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1

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal outflow occurs most commonly at the terminations of individual faults and where multiple faults interact. These areas of fault propagation and interaction are sites of elevated stress termed breakdown regions. Here, stress concentrations cause active fracturing and continual re-opening of fluid-flow conduits, permitting long-lived hydrothermal flow despite potential clogging of fractures due to mineral precipitation. As

2

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

elevated stress termed breakdown regions. Here, stress concentrations cause active fracturing and continual re-opening of fluid-flow conduits, permitting long-lived hydrothermal...

3

Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary Results from  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary Results from Two-Meter Temperature Data and Geologic Analysis at Lee Allen Springs and Salt Wells Basin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary Results from Two-Meter Temperature Data and Geologic Analysis at Lee Allen Springs and Salt Wells Basin Abstract Two-meter temperature surveys have been conducted at Salt Wells Basin and Lee-Allen Springs geothermal areas with the objective of distinguishing and

4

Reservoir Fracturing in the Geysers Hydrothermal System: Fact or Fallacy?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proper application of proven worldwide fracture determination analyses adequately aids in the detection and enhanced exploitation of reservoir fractures in The Geysers steam field. Obsolete, superficial ideas concerning fracturing in this resource have guided various malformed judgements of the actual elusive trends. Utilizing regional/local tectonics with theoretical rack mechanics and drilling statistics, offers the most favorable method of fracture comprehension. Exploitation philosophies should favor lateral drilling trends along local tensional components and under specific profound drainage/faulting manifestations to enhance high productivities. Drill core observations demonstrate various degrees of fracture filling, brecciation, strain responses, and rock fracture properties, giving the most favorable impression of subsurface reservoir conditions. Considerably more work utilizing current fracturing principles and geologic thought is required to adequately comprehend and economically exploit this huge complex resource.

Hebein, Jeffrey J.

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

5

Hydrothermal Reservoirs | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Reservoirs Hydrothermal Reservoirs Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Hydrothermal Reservoirs Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Reservoir: Hydrothermal Reservoirs are underground zones of porous rock containing hot water and steam, and can be naturally occurring or human-made. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Natural, shallow hydrothermal reservoirs naturally occurring hot water reservoirs, typically found at depths of less than 5 km below the Earth's surface where there is heat, water and a permeable material (permeability in rock formations results from fractures, joints, pores, etc.). Often, hydrothermal reservoirs have an overlying layer that bounds the reservoir and also serves as a thermal insulator, allowing greater heat retention. If hydrothermal reservoirs

6

Rock deformation in hydrothermal systems: the nature of fractures in plutons and their host rocks. Technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this program is to accumulate the types of field data which are important for the analysis of magma-hydrothermal systems. The structural effects of thermal processes were identified in order to distinguish the thermally induced deformations from the deformations that occurred subsequent to complete cooling of the system. Mapping techniques were developed to record the structural data on the ground from local domains characteristic of larger areas in the magma chamber, and in the air from low-angle oblique aerial photography of the entire region. The ground system is complete and preliminary testing is currently being carried out to verify the method. The results indicate that granitic crystalline rocks have no structural resistance to thermal perturbations. If nuclear wastes are to be stored in granite, precautionary buffers would have to be incorporated into the system. A total of 30 fossil magma chambers have been studied over the past 2 years. An extensive set of fracture imagery has been collected, together with information related to the geological history of the plutons. Fossil magma chambers in Arizona, Utah, California, Washington, Montana, and British Columbia have been studied.

Norton, D.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

from Two-Meter Temperature Data and Geologic Analysis at Lee Allen Springs and Salt Wells Basin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference...

8

Cirrus Outflow Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cirrus outflow from deep convection are analyzed as dynamically and thermodynamically active systems. The initial outflow is considered as an analog to wake collapse, in which a neutrally buoyant flow intrusion is flattened and stretched by its ...

Douglas K. Lilly

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Hydrothermal Processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

10

Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Petrographic and geochemical analyses of cuttings from six wells in the Coso Hot Springs geothermal field show a systematic variation in the occurrence, texture, and composition of sericite that can be correlated with high permeability production zones and temperature. The wells studied intersect rhyolitic dikes and sills in the fractured granitic and dioritic

11

Mixing and Spreading of the Mediterranean Outflow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrographic and current profiler data taken during the 1988 Gulf of Cadiz Expedition have been analyzed to diagnose the mixing, spreading, and descent of the Mediterranean outflow. The ?–S properties and the thickness and width of the outflow ...

