scalar factor uniformly reduces the increase in compliance due to the presence of communicating fractures, thereby stiffening the fractured composite medium by a predictable amount. One further goal of the discussion is to determine how many of the poroelastic constants need to be known by other means in order to determine the rest from remote measurements, such as seismic wave propagation data in the field. Quantitative examples arising in the analysis show that, if the fracture aspect ratio a{sub f} ~ 0.1 and the pore fluid is liquid water, then for several cases considered Skempton's B ~ 0:9, so the stiffening effect of the pore-liquid reduces the change in compliance due to the fractures by a factor 1-B ~ 0.1, in these examples. The results do however depend on the actual moduli of the unfractured elastic material, as well as on the pore-liquid bulk modulus, so these quantitative predictions are just examples, and should not be treated as universal results. Attention is also given to two previously unremarked poroelastic identities, both being useful variants of Gassmann's equations for homogeneous -- but anisotropic -- poroelasticity. Relationships to Skempton's analysis of saturated soils are also noted. The paper concludes with a discussion of alternative methods of analyzing

  20. TRITIUM EFFECTS ON WELDMENT FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, M; Michael Tosten, M; Scott West, S

    2006-07-17

    The effects of tritium on the fracture toughness properties of Type 304L stainless steel and its weldments were measured. Fracture toughness data are needed for assessing tritium reservoir structural integrity. This report provides data from J-Integral fracture toughness tests on unexposed and tritium-exposed weldments. The effect of tritium on weldment toughness has not been measured until now. The data include tests on tritium-exposed weldments after aging for up to three years to measure the effect of increasing decay helium concentration on toughness. The results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel weldments have high fracture toughness and are resistant to tritium aging effects on toughness. For unexposed alloys, weldment fracture toughness was higher than base metal toughness. Tritium-exposed-and-aged base metals and weldments had lower toughness values than unexposed ones but still retained good toughness properties. In both base metals and weldments there was an initial reduction in fracture toughness after tritium exposure but little change in fracture toughness values with increasing helium content in the range tested. Fracture modes occurred by the dimpled rupture process in unexposed and tritium-exposed steels and welds. This corroborates further the resistance of Type 304L steel to tritium embrittlement. This report fulfills the requirements for the FY06 Level 3 milestone, TSR15.3 ''Issue summary report for tritium reservoir material aging studies'' for the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign (ESC). The milestone was in support of ESC L2-1866 Milestone-''Complete an annual Enhanced Surveillance stockpile aging assessment report to support the annual assessment process''.

  1. UNLEASHING POSITIVE FEEDBACK: LINKING THE RATES OF STAR FORMATION, SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION, AND OUTFLOWS IN DISTANT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silk, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Pressure-regulated star formation is a simple variant on the usual supernova-regulated star formation efficiency that controls the global star formation rate as a function of cold gas content in star-forming galaxies, and accounts for the Schmidt-Kennicutt law in both nearby and distant galaxies. Inclusion of active galactic nucleus (AGN) induced pressure, by jets and/or winds that flow back onto a gas-rich disk, can lead, under some circumstances, to significantly enhanced star formation rates, especially at high redshift and most likely followed by the more widely accepted phase of star formation quenching. Simple expressions are derived that relate supermassive black hole growth, star formation, and outflow rates. The ratios of black hole to spheroid mass and of both black hole accretion and outflow rates to star formation rate are predicted as a function of time. I suggest various tests of the AGN-triggered star formation hypothesis.

  2. Google Earth locations of USA and seafloor hydrothermal vents with associated rare earth element data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2016-02-10

    Google Earth .kmz files that contain the locations of geothermal wells and thermal springs in the USA, and seafloor hydrothermal vents that have associated rare earth element data. The file does not contain the actual data, the actual data is available through the GDR website in two tier 3 data sets entitled "Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR) Hydrothermal Vents" and "Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California"

  3. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2003-12-23

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  4. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  5. SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials with enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yingyong; Jin, Guoqiang; Tong, Xili; Guo, Xiangyun

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Novel SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials were synthesized by adding silicon carbide suspension in the molecular sieve precursor solvent followed by in situ hydrothermal synthesis. The dopped materials have a wormhole-like mesoporous structure and exhibit enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities. Highlights: {yields} SiC-dopped MCM-41 was synthesized by in situ hydrothermal synthesis of molecular sieve precursor combined with SiC. {yields} The dopped MCM-41 materials show a wormhole-like mesoporous structure. {yields} The thermal stability of the dopped materials have an increment of almost 100 {sup o}C compared with the pure MCM-41. {yields} The hydrothermal stability of the dopped materials is also better than that of the pure MCM-41. -- Abstract: SiC-dopped MCM-41 mesoporous materials were synthesized by the in situ hydrothermal synthesis, in which a small amount of SiC was added in the precursor solvent of molecular sieve before the hydrothermal treatment. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N{sub 2} physical adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the thermal and hydrothermal stabilities of MCM-41 materials can be improved obviously by incorporating a small amount of SiC. The structure collapse temperature of SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials is 100 {sup o}C higher than that of pure MCM-41 according to the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Hydrothermal treatment experiments also show that the pure MCM-41 will losses it's ordered mesoporous structure in boiling water for 24 h while the SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials still keep partial porous structure.

  6. Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fracture | Department of Energy Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture SNL has 40+ years experience with effects of high-pressure hydrogen gas on materials hpwgw_matresearch_somerday.pdf (1.16 MB) More Documents & Publications Mechanical Properties of Structural Steels in Hydrogen Materials Compatibility Properties, Behavior and Material Compatibility of Hydrogen,

  7. NFFLOW: A reservoir simulator incorporating explicit fractures (SPE 153890)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, E.J.; Sams, W.N.

    2012-01-01

    NFFLOW is a research code that quickly and inexpensively simulates flow in moderately fractured reservoirs. It explicitly recognizes fractures separately from rock matrix. In NFFLOW fracture flow is proportional to the pressure gradient along the fracture, and flow in the rock matrix is determined by Darcys Law. The two flow mechanisms are coupled through the pressure gradient between a fracture and its adjacent rock matrix. Presented is a promising change to NFFLOW that allows for flow across a rock matrix block.

  8. DISCOVERY OF ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN A SAMPLE OF BROAD-LINE RADIO GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Braito, V.; Ballo, L.; Cappi, M.

    2010-08-10

    We present the results of a uniform and systematic search for blueshifted Fe K absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of five bright broad-line radio galaxies observed with Suzaku. We detect, for the first time in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at X-rays, several absorption lines at energies greater than 7 keV in three out of five sources, namely, 3C 111, 3C 120, and 3C 390.3. The lines are detected with high significance according to both the F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Their likely interpretation as blueshifted Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonance lines implies an origin from highly ionized gas outflowing with mildly relativistic velocities, in the range v {approx_equal} 0.04-0.15c. A fit with specific photoionization models gives ionization parameters in the range log {xi} {approx_equal} 4-5.6 erg s{sup -1} cm and column densities of N {sub H} {approx_equal} 10{sup 22}-10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. These characteristics are very similar to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) previously observed in radio-quiet AGNs. Their estimated location within {approx}0.01-0.3 pc of the central super-massive black hole suggests a likely origin related with accretion disk winds/outflows. Depending on the absorber covering fraction, the mass outflow rate of these UFOs can be comparable to the accretion rate and their kinetic power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, these UFOs can play a significant role in the expected feedback from the AGN to the surrounding environment and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets in both radio-quiet and radio-loud AGNs.

  9. AN ENVELOPE DISRUPTED BY A QUADRUPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 19475+3119

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Ming-Chien; Lee, Chin-Fei E-mail: cflee@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2011-07-20

    IRAS 19475+3119 is a quadrupolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN), with two bipolar lobes, one in the east-west (E-W) direction and one in the southeast-northwest (SE-NW) direction. We have observed it in CO J = 2-1 with the Submillimeter Array at {approx}1'' resolution. The E-W bipolar lobe is known to trace a bipolar outflow and it is detected at high velocity. The SE-NW bipolar lobe appears at low velocity, and could trace a bipolar outflow moving in the plane of the sky. Two compact clumps are seen at low velocity around the common waist of the two bipolar lobes, spatially coincident with the two emission peaks in the NIR, tracing dense envelope material. They are found to trace the two limb-brightened edges of a slowly expanding torus-like circumstellar envelope produced in the late asymptotic giant branch phase. This torus-like envelope originally could be either a torus or a spherical shell, and it appears as it is now because of the two pairs of cavities along the two bipolar lobes. Thus, the envelope appears to be disrupted by the two bipolar outflows in the PPN phase.

  10. Relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation in Poynting-flux-dominated jets/outflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Wei

    2015-07-21

    The question of the energy composition of the jets/outflows in high-energy astrophysical systems, e.g. GRBs, AGNs, is taken up first: Matter-flux-dominated (MFD), σ < 1, and/or Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD), σ >1? The standard fireball IS model and dissipative photosphere model are MFD, while the ICMART (Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence) model is PFD. Motivated by ICMART model and other relevant problems, such as “jets in a jet” model of AGNs, the author investigates the models from the EMF energy dissipation efficiency, relativistic outflow generation, and σ evolution points of view, and simulates collisions between high-σ blobs to mimic the situation of the interactions inside the PFD jets/outflows by using a 3D SRMHD code which solves the conservative form of the ideal MHD equations. σb,f is calculated from the simulation results (threshold = 1). The efficiency obtained from this hybrid method is similar to the efficiency got from the energy evolution of the simulations (35.2%). Efficiency is nearly σ independent, which is also confirmed by the hybrid method. σb,i - σb,f provides an interesting linear relationship. Results of several parameter studies of EMF energy dissipation efficiency are shown.

  11. A 10 kpc SCALE SEYFERT GALAXY OUTFLOW: HST/COS OBSERVATIONS OF IRAS F22456-5125

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borguet, Benoit C. J.; Edmonds, Doug; Arav, Nahum [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Dunn, Jay [Augusta Perimeter College, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kriss, Gerard A., E-mail: benbo@vt.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    We present analysis of the UV spectrum of the low-z AGN IRAS F22456-5125 obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The spectrum reveals six main kinematic components, spanning a range of velocities of up to 800 km s{sup -1}, which for the first time are observed in troughs associated with C II, C IV, N V, Si II, Si III, Si IV, and S IV. We also obtain data on the O VI troughs, which we compare to those available from an earlier Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer epoch. Column densities measured from these ions allow us to derive a well-constrained photoionization solution for each outflow component. Two of these kinematic components show troughs associated with transitions from excited states of Si II and C II. The number density inferred from these troughs, in combination with the deduced ionization parameter, allows us to determine the distance to these outflow components from the central source. We find these components to be at a distance of {approx}10 kpc. The distances and the number densities derived are consistent with the outflow being part of a galactic wind.

  12. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  13. Estimation of Fracture Porosity in an Unsaturated Fractured Welded Tuff Using Gas Tracer Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.M. Freifeild

    2001-10-18

    Kinematic fracture porosity is an important hydrologic transport parameter for predicting the potential of rapid contaminant migration through fractured rock. The transport velocity of a solute moving within a fracture network is inversely related to the fracture porosity. Since fracture porosity is often one or two orders of magnitude smaller than matrix porosity, and fracture permeability is often orders of magnitude greater than matrix permeability, solutes may travel significantly faster in the fracture network than in the surrounding matrix. This dissertation introduces a new methodology for conducting gas tracer tests using a field portable mass spectrometer along with analytical tools for estimating fracture porosity using the measured tracer concentration breakthrough curves. Field experiments were conducted at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, consisting of air-permeability transient testing and gas-tracer-transport tests. The experiments were conducted from boreholes drilled within an underground tunnel as part of an investigation of rock mass hydrological behavior. Air-permeability pressure transients, recorded during constant mass flux injections, have been analyzed using a numerical inversion procedure to identify fracture permeability and porosity. Dipole gas tracer tests have also been conducted from the same boreholes used for air-permeability testing. Mass breakthrough data has been analyzed using a random walk particle-tracking model, with a dispersivity that is a function of the advective velocity. The estimated fracture porosity using the tracer test and air-injection test data ranges from .001 to .015. These values are an order of magnitude greater than the values estimated by others using hydraulically estimated fracture apertures. The estimates of porosity made using air-permeability test data are shown to be highly sensitive to formation heterogeneity. Uncertainty analyses performed on the gas tracer test results show high confidence in the parameter

  14. Fracture porosimeter--a new tool for determining fracture conductivity under downhole stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wedorff, C.L.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes a new, fast, simplified procedure for determining fracture conductivity at downhole stresses. The embedment and crushing of proppant between rock samples from a specific formation are measured at closure stresses. The conductivities of fractures propped with various proppants can be determined rather quickly. As a result, the procedure can supply information useful in determining optimum fracture treatment for a specific well. In the new procedure, samples of formation and proppants are placed in an appropriate confinement chamber. Closure stresses are applied and fracture conductivity can be calculated. A proppant data base obtained using a modified Cooke conductivity test unit includes permeabilities, porosities and fracture widths measured over a range of closure stresses. These properties are dependent upon the type and amount of proppant tested and the stress applied. The paper includes examples of permeability and surface areas of conventional proppants. Fracture conductivity determinations, made with a variety of formations and proppants, indicate how this procedure can be useful when making decisions concerning fracture treatment design. An improvement in equipment design is also presented. The use of a Hoek triaxial cell as a fracture porosimeter allows the application of both closure and confining stresses, thus more closely simulating downhole conditions.

  15. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M.; Ljubicic, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  16. Hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology of the Canino Hydrothermal System (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiodini, G.; Giaquinto, S.; Frondini, F.; Santucci, A. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the Canino area, central Italy, is characterized by the discharge of a large quantity of Ca-SO{sub 4} thermal waters, the total flow rate of which is estimated to be 200 l/s. Ten to twenty l/s of the thermal flow are of an Na-Cl component from a deep source, which was identified by means of the B, Cl, Cs, Na, and Li contents of the waters. The Canino Na-Cl fluids have ratios among these species close to those of the geothermal fluids of Latera. The Canino hydrothermal system, which is located within buried carbonate structures, is therefore made up of a shallower zone, where the Ca-SO{sub 4} hydrotype is prevalent, and another deeper zone where an Na-Cl brine is present. For the sulphate fluids circulating in the upper levels of the system, a temperature of 70-100{degrees} C has been estimated, while a possible higher enthalpy resource may be represented by the chloride aqueous solutions circulating at deeper levels.

  17. APEX CO (9-8) MAPPING OF AN EXTREMELY HIGH VELOCITY AND JET-LIKE OUTFLOW IN A HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu Keping; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Menten, Karl M.; Guesten, Rolf; Leurini, Silvia; Leinz, Christian

    2011-12-10

    Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) mapping observations in CO (9-8) and (4-3) toward a high-mass star-forming region, NGC 6334 I, are presented. The CO (9-8) map has a 6.''4 resolution, revealing a {approx}0.5 pc, jet-like, and bipolar outflow. This is the first map of a molecular outflow in a THz line. The CO (9-8) and (4-3) lines arising from the outflow lobes both show extremely high velocity line wings, and their ratios indicate a gas temperature greater than 100 K and a density higher than 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. The spatial-velocity structure of the CO (9-8) data is typical of a bow-shock-driven flow, which is consistent with the association between the bipolar outflow and the infrared bow-shaped tips. In short, the observations unveil a highly excited and collimated component in a bipolar outflow that is powered by a high-mass protostar, and provide insights into the driving mechanism of the outflow. Meanwhile, the observations demonstrate that high-quality mapping observations can be performed with the new THz receiver on APEX.

  18. PROBING THE STRUCTURE OF THE OUTFLOW IN THE TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARE Sw J1644+57 WITH LONG-TERM RADIO EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Di; Wang Xiangyu

    2012-12-20

    The recently discovered high-energy transient Sw J1644+57 is thought to arise from the tidal disruption of a passing star by a dormant massive black hole. The long-term, bright radio emission of Sw J1644+57 is believed to result from the synchrotron emission of the blast wave produced by an outflow expanding into the surrounding medium. Using the detailed multi-epoch radio spectral data, we are able to determine the total number of radiating electrons in the outflow at different times, and further the evolution of the cross section of the outflow with time. We find that the outflow gradually transits from a conical jet to a cylindrical one at later times. The transition may be due to collimation of the outflow by the pressure of the shocked jet cocoon that forms while the outflow is propagating in the ambient medium. Since cylindrical jets usually exist in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and extragalactic jets, this may provide independent evidence that Sw J1644+57 signals the onset of an AGN.