Molly O’Neil Baringer; James F. Price

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Comparison Of Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate And  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate And Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate And Siliclastic Rocks In The Valles Caldera With Outcrops From The Socorro Caldera, New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Comparison Of Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate And Siliclastic Rocks In The Valles Caldera With Outcrops From The Socorro Caldera, New Mexico Details Activities (3) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) drill hole VC-2B (total depth 1761.7 m (5780 ft); maximum temperature 295°C) was continuously cored through the Sulphur Springs hydrothermal system in the western ring-fracture zone of the 1.14 Ma Valles caldera. Among other units, the hole penetrated 760.2 m (2494.1 ft) of Paleozoic carbonate and

13

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199°C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The Δ18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, α-cristobalite, and β-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8‰. About one

14

Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal System Hydrothermal System (Redirected from Hydrothermal Systems) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Systems Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Geothermal production well at Imperial Valley, California. The drilling of production wells, such as this one in southern California, results in

15

Structure and Life Cycle of Microburst Outflows Observed in Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intense, small-scale divergent outflows known as microbursts are held responsible for a number of aircraft accidents. This paper describes the morphology of microburst outflows observed in Colorado. Outflows are categorized into morphological ...

Mark R. Hjelmfelt

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

hydrothermal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

hydrothermal hydrothermal Dataset Summary Description No description given. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released July 03rd, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated July 03rd, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords biopower csp geothermal hydropower hydrothermal Renewable Energy Technical Potential rooftop United States utility-scale wind Data text/csv icon United States Renewable Energy Technical Potential (csv, 7.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating Average vote Your vote

17

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING In addition to the recovery processes featured in this series of drawings, hydraulic fracturing is included as an example of technologies that contribute to...

18

GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, IDAHO Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, IDAHO Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Raft River geothermal system is located in southern Idaho, near the Utah-Idaho state boarder in the Raft River Valley. The field, which is owned and operated by U.S. Geothermal, has been selected as an EGS demonstration site by the U. S. Department of Energy. This paper summarizes ongoing geologic and petrologic investigations being conducted in support of this project. The reservoir is developed in fractured Proterozoic schist and quartzite, and Archean quartz monzonite cut by younger diabase

19

Example of Reduced Turbulence during Thunderstorm Outflow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical structures of turbulence, winds, and temperatures are analyzed from a 92-m instrumented tower and a collocated acoustic sodar during an outflow episode from a weak thunderstorm over sloping terrain in northern New Mexico. Prior to ...

Brent M. Bowen

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Hydrothermal Alteration | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Alteration Hydrothermal Alteration Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Alteration Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Alteration: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Opalized rock is often valued for its spectacular colors and it may indicate past hydrothermal activity (reference: https://uwaterloo.ca/earth-sciences-museum/what-earth/what-earth-minerals/what-earth-precious-opal) The heat and minerals of hydrothermal waters may result in the chemical alteration of rocks that it comes in contact with. The minerals that result from this alteration may be evidence of past hydrothermal activity. Opalization - alteration to opal. Argillization- alteration to clay minerals such as smectite, illite, and kaolinite which often form caprocks.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Life and hydrothermal vents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life and hydrothermal vents Life and hydrothermal vents Name: williamh Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: Are there biological communities near hydrothermal vents in the ocean? Is there any life inside the hydrothermal vent? Replies: If the presence of microorganisms in hot springs and geysers are any indication, I am certain there is life inside hydrothermal vents. These heat loving organisms are termed "thermophiles" and thrive where other life dies. They are able to survive in extreme heat due to the unique way their proteins are synthesized. The May 1993 Discover has a special article on thermophiles. wizkid Life at high temperature became very interesting to molecular biologists recently. The enormously useful technique known as PCR, (polymerase chain reaction), by which very small amounts of rare DNA can be amplified to large concentrations (Jurassic Park!), depends on having a DNA polymerase (the enzyme that synthesizes complementary DNA strands during replication of chromosomes), that can work at high temperatures, or at least can survive repeated high temperature cycles. PCR depends on synthesis of DNA followed by forced separation of the daughter strands at high temperature, followed by new synthesis, to amplify DNA exponentially. At any rate, normal bacterial polymerase will not work because the high temperature cycles kill it. Enter the now infamous, patented Taq polymerase, isolated from Thermus aquaticus, a hot spring bacterium, which works after heating to up to 94 C! So knowledge of life at high temperature allowed molecular biologists to get PCR to work, with all its benefits in cloning very rare genes and amplifying small amounts of DNA for forensic work etc.

22

Numerical Simulation of Thunderstorm Outflow Dynamics. Part I: Outflow Sensitivity Experiments and Turbulence Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this first paper of a two-part series, a two-dimensional numerical model is developed and used to investigate the dynamics of thunderstorm outflows. By focusing only on the outflow and using essentially inviscid equations and high spatial ...

Kelvin K. Droegemeier; Robert B. Wilhelmson

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrothermal flow at Yucca Mountain, Part I: Modeling andScale Heater Test at Yucca Mountain. Eleventh Annual V.M.for fracture sealing at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Journal of

Faybishenko, Boris; Witherspoon, Paul A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir.

Faulder, D.D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir. 33 refs., 9 figs.

Faulder, D.D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Hydrothermal) (Redirected from Hydrothermal) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Systems Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Geothermal production well at Imperial Valley, California. The drilling of production wells, such as this one in southern California, results in one-third to one-half of the cost of a geothermal project. Copyright ©

27

Hydrothermal Deposition | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Deposition Hydrothermal Deposition Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Deposition Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Deposition: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Quartz veins indicate ancient fluid flow, possibly the result of a hydrothermal system (reference: http://www.nvcc.edu/home/cbentley/dc_rocks/) Tufa mounds indicate the location of extinct hot springs. In this photo they show the ancient extent of the surface manifestations at Mono Lake, CA (reference: http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/climatechange/page.aspx?id=170704)(photo by Scott Stine) Hydrothermal water carries minerals as it travels through the crust. These minerals are often deposited as pressure decreases as the fluid approaches

28

The lifecycle of powerful AGN outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the course of this conference, much evidence was presented that points to an intimate connection between the energetic outflows driven by AGN and the energy budget and quite possibly also the evolution of their gaseous environments. However, it is still not clear if and how the AGN activity is triggered by the cooling gas, how long the activity lasts for and how these effects give rise to the observed distribution of morphologies of the outflows. In this contribution we concentrate on the high radio luminosity end of the AGN population. While most of the heating of the environmental gas may be due to less luminous and energetic outflows, these more powerful objects have a very profound influence on their surroundings. We will describe a simple model for powerful radio galaxies and radio-loud quasars that explains the dichotomy of their large-scale radio morphologies as well as their radio luminosity function.

Christian R. Kaiser; Philip N. Best

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

29

Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Hydrothermal Program is to develop concepts which allow better utilization of geothermal energy to reduce the life-cycle cost of producing electricity from liquid-dominated, hydrothermal resources. Research in the program is currently ongoing in three areas: (1) Heat Cycle Research, which is looking at methods to increase binary plant efficiencies; (2) Materials Development, which is developing materials for use in geothermal associated environments; and (3) Advanced Brine Chemistry, with work taking place in both the brine chemistry modeling area and waste disposal area. The presentations during this session reviewed the accomplishments and activities taking place in the hydrothermal energy conversion program. Lawrence Kukacka, Brookhaven National Laboratory, discussed advancements being made to develop materials for use in geothermal applications. This research has identified a large number of potential materials for use in applications from pipe liners that inhibit scale buildup and reduce corrosion to elastomers for downhole use. Carl J. Bliem, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, discussed preparations currently underway to conduct field investigations of the condensation behavior of supersaturated turbine expansions. The research will evaluate whether the projected 8% to 10% improvement in brine utilization can be realized by allowing these expansions. Eugene T. Premuzic, Brookhaven National Laboratory, discussed advancements being made using biotechnology for treatment of geothermal residual waste; the various process options were discussed in terms of biotreatment variables. A treatment scenario and potential disposal costs were presented. John H. Weare, University of California, San Diego, discussed the present capabilities of the brine chemistry model he has developed for geothermal applications and the information it can provide a user. This model is available to industry. The accomplishments from the research projects presented in this session have been many. It is hoped that these accomplishments can be integrated into industrial geothermal power plant sites to assist in realizing the goal of reducing the cost of energy produced from the geothermal resource.