  19. CANDIDATES FOR THE YOUNG STELLAR OUTFLOWS: WATER AND METHANOL MASERS FROM YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Wanggi; Lyo, A-Ran; Kim, Kee-Tae; Byun, Do-Young

    2012-11-01

    We conducted simultaneous 22 GHz water maser and 44 GHz class I methanol maser surveys of newly identified 282 H{sub 2} emission features from the 2.122 {mu}m H{sub 2} narrowband image survey in the Galactic plane (UWISH2 project) using Korean VLBI Network 21 m radio telescopes. We detected 16 and 13 new water and methanol maser sources, respectively. This result indicates that at least {approx}5% of the H{sub 2} emission features originate from young stellar objects (YSOs) that are in the right physical condition to produce the water and methanol masers. The masers are closely related to the current outflow activities in the Galactic plane. The power sources of these 23 diffused/collimated H{sub 2} emission features (six sources are detected for both masers) are likely to be intermediate- to high-mass YSOs, based on a comparison with the maser luminosities of other well-studied YSOs. Both maser velocities are mostly close to their own systemic velocities within {approx}<5 km s{sup -1}, even though water masers generally show larger variabilities in the intensity, velocity, and shape than methanol masers. We also discovered three new water maser sources with high-velocity components: {approx}25 km s{sup -1} redshifted CMHO 019, {approx}50 km s{sup -1} blueshifted CMHO 132, and {approx}120 km s{sup -1} blueshifted CMHO 182. In particular, we propose that the dominant blueshifted water maser of CHMO 182 can be a unique laboratory for the study of the high-mass young stellar jet and its acceleration.

  20. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  1. Effects of differential compaction fracturing shown in four reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, G.E. )

    1992-02-03

    With the advent of horizontal drilling in the U.S., fractured reservoirs have become a major target in the ongoing search for hydrocarbons. This paper will examine four fractured-reservoir fields in the U.S.: Silo (Niobrara), Wyoming; Elkhorn Ranch (Bakken), North Dakota; Pearsal (Austin chalk), Texas; and the Syndicated Options Ltd. 9372 Ferguson Brothers well (Ordovician carbonates), Kentucky. The paper will show that differential compaction fracturing is more of a major factor in long-term, sustainable production in a fractured reservoir than is tectonic fracturing. In this paper, a general discussion of the two types of fracturing and how they affect reservoir production is provided.

  2. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  3. New proppant for deep hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underdown, D.R.; Das, K.

    1982-01-01

    Much work has been done in the development and evaluation of various materials for use as proppants for hydraulic fracturing. Sand is most often used as a frac proppant in shallow wells. Deep wells having high closure stresses require a proppant such as sintered bauxite which will not crush under such adverse conditions. Proppants such as ceramic and zirconium oxide beads and resin coated sand have been developed for deep hydraulic fracturing; however, use of these materials has been limited. A new frac proppant has been developed which exhibits the properties necessary for use in deep hydraulic fracturing. This frac proppant is produced by precuring a specially modified phenol-formaldehyde resin onto sand. The new frac proppant maintains conductivity and resists crushing, similar to that of sintered bauxite at high closure stress. 11 references.

  4. Origin of reservoir fractures in Little Knife field, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narr, W.; Burrus, R.C.

    1984-09-01

    Thin, vertical, planar fractures observed in the Mission Canyon Formation, at the Little Knife field, are naturally occurring and appear to be extension fractures. The predominant east-west trend of the fractures, measured in oriented core from six wells, parallels the contemporary maximum horizontal compressive stress in the Williston basin. The fractures occur only in carbonate units, but within the carbonates their occurrence is not lithology dependent. Fracture density measured in the cores of the reservoir carbonates averages 1 ft (.3 m) of fracture per 2.3 ft (.7 m) of core. The formation and mineralization of reservoir fractures were the most recent diagenetic events in the Mission Canyon Formation at Little Knife. Study of aqueous and hydrocarbon fluid inclusions associated with the fractures reveals: (1) fractures formed after the strata were buried to at least their present depth of 9,800 ft (2,987 m), which indicates their age is post-Mesozoic; (2) the pore-fluid pressure gradient was normal hydrostatic immediately after, if not during, fracture system development; (3) formation-water salinity has remained fairly constant since fracture initiation; (4) migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir probably preceded fracture genesis; and (5) methane concentration may have decreased since fracture initiation.

  5. Description of Fracture Systems for External Criticality Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jean-Philippe Nicot

    2001-09-21

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe probabilistically the main features of the geometry of the fracture system in the vicinity of the repository. They will be used to determine the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in the fractured rock underneath a waste package as it degrades. This AMR is to feed the geochemical calculations for external criticality reports. This AMR is done in accordance with the technical work plan (BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) 2001 b). The scope of this AMR is restricted to the relevant parameters of the fracture system. The main parameters of interest are fracture aperture and fracture spacing distribution parameters. The relative orientation of the different fracture sets is also important because of its impact on criticality, but they will be set deterministically. The maximum accumulation of material depends primarily on the fracture porosity, combination of the fracture aperture, and fracture intensity. However, the fracture porosity itself is not sufficient to characterize the potential for accumulation of a fracture system. The fracture aperture is also important because it controls both the flow through the fracture and the potential plugging of the system. Other features contributing to the void space such as lithophysae are also investigated. On the other hand, no analysis of the matrix porosity is done. The parameters will be used in sensitivity analyses of geochemical calculations providing actinide accumulations and in the subsequent Monte Carlo criticality analyses.

  6. Hydrothermal model of the Momotombo geothermal system, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, M.P.; Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Miranda, K.; Gerardo, J.Y.; Araguas, L.

    1996-01-24

    The Momotombo geotherinal field is situated on the northern shore of Lake Managua at the foot of the active Momotombo volcano. The field has been producing electricity since 1983 and has an installed capacity of 70 MWe. The results of geological, geochemical and geophysical studies have been reported in various internal reports. The isotopic studies were funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna to develop a hydrothermal model of the geothermal system. The chemical and stable isotopic data (δ18O and δD) of the geothermal fluid suggest that the seasonal variation in the production characteristics of the wells is related to the rapid infiltration of local precipitation into the reservoir. The annual average composition of Na+, K+ and Mg2+ plotted on the Na- K-Mg triangular diagram presented by Giggenbach (1988) to identify the state of rock-water interaction in geothermal reservoirs, shows that the fluids of almost every well are shifting towards chemically immature water due to resenroir exploitation. This effect is prominent in wells Mt-2. Mt-12, Mt-22 and Mt-27. The local groundwaters including surface water from Lake Managua have much lower tritium concentrations than sonic of the geothermal well fluids, which have about 6 T.U. The high-tritium wells are located along a fault inferred froin a thermal anomaly. The tritium concentration is also higher in fluids from wells close to the lake. This could indicate that older local precipitation waters are stored in a deep layer within the lake and that they are infiltrating into the geothermal reservoir.

  7. Partially penetrating fractures: Pressure transient analysis of an infinite conductivity fracture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, F.; Cinco-Ley, H.; Horne, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of the partial penetration of an infinite conductivity fracture on the transient pressure behavior of a vertically fractured well is investigated. Analysis of results shows that the pressure behavior of a well intersected by a partially-penetrating infinite conductivity vertical fracture can be divided into three flow periods: 1) the early time flow period which is characterized by a formation linear flow as in the case of a fully-penetrating infinite-conductivity vertical fracture, 2) the infinite-acting flow period and 3) the pseudoradial flow period which develops after the effects of the vertical boundaries of the reservoir are felt in the pressure behavior of the well. A log-log graph of log(h /SUB f/ /h)p /SUB wD/ versus log t /SUB Dxf/ shows a slope of one half during the early time flow period of a well with an infinite-conductivity partially penetrating fracture. The time for the end of the early time flow period is directly related to the square of the dimensionless height of the fracture, h /SUB fD/, which is defined as the ratio between the height of the fracture and its half length.

  8. Fracture Toughness Prediction for MWCNT Reinforced Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development of a micromechanics model to predict fracture toughness of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced ceramic composites to guide future experimental work for this project. The modeling work described in this report includes (i) prediction of elastic properties, (ii) development of a mechanistic damage model accounting for matrix cracking to predict the composite nonlinear stress/strain response to tensile loading to failure, and (iii) application of this damage model in a modified boundary layer (MBL) analysis using ABAQUS to predict fracture toughness and crack resistance behavior (R-curves) for ceramic materials containing MWCNTs at various volume fractions.

  9. Compartmentalization analysis using discrete fracture network models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Pointe, P.R.; Eiben, T.; Dershowitz, W.; Wadleigh, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper illustrates how Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) technology can serve as a basis for the calculation of reservoir engineering parameters for the development of fractured reservoirs. It describes the development of quantitative techniques for defining the geometry and volume of structurally controlled compartments. These techniques are based on a combination of stochastic geometry, computational geometry, and graph the theory. The parameters addressed are compartment size, matrix block size and tributary drainage volume. The concept of DFN models is explained and methodologies to compute these parameters are demonstrated.

  10. Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS Reservoir

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project will provide the first ever formal evaluation of fracture and fracture flow evolution in an EGS reservoir following a hydraulic stimulation.

  11. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  12. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-08-10

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L{sub X} {>=} 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the {approx}>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow.

  13. MULTI-PHASE FRACTURE-MATRIX INTERACTIONS UNDER STRESS CHANGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Grader; D. Elsworth; P.M. Halleck; F. Alvarado; A. Alajmi; Z. Karpyn; N. Mohammed; S. Al-Enezi

    2005-06-15

    The main objectives of this project are to quantify the changes in fracture porosity and multiphase transport properties as a function of confining stress. These changes will be integrated into conceptual and numerical models that will improve our ability to predict and optimize fluid transport in fractured system. This report details our progress on: (a) developing the direct experimental measurements of fracture aperture and topology and fluid occupancy using high-resolution x-ray micro-tomography, (b) quantifying the effect of confining stress on the distribution of fracture aperture, and (c) characterization of shear fractures and their impact on multi-phase flow. The three-dimensional surface that describes the large-scale structure of the fracture in the porous medium can be determined using x-ray micro-tomography with significant accuracy. Several fractures have been scanned and the fracture aperture maps have been extracted. The success of the mapping of fracture aperture was followed by measuring the occupancy of the fracture by two immiscible phases, water and decane, and water and kerosene. The distribution of fracture aperture depends on the effective confining stress on the nature of the rock and the type and distribution of the asperities that keep the fracture open. Fracture apertures at different confining stresses were obtained by micro-tomography covering a range of about two thousand psig. Initial analysis of the data shows a significant aperture closure with increase in effective confining stress. Visual descriptions of the process are shown in the report while detailed analysis of the behavior of the distribution of fracture aperture is in progress. Both extensional and shear fractures are being considered. The initial multi-phase flow tests were done in extensional fractures. Several rock samples with induced shear fracture are being studied, and some of the new results are presented in this report. These samples are being scanned in order to

  14. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are

  15. Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoirs Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in ... and integrating imaging into modeling. seismicityhuangfracturenetworks.pdf ...

  16. Experimental and Analytical Research on Fracture Processes in ROck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert H.. Einstein; Jay Miller; Bruno Silva

    2009-02-27

    Experimental studies on fracture propagation and coalescence were conducted which together with previous tests by this group on gypsum and marble, provide information on fracturing. Specifically, different fracture geometries wsere tested, which together with the different material properties will provide the basis for analytical/numerical modeling. INitial steps on the models were made as were initial investigations on the effect of pressurized water on fracture coalescence.

  17. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fracture Imager (GUFI) Presentation Number: 015 Investigator: Patterson, Doug (Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations Incorporated) Objectives: To develop an ultrasonic borehole ...

  18. Acid fracturing of carbonate gas reservoirs in Sichuan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, M.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the geological characteristics of Sinian-furassic carbonate gas reservoirs in the Sichuan basin, China. Based on these characteristics, a mechanism of acid fracturing is proposed for such reservoirs. Included are the results of a research in acid fracturing fluids and field operation conditions for matrix acidizing and acid fracturing in Sichuan. The acid fracturing method is shown to be an effective stimulation technique for the carbonate strata in this area.

  19. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Systems Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project objective: Make Seismic Work in Geothermal Areas; Characterize Fractures/Faults. seismic_queen_seismic_fracture.pdf (1.38 MB) More Documents & Publications Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs; II: Full-Waveform Inversion of 3D-9C VSP data from Bradys EGS Site and Update of the Brady Reservoir Scale Model Imaging,

  20. Use of Tracers to Characterize Fractures in Engineered Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    injectionbackflow techniques; design, fabricate and test a downhole instrument for measuring fracture flow following a hydraulic stimulation experiment. reservoirrosetracersch...

  1. 1112323-danimer-abstract-hydraulic-fractures | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fracturing treatments including: less hydraulic horsepower requirements, decreased footprint, simpler execution, lower water utilization, use of non-damaging biodegradable...

  2. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids (904.72 KB) More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Glossary Report of the Task Force on FracFocus 2.0

  3. Method for describing fractures in subterranean earth formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-01-01

    The configuration and directional orientation of natural or induced fractures in subterranean earth formations are described by introducing a liquid explosive into the fracture, detonating the explosive, and then monitoring the resulting acoustic emissions with strategically placed acoustic sensors as the explosion propagates through the fracture at a known rate.

  4. Aligned vertical fractures, HTI reservoir symmetry, and Thomsenseismic anisotropy parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, James G.

    2007-06-27

    The Sayers and Kachanov (1991) crack-influence parametersare shown to be directly related to Thomsen (1986) weak-anisotropyseismic parameters for fractured reservoirs when the crack density issmall enough. These results are then applied to seismic wave propagationin reservoirs having HTI symmetry due to aligned vertical fractures. Theapproach suggests a method of inverting for fracture density from wavespeed data.

  5. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-02-26

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

  6. Fish debris record the hydrothermal activity in the Atlantis II deep sediments (Red Sea)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudin, E.; Cocherie, A.

    1988-01-01

    The REE and U, Th, Zr, Hf, Sc have been analyzed in samples from Atlantis II and Shaban/Jean Charcot Deeps in the Red Sea. The high Zr/Hf ratio in some sediments indicates the presence of fish debris or of finely crystallized apatite. The positive ..sigma..REE vs P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and ..sigma..REE vs Zr/Hf correlations show that fish debris and finely crystallized apatite are the main REE sink in Atlantis II Deep sediments as in other marine environments. The hydrothermal sediments and the fish debris concentrates have similar REE patterns, characterized by a LREE enrichment and a large positive Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is also observed in E.P.R. hydrothermal solutions. Fish debris from marine environments acquire their REE content and signature mostly from sea water during early diagenesis. The hydrothermal REE signature of Atlantis II Deep fish debris indicate that they probably record the REE signature of their hydrothermal sedimentation and diagenetic environment. The different REE signatures of the Shaban/Jean Charcot and Atlantis II Deep hydrothermal sediments suggest a sea water-dominated brine in the Shaban/Jean Charcot Deep as opposed to the predominantly hydrothermal brine in Atlantis II Deep. Atlantis II Deep fish debris are also characterized by their high U but low Th contents. Their low Th contents probably reflect the low Th content of the various possible sources (sea water, brine, sediments). Their U contents are probably controlled by the redox conditions of sedimentation.

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  8. Transient Non Lin Deformation in Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sartori, Enrico

    1998-10-14

    MATLOC is a nonlinear, transient, two-dimensional (planer and axisymmetric), thermal stress, finite-element code designed to determine the deformation within a fractured rock mass. The mass is modeled as a nonlinear anistropic elastic material which can exhibit stress-dependent bi-linear locking behavior.

  9. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and othermore » conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  10. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and other conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  11. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  12. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  13. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  14. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  15. THE MAGNETIZATION DEGREE OF THE OUTFLOW POWERING THE HIGHLY POLARIZED REVERSE-SHOCK EMISSION OF GRB 120308A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming, E-mail: jin@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2015-01-01

    GRB 120308A, a long duration ?-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift, was distinguished by a highly polarized early optical afterglow emission that strongly suggests an ordered magnetic field component in the emitting region. In this work, we model the optical and X-ray emission in the reverse and forward shock scenario and show that the strength of the magnetic field in the reverse-shock region is ?10 times stronger than that in the forward shock region. Consequently, the outflow powering the highly polarized reverse-shock optical emission was mildly magnetized at a degree of ? ? a few percent. Considering the plausible magnetic energy dissipation in both the acceleration and prompt emission phases of the GRB outflow, the afterglow data of GRB 120308A provides us with compelling evidence that, at least for some GRBs, a nonignorable fraction of the energy was released in the form of Poynting flux, confirming the finding first made in the reverse-forward shock emission modeling of the optical afterglow of GRB 990123 by Fan etal. in 2002 and Zhang etal. in 2003.

  16. Seismic Waves in Rocks with Fluids and Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J G

    2006-02-06

    Seismic wave propagation through the earth is often strongly affected by the presence of fractures. When these fractures are filled with fluids (oil, gas, water, CO{sub 2}, etc.), the type and state of the fluid (liquid or gas) can make a large difference in the response of the seismic waves. This paper will summarize some early work of the author on methods of deconstructing the effects of fractures, and any fluids within these fractures, on seismic wave propagation as observed in reflection seismic data. Methods to be explored here include Thomsen's anisotropy parameters for wave moveout (since fractures often induce elastic anisotropy), and some very convenient fracture parameters introduced by Sayers and Kachanov that permit a relatively simple deconstruction of the elastic behavior in terms of fracture parameters (whenever this is appropriate).

  17. [Fe II] 1.64 μm IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF THE OUTFLOW FEATURES AROUND ULTRACOMPACT H II REGIONS IN THE FIRST GALACTIC QUADRANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Kim, Kee-Tae; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kyeong, Jaemann; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2014-09-01

    We present [Fe II] 1.644 μm features around ultracompact H II regions (UCHIIs) found on a quest for the ''footprint'' outflow features of UCHIIs—the features produced by outflowing materials ejected during an earlier, active accretion phase of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). We surveyed 237 UCHIIs in the first Galactic quadrant, employing the CORNISH UCHII catalog and UWIFE data, which is an imaging survey in [Fe II] 1.644 μm performed with UKIRT-WFCAM under ∼0.''8 seeing conditions. The [Fe II] features were found around five UCHIIs, one of which was less plausible. We interpret the [Fe II] features to be shock-excited by outflows from YSOs and estimate the outflow mass-loss rates from the [Fe II] flux which are ∼1 × 10{sup –6}-4 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We propose that the [Fe II] features might be the ''footprint'' outflow features, but more studies are required to clarify whether or not this is the case. This is based on the morphological relation between the [Fe II] and 5 GHz radio features, the outflow mass-loss rate, the travel time of the [Fe II] features, and the existence of several YSO candidates near the UCHIIs. The UCHIIs accompanying the [Fe II] features have relatively higher peak flux densities. The fraction of UCHIIs accompanying the [Fe II] features, 5/237, is small when compared to the ∼90% detection rate of high-velocity CO gas around UCHIIs. We discuss some possible explanations for the low detection rate.

  18. A study of thermal properties of sodium titanate nanotubes synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preda, Silviu; Rutar, Melita; Umek, Polona; Zaharescu, Maria

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The microwave-assisted hydrothermal route was used for titanate nanotubes synthesis. • Conversion to single-phase nanotube morphology completes after 8 h reaction time. • The nanotube morphology is stable up to 600 °C, as determined by in-situ XRD and SEM. • Sodium ions migrate to the surface due to thermal motion and structure condensation. - Abstract: Sodium titanate nanotubes (NaTiNTs) were synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of commercial TiO{sub 2}, at constant temperature (135 °C) and different irradiation times (15 min, 1, 4, 8 and 16 h). The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and specific surface area measurements. The irradiation time turned out to be the key parameter for morphological control of the material. Nanotubes were observed already after 15 min of microwave irradiation. The analyses of the products irradiated for 8 and 16 h confirm the complete transformation of the starting TiO{sub 2} powder to NaTiNTs. The nanotubes are open ended with multi-wall structures, with the average outer diameter of 8 nm and specific surface area up to 210 m{sup 2}/g. The morphology, surface area and crystal structure of the sodium titanate nanotubes synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method were similar to those obtained by conventional hydrothermal method.

  19. Hydrothermal Phase Relations Among Uranyl Minerals at the Nopal I Analog Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, William M.

    2007-07-01

    Uranyl mineral paragenesis at Nopal I is an analog of spent fuel alteration at Yucca Mountain. Petrographic studies suggest a variety of possible hydrothermal conditions for uranium mineralization at Nopal I. Calculated equilibrium phase relations among uranyl minerals show uranophane stability over a broad range of realistic conditions and indicate that uranyl mineral variety reflects persistent chemical potential heterogeneity. (author)

  20. Synthesis of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by hydrothermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machmudah, Siti Widiyastuti, W. Prastuti, Okky Putri Nurtono, Tantular Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2014-02-24

    Zirconium oxide (zirconia, ZrO{sub 2}) is the most common material used for electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Zirconia has attracted attention for applications in optical coatings, buffer layers for growing superconductors, thermal-shield, corrosion resistant coatings, ionic conductors, and oxygen sensors, and for potential applications including transparent optical devices and electrochemical capacitor electrodes, fuel cells, catalysts, and advanced ceramics. In this work, zirconia particles were synthesized from ZrCl{sub 4} precursor with hydrothermal treatment in a batch reactor. Hydrothermal treatment may allow obtaining nanoparticles and sintered materials with controlled chemical and structural characteristics. Hydrothermal treatment was carried out at temperatures of 150 200C with precursor concentration of 0.1 0.5 M. Zirconia particles obtained from this treatment were analyzed by using SEM, PSD and XRD to characterize the morphology, particle size distribution, and crystallinity, respectively. Based on the analysis, the size of zirconia particles were around 200 nm and it became smaller with decreasing precursor concentration. The increasing temperature caused the particles formed having uniform size. Zirconia particles formed by hydrothermal treatment were monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic crystal.

  1. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  2. Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

    2012-10-16

    A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

  3. Optical characteristics of ZnO single crystal grown by the hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. Z.; Yin, J. G. E-mail: yjg@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, L. H.; Zhang, P. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, Y. C.; Zhang, C. L.; Gu, S. L.; Hang, Y.

    2015-12-15

    ZnO single crystals have been grown by the hydrothermal method. Raman scattering and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) have been used to study samples of ZnO that were unannealed or annealed in different ambient gases. It is suggested that the green emission may originate from defects related to copper in our samples.

  4. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  5. Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-10-01

    Compilation of rare earth element and associated major and minor dissolved constituent analytical data for USA geothermal fields and global seafloor hydrothermal vents. Data is in original units. Reference to and use of this data should be attributed to the original authors and publications according to the provisions outlined therein.

  6. Dynamic Fracture Simulations of Explosively Loaded Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur, Carly W.; Goto, D. M.

    2015-11-30

    This report documents the modeling results of high explosive experiments investigating dynamic fracture of steel (AerMet® 100 alloy) cylinders. The experiments were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 2007 to 2008 [10]. A principal objective of this study was to gain an understanding of dynamic material failure through the analysis of hydrodynamic computer code simulations. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational cylinder models were analyzed using the ALE3D multi-physics computer code.

  7. The shear fracture toughness, KIIc, of graphite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Erdman, III, Donald L.

    2015-11-05

    In this study, the critical shear stress intensity factor, KIIc, here-in referred to as the shear fracture toughness, KIIc (MPa m), of two grades of graphite are reported. The range of specimen volumes was selected to elucidate any specimen size effect, but smaller volume specimen tests were largely unsuccessful, shear failure did not occur between the notches as expected. This was probably due to the specimen geometry causing the shear fracture stress to exceed the compressive failure stress. In subsequent testing the specimen geometry was altered to reduce the compressive footprint and the notches (slits) made deeper to reduce themore » specimen's ligament length. Additionally, we added the collection of Acoustic Emission (AE) during testing to assist with the identification of the shear fracture load. The means of KIIc from large specimens for PCEA and NBG-18 are 2.26 MPa m with an SD of 0.37 MPa m and 2.20 MPa m with an SD of 0.53 MPa m, respectively. The value of KIIc for both graphite grades was similar, although the scatter was large. In this work we found the ratio of KIIc/KIc ≈ 1.6. .« less

  8. FRACTURE FAILURE CRITERIA OF SOFC PEN STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

    2007-04-30

    Thermal stresses and warpage of the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature and mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of various layers in the PEN structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. The porous nature of anode and cathode in the PEN structures determines presence of the initial flaws and crack on the interfaces of anode/electrolyte/cathode and in the interior of the materials. The sintering/assembling induced stresses may cause the fracture failure of PEN structure. Therefore, fracture failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures is developed in order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC. In this paper, the fracture criteria based on the relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures may be predicted deterministically by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warped cells.

  9. Rapid imbibition of water in fractures within unsaturated sedimentary rock

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin; Perfect, Edmund; Donnelly, B.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Tremsin, Anton S.; McKay, L. D.; Distefano, Victoria H.; Cai, J. C.; Santodonato, Louis J.

    2015-01-27

    The spontaneous imbibition of water and other liquids into gas-filled fractures in variably-saturated porous media is important in a variety of engineering and geological contexts. However, surprisingly few studies have investigated this phenomenon. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework for predicting the 1-dimensional movement of water into air-filled fractures within a porous medium based on early-time capillary dynamics and spreading over the rough surfaces of fracture faces. The theory permits estimation of sorptivity values for the matrix and fracture zone, as well as a dispersion parameter which quantifies the extent of spreading of the wetting front. Quantitative datamore » on spontaneous imbibition of water in unsaturated Berea sandstone cores were acquired to evaluate the proposed model. The cores with different permeability classes ranging from 50 to 500 mD and were fractured using the Brazilian method. Spontaneous imbibition in the fractured cores was measured by dynamic neutron radiography at the Neutron Imaging Prototype Facility (beam line CG-1D, HFIR), Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water uptake into both the matrix and the fracture zone exhibited square-root-of-time behavior. The matrix sorptivities ranged from 2.9 to 4.6 mm s-0.5, and increased linearly as the permeability class increased. The sorptivities of the fracture zones ranged from 17.9 to 27.1 mm s-0.5, and increased linearly with increasing fracture aperture width. The dispersion coefficients ranged from 23.7 to 66.7 mm2 s-1 and increased linearly with increasing fracture aperture width and damage zone width. Both theory and observations indicate that fractures can significantly increase spontaneous imbibition in unsaturated sedimentary rock by capillary action and surface spreading on rough fracture faces. Fractures also increase the dispersion of the wetting front. In conclusion, further research is needed to investigate this phenomenon in other natural and engineered

  10. Final report on the design and development of a Rolling Float Meter for drilling-fluid outflow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wright, E.K.; Glowka, D.A.

    1998-03-01

    Lost circulation, which is the loss of well drilling fluids to the formation while drilling, is a common problem encountered while drilling geothermal wells. The rapid detection of the loss of well drilling fluids is critical to the successful and cost-effective treatment of the wellbore to stop or minimize lost circulation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrument to accurately measure the outflow rate of drilling fluids while drilling. This instrument, the Rolling Float Meter, has been under development at Sandia since 1991 and is now available for utilization by interested industry users. This report documents recent Rolling Float Meter design upgrades resulting from field testing and industry input, the effects of ongoing testing and evaluation both in the laboratory and in the field, and the final design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  11. G 10.472+0.027: AN EXTREME WATER MASER OUTFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH A MASSIVE PROTOSTELLAR CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titmarsh, A. M.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Voronkov, M. A.

    2013-09-20

    An Australia Telescope Compact Array search for 22 GHz water masers toward 6.7 GHz class II methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam survey has resulted in the detection of extremely high-velocity emission from one of the sources. The water maser emission associated with this young stellar object covers a velocity span of nearly 300 km s{sup 1}. The highest velocity water maser emission is redshifted from the systemic velocity by 250 km s{sup 1}, which is a new record for high-mass star formation regions. The maser is associated with a very young late O, or early B star, which may still be actively accreting matter (and driving the extreme outflow). If that is the case, future observations of the kinematics of this water maser will provide a unique probe of accretion processes in the highest mass young stellar objects and test models of water maser formation.

  12. SUBMILLIMETER INTERFEROMETRY OF THE LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NGC 4418: A HIDDEN HOT NUCLEUS WITH AN INFLOW AND AN OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Ohyama, Youichi; Aalto, Susanne; Costagliola, Francesco; Martin, Sergio; Wiedner, Martina C.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-02-10

    We have observed the nucleus of the nearby luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418 with subarcsec resolution at 860 and 450 {mu}m for the first time to characterize its hidden power source. A {approx}20 pc (0.''1) hot dusty core was found inside a 100 pc scale concentration of molecular gas at the galactic center. The 860 {mu}m continuum core has a deconvolved (peak) brightness temperature of 120-210 K. The CO(3-2) peak brightness temperature there is as high as 90 K at 50 pc resolution. The core has a bolometric luminosity of about 10{sup 11} L {sub Sun }, which accounts for most of the galaxy luminosity. It is Compton thick (N {sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 25} cm{sup -2}) and has a high luminosity-to-mass ratio (L/M) {approx} 500 L {sub Sun} M {sub Sun} {sup -1} as well as a high luminosity surface density 10{sup 8.5{+-}0.5} L {sub Sun} pc{sup -2}. These parameters are consistent with an active galactic nucleus to be the main luminosity source (with an Eddington ratio about 0.3), while they can be also due to a young starburst near its maximum L/M. We also found an optical color (reddening) feature that we attribute to an outflow cone emanating from the nucleus. The hidden hot nucleus thus shows evidence of both an inflow, previously seen with absorption lines, and the new outflow reported here in a different direction. The nucleus must be rapidly evolving with these gas flows.

  13. Orbital apex fractures: the contribution of computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unger, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    The conventional radiographs, computed tomograms, and clinical course of 17 patients with 23 orbital apex fractures were reviewed. The type of fracture was identified, and the presence of optic nerve damage, the superior orbital fissure syndrome, or the orbital apex syndrome was noted. It was concluded that fractures of the orbital apex may frequently be unsuspected clinically and are not as rare as the literature indicates. Computed tomography provides an excellent means of radiologic diagnosis in the acutely traumatized patient.

  14. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis | Department of Energy Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Fining Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A

  15. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda BES Report Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow.pdf (815.56 KB) More Documents & Publications AGU SubTER Town Hall Presentation 2015 SubTER Grand Challenge Roundtable: Imaging Geophysical and Geochemical Signals in the Subsurface SubTER Jason Report

  16. Project Captures First-Ever Comprehensive Hydraulic Fracturing Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data from 1.5 Miles Underground | Department of Energy Project Captures First-Ever Comprehensive Hydraulic Fracturing Research Data from 1.5 Miles Underground Project Captures First-Ever Comprehensive Hydraulic Fracturing Research Data from 1.5 Miles Underground April 6, 2016 - 1:51pm Addthis Data acquisition under the project included- Comprehensive geophysical well logs Side wall cores Diagnostic fracture injection tests Cross-well seismic survey Water and air samples Production and

  17. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  18. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  19. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  20. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  1. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  2. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  3. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or

  4. Numerical solution of sand transport in hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daneshy, A.A.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1980-02-07

    A numerical solution is developed for the deposition of a propping agent inside a hydraulic fracture. Such parameters as fluid leak-off into the formation, increase in sand concentration caused by leak-off, non-Newtonian fracturing fluids, hindered settling velocity, and an up-to-date geometry are taken into consideration. Three examples investigate the proppant deposition for low-, medium-, and high-viscosity fracturing fluids.

  5. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structures. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Designing reliable MEMS structures presents numerous challenges. Polycrystalline silicon fractures in a brittle manner with considerable variability in measured strength. Furthermore, it is not clear how to use a measured tensile

  6. Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in EGS Reservoirs | Department of Energy Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs Project objectives: Improve image resolution for microseismicimaging and time-lapse active seismic imaging; Enhance the prediction of fluid flow and temperature distributions and stress changes by coupling fracture flow simulations with reservoir flow simulations; and

  7. [Fe II] 1.64 μm FEATURES OF JETS AND OUTFLOWS FROM YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE CARINA NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jae-Joon; Chun, Moo-Young; Lyo, A.-Ran; Moon, Dae-Sik; Kyeong, Jaemann; Park, Byeong-Gon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh

    2013-11-01

    We present [Fe II] 1.64 μm imaging observations for jets and outflows from young stellar objects (YSOs) over the northern part (∼24' × 45') of the Carina Nebula, a massive star-forming region. The observations were performed with IRIS2 of the Anglo-Australian Telescope and the seeing was ∼1.''5 ± 0.''5. Eleven jet and outflow features are detected at eight different regions and are termed ionized Fe objects (IFOs). One Herbig-Haro candidate that was missed in Hubble Space Telescope Hα observations is newly identified as HHc-16, referring to our [Fe II] images. IFOs have knotty or longish shapes, and the detection rate of IFOs against previously identified YSOs is 1.4%, which should be treated as a lower limit. Four IFOs show anti-correlated peak intensities in [Fe II] and Hα, where the ratio I([Fe II])/I(Hα) is higher for longish IFOs than for knotty IFOs. We estimate the outflow mass loss rate from the [Fe II] flux using two different methods. The jet-driving objects are identified for three IFOs (IFO-2, -4, and -7) for which we study the relations between the outflow mass loss rate and the YSO physical parameters from the radiative transfer model fitting. The ratios of the outflow mass loss rate over the disk accretion rate for IFO-4 and -7 are consistent with the previously reported values (10{sup –2}-10{sup +1}), while the ratio is higher for IFO-2. This excess may result from underestimating the disk accretion rate. The jet-driving objects are likely to be low- or intermediate-mass stars. Other YSO physical parameters, such as luminosity and age, show reasonable relations or trends.

  8. Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Reporting, Monitoring, Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two data collection tools specifically developed for hydraulic fracturing are available to help regulatory agencies monitor drilling and completion operations and enhance environmental protection.

  9. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  10. The Second Sandia Fracture Challenge: Predictions of Ductile...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The most important parameters for fracture prediction, the damage evolution and critical damage accumulation parameters, were calibrated by an iter- ative fitting procedure such ...

  11. OSTIblog Articles in the hydraulic fracturing Topic | OSTI, US...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    noted by Pete Domenici, senior fellow at the Bipartisan Policy... Related Topics: Bureau of Mines, communications, hydraulic fracturing, nasa, nuclear weapons technology, Oil Shale

  12. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (LANL) Sponsoring Org: DOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 58 GEOSCIENCES; BEHAVIOR; FRACTURES; GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS; MEETINGS

  13. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical issues in tight gas fracturing, in

  14. Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reservoir scale) - CFD: NETL's computational fluid dynamics code (modeling at the fracture ... eere.energy.gov * Our new imaging methods using passive and time-lapse active ...