Robertson, David W.; LaSala, Raymond J.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cody hydrothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hot springs of Colter's Hell are the surface manifestations of a much larger hydothermal system. That system has been studied to define its extent, maximum temperature, and mechanism of operation. The study area covers 2700 km/sup 2/ (1040 mi/sup 2/) in northwest Wyoming. Research and field work included locating and sampling the hot springs, geologic mapping, thermal logging of available wells, measuring thermal conductivities, analyzing over 200 oil and gas well bottom-hole temperatures, and compiling and analyzing hydrologic data. These data were used to generate a model for the hydrothermal system.

Heasler, H.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

Elliott, Douglas C.

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

33

Seismic Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial Magma Chamber At The Southern East Pacific Rise Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Seismic Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial Magma Chamber At The Southern East Pacific Rise Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A full-waveform inversion of two-ship, wide-aperture, seismic reflection data from a ridge-crest seismic line at the southern East Pacific Rise indicates that the axial magma chamber here is about 50 m thick, is embedded within a solid roof, and has a solid floor. The 50-60-m-thick roof is overlain by a 150-200-m-thick low-velocity zone that may correspond to a fracture zone that hosts the hydrothermal circulation,

34

Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Systems Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Geothermal production well at Imperial Valley, California. The drilling of production wells, such as this one in southern California, results in one-third to one-half of the cost of a geothermal project. Copyright ©

35

Hydraulic Fracturing (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Vermont prohibits hydraulic fracturing or the collection, storage, or treatment of wastewater from hydraulic fracturing

36

ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW  

SciTech Connect

We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of {approx}14 km s{sup -1}, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at {approx}200 km s{sup -1} in a Galactic wind.

McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Lockman, F. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [School of Physics and Mathematics, University of Tasmania, TAS 7001 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J., E-mail: naomi.mcclure-griffiths@csiro.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

37

The Nuclear Outflow in NGC 2110  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a HST/STIS spectroscopic and optical/radio imaging study of the Seyfert NGC 2110 aiming to measure the dynamics and understand the nature of the nuclear outflow in the galaxy. Previous HST studies have revealed the presence of a linear structure in the Narrow-Line Region (NLR) aligned with the radio jet. We show that this structure is strongly accelerated, probably by the jet, but is unlikely to be entrained in the jet flow. The ionisation properties of this structure are consistent with photoionisation of dusty, dense gas by the active nucleus. We present a plausible geometrical model for the NLR, bringing together various components of the nuclear environment of the galaxy. We highlight the importance of the circum-nuclear disc in determining the appearance of the emission line gas and the morphology of the jet. From the dynamics of the emission line gas, we place constraints on the accelerating mechanism of the outflow and discuss the relative importance of radio source synchrotron pressure, rad...

Rosario, D J; Nelson, C H; Wilson, A S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Water geochemistry of hydrothermal systems, Wood River District, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems of the Wood River District, central Idaho, have been studied by geologic mapping of thermal spring areas and geochemical investigations of thermal and non-thermal waters. This report summarizes the new geochemical data gathered during the study. Integration of the results of geological and geochemical studies has led to development of a target model for hydrothermal resources on the margin of the Idaho Batholith. Warfield Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 58/sup 0/C, flow from a major shear zone along the margin of an apophysis of the batholith. Hailey Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 60/sup 0/C, occur in an area of multiple thrust faults and newly recognized, closely spaced normal faults in the Paleozoic Milligen and Wood River Formations, 2.5 km from a highly brecciated batholith contact. Other Wood River district hydrothermal systems also occur along the margins of batholith apophyses or in adjacent highly fractured Paleozoic rocks, where there are indications of batholith rocks at shallow depths (100 to 300 m) in water wells.

Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.; Blackett, R.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Are there significant hydrothermal resources in the US part of the Cascade Range?  