  15. Application of the directional hydraulic fracturing at Berezovskaya Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekontsev, Y.M.; Sazhin, P.V.

    2008-05-15

    The paper analyzes the experimental research of the directional hydraulic fracturing applied for weakening of rocks at Berezovskaya Mine (Kuznetsk Coal Basin) in 2005-2006.

  16. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project objectives: Combine geophysical methods for reservoir and fracture characterization with rock physics measurements made under in-situ conditions (up to 350C) for ...

  17. Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS Reservoir

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS Reservoir presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  18. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoirs; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer ...

  19. Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS ... 97 through 2004. lianjieimagingmodelingpeer2013.pdf (428.85 KB) More Documents ...

  20. Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structure FRAC-STIM: A Physics-Based Fracture Simulation, reservoir Flow and Heat Transport Simulator(aka FALCON) Integration of Noise and Coda Correlation Data into ...

  1. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  2. Studies of Transport Properties of Fractures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen R. Brown

    2006-06-30

    We proposed to study several key factors controlling the character and evolution of fracture system permeability and transport processes. We suggest that due to surface roughness and the consequent channeling in single fractures and in fracture intersections, the tendency of a fracture system to plug up, remain permeable, or for permeability to increase due to chemical dissolution/precipitation conditions will depend strongly on the instantaneous flow channel geometry. This geometry will change as chemical interaction occurs, thus changing the permeability through time. To test this hypothesis and advance further understanding toward a predictive capability, we endeavored to physically model and analyze several configurations of flow and transport of inert and chemically active fluids through channels in single fractures and through fracture intersections. This was an integrated program utilizing quantitative observations of fractures and veins in drill core, quantitative and visual observations of flow and chemical dissolution and precipitation within replicas of real rough-walled fractures and fracture intersections, and numerical modeling via lattice Boltzmann methods.

  3. Shale Gas Application in Hydraulic Fracturing Market is likely...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on unconventional reservoirs such as coal bed methane, tight gas, tight oil, shale gas, and shale oil. Over the period of time, hydraulic fracturing technique has found...

  4. Characterization Of Fracture Patterns In The Geysers Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Also, graphical fracture characterizations in the form of equal-area projections and rose diagrams were created to depict the results. The main crack orientations within the...

  5. Preface to the Special Issue on the Sandia Fracture Challenge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Preface to the Special Issue on the Sandia Fracture Challenge. Abstract not provided. Authors: Boyce, Brad Lee Publication Date: 2013-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1115920 Report ...

  6. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compare different working models of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas and oil production. ... and drawbacks of using supercritical CO2 as a working fluid for shale gas production. ...

  7. A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating Fractured Reservoir Geometry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fractured Reservoir Geometry from Tracer Tests Abstract A simple method of estimating flow geometry and pore geometry from conservative tracer tests in single phase geothermal...

  8. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions and Their Impact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Due to computational limitations and difficulties in characterizing complex subsurface systems, diffusive exchange between a fracture network and surrounding rock matrix is often ...

  9. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Enhanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 ... Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer ...

  10. International Collaborations on Fluid Flows in Fractured Crystalline...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    International Collaborations on Fluid Flows in Fractured Crystalline Rocks: FY14 Progress Report. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: International Collaborations on Fluid ...

  11. A Research Park for Studying Processes in Unsaturated Fractured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This site offers opportunities to observe water and contaminant migration influenced by fluid dynamics and microbial activity through heterogeneous-porous and fractured media. At ...

  12. Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and flow-through tests at the Hot Dry rock (HDR) test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. ... FRACTURING; FRESH WATER; GRANITES; NEW MEXICO; PERMEABILITY; POROSITY; PUMPING; ...

  13. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in EGS reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single ...

  14. Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS Reservoir Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in CO2-and water-based geothermal ...

  15. Analysis Of Macroscopic Fractures In Granite In The Hdr Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural fractures at low pressures, and to create a geothermal reservoir. Authors Albert Genter and Herve Traineau Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal...

  16. Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis Project Summary. To study the transport and recovery of injected SiO2 nanoparticles ...

  17. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic ...

  18. Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Microseismicity,...

  19. A Shallow Attenuating Anomaly Inside The Ring Fracture Of The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Roberts,Keiiti Aki,Michael C. Fehler. 1995. A Shallow Attenuating Anomaly Inside The Ring Fracture Of The Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal...

  20. Characterizing Fractures in Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cooling shrinkage. The stimulated, existing fractures thus enhance the permeability of the hot rock formations, hence enabling better circulation of water for the...

  1. Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rim Margins Lithologically Controlled Fractures caused by igneous activity creates permeability, allowing water to circulate deep beneath the surface thus becoming heated in the...

  2. Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  3. Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Fracture Characterization in Enhanced ...

  4. Dispersed Fluid Flow in Fractured Reservoirs- an Analysis of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoirs- an Analysis of Tracer-Determined Residence Time Distributions Abstract A methodology for analyzing the internal flow characteristics of a fractured geothermal reservoir...

  5. Fracture orientation analysis by the solid earth tidal strain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    method has been successfully demonstrated at a naturally fractured geothermal field (Raft River) in Southeastern Idaho and at an oil field in Western Canada. Both case studies...

  6. Characterizing Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy Determine if fracturing could ... enough to allow economic production of power. seismicityaminzadehmicroseismicdata.pd...

  7. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Stimulation in Enhanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Stimulation in Enhanced...

  8. Poroelastic modeling of fracture-seismic wave interaction (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and hydraulic properties are examined. From parametric studies, we found that the hydraulic permeability of a fracture fully saturated with water has little impact on ...

  9. Characterizing Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Shear Wave Anisotropy Characterizing Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy ...

  10. Interaction and Coalescence of Nanovoids and Dynamic Fracture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Nanovoids and Dynamic Fracture in Silica Glass: Multimiilion-to-Billion Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interaction and...

  11. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aperture Fractures (LAF's) * Budget: 679,000 - Phase 2: Drilling - January-December, 2011. * Task 4: Stepout drilling from existing production wells. * Milestone: Intersect and ...

  12. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project summary: Drilling into large aperture open fractures (LAFs) typically yield production wells with high productivity and ...

  13. Patterns and perspectives in applied fracture mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkle, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    This lecture begins with a overview of applied fracture mechanics pertinent to safety of pressure vessels. It then progresses to a chronological panorama of experimental and analytical results. To be useful and dependable in safety analysis of real structures, new analysis developments must be physically realistic, which means that they must accurately describe physical cause and effect. Consequently, before mathematical modeling can begin, cause and effect must be established from experimental data. This can be difficult and time consuming, but worth the effort. Accordingly, the theme of this paper is that the search for patterns is constant and vital. This theme is illustrated by the development of small, single-specimen, fracture toughness testing techniques. It is also illustrated by the development, based on two different published large-strain, elastic-plastic, three-dimensional finite-element analyses, of a hypothesis concerning three-dimensional loss of constraint. When a generalization of Irwin`s thickness-normalized plastic-zone parameter, reaches a value close to 2{pi}, the through-thickness contraction strain at the apex of the near-tip logarithmic-spiral slip-line region becomes the dominant negative strain accommodating crack opening. Because slip lines passing from the midplane to the stress-free side surfaces do not have to curve, once these slip lines are established, stresses near the crack tip are only elevated by strain hardening and constraint becomes significantly relaxed. This hypothesis, based on published three-dimensional elastic-plastic analyses, provides a potentially valuable means for gaining additional insight into constraint effects on fracture toughness by considering the roles played by the plastic strains as well as the stresses that develop near a crack tip.

  14. Geomechanical Fracturing with Flow and Heat

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    The GeoFracFH model is a particle-based discrete element model (DEM) that has been coupled with fluid flow and heat conduction/convection. In this model, the rock matrix material is represented by a network of DEM particles connected by mechanical bonds (elastic beams in this case, see Figure 1, gray particles connected by beams). During the simulation process, the mechanical bonds that have been stretched or bent beyond a critical strain (both tensile and shear failures aremore » simulated) are broken and removed from the network in a progressive manner. Bonds can be removed from the network with rates or probabilities that depend on their stress or strain, or the properties of the discrete elements and bonds can be varied continuously to represent phenomena such as creep, strain hardening, and chemical degradation. The coupling of a DEM geomechanical model with models for Darcy flow and heat transport is also illustrated in Figure 1. Darcy flow and heat transport equations are solved on an underlying fixed finite difference grid with evolving porosity and permeability for each grid cell that depends on the local structure of the discrete element network (such as the DEM particle density). The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which then deforms and fractures the rock matrix. The deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, coupling the two phenomena. The intimate coupling between fracturing, fluid flow, and thermal transport makes the GeoFracFH model, rather than conventional continuum mechanical models, necessary for coupled hydro-thermal-mechanical problems in the subsurface.« less

  15. Statistical analysis of surface lineaments and fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Genliang; George, S.A.; Lindsey, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-six sets of surface lineaments and fractures mapped from satellite images and/or aerial photos from parts of the Mid-continent and Colorado Plateau regions were collected, digitized, and statistically analyzed in order to obtain the probability distribution functions of natural fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The orientations and lengths of the surface linear features were calculated using the digitized coordinates of the two end points of each individual linear feature. The spacing data of the surface linear features within an individual set were, obtained using a new analytical sampling technique. Statistical analyses were then performed to find the best-fit probability distribution functions for the orientation, length, and spacing of each data set. Twenty-five hypothesized probability distribution functions were used to fit each data set. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to rank the significance of each fit. A distribution which provides the lowest chi-square goodness-of-fit value was considered the best-fit distribution. The orientations of surface linear features were best-fitted by triangular, normal, or logistic distributions; the lengths were best-fitted by PearsonVI, PearsonV, lognormal2, or extreme-value distributions; and the spacing data were best-fitted by lognormal2, PearsonVI, or lognormal distributions. These probability functions can be used to stochastically characterize naturally fractured reservoirs.

  16. Enhanced performance of wearable piezoelectric nanogenerator fabricated by two-step hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Yu; Lei, Jixue; Yin, Bing; Zhang, Heqiu; Ji, Jiuyu; Hu, Lizhong; Bian, Jiming; Liu, Yanhong; Zhao, Yu; Luo, Yingmin

    2014-03-17

    A simple two-step hydrothermal process was proposed for enhancing the performance of the nanogenerator on flexible and wearable terylene-fabric substrate. With this method, a significant enhancement in output voltage of the nanogenerator from ∼10 mV to 7 V was achieved, comparing with the one by conventional one-step process. In addition, another advantage with the devices synthesized by two-step hydrothermal process was that their output voltages are only sensitive to strain rather than strain rate. The devices with a high output voltage have the ability to power common electric devices and will have important applications in flexible electronics and wearable devices.

  17. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowland, Christopher C.; Zhou, Zhi; Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growth in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting.

  18. Interfacial hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanorods towards photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, L.R. Lian, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, L.H.; Yuan, C.Z.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy was developed. 1D SnO{sub 2} nanorods as an advanced photocatalyst. SnO{sub 2} nanorods exhibit photocatalytic degradation of the MO. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) SnO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) have been successfully synthesized by means of an efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy. The resulting product was physically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, etc. The as-fabricated SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation of the methyl orange with high degradation efficiency of 99.3% with only 60 min ultra violet light irradiation. Meanwhile, the 1D SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited intriguing photostability after four recycles.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan; Lai Qiongyu; Xu Xiaoyun

    2010-11-15

    NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

  20. Sonochemical and hydrothermal synthesis of PbTe nanostructures with the aid of a novel capping agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fard-Fini, Shahla Ahmadian; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Mohandes, Fatemeh

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PbTe nanostructures were prepared with the aid of Schiff-base compound. • Sonochemical and hydrothermal methods were employed to fabricate PbTe nanostrucrues. • The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of PbTe was investigated. - Abstract: In this work, a new Schiff-base compound derived from 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde marked as (2-HyNa)-(DaDo) was synthesized, characterized, and then used as capping agent for the preparation of PbTe nanostructures. To fabricate PbTe nanostructures, two different synthesis methods; hydrothermal and sonochemical routes, were applied. To further investigate, the effect of preparation parameters like reaction time and temperature in hydrothermal synthesis and sonication time in the presence of ultrasound irradiation on the morphology and purity of the final products was tested. The products were analyzed with the aid of SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, and EDS. Based on the obtained results, it was found that pure cubic phased PbTe nanostructures have been obtained by hydrothermal and sonochemical approaches. Besides, SEM images showed that cubic-like and rod-like PbTe nanostructures have been formed by hydrothermal and sonochemical methods, respectively. Sonochemical synthesis of PbTe nanostructures was favorable, because the synthesis time of sonochemical method was shorter than that of hydrothermal method.

  1. Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, John B.; Floyd, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500.degree. to about 700.degree. F.

  2. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  3. Hydrothermal Processing of Biomass Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Processing of Biomass March 26, 2015 Thermochemical Conversion Doug Elliott, Rich Hallen, and Andy Schmidt Pacific Northwest National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Advance HTL technology towards 2020 goal of $3/gge at 50% reduced GHG. Improve overall process performance and economics Determine the value and best pathway to market for the product Demonstrate high process and carbon

  4. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran; CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara ; Pollet, M.; Artemenko, A.; Miclau, M.; Grozescu, I; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  5. The Role of Low-Angle Extensional Tectonics, Flat Fracture Domains, and Gravity Slides in Hydrothermal and EGS Resources of the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Moore

    2011-08-24

    The Steamboat Springs geothermal system provides the most dramatic example of subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in crystalline rock in the Basin and Range, but this is by no means an isolated case. Similar but more diffuse subhorizontal permeability has been reported at Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove-Fort Sulphurdale, Utah; and a km-scale gravity-slide block channels injectate at Dixie Valley, Nevada. During the course of this phase of the project 2543 reports including text, figures and large format enclosures, 1428 maps, and 698 well logs were scanned. The information is stored in a Microsoft Access Database on the Geothermal Server. Detailed geologic cross sections of the Desert Peak geothermal field were developed to identify the structural controls on the geothermal system and locate possible fluid flow paths. The results of this work were published by Lutz and others (2009, Appendix 1) in the Stanford Reservoir Engineering Conference Proceedings.

  6. THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 3: A TEST FOR STELLAR FEEDBACK, GALACTIC OUTFLOWS, AND COLD STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Sijing; Madau, Piero; Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Guedes, Javiera [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mayer, Lucio [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-9057 Zurich (Switzerland); Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2013-03-10

    We present new results on the kinematics, thermal and ionization state, and spatial distribution of metal-enriched gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of massive galaxies at redshift {approx}3, using the Eris suite of cosmological hydrodynamic ''zoom-in'' simulations. The reference run adopts a blastwave scheme for supernova feedback that produces large-scale galactic outflows, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold, metal-dependent radiative cooling, and a model for the diffusion of metals and thermal energy. The effect of the local UV radiation field is added in post-processing. The CGM (defined as all gas at R > 0.2 R{sub vir} = 10 kpc, where R{sub vir} is the virial radius) contains multiple phases having a wide range of physical conditions, with more than half of its heavy elements locked in a warm-hot component at T > 10{sup 5} K. Synthetic spectra, generated by drawing sightlines through the CGM, produce interstellar absorption-line strengths of Ly{alpha}, C II, C IV, Si II, and Si IV as a function of the galactocentric impact parameter (scaled to the virial radius) that are in broad agreement with those observed at high redshift by Steidel et al. The covering factor of absorbing material declines less rapidly with impact parameter for Ly{alpha} and C IV compared to C II, Si IV, and Si II, with Ly{alpha} remaining strong (W{sub Ly{alpha}} > 300 mA) to {approx}> 5 R{sub vir} = 250 kpc. Only about one third of all the gas within R{sub vir} is outflowing. The fraction of sightlines within one virial radius that intercept optically thick, N{sub H{sub I}}>10{sup 17.2} cm{sup -2} material is 27%, in agreement with recent observations by Rudie et al. Such optically thick absorption is shown to trace inflowing ''cold'' streams that penetrate deep inside the virial radius. The streams, enriched to metallicities above 0.01 solar by previous episodes of star formation in the main host and in nearby dwarfs, are the origin of strong (N{sub C

  7. Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

    1982-06-01

    This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, {sup 85}Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas {sup 137}Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less {sup 137}Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 {mu}m and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10{sup -3} m/s were calculated from the core measurements.

  8. Hydrothermal stability of SAPO-34 for refrigeration and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haijun; Cui, Qun; Wu, Juan; Zhu, Yuezhao; Li, Quanguo; Zheng, Kai; Yao, Huqing

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%. - Highlights: • Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. • SAPO-34 with diethylamine as the template shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles, and most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is well maintained. • SAPO-34 has an excellent adsorption performance and a good hydrothermal stability, thus is promising for application in adsorption refrigeration. - Abstract: Hydrothermal stability is one of the crucial factors in applying SAPO-34 molecular sieve to adsorption refrigration. The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Both a vacuum gravimetric method and an intelligent gravimetric analyzer were applied to analyze the water adsorption performance of SAPO-34. Cyclic hydrothermal performance was determined on the modified simulation adsorption refrigeration test rig. Crystal phase, morphology, and porosity of SAPO-34 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} sorption, respectively. The results show that, water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake

  9. Evaluation and significance of fracture toughness in ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutoh, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Fracture toughness tests of several ceramic materials were carried out according to the various test methods, that is the Bridge indentation (BI, SEPB), Fatigue precrack (FP), Controlled surface flaw (CSF), Chevron notch (CN) and Indentation fracture (IF) methods. Mutual comparison of the test results was made to discuss the validity and applicability of each test method. Significance of the apparent fracture toughness with stable crack growth was discussed. The intrinsic fracture toughness can be obtained by the CSF method, in which a small surface crack is used. At high temperatures, since nonlinear deformation due to softening of glass phase and stable crack growth occur, nonlinear fracture mechanics approach should be applied. J{sub IC}-value is successfully evaluated according to the R-curve method.

  10. Laser notching ceramics for reliable fracture toughness testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Holly D.; Elmer, John W.; Freeman, Dennis C.; Schaefer, Ronald D.; Derkach, Oleg; Gallegos, Gilbert F.

    2015-09-19

    A new method for notching ceramics was developed using a picosecond laser for fracture toughness testing of alumina samples. The test geometry incorporated a single-edge-V-notch that was notched using picosecond laser micromachining. This method has been used in the past for cutting ceramics, and is known to remove material with little to no thermal effect on the surrounding material matrix. This study showed that laser-assisted-machining for fracture toughness testing of ceramics was reliable, quick, and cost effective. In order to assess the laser notched single-edge-V-notch beam method, fracture toughness results were compared to results from other more traditional methods, specifically surface-crack in flexure and the chevron notch bend tests. Lastly, the results showed that picosecond laser notching produced precise notches in post-failure measurements, and that the measured fracture toughness results showed improved consistency compared to traditional fracture toughness methods.

  11. Laser notching ceramics for reliable fracture toughness testing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barth, Holly D.; Elmer, John W.; Freeman, Dennis C.; Schaefer, Ronald D.; Derkach, Oleg; Gallegos, Gilbert F.

    2015-09-19

    A new method for notching ceramics was developed using a picosecond laser for fracture toughness testing of alumina samples. The test geometry incorporated a single-edge-V-notch that was notched using picosecond laser micromachining. This method has been used in the past for cutting ceramics, and is known to remove material with little to no thermal effect on the surrounding material matrix. This study showed that laser-assisted-machining for fracture toughness testing of ceramics was reliable, quick, and cost effective. In order to assess the laser notched single-edge-V-notch beam method, fracture toughness results were compared to results from other more traditional methods, specificallymore » surface-crack in flexure and the chevron notch bend tests. Lastly, the results showed that picosecond laser notching produced precise notches in post-failure measurements, and that the measured fracture toughness results showed improved consistency compared to traditional fracture toughness methods.« less

  12. Subsurface fracture mapping from geothermal wellbores. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartenbaum, B.A.; Rawson, G.

    1983-08-01

    To advance the state-of-the-art in Hot Dry Rock technology, and evaluation is made of (1) the use of both electromagnetic and acoustic radar to map far-field fractures, (2) the use of more than twenty different conventional well logging tools to map borehole-fracture intercepts, (3) the use of magnetic dipole ranging to determine the relative positions of the injection well and the production well within the fractured zone, (4) the use of passive microseismic methods to determine the orientation and extent of hydraulic fractures, and (5) the application of signal processing techniques to fracture mapping including tomography, holography, synthetic aperture, image reconstruction, and the relative importance of phase and amplitude information. It is found that according to calculations, VHF backscatter radar has the potential for mapping fractures within a distance of 50 +- 20 meters from the wellbore. A new technique for improving fracture identification is presented. The range of acoustic radar is five to seven times greater than that of VHF radar when compared on the basis of equal resolution, i.e., equal wavelengths. Analyses of extant data indicate that when used synergistically the (1) caliper, (2) resistivity dipmeter, (3) televiewer, (4) television, (5) impression packer, and (6) acoustic transmission are useful for mapping borehole-fracture intercepts. A new model of hydraulic fracturing is presented which indicates that a hydraulic fracture is dynamically unstable; consequently, improvements in locating the crack tip may be possible. The importance of phase in signal processing is stressed and those techniques which employ phase data are emphasized for field use.

  13. NuSTAR REVEALS RELATIVISTIC REFLECTION BUT NO ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOW IN THE QUASAR PG 1211+143

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoghbi, A.; Miller, J. M.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-02-01

    We report on four epochs of observations of the quasar PG 1211+143 using NuSTAR. The net exposure time is 300 ks. Prior work on this source found suggestive evidence of an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) in the Fe K band with a velocity of approximately 0.1c. The putative flow would carry away a high-mass flux and kinetic power, with broad implications for feedback and black hole--galaxy co-evolution. NuSTAR detects PG 1211+143 out to 30 keV, meaning that the continuum is well-defined both through and above the Fe K band. A characteristic relativistic disk reflection spectrum is clearly revealed via a broad Fe K emission line and Compton back-scattering curvature. The data offer only weak constraints on the spin of the black hole. A careful search for UFOs shows no significant absorption feature above 90% confidence. The limits are particularly tight when relativistic reflection is included. We discuss the statistics and the implications of these results in terms of connections between accretion onto quasars, Seyferts, and stellar-mass black holes, and feedback into their host environments.

  14. Inflow/outflow boundary conditions for particle-based blood flow simulations: Application to arterial bifurcations and trees

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lykov, Kirill; Li, Xuejin; Lei, Huan; Pivkin, Igor V.; Karniadakis, George Em; Feng, James

    2015-08-28

    When blood flows through a bifurcation, red blood cells (RBCs) travel into side branches at different hematocrit levels, and it is even possible that all RBCs enter into one branch only, leading to a complete separation of plasma and R- BCs. To quantify this phenomenon via particle-based mesoscopic simulations, we developed a general framework for open boundary conditions in multiphase flows that is effective even for high hematocrit levels. The inflow at the inlet is duplicated from a fully developed flow generated in a pilot simulation with periodic boundary conditions. The outflow is controlled by adaptive forces to maintain themore » flow rate and velocity gradient at fixed values, while the particles leaving the arteriole at the outlet are removed from the system. Upon valida- tion of this approach, we performed systematic 3D simulations to study plasma skimming in arterioles of diameters 20 to 32 microns. For a flow rate ratio 6:1 at the branches, we observed the \\all-or-nothing" phenomenon with plasma only entering the low flow rate branch. We then simulated blood-plasma separation in arteriolar bifurcations with different bifurcation angles and same diameter of the daughter branches. Our simulations predict a significant increase in RBC flux through the main daughter branch as the bifurcation angle is increased. Lastly, we demonstrated the new methodology for simulating blood flow in ves- sels with multiple inlets and outlets, constructed using an angiogenesis model.« less

  15. Inflow/outflow boundary conditions for particle-based blood flow simulations: Application to arterial bifurcations and trees

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lykov, Kirill; Li, Xuejin; Lei, Huan; Pivkin, Igor V.; Karniadakis, George Em; Feng, James

    2015-08-28

    When blood flows through a bifurcation, red blood cells (RBCs) travel into side branches at different hematocrit levels, and it is even possible that all RBCs enter into one branch only, leading to a complete separation of plasma and RBCs. To quantify this phenomenon via particle-based mesoscopic simulations, we developed a general framework for open boundary conditions in multiphase flows that is effective even for high hematocrit levels. The inflow at the inlet is duplicated from a fully developed flow generated in a pilot simulation with periodic boundary conditions. The outflow is controlled by adaptive forces to maintain the flowmorerate and velocity gradient at fixed values, while the particles leaving the arteriole at the outlet are removed from the system. Upon validation of this approach, we performed systematic 3D simulations to study plasma skimming in arterioles of diameters 20 to 32 microns. For a flow rate ratio 6:1 at the branches, we observed the all-or-nothing phenomenon with plasma only entering the low flow rate branch. We then simulated blood-plasma separation in arteriolar bifurcations with different bifurcation angles and same diameter of the daughter branches. Our simulations predict a significant increase in RBC flux through the main daughter branch as the bifurcation angle is increased. Finally, we demonstrated the effectiveness of the new methodology in simulations of blood flow in vessels with multiple inlets and outlets, constructed using an angiogenesis modeless

  16. Relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation in poynting-flux-dominated jets/outflows

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai

    2015-05-29

    We perform 3D relativistic ideal MHD simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting- ux-dominated) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable Poynting- ux-dominated jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvenic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in themore » relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini-jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. In conclusion, our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke signi cant magnetic energy dissipation in Poynting- ux-dominated jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence (ICMART) model for GRBs, and reconnection triggered mini-jets model for AGNs.« less

  17. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

    1993-04-13

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

  18. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Kullberg, Marc L.

    1993-01-01

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

  19. Characterization of EGS Fracture Network Lifecycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillian R. Foulger

    2008-03-31

    Geothermal energy is relatively clean, and is an important non-hydrocarbon source of energy. It can potentially reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reduction in carbon emissions. High-temperature geothermal areas can be used for electricity generation if they contain permeable reservoirs of hot water or steam that can be extracted. The biggest challenge to achieving the full potential of the nations resources of this kind is maintaining and creating the fracture networks required for the circulation, heating, and extraction of hot fluids. The fundamental objective of the present research was to understand how fracture networks are created in hydraulic borehole injection experiments, and how they subsequently evolve. When high-pressure fluids are injected into boreholes in geothermal areas, they flow into hot rock at depth inducing thermal cracking and activating critically stressed pre-existing faults. This causes earthquake activity which, if monitored, can provide information on the locations of the cracks formed, their time-development and the type of cracking underway, e.g., whether shear movement on faults occurred or whether cracks opened up. Ultimately it may be possible to monitor the critical earthquake parameters in near-real-time so the information can be used to guide the hydraulic injection while it is in progress, e.g., how to adjust factors such as injectate pressure, volume and temperature. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to mature analysis techniques and software that were, at the start of this project, in an embryonic developmental state. Task 1 of the present project was to develop state-of-the-art techniques and software for calculating highly accurate earthquake locations, earthquake source mechanisms (moment tensors) and temporal changes in reservoir structure. Task 2 was to apply the new techniques to hydrofracturing (Enhanced Geothermal Systems, or EGS) experiments performed at the Coso geothermal field, in

  20. A substellar-mass protostar and its outflow of IRAS 153983359 revealed by subarcsecond-resolution observations of H{sub 2}CO and CCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oya, Yoko; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Jrgensen, Jes K.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2014-11-10

    Subarcsecond (0.''5) images of H{sub 2}CO and CCH line emission have been obtained in the 0.8 mm band toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 153983359 in the Lupus 1 cloud as one of the Cycle 0 projects of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. We have detected a compact component concentrated in the vicinity of the protostar and a well-collimated outflow cavity extending along the northeast-southwest axis. The inclination angle of the outflow is found to be about 20, or almost edge-on, based on the kinematic structure of the outflow cavity. This is in contrast to previous suggestions of a more pole-on geometry. The centrally concentrated component is interpreted by use of a model of the infalling rotating envelope with the estimated inclination angle and the mass of the protostar is estimated to be less than 0.09 M {sub ?}. Higher spatial resolution data are needed to infer the presence of a rotationally supported disk for this source, hinted at by a weak high-velocity H{sub 2}CO emission associated with the protostar.

  1. Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.

  2. Seismic waves in rocks with fluids and fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2007-05-14

    Seismic wave propagation through the earth is often stronglyaffected by the presence of fractures. When these fractures are filledwith fluids (oil, gas, water, CO2, etc.), the type and state of the fluid(liquid or gas) can make a large difference in the response of theseismic waves. This paper summarizes recent work on methods ofdeconstructing the effects of fractures, and any fluids within thesefractures, on seismic wave propagation as observed in reflection seismicdata. One method explored here is Thomsen's weak anisotropy approximationfor wave moveout (since fractures often induce elastic anisotropy due tononuniform crack-orientation statistics). Another method makes use ofsome very convenient fracture parameters introduced previously thatpermit a relatively simple deconstruction of the elastic and wavepropagation behavior in terms of a small number of fracture parameters(whenever this is appropriate, as is certainly the case for small crackdensities). Then, the quantitative effects of fluids on thesecrack-influence parameters are shown to be directly related to Skempton scoefficient B of undrained poroelasticity (where B typically ranges from0 to 1). In particular, the rigorous result obtained for the low crackdensity limit is that the crack-influence parameters are multiplied by afactor (1 ? B) for undrained systems. It is also shown how fractureanisotropy affects Rayleigh wave speed, and how measured Rayleigh wavespeeds can be used to infer shear wave speed of the fractured medium.Higher crack density results are also presented by incorporating recentsimulation data on such cracked systems.

  3. Radionuclide gas transport through nuclear explosion-generated fracture networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-12-17

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gasmore » breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. In conclusion, seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.« less

  4. Radionuclide gas transport through nuclear explosion-generated fracture networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-12-17

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. In conclusion, seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.

  5. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, Randall S.; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Wang, Ying; Kumar, Ananad; Wavrik, Kathryn

    2001-10-29

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs. This research project had three objectives. The first objective was to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas. The second objective was to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems. The third objective was to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs.

  6. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinbo; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Wu, Lili; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Zou, Ke; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  7. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  8. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.829.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.547.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.451.47, and 1.831.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  9. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The first of a three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The objectives of the study are to (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions where fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. Simulation studies were conducted with a dual porosity simulator capable of simulating the performance of vertical and horizontal wells. Each simulator was initialized using properties typical of the Austin Chalk reservoir in Pearsall Field, Texas. Simulations of both vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure change. Sensitivity runs indicate that the simulator is predicting the effects of critical reservoir parameters in a logical and consistent manner. The results to-date confirm that horizontal wells can increase both oil recovery rate and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. The year one simulation results will provide the baseline for the ongoing study which will evaluate the performance degradation caused by the sensitivity of fracture permeability to pressure change, and investigate fluid injection pressure maintenance as a means to improve oil recovery performance. The study is likely to conclude that fracture closure decreases oil recovery and that pressure support achieved through fluid injection could be beneficial in improving recovery.

  10. The Role of Geochemistry and Stress on Fracture Development and Proppant Behavior in EGS Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Develop Improved Methods For Maintaining Permeable Fracture Volumes In EGS Reservoirs.

  11. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  12. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundarayya, Y. Kumar, K. Ashwini Sondge, Rajesh Srinath, S. Kaul, S. N.

    2014-04-24

    Homogeneous single phase ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO{sub 4} undergoes a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

  14. A study of dynamical processes in the Orion KL region using ALMA—probing molecular outflow and inflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2014-08-20

    This work reports high spatial resolution observations toward the Orion KL region with high critical density lines of CH{sub 3}CN (12{sub 4}-11{sub 4}) and CH{sub 3}OH (8{sub –1,8}-7{sub 0,7}), as well as a continuum at ∼1.3 mm band. The observations were made using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array with a spatial resolution of ∼1.''5 and sensitivity of about 0.07 K and ∼0.18 K for continuum and line, respectively. The observational results showed that the gas in the Orion KL region consists of jet-propelled cores at the ridge and dense cores east and south of the region that are shaped like a wedge ring. The outflow has multiple lobes, which may originate from an explosive ejection, and is not driven by young stellar objects. Four infrared bubbles were found in the Spitzer/IRAC emissions. These bubbles, the distributions of the previously found H{sub 2} jets, the young stellar objects, and molecular gas suggest that BN is the explosive center. The burst time was estimated to be ≤1300 yr. At the same time, signatures of gravitational collapse toward Source I and the hot core were detected with material infall velocities of 1.5 km s{sup –1} and ∼0.6 km s{sup –1}, corresponding to mass accretion rates of 1.2 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉}/yr and 8.0 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}/yr, respectively. These observations may support the belief that high-mass stars form via the accretion model, similar to their low-mass counterparts.

  15. Non-thermal gamma-ray emission from delayed pair breakdown in a magnetized and photon-rich outflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, Ramandeep; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: rgill@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    We consider delayed, volumetric heating in a magnetized outflow that has broken out of a confining medium and expanded to a high Lorentz factor (? ? 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3}) and low optical depth to scattering (? {sub T} ? 10{sup 3}-10{sup 2}). The energy flux at breakout is dominated by the magnetic field, with a modest contribution from quasi-thermal gamma rays whose spectrum was calculated in Paper I. We focus on the case of extreme baryon depletion in the magnetized material, but allow for a separate baryonic component that is entrained from a confining medium. Dissipation is driven by relativistic motion between these two components, which develops once the photon compactness drops below 4 10{sup 3}(Y{sub e} /0.5){sup 1}. We first calculate the acceleration of the magnetized component following breakout, showing that embedded MHD turbulence provides significant inertia, the neglect of which leads to unrealistically high estimates of flow Lorentz factor. After reheating begins, the pair and photon distributions are evolved self-consistently using a one-zone kinetic code that incorporates an exact treatment of Compton scattering, pair production and annihilation, and Coulomb scattering. Heating leads to a surge in pair creation, and the scattering depth saturates at ? {sub T} ? 1-4. The plasma maintains a very low ratio of particle to magnetic pressure, and can support strong anisotropy in the charged particle distribution, with cooling dominated by Compton scattering. High-energy power-law spectra with photon indices in the range observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; 3 < ? < 3/2) are obtained by varying the ratio of heat input to the seed energy in quasi-thermal photons. We contrast our results with those for continuous heating across an expanding photosphere, and show that the latter model produces soft-to-hard evolution that is inconsistent with observations of GRBs.