SciTech Connect

The Cascade Range is a geothermal dichotomy. On the one hand, it is an active volcanic arc above a subducting plate and is demonstrably an area of high heat flow. On the other hand, the distribution of hydrothermal manifestations compared to other volcanic arcs is sparse, and the hydrothermal outflow calculated from stream chemistry is low. Several large estimates of undiscovered geothermal resources in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range prepared in the 1970s and early 1980s were based fundamentally on two models of the upper crust. One model assumed that large, partly molten, intrusive bodies exist in the upper 10 km beneath major volcanic centers and serve as the thermal engines driving overlying hydrothermal systems. The other model interpreted the coincident heat-flow and gravity gradients west of the Cascade crest in central Oregon to indicate a partly molten heat source at 10 {+-} 2 km depth extending {approx}30 km west from the axis of the range. Investigations of the past ten years have called both models into question. Large long-lived high-temperature hydrothermal systems at depths <3 km in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range appear to be restricted to silicic domefields at the Lassen volcanic center, Medicine Lake volcano, Newberry volcano, and possibly the Three Sisters. Federal land-use restrictions further reduce this list to Medicine Lake and Newberry. Dominantly andesitic stratocones appear to support only small transitory hydrothermal systems related to small intrusive bodies along the volcanic conduits. The only young caldera, at Crater Lake, supports only low- to intermediate-temperature hydrothermal systems. Most of the Cascade Range comprises basaltic andesites and has little likelihood for high-level silicic intrusions and virtually no potential for resultant large high-temperature hydrothermal systems. Undiscovered hydrothermal resources of the Cascade Range of the United States are substantially lower than previous estimates. The range does have potential for intermediate-temperature hot dry rock and localized low- to intermediate-temperature hydrothermal systems.

Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Guffanti, Marianne

1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

40

Real-time and post-frac' 3-D analysis of hydraulic fracture treatments in geothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Economic power production from Hot Dry Rock (HDR) requires the establishment of an efficient circulation system between wellbores in reservoir rock with extremely low matrix permeability. Hydraulic fracturing is employed to establish the necessary circulation system. Hydraulic fracturing has also been performed to increase production from hydrothermal reservoirs by enhancing the communication with the reservoir's natural fracture system. Optimal implementation of these hydraulic fracturing applications, as with any engineering application, requires the use of credible physical models and the reconciliation of the physical models with treatment data gathered in the field. Analysis of the collected data has shown that 2-D models and 'conventional' 3-D models of the hydraulic fracturing process apply very poorly to hydraulic fracturing in geothermal reservoirs. Engineering decisions based on these more 'conventional' fracture modeling techniques lead to serious errors in predicting the performance of hydraulic fracture treatments. These errors can lead to inappropriate fracture treatment design as well as grave errors in well placement for hydrothermal reservoirs or HDR reservoirs. This paper outlines the reasons why conventional modeling approaches fall short, and what types of physical models are needed to credibly estimate created hydraulic fracture geometry. The methodology of analyzing actual measured fracture treatment data and matching the observed net fracturing pressure (in realtime as well as after the treatment) is demonstrated at two separate field sites. Results from an extensive Acoustic Emission (AE) fracture diagnostic survey are also presented for the first case study aS an independent measure of the actual created hydraulic fracture geometry.

Wright, C.A.; Tanigawa, J.J.; Hyodo, Masami; Takasugi, Shinji

1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than during the deposition of natural calcite-opal deposits.

S. Levy

2000-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

Hydraulic fracturing-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Corporation Commission Hydraulic FracturingHydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corporation Commission Hydraulic FracturingHydraulic Fracturing Joint Committee on Energy Commission What is Hydraulic Fracturing d H D It W k?and How Does It Work? · Stimulates a well to increase by Stanolind Oil Company. 2 #12;Kansas Corporation Commission Are Hydraulic Fracture Jobs Performed in Kansas

Peterson, Blake R.