  16. Ly{alpha} ESCAPE FROM z {approx} 0.03 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: THE DOMINANT ROLE OF OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wofford, Aida; Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Salzer, John, E-mail: wofford@stsci.edu [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Swain West 408, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    The usefulness of H I Ly{alpha} photons for characterizing star formation in the distant universe is limited by our understanding of the astrophysical processes that regulate their escape from galaxies. These processes can only be observed in detail out to a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Mpc. Past nearby (z < 0.3) spectroscopic studies are based on small samples and/or kinematically unresolved data. Taking advantage of the high sensitivity of Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), we observed the Ly{alpha} lines of 20 H{alpha}-selected galaxies located at =0.03. The galaxies cover a broad range of luminosity, oxygen abundance, and reddening. In this paper, we characterize the observed Ly{alpha} lines and establish correlations with fundamental galaxy properties. We find seven emitters. These host young ({<=}10 Myr) stellar populations have rest-frame equivalent widths in the range 1-12 A, and have Ly{alpha} escape fractions within the COS aperture in the range 1%-12%. One emitter has a double-peaked Ly{alpha} with peaks 370 km s{sup -1} apart and a stronger blue peak. Excluding this object, the emitters have Ly{alpha} and O I {lambda}1302 offsets from H{alpha} in agreement with expanding-shell models and Lyman break galaxies observations. The absorbers have offsets that are almost consistent with a static medium. We find no one-to-one correspondence between Ly{alpha} emission and age, metallicity, or reddening. Thus, we confirm that Ly{alpha} is enhanced by outflows and is regulated by the dust and H I column density surrounding the hot stars.

  17. Measuring the seeds of ion outflow: auroral sounding rocket observations of low-altitude ion heating and circulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M.; Hampton, D. L.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Cohen, I. J.; Conde, M.; Fisher, L. E.; Horak, P.; Lessard, M. R.; et al

    2016-01-25

    Here, we present an analysis of in situ measurements from the MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator) nightside auroral sounding rocket with comparisons to a multifluid ionospheric model. MICA made observations at altitudes below 325 km of the thermal ion kinetic particle distributions that are the origins of ion outflow. Late flight, in the vicinity of an auroral arc, we observe frictional processes controlling the ion temperature. Upflow of these cold ions is attributed to either the ambipolar field resulting from the heated electrons or possibly to ion-neutral collisions. We measure E→xB→ convection away from the arc (poleward) andmore » downflows of hundreds of m s-1 poleward of this arc, indicating small-scale low-altitude plasma circulation. In the early flight we observe DC electromagnetic Poynting flux and associated ELF wave activity influencing the thermal ion temperature in regions of Alfvénic aurora. We observe enhanced, anisotropic ion temperatures which we conjecture are caused by transverse heating by wave-particle interactions (WPI) even at these low altitudes. Throughout this region we observe several hundred m s-1 upflow of the bulk thermal ions colocated with WPI; however, the mirror force is negligible at these low energies; thus, the upflow is attributed to ambipolar fields (or possibly neutral upwelling drivers). Moreover, the low-altitude MICA observations serve to inform future ionospheric modeling and simulations of (a) the need to consider the effects of heating by WPI at altitudes lower than previously considered viable and (b) the occurrence of structured and localized upflows/downflows below where higher-altitude heating rocesses are expected.« less

  18. In situ experiments of geothermal well stimulation using gas fracturing technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.Y.; Warpinski, N.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1988-07-01

    The results of an experimental study of gas fracturing technology for geothermal well stimulation demonstrated that multiple fractures could be created to link water-filled boreholes with existing fractures. The resulting fracture network and fracture interconnections were characterized by mineback as well as flow tests. Commercial oil field fracturing tools were used successfully in these experiments. Simple scaling laws for gas fracturing and a brief discussion of the application of this technique to actual geothermal well stimulation are presented. 10 refs., 42 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I; II; and III (tensile; shear; and tearing propagation of multiple fractures using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB); to predict geothermal reservoir stimulation.

  20. Fracture and thermal aging of resin-filled silicone elastomers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Fracture and thermal aging of resin-filled ... Publication Date: 2016-03-24 OSTI Identifier: 1236865 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  1. Simple Model Representations of Transport in a Complex Fracture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    It is common, however, to represent the complex fracture by much simpler models consisting ... Simple-model properties are often inferred from the analysis of short-term (one to a few ...

  2. IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    affects the wall rock at distances of 5 to 10 feet beyond the fracture. Authors Dilley, L.M.; Newman, D.L. ; McCulloch and J.; Published PROCEEDINGS, Thirtieth Workshop on...

  3. Simple Model Representations of Transport in a Complex Fracture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects on Long-Term Predictions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simple Model Representations of Transport in a Complex Fracture and Their Effects on Long-Term ...

  4. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface ...

  5. Integrated real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engi, D

    1983-01-01

    The use of an integrated, real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system for the control of the fracturing treatment during massive hydraulic fracturing is proposed. The proposed system consists of four subsystems: an internal-fracture-pressure measurement system, a fluid-flow measurement system, a borehole seismic system, and a surface-electric-potential measurement system. This use of borehole seismic and surface-electric-potential measurements, which are essentially away-from-the-wellbore measurements, in conjunction with the use of the more commonly used types of measurements, i.e., at-the-wellbore pressure and fluid-flow measurements, is a distinctive feature of the composite real-time diagnostics system. Currently, the real-time capabilities of the individual subsystems are being developed, and the problems associated with their integration into a complete, computer-linked instrumentation system are being addressed. 2 figures.

  6. A Comprehensive Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    specific knowledge of these in the Geysers area. (2)By locating zones of high fracture density it will be possible to reduce the cost of geothermal power development with the...

  7. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is much

  8. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnectionmore » of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is

  9. Chemical Signatures of and Precursors to Fractures Using Fluid Inclusion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stratigraphy; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Stratigraphy; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Chemical Signatures of and Precursors to Fractures Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review reservoir_035_dilley.pdf (217.42 KB) More Documents & Publications The Role of Geochemistry and Stress on Fracture Development and Proppant

  10. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, Randall; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Wang, Ying; Kumar, Anand; Wavrik, Kathryn

    2001-09-07

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas, (2) to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems, and (3) to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs. Work was directed at both injection wells and production wells and at vertical, horizontal, and highly deviated wells.

  11. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  12. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review seismic_022_queen.pdf (195.2 KB) More Documents & Publications Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer

  13. Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure | Department of Energy Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  14. Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoir Analysis; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Analysis; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review reservoir_031_horne.pdf (209.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal

  15. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid The Laboratory team used a combination of experiments and modeling for the investigation. June 25, 2015 Simulation of a selection of the particle trajectories toward the well. Simulation of a selection of the particle trajectories toward the well. Communications Office (505) 667-7000 The Laboratory research is part of an ongoing project to make the necessary measurements and develop

  16. The Convergence of Heat, Groundwater & Fracture Permeability. Innovative

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Play Fairway Modelling Applied to the Tularosa Basin Phase 1 Project Report (Other) | SciTech Connect Other: The Convergence of Heat, Groundwater & Fracture Permeability. Innovative Play Fairway Modelling Applied to the Tularosa Basin Phase 1 Project Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Convergence of Heat, Groundwater & Fracture Permeability. Innovative Play Fairway Modelling Applied to the Tularosa Basin Phase 1 Project Report This report summarizes the activities

  17. Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuderman, J F

    1981-12-01

    Recent experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have demonstrated the existence of three distinct fracture regimes. Depending on the pressure rise time in a borehole, one can obtain hydraulic, multiple, or explosive fracturing behavior. The use of propellants rather than explosives in tamped boreholes permits tailoring of the pressure risetime over a wide range since propellants having a wide range of burn rates are available. This technique of using the combustion gases from a full bore propellant charge to produce controlled borehole pressurization is termed High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF). Several series of HEGF, in 0.15 m and 0.2 m diameter boreholes at 12 m depths, have been completed in a tunnel complex at NTS where mineback permitted direct observation of fracturing obtained. Because such large experiments are costly and time consuming, smaller scale experiments are desirable, provided results from small experiments can be used to predict fracture behavior in larger boreholes. In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semi-empirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site, (2) prediction of average crack radius, in ash fall tuff, as a function of borehole size and energy input per unit length, (3) definition of multiple-hydraulic and multiple-explosive fracture boundaries as a function of boreholes size and surface wave velocity, (4) semi-empirical criteria for estimating stress and acceleration, and (5) a proposal that multiple fracture orientations may be governed by in situ stresses.

  18. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Reservoirs; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review reservoir_028_ghassmi.pdf (203.27 KB) More Documents & Publications Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS); 2010

  19. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Enhanced Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Creation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review reservoir_033_rose.pdf (207.82 KB) More Documents & Publications Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Stimulation

  20. Using resistivity to assess Niobrara fracture patterns for horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.A.; Bartshe, R.T. )

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports on interest in U.S. horizontal drilling which has largely focused on vertically fractured plays such as the Bakken shale and Austin chalk. The Upper Cretaceous Niobrara formation, the chronological equivalent of the Austin chalk, has recently been targeted as a candidate for horizontal drilling in the Denver basin and other areas of the Rocky Mountains. A primary key to success in such plays is to predict the occurrence and distribution of oil bearing fracture systems. Much emphasis is placed on theoretical aspects of fracture origin and prediction. Remote sensing techniques (e.g., seismic, satellite image analysis) have gained wide use in the search for fractured reservoirs. While these methods are important elements of an integrated exploration effort, they lack the benefit of direct detection of open, oil saturated fracture systems. In the areas of the Denver basin in which the Niobrara is oil prone, certain resistivity responses are indicative of the proximity of oil bearing fractures to the well bore. This provides an extremely useful technique in areas of pre-existing well control penetrating the Niobrara section. As such, the Denver basin is an ideal area due to the large number of penetrations to the Lower Cretaceous D and J sandstones that underlie the Niobrara.

  1. Method for enhancing heavy oil production using hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Smith, R.C.

    1991-04-09

    This patent describes a method for producing viscous substantially fines-free hydrocarbonaceous fluids from an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated formation. It comprises drilling into the formation at least one well into a first productive interval of the formation; fracturing hydraulically the well with a viscous fracturing fluid containing a proppant therein which is of a size sufficient to prop a created fracture and restrict fines movement into the fracture which proppant comprises silicon carbide, silicon nitride, or garnet; injecting a pre-determined volume of steam into the well in an amount sufficient to soften the viscous fluid and lower the viscosity of the fluid adjacent a fracture face producing the well at a rate sufficient to allow formation fines to build up on a fracture face communicating with the well thereby resulting in a filter screen sufficient to substantially remove formation fines from the hydrocarbonaceous fluids; injecting a second volume of steam into the well and producing substantially fines free hydrocarbonaceous fluids to the surface; repeating steps until a desired amount of hydrocarbonaceous fluids have been produced from the first interval; and isolating mechanically the first interval and repeating steps in a second productive interval of the formation.

  2. Overpressure history of fractures, West Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrolijk, P.J.; Pottorf, R.J.; Maze, W.B.

    1996-08-01

    Prediction of density of natural fractures in reservoir rocks requires evaluation of many factors, including the effective stress and thus fluid pressure conditions through time. In this study we use analyses of fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures with burial and thermal history models to assess the fluid pressure history and the causes of overpressure in the West Maracaibo Basin. We analyzed abundant oil-filled and rare aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures in the La Luna Formation source rock and in the underlying Cogollo Gp. carbonate reservoir. Our analyses of fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and fluorescence properties lead us to the interpretation of near-lithostatic paleo-fluid pressures in La Luna Formation and near-lithostatic to hydrostatic fluid pressures in the Cogollo, Gp. fractures. Maturation and expulsion of oil from the La Luna Formation source rock is required to generate the large inferred excess pressures as compaction disequilibrium and thermal expansion of pore fluids from rapid Miocene burial are insufficient to achieve near-lithostatic conditions. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of decreasing paleo- and modern fluid pressures with depth beneath the La Luna Formation. Thus based on the wide occurrence of oil-filled inclusions in calcite-filled fractures and the high fluid pressures associated with trapped oils, we infer extensive rock fracture under overpressured conditions near maximum Miocene burial, during inferred late source rock yield, and during Miocene growth of structural traps.

  3. Peri-prosthetic fracture vibration testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruce, Jesse R; Erwin, Jenny R; Remick, Kevin R; Cornwell, Phillip J; Menegini, R. Michael; Racanelli, Joe

    2010-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to establish a test setup and vibration analysis method to predict femoral stem seating and prevent bone fracture using accelerometer and force response data from an instrumented stem and impactor. This study builds upon earlier studies to identify a means to supplement a surgeon's tactile and auditory senses by using damage identification techniques normally used for civil and mechanical structures. Testing was conducted using foam cortical shell sawbones prepared for stems of different geometries. Each stem was instrumented with an accelerometer. Two impactor designs were compared: a monolithic impactor and a two-piece impactor, each with an integrated load cell and accelerometer. Acceleration and force measurements were taken in the direction of impaction. Comparisons between different methods of applying an impacting force were made, including a drop tower and a surgical hammer. The effect of varying compliance on the data was also investigated. The ultimate goal of this study was to assist in the design of an integrated portable data acquisition system capable of being used in future cadaveric testing. This paper will discuss the experimental setup and the subsequent results of the comparisons made between impactors, prosthetic geometries, compliances, and impact methods. The results of this study can be used for both future replicate testing as well as in a cadaveric environment.

  4. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  5. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  6. Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UVvis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide and study of their optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.; Gharbi, N.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured ZnO were successfully obtained by a hydrothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic precursor and molar ratio are key factors for morphology and particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties were also studied. -- Abstract: Nanostructured ZnO (nanorods, nanoshuttles) have been synthesized by hydrothermal approach using ZnCl{sub 2} or Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as zinc sources and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. Techniques X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the nanostructured zinc oxide. The optical properties of the as-obtained materials were also studied and showing that it is possible to apply the ZnO nanoshuttles and nanorods on the UV filter, photocatalysis, and special optical devices.

  8. Efficient removal rhodamine B over hydrothermally synthesized fishbone like BiVO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xue; Li, Hongji; Yu, Lili; Zhao, Han; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunbo; Zhai, Hongjv

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product was synthesized through hydrothermal method. BiVO{sub 4} sample was characterized by various characterization technologies. Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} presented outstanding photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method without using any surfactant or template. The pH value was found to play an important role in the formation of this morphology. The band gap of the as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample was estimated to be about 2.36 eV from the onset of UVvis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UVvis DRS) of the photocatalyst. The as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample exhibited excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Over this catalyst, the 100% degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) (0.005 mmol L{sup ?1}) was obtained after visible light irradiation (? > 420 nm) for 180 min. This is much higher than that of bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample prepared by solid-state reaction. The reason for the differences in the photocatalytic activities of fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample and bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample was further investigated.

  9. Low temperature hydrothermal maturation of organic matter in sediments form the Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simoneit, B.R.; Grimalt, J.O.; Hayes, J.M.; Hartman, H.

    1987-04-01

    Hydrocarbons and bulk organic matter of two sediment cores located within the Atlantis II Deep have been analyzed. Although the brines overlying the coring areas were reported to be sterile, microbial inputs and minor terrestrial sources represent the major sedimentary organic material. This input is derived from the upper water column above the brines. Both steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons show that extensive acid-catalyzed reactions are occurring in the sediments. In comparison with other hydrothermal or intrusive systems, the Atlantis II Deep exhibits a lower degree of thermal maturation. This is easily deduced from the elemental composition of the kerogens and the absence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of a pyrolytic origin in the bitumen. The lack of carbon number preference among the n-alkanes suggests, especially in the case of the long chain homologs, that the organic matter of Atlantis II Deep sediments has undergone some degree catagenesis. However, the yields of hydrocarbons are much lower than those observed in other hydrothermal areas. The effect of lower temperature and poor source-rock characteristics appear to be responsible for the differences.

  10. The low temperature hydrothermal system of Campiglia, Tuscany (Italy); A geochemical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celati, R.; Grassi, S.; D'Amore, F.; Marcolini, L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Campiglia hydrothermal system which is a low temperature hydrothermal system located in southwestern Tuscany, a region of Italy characterized by intense geothermal activity and by the presence of high temperature exploited geothermal reservoirs. Six water-points, with temperatures ranging between 20 and 47{degrees} C and different chemical and isotopic compositions, are found close to the margins of outcrops of the main regional aquifer formation. Systematic hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic observations and temperature measurements were carried out on the different springs and wells for a period of three years (1984-1986). Constant water characteristics with time were observed in four water-points; two wells had variable trends depending on mixing processes. A groundwater circulation model characterized by flowpaths of different length and depth is suggested by the variety of chemical and isotopic characteristics and is consistent with geothermometry, which indicates temperatures up to 25{degrees} C higher than those measured at the spring emergencies. An important water supply to the system comes from local recharge, although regional circulation may also be present, particularly in the eastern part of the investigated area.

  11. Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action, and Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Zhengxin Tong; Evren Unsal; Siluni Wickramathilaka; Shaochang Wo; Peigui Yin

    2008-06-30

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  12. Computational Modeling of Fluid Flow through a Fracture in Permeable Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H

    2010-01-01

    Laminar, single-phase, finite-volume solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations of fluid flow through a fracture within permeable media have been obtained. The fracture geometry was acquired from computed tomography scans of a fracture in Berea sandstone, capturing the small-scale roughness of these natural fluid conduits. First, the roughness of the two-dimensional fracture profiles was analyzed and shown to be similar to Brownian fractal structures. The permeability and tortuosity of each fracture profile was determined from simulations of fluid flow through these geometries with impermeable fracture walls. A surrounding permeable medium, assumed to obey Darcy’s Law with permeabilities from 0.2 to 2,000 millidarcies, was then included in the analysis. A series of simulations for flows in fractured permeable rocks was performed, and the results were used to develop a relationship between the flow rate and pressure loss for fractures in porous rocks. The resulting frictionfactor, which accounts for the fracture geometric properties, is similar to the cubic law; it has the potential to be of use in discrete fracture reservoir-scale simulations of fluid flow through highly fractured geologic formations with appreciable matrix permeability. The observed fluid flow from the surrounding permeable medium to the fracture was significant when the resistance within the fracture and the medium were of the same order. An increase in the volumetric flow rate within the fracture profile increased by more than 5% was observed for flows within high permeability-fractured porous media.

  13. Microsoft Word - NRAP-TRS-III-003-2014_Characterization of Experimental Fracture Alteration and Fluid Flow in Fractured Natural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characterization of Experimental Fracture Alteration and Fluid Flow in Fractured Natural Seals 25 August 2014 Office of Fossil Energy NRAP-TRS-III-003-2014 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

  14. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of fractured reservoirs; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howrie, I.; Dauben, D.

    1994-03-01

    A three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The overall objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions for which fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. The evaluations of reservoir performance were made by a modern dual porosity simulator, TETRAD. This simulator treats both porosity and permeability as functions of pore pressure. The Austin Chalk in the Pearsall Field in of South Texas was selected as the prototype fractured reservoir for this work. During the first year, simulations of vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure change. Sensitivity runs indicated that the simulator was predicting the effects of critical reservoir parameters in a logical and consistent manner. The results confirmed that horizontal wells could increase both rate of oil recovery and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. In the second year, the performance of the same vertical and horizontal wells was reevaluated with fracture permeability treated as a function of reservoir pressure. To investigate sensitivity to in situ stress, differing loading conditions were assumed. Simulated natural depletions confirm that pressure sensitive fractures degrade well performance. The severity of degradation worsens when the initial reservoir pressure approaches the average stress condition of the reservoir, such as occurs in over pressured reservoirs. Simulations with water injection indicate that degradation of permeability can be counteracted when reservoir pressure is maintained and oil recovery can be increased when reservoir properties are favorable.

  15. Hydrothermal Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SubTER Crosscut The US Energy Department and National Laboratories have created a crosscutting initiative focused on revolutionizing sustainable subsurface energy production and ...

  16. Hydrothermal Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These geothermal systems can occur in widely diverse geologic settings, sometimes without clear surface manifestations of the underlying resource. In 2008, the U.S. Geological ...

  17. Evidence for wide-spread active galactic nucleus-driven outflows in the most massive z ? 1-2 star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genzel, R.; Frster Schreiber, N. M.; Rosario, D.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Bender, R.; Berta, S.; Kurk, J.; Mendel, J. T.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wilman, D.; Beifiori, A.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Chan, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fr extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brammer, G., E-mail: forster@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2014-11-20

    In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) ? 10.9) z ? 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) ? 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS{sup 3D}spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the H?, [N II], and [S II] lines ?450-5300 km s{sup 1}), with large [N II]/H? ratios, above log(M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) ? 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ? 1 and ?2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.

  18. Reactor Pressure Vessel Fracture Analysis Capabilities in Grizzly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Benjamin; Backman, Marie; Chakraborty, Pritam; Hoffman, William

    2015-03-01

    Efforts have been underway to develop fracture mechanics capabilities in the Grizzly code to enable it to be used to perform deterministic fracture assessments of degraded reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). Development in prior years has resulted a capability to calculate -integrals. For this application, these are used to calculate stress intensity factors for cracks to be used in deterministic linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) assessments of fracture in degraded RPVs. The -integral can only be used to evaluate stress intensity factors for axis-aligned flaws because it can only be used to obtain the stress intensity factor for pure Mode I loading. Off-axis flaws will be subjected to mixed-mode loading. For this reason, work has continued to expand the set of fracture mechanics capabilities to permit it to evaluate off-axis flaws. This report documents the following work to enhance Grizzly’s engineering fracture mechanics capabilities for RPVs: • Interaction Integral and -stress: To obtain mixed-mode stress intensity factors, a capability to evaluate interaction integrals for 2D or 3D flaws has been developed. A -stress evaluation capability has been developed to evaluate the constraint at crack tips in 2D or 3D. Initial verification testing of these capabilities is documented here. • Benchmarking for axis-aligned flaws: Grizzly’s capabilities to evaluate stress intensity factors for axis-aligned flaws have been benchmarked against calculations for the same conditions in FAVOR. • Off-axis flaw demonstration: The newly-developed interaction integral capabilities are demon- strated in an application to calculate the mixed-mode stress intensity factors for off-axis flaws. • Other code enhancements: Other enhancements to the thermomechanics capabilities that relate to the solution of the engineering RPV fracture problem are documented here.

  19. The development of in situ fracture toughness evaluation techniques in hydrogen environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei; Tan, Ting; Liu, Ken C

    2014-01-01

    Fracture behavior and fracture toughness are of great interest regarding reliability of hydrogen pipelines and storage tanks, however, many conventional fracture testing techniques are difficult to be realized under the presence of hydrogen, in addition to the inherited specimen size effect. Thus it is desired to develop novel in situ fracture toughness evaluation techniques to study the fracture behavior of structural materials in hydrogen environments. In this study, a torsional fixture was developed to utilize an emerging fracture testing technique, Spiral Notch Torsion Test (SNTT). The in situ testing results indicated that the exposure to H2 significantly reduces the fracture toughness of 4340 high strength steels by up to 50 percent. Furthermore, SNTT tests conducted in air demonstrated a significant fracture toughness reduction in samples subject to simulated welding heat treatment using Gleeble, which illustrated the effect of welding on the fracture toughness of this material.

  20. EVIDENCE FOR ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. DETAILED PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF Fe K-SHELL ABSORPTION LINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tombesi, F.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.

    2011-11-20

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s{sup -1} and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from {approx}10,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.03c) up to {approx}100,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.3c), with a peak and mean value of {approx}42,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log {xi} {approx} 3-6 erg s{sup -1} cm, with a mean value of log {xi} {approx} 4.2 erg s{sup -1} cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 22}-10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}, with a mean value of N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of

  1. Funding Opportunity: Geothermal Technologies Program Seeks Technologies to Reduce Levelized Cost of Electricity for Hydrothermal Development and EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Technologies Program seeks non-prime mover technologies that have the potential to contribute to reducing the levelized cost of electricity from new hydrothermal development to 6¢/ kWh by 2020 and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) to 6¢/ kWh by 2030.

  2. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobhani, Azam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X

  3. Evaluating the effect of internal aperture variability on transport in kilometer scale discrete fracture networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Painter, Scott L.; Gable, Carl W.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2016-06-17

    The apertures of natural fractures in fractured rock are highly heterogeneous. However, in-fracture aperture variability is often neglected in flow and transport modeling and individual fractures are assumed to have uniform aperture distribution. The relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling within kilometer18 scale field–scale fracture networks has been under a matter of debate for a long time because the flow in each single fracture is controlled not only by in-fracture variability but also by boundary conditions. Computational limitations have previously prohibited researchers from investigating the relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling withinmore » large-scale fracture networks. We address this question by incorporating internal heterogeneity of individual fractures into 23 flow simulations within kilometer scale three-dimensional fracture networks, where fracture intensity, P32 (ratio between total fracture area and domain volume) is between 0.027 and 0.031 [1/m]. A recently developed discrete fracture network (DFN) simulation capability, dfnWorks, is used to generate DFNs that include in-fracture aperture variability represented by a stationary log-normal stochastic field with various correlation lengths and variances. The Lagrangian transport parameters, non-reacting travel time and cumulative retention, are calculated along particles streamlines. It is observed that due to local flow channeling early particle travel times are more sensitive to in-fracture variability than the tails of travel time distributions, where no significant effect of the in-fracture transmissivity variations and spatial correlation length is observed.« less

  4. Oil Recovery Enhancement from Fractured, Low Permeability Reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Poston, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks. Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  5. Modeling the Fracture of Ice Sheets on Parallel Computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waisman, Haim; Tuminaro, Ray

    2013-10-10

    The objective of this project was to investigate the complex fracture of ice and understand its role within larger ice sheet simulations and global climate change. This objective was achieved by developing novel physics based models for ice, novel numerical tools to enable the modeling of the physics and by collaboration with the ice community experts. At the present time, ice fracture is not explicitly considered within ice sheet models due in part to large computational costs associated with the accurate modeling of this complex phenomena. However, fracture not only plays an extremely important role in regional behavior but also influences ice dynamics over much larger zones in ways that are currently not well understood. To this end, our research findings through this project offers significant advancement to the field and closes a large gap of knowledge in understanding and modeling the fracture of ice sheets in the polar regions. Thus, we believe that our objective has been achieved and our research accomplishments are significant. This is corroborated through a set of published papers, posters and presentations at technical conferences in the field. In particular significant progress has been made in the mechanics of ice, fracture of ice sheets and ice shelves in polar regions and sophisticated numerical methods that enable the solution of the physics in an efficient way.

  6. Method for selectively orienting induced fractures in subterranean earth formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-02-01

    The orientation of hydraulically-induced fractures in relatively deep subterranean earth formations is normally confined to vertical projections along a plane parallel to the maximum naturally occurring (tectonic) compressive stress field. It was found that this plane of maximum compressive stress may be negated and, in effect, re-oriented in a plane projecting generally orthogonal to the original tectonic stress plane by injecting liquid at a sufficiently high pressure into a wellbore fracture oriented in a plane parallel to the plane of tectonic stress for the purpose of stressing the surrounding earth formation in a plane generally orthogonal to the plane of tectonic stress. With the plane of maximum compressive stress re-oriented due to the presence of the induced compressive stress, liquid under pressure is injected into a second wellbore disposed within the zone influenced by the induced compressive stress but at a location in the earth formation laterally spaced from the fracture in the first wellbore for effecting a fracture in the second wellbore along a plane generally orthogonal to the fracture in the first wellbore.

  7. Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C.; Springer, E.P.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

  8. Computerized tomographic analysis of fluid flow in fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felice, C.W.; Sharer, J.C. ); Springer, E.P. )

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate the usefulness of X-ray computerized tomography to observe fluid flow down a fracture and rock matrix imbibition in a sample of Bandelier tuff. This was accomplished by using a tuff sample 152.4 mm long and 50.8 mm in diameter. A longitudinal fracture was created by cutting the core with a wire saw. The fractured piece was then coupled to its adjacent section to that the fracture was not expected. Water was injected into a dry sample at five flow rates and CT scanning performed at set intervals during the flow. Cross sectional images and longitudinal reconstructions were built and saturation profiles calculated for the sample at each time interval at each flow rate. The results showed that for the test conditions, the fracture was not a primary pathway of fluid flow down the sample. At a slow fluid injection rate into the dry sample, the fluid was imbibed into the rock uniformly down the length of the core. With increasing injection rates, the flow remained uniform over the core cross section through complete saturation.

  9. Field fracturing multi-sites project. Annual technical progress report, July 28, 1993--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project (M-Site) is to conduct experiments to definitively determine hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments will be conducted to provide data which will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fluid fracture rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment, as well as surface facilities and equipment that are conducive to acquiring high-quality data. The goal is to develop a fully characterized, tight reservoir-typical, field-scale hydraulic-fracturing test site.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  11. Preliminary evidence for fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes in ore-forming hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastoe, C.J.; Guilbert, J.M. ); Kaufmann, R.S. )

    1989-03-01

    Chloride from fluid inclusions in hydrothermal minerals is found to have variable and distinctive {delta}{sup 37}Cl values spanning the range -1.1 0/{per thousand} to +0.8 {per thousand}. In Mississippi Valley-type deposits of Tennessee, brines of high (>0{per thousand}) and low (near -1{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 37}Cl are present. High {delta}{sup 37}Cl brines may be saline formation waters, but low {delta}{sup 37}Cl brines remain unexplained. In porphyry copper deposits, both high {delta}{sup 37}Cl (0.8{per thousand}, 0.3{per thousand}) and low {delta}{sup 37}Cl (-1.1{per thousand}, 0.7{per thousand}) hypersaline brines of probable magmatic origin occur. High-salinity magmatic brines with low {delta}{sup 37}Cl values contrast isotopically with high {delta}{sup 37}Cl, less concentrated brines responsible for quartz-sericite-pyrite assemblages.

  12. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase III final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Wartman, B.L.; Anderson, S.B.

    1982-08-01

    The hydrothermal resources of North Dakota were evaluated. This evaluation was based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples were done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those holes-of-convenience cased.

  13. Process improvement studies on the Battelle Hydrothermal Coal Process. Final report, April 1978-April 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stambaugh, E.P.; Miller, J.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Mezey, E.J.; Smith, R.K.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives results of a study to improve the economic viability of the Battelle Hydrothermal (HT) Coal Process by reducing the costs associated with liquid/solid separation and leachant regeneration. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate process improvements for (1) separating the spent leachant and residual sodium from the coal product, (2) reducing the moisture content of the coal product, and (3) regenerating the leachant. In addition, coal desulfurization experiments were performed and economic studies were conducted to evaluate the impacts of process improvements on coal desulfurization costs. Using countercurrent washing, the optimum washing circuit was composed of four disc-filter stages, six belt-filter stages to separate spent leachant and sodium from the clean coal, and a centrifuge stage to dewater the coal. Several regenerates were found to be effective in removing greater than about 85% of the total sulfide sulfur from the spent leachant: iron carbonate was the leading candidate.

  14. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  15. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  16. Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhe; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Guangci; Hu, Xiaofu; Liu, Chenguang

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► The γ-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ► Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ► Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ► A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the γ-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

  17. Characterizing Microbial Community and Geochemical Dynamics at Hydrothermal Vents Using Osmotically Driven Continuous Fluid Samplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robidart, Julie C.; Callister, Stephen J.; Song, Peng F.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wheat, Charles G.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2013-05-07

    Microbes play a key role in mediating all aquatic biogeochemical cycles, and ongoing efforts are aimed at better understanding the relationships between microbial phylogenetic and physiological diversity, and habitat physical and chemical characteristics. Establishing such relationships is facilitated by sampling and studying microbiology and geochemistry at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales, to access information on the past and current environmental state that contributes to observed microbial abundances and activities. A modest number of sampling systems exist to date, few of which can be used in remote, harsh environments such as hydrothermal vents, where the ephemeral nature of venting underscores the necessity for higher resolution sampling. We have developed a robust, continuous fluid sampling system for co-registered microbial and biogeochemical analyses. The osmosis-powered bio-osmosampling system (BOSS) use no electricity, collects fluids with daily resolution or better, can be deployed in harsh, inaccessible environments and can sample fluids continuously for up to five years. Here we present a series of tests to examine DNA, RNA and protein stability over time, as well as material compatability, via lab experiments. We also conducted two field deployments at deep-sea hydrothermal vents to assess changes in microbial diversity and protein expression as a function of the physico-chemical environment. Our data reveal significant changes in microbial community composition co-occurring with relatively modest changes in the geochemistry. These data additionally provide new insights into the distribution of an enigmatic sulfur oxidizing symbiont in its free-living state. Data from the second deployment reveal differences in the representation of peptides over time, underscoring the utility of the BOSS in meta-proteomic studies. In concert, these data demonstrate the efficacy of this approach, and illustrate the value of using this method to study

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of anions-doped calcium molybdate red powder phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Shikao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Ji

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Four anion-doped CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphors were prepared by hydrothermal approach. Some samples exhibit nearly spherical morphology and well-distributed fine particles. The red luminescence can be obviously enhanced after certain amount of anion doping. The improved phosphor system is a potential candidate for white LED applications. - Abstract: Applying hydrothermal and subsequent heat-treatment process, CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} was doped with four anions (SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}) to prepare fine red powder phosphors. The introduction of small amount of anions into the host had little influence on the structure, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The anion-doped phosphor samples (except SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) exhibited nearly spherical morphology, and the particle sizes were in the range of 0.30.4 ?m for SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}-doped samples, and 0.81.2 ?m for PO{sub 4}{sup 3?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples. Excited with 395 nm near-UV light, all samples showed typical Eu{sup 3+} red emission at 615 nm, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples enhanced the red luminescence as compared with the individual CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} sample. In particular, relative emission intensity for optimum ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped phosphors reached more than 6-fold that of the commercial red phosphor, which is highly desirable for the powder phosphors used in the solid-state lighting industry.

  19. Characterization of the Aqueous Fractions from Hydrotreatment and Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panisko, Ellen A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Howe, Daniel T.

    2015-03-01

    In this study the aqueous phases resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass and the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis bio-oils were analyzed via TC, COD, GC-MS, GC-FID, HPLC, and ICP-OES to determine the organic and inorganic species present and the quantitative amounts of each. This work is necessary to address a significant knowledge gap in the literature related to the aqueous phases from thermochemical processes. Results showed that water from the hydrotreatment of eight different bio-oils contained less than 1 wt% total carbon, in many cases less than 0.2%. Negligible organic carbon was observed. Hydrothermal liquefaction samples contained between 1-2 wt% carbon, accounting for 34 – 45% of the total carbon sent to the reactor. The majority of this carbon was present as acids, with glycolic acid and acetic acid having the highest concentrations. Alcohols, specifically methanol and ethanol, were also present. Numerous ketones were observed, consisting of mainly acetone and cyclopenta-ones. The amount of the total carbon identified and quantified in the HTL samples ranged from 64 – 82%. Inorganic species present in the HT samples were sodium, silicon, and sulfur. The highest levels of sulfur were observed in the grasses and agricultural residue (corn stover). The HTL samples exhibited much higher inorganic content, with very high levels of sodium and potassium. Alkali and alkali earth metals, as well as sulfur, were also present at levels high enough to raise concerns for the use of catalysts in downstream upgrading or reforming processes.

  20. Eruptive history and petrochemistry of the Bulusan volcanic complex: Implications for the hydrothermal system and volcanic hazards of Mt. Bulusan, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delfin, F.G. Jr.; Panem, C.C.; Defant, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Two contrasting conceptual models of the postcaldera magmatic system of the Bulusan volcanic complex are constructed on the basis of a synthesis of volcanological, petrochemical, and petrologic data. These models predict that hydrothermal convection below the complex will occur either in discrete, structurally-focused zones or over a much broader area. Both models, however, agree that hydrothermal fluids at depth will be highly acidic and volcanic-related. Future ash-fall eruptions and mudflows are likely to affect the area previously chosen for possible drilling. Such risks, combined with the expected acidic character of the hydrothermal system, argue against drilling into this system.

  1. LBL/Industry fractured reservoir performance definition project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    One of the problems facing the petroleum industry is the recovery of oil from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs and from reservoirs that have been partially depleted. In response to this need, several companies, notably British Petroleum USA, (BP) and Continental Oil Company (CONOCO), have established integrated reservoir description programs. Concurrently, LBL is actively involved in developing characterization technology for heterogeneous, fractured rock, mainly for DOE`s Civilian Nuclear Waste Program as well as Geothermal Energy programs. The technology developed for these programs was noticed by the petroleum industry and resulted in cooperative research centered on the petroleum companies test facilities. The emphasis of this work is a tightly integrated interdisciplinary approach to the problem of characterizing complex, heterogeneous earth materials. In this approach we explicitly combine the geologic, geomechanical, geophysical and hydrologic information in a unified model for predicting fluid flow. The overall objective is to derive improved integrated approaches to characterizing naturally fractured gas reservoirs.

  2. Inverse problems in heterogeneous and fractured media using peridynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Daniel Z.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Parks, Michael L.

    2015-12-10

    The following work presents an adjoint-based methodology for solving inverse problems in heterogeneous and fractured media using state-based peridynamics. We show that the inner product involving the peridynamic operators is self-adjoint. The proposed method is illustrated for several numerical examples with constant and spatially varying material parameters as well as in the context of fractures. We also present a framework for obtaining material parameters by integrating digital image correlation (DIC) with inverse analysis. This framework is demonstrated by evaluating the bulk and shear moduli for a sample of nuclear graphite using digital photographs taken during the experiment. The resulting measured values correspond well with other results reported in the literature. Lastly, we show that this framework can be used to determine the load state given observed measurements of a crack opening. Furthermore, this type of analysis has many applications in characterizing subsurface stress-state conditions given fracture patterns in cores of geologic material.

  3. Factors affecting ductile fracture in offshore gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxey, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of experimental research conducted during the past 3 year with the objective of understanding ductile fracture propagation in the offshore environment. Experiments have been conducted to examine decompression phenomenon inside the carrier pipe when the exhausting gas is in a simulated deep-water environment. Ductile fracture experiments of 12-inch pipe in a simulated deep offshore environment also have been examined. The most current research is designed to examine the pressure waves in the water surrounding the pipeline that are caused by the sudden release of gas from a rupture and the resulting lower differential pressure across the pipe wall thickness. The research to date suggests that long running ductile fracture propagation in an offshore pipline is less probable than in an onshore pipeline. Future research is planned with a full-scale experiment in a water-filled quarry and in the real offshore environment.

  4. Minimizing damage to a propped fracture by controlled flowback procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, B.M.; Holditch, S.A.; Whitehead, W.S.

    1988-06-01

    Severe fracture-conductivity damage can result from proppant crushing and/or proppant flowback into the wellbore. Such damage is often concentrated near the wellbore and can directly affect postfracture performance. Most of the time severe fracture-conductivity damage can be minimized by choosing the correct type of proppant for a particular well. In many cases, however, this is not enough. To minimize excessive crushing or to prevent proppant flowback, it is also necessary to control carefully the flowback of the well after the treatment. Specific procedures can be followed to minimize severe fracture-conductivity damage. These procedures involve controlling the rates at which load fluids are recovered and maximizing backpressure against the formation. These procedures require much more time and effort than is normally spent on postfracture cleanup; however, the efforts could result in better performance.

  5. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, T.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y.

    1997-04-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  6. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  7. A new friction factor correlation for laminar, single-phase flows through rock fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazridoust, K. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

    2006-09-30

    Single-phase flow through fractured media occurs in various situations, such as transport of dissolved contaminants through geological strata, sequestration of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs, and in primary oil recovery. In the present study, fluid flows through a rock fracture were simulated. The fracture geometry was obtained from the CT scans of a rock fracture produced by the Brazilian method in a sandstone sample. A post-processing code using a CAD package was developed and used to generate the three-dimensional fracture from the CT scan data. Several sections along the fracture were considered and the GambitTM code was used to generate unstructured grids for flow simulations. FLUENTTM was used to analyze the flow conditions through the fracture section for different flow rates. Because of the small aperture of the fractures, the gravitational effects could be neglected. It was confirmed that the pressure drop was dominated by the smallest aperture passages of the fracture. The accuracy of parallel plate models for estimating the pressure drops through fractures was studied. It was shown that the parallel plate flow model with the use of an appropriate effective fracture aperture and inclusion of the tortuosity factor could provide reasonable estimates for pressure drops in the fracture. On the basis of the CFD simulation data, a new expression for the friction factor for flows through fractures was developed. The new model predictions were compared with the simulation results and favorable agreement was found. It was shown that when the length of the fracture and the mean and standard deviation of the fracture are known, the pressure loss as a function of the flow rate could be estimated. These findings may prove useful for design of lab experiments, computational studied of flows through real rock fractures, or inclusions in simulators for large-scale flows in highly fractured rocks.

  8. Analysis of Fracture in Cores from the Tuff Confining Unit beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance Prothro

    2008-03-01

    The role fractures play in the movement of groundwater through zeolitic tuffs that form the tuff confining unit (TCU) beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, is poorly known. This is an important uncertainty, because beneath most of Yucca Flat the TCU lies between the sources of radionuclide contaminants produced by historic underground nuclear testing and the regional carbonate aquifer. To gain a better understanding of the role fractures play in the movement of groundwater and radionuclides through the TCU beneath Yucca Flat, a fracture analysis focusing on hydraulic properties was performed on conventional cores from four vertical exploratory holes in Area 7 of Yucca Flat that fully penetrate the TCU. The results of this study indicate that the TCU is poorly fractured. Fracture density for all fractures is 0.27 fractures per vertical meter of core. For open fractures, or those observed to have some aperture, the density is only 0.06 fractures per vertical meter of core. Open fractures are characterized by apertures ranging from 0.1 to 10 millimeter, and averaging 1.1 millimeter. Aperture typically occurs as small isolated openings along the fracture, accounting for only 10 percent of the fracture volume, the rest being completely healed by secondary minerals. Zeolite is the most common secondary mineral occurring in 48 percent of the fractures observed.

  9. Spatial statistics for predicting flow through a rock fracture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coakley, K.J.

    1989-03-01

    Fluid flow through a single rock fracture depends on the shape of the space between the upper and lower pieces of rock which define the fracture. In this thesis, the normalized flow through a fracture, i.e. the equivalent permeability of a fracture, is predicted in terms of spatial statistics computed from the arrangement of voids, i.e. open spaces, and contact areas within the fracture. Patterns of voids and contact areas, with complexity typical of experimental data, are simulated by clipping a correlated Gaussian process defined on a N by N pixel square region. The voids have constant aperture; the distance between the upper and lower surfaces which define the fracture is either zero or a constant. Local flow is assumed to be proportional to local aperture cubed times local pressure gradient. The flow through a pattern of voids and contact areas is solved using a finite-difference method. After solving for the flow through simulated 10 by 10 by 30 pixel patterns of voids and contact areas, a model to predict equivalent permeability is developed. The first model is for patterns with 80% voids where all voids have the same aperture. The equivalent permeability of a pattern is predicted in terms of spatial statistics computed from the arrangement of voids and contact areas within the pattern. Four spatial statistics are examined. The change point statistic measures how often adjacent pixel alternate from void to contact area (or vice versa ) in the rows of the patterns which are parallel to the overall flow direction. 37 refs., 66 figs., 41 tabs.

  10. Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in EGS Reservoirs; II: Full-Waveform Inversion of 3D-9C VSP data from Bradys EGS Site and Update of the Brady Reservoir Scale Model | Department of Energy Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs; II: Full-Waveform Inversion of 3D-9C VSP data from Bradys EGS Site and Update of the Brady Reservoir Scale Model Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs; II: Full-Waveform Inversion of 3D-9C

  11. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis | Department of Energy A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Fining Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic

  12. Horizontal well replaces hydraulic fracturing in North Sea gas well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Seymour, K.P. )

    1991-11-25

    This paper reports on excessive water production from hydraulically fractured wells in a poor quality reservoir in the North SEa which prompted the drilling of a horizontal well. Gas production from the horizontal well reached six times that of the offset vertical wells, and no water production occurred. This horizontal well proved commercial the western section of the Anglia field. Horizontal drilling in the North SEa is as an effective technology to enhance hydrocarbon recovery from reservoirs that previously had proven uncommercial with other standard techniques. It is viable for the development of marginal reservoirs, particularly where conditions preclude stimulation from hydraulic fracturing.

  13. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, Randall S.

    2000-09-20

    This research project has three objectives. The first objective is to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas. The second objective is to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems. The third objective is to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs. This research project consists of three tasks, each of which addresses one of the above objectives. This work is directed at both injection wells and production wells and at vertical, horizontal, and highly deviated wells.

  14. FRAC-STIM: A Physics-Based Fracture Simulation, /reservoir Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FRAC-STIM: A Physics-Based Fracture Simulation, reservoir Flow and Heat Transport Simulator(aka FALCON) FRAC-STIM: A Physics-Based Fracture Simulation, reservoir Flow and Heat ...

  15. Field fracturing multi-sites project. Annual report, August 1, 1995--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project (M-Site) is to conduct experiments to definitively determine hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments are to be conducted to provide data that will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fracture fluid rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment, as well as surface facilities and equipment conducive to acquiring high-quality data. The primary Project goal is to develop a fully characterized, tight reservoir-typical, field-scale hydraulic fracturing test site to diagnose, characterize, and test hydraulic fracturing technology and performance. It is anticipated that the research work being conducted by the multi-disciplinary team of GRI and DOE contractors will lead to the development of a commercial fracture mapping tool/service.

  16. High strain rate method of producing optimized fracture networks in reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jeffery James; Antoun, Tarabay H.; Lomov, Ilya N.

    2015-06-23

    A system of fracturing a geological formation penetrated by a borehole. At least one borehole is drilled into or proximate the geological formation. An energetic charge is placed in the borehole. The energetic charge is detonated fracturing the geological formation.

  17. Thermochemically Driven Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TDGF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Goodwin

    2008-12-31

    This report concerns efforts to increase oil well productivity and efficiency via a method of heating the oil-bearing rock of the well, a technique known as Thermochemical Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TGDF). The technique uses either a chemical reaction or a combustion event to raise the temperature of the rock of the well, thereby increasing oil velocity, and oil pumping rate. Such technology has shown promise for future application to both older wellheads and also new sites. The need for such technologies in the oil extraction field, along with the merits of the TGDF technology is examined in Chapter 1. The theoretical basis underpinning applications of TGDF is explained in Chapter 2. It is shown that productivity of depleted well can be increased by one order of magnitude after heating a reservoir region of radius 15-20 m around the well by 100 degrees 1-2 times per year. Two variants of thermal stimulation are considered: uniform heating and optimal temperature distribution in the formation region around the perforation zone. It is demonstrated that the well productivity attained by using equal amounts of thermal energy is higher by a factor of 3 to 4 in the case of optimal temperature distribution as compared to uniform distribution. Following this theoretical basis, two practical approaches to applying TDGF are considered. Chapter 3 looks at the use of chemical intiators to raise the rock temperature in the well via an exothermic chemical reaction. The requirements for such a delivery device are discussed, and several novel fuel-oxidizing mixtures (FOM) are investigated in conditions simulating those at oil-extracting depths. Such FOM mixtures, particularly ones containing nitric acid and a chemical initiator, are shown to dramatically increase the temperature of the oil-bearing rock, and thus the productivity of the well. Such tests are substantiated by preliminary fieldwork in Russian oil fields. A second, more cost effective approach to TGDF is considered in

  18. The influence of hydrogen and the interface phase on fracture in Ti code 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moody, N.R.; Greulich, F.A.; Robinson, S.L.

    1984-10-01

    These results show that hydrogen-induced stepped cleavage and intergranular fracture modes are related to the IFP. Increased hydrogen concentration results in a wider IFP and, therefore, increased deformation on (111) planes. Fracture can subsequently occur along these planes giving the stepped cleavage appearance. When (111) planes are not in a favorable orientation for fracture, fracture along the ..cap alpha../IFP boundary can occur.

  19. Fractured reservoir discrete feature network technologies. Final report, March 7, 1996 to September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dershowitz, William S.; Einstein, Herbert H.; LaPoint, Paul R.; Eiben, Thorsten; Wadleigh, Eugene; Ivanova, Violeta

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes research conducted for the Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies Project. The five areas studied are development of hierarchical fracture models; fractured reservoir compartmentalization, block size, and tributary volume analysis; development and demonstration of fractured reservoir discrete feature data analysis tools; development of tools for data integration and reservoir simulation through application of discrete feature network technologies for tertiary oil production; quantitative evaluation of the economic value of this analysis approach.

  20. Fracture characterization and diagenesis in the Clipper field, Sole Pit basin, southern north sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franssen, R.C.M.W.; Brint, J.F. ); Sleeswijk Visser, T.J. ); Beecham, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The Clipper field in the Sole Pit basin produces from tight Leman sandstones of the Rotliegende Group (Lower Permian). The reservoir consists of aeolian sediments. Gas production comes from open natural fractures and dune slipface sands with highly variable rates. The effects of fractures and diagenesis on reservoir quality were investigated. Three fracture networks have been observed in two highly deviated cored wells. Fault-related fractures occur close to, and parallel with, seismically mapped faults. Fold-related fractures occur as two sets of conjugate fractures, with the local maximum compressive stresses ([sigma][sub 1]) trending northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast, respectively. The dominant fracture types are cataclastic and dilational shear fractures. The cataclastic shear fractures were reopened and both fracture types are partially filled by silica, carbonate, and anhydrite cements. The main cement types within the sandstone matrix include dolomite, silica, anhydrite, illite, and ferroan carbonates. Early carbonate cements precipitated during initial burial from a mixture of Rotliegende groundwater and marine pore-fluids from the higher temperatures from Zechstein-derived pore fluids. Pore-filling and fracture-related ferroan carbonate and silica cement precipitated between temperatures of 100-150[degrees]C from isotopically evolved pore fluid. Integration of these data with the burial history and regional geological data reveal that the fault-related fractures formed during the formation of the Sole Pit rift basin in the Middle to Late Jurassic. The fold-related fractures formed during the Late Cretaceous inversion. The open fractures that contribute to production are associated with the inversion-related deformation. Modeling of these fracture networks, calibrated against available well data, can be used to define areas with high shear fracture density and assist development of fields in the Sole Pit basin.