44

HOT ELECTROMAGNETIC OUTFLOWS. II. JET BREAKOUT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the interaction between radiation, matter, and a magnetic field in a compact, relativistic jet. The entrained matter accelerates outward as the jet breaks out of a star or other confining medium. In some circumstances, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the magnetization of the jet is greatly reduced by an advected radiation field while the jet is optically thick to scattering. Where magnetic flux surfaces diverge rapidly, a strong outward Lorentz force develops and radiation and matter begin to decouple. The increase in magnetization is coupled to a rapid growth in Lorentz factor. We take two approaches to this problem. The first examines the flow outside the fast magnetosonic critical surface, and calculates the flow speed and the angular distribution of the radiation field over a range of scattering depths. The second considers the flow structure on both sides of the critical surface in the optically thin regime, using a relaxation method. In both approaches, we find how the terminal Lorentz factor and radial profile of the outflow depend on the radiation intensity and optical depth at breakout. The effect of bulk Compton scattering on the radiation spectrum is calculated by a Monte Carlo method, while neglecting the effects of internal dissipation. The peak of the scattered spectrum sits near the seed peak if radiation pressure dominates the acceleration, but is pushed to a higher frequency if the Lorentz force dominates. The unscattered seed radiation can form a distinct, low-frequency component of the spectrum, especially if the magnetic Poynting flux dominates.

Russo, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

45

Contact zones and hydrothermal systems as analogues to repository conditions  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste isolation efforts in the US are currently focused on examining basalt, tuff, salt, and crystalline rock as candidate rock types to encompass waste repositories. As analogues to near-field conditions, the distributions of radio- and trace-elements have been examined across contacts between these rocks and dikes and stocks that have intruded them. The intensive study of the Stripa quartz monzonite has also offered the opportunity to observe the distribution of uranium and its daughters in groundwater and its relationship to U associated with fracture-filling and alteration minerals. Investigations of intrusive contact zones to date have included (1) a tertiary stock into Precambrian gneiss, (2) a stock into ash flow tuff, (3) a rhyodacite dike into Columbia River basalt, and (4) a kimberlite dike into salt. With respect to temperature and pressure, these contact zones may be considered "worst-case scenario" analogues. Results indicate that there has been no appreciable migration of radioelements from the more radioactive intrusives into the less radioactive country rocks, either in response to the intrusions or in the fracture-controlled hydrological systems that developed following emplacement. In many cases, the radioelements are locked up in accessory minerals, suggesting that artificial analogues to these would make ideal waste forms. Emphasis should now shift to examination of active hydrothermal systems, studying the distribution of key elements in water, fractures, and alteration minerals under pressure and temperature conditions most similar to those expected in the near-field environment of a repository. 14 refs.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

River Outflow of the Conterminous United States, 1939–1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A record of 50 years of daily outflows through the boundaries of the continental United States has been assembled based on observations recorded by U.S. Geological Survey streamflow stations. Only stations with continuous records from 1939 ...

Alexandre K. Guetter; Konstantine P. Georgakakos

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Analysis of Outflow Boundary Collisions in North-Central Alabama  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ninety-four outflow boundary (OB) collisions were documented in north-central Alabama over the summers of 2005–07 using the Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) dual-polarimetric radar located at the Huntsville, ...

Stephen J. Harrison; John R. Mecikalski; Kevin R. Knupp

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Mesoscale Variability in Denmark Strait: The PV Outflow Hypothesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The outflow through Denmark Strait shows remarkable mesoscale variability characterized by the continuous formation of intense mesoscale cyclones just south of the sill. These cyclones have a diameter of about 30 km and clear signatures at the ...

Michael A. Spall; James F. Price

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Vertical Velocities in a Thunderstorm Gust Front and Outflow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuous vertically pointing measurements of a thunderstorm outflow, including its gust front, were obtained with a Doppler radar near New Salem, North Dakota. The measurements provide a high-resolution depiction of the vertical structure of ...

Brooks E. Martner

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Observations of a Cloud Are Triggered by Thunderstorm Outflow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents aircraft, radar, satellite and rawinsonde observations which describe a cloud am formed by moist downdraft outflow from a cumulonimbus cluster in northwest Kansas. Aircraft cross sections are presented of four variables at 160 ...

David A. Matthews

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Simulating the Delaware Bay Buoyant Outflow: Comparison with Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coastal buoyant outflows from rivers and estuaries previously have been studied with field research, laboratory experiments, and numerical models. There is a dire need to evaluate model performance in light of coastal current observations. This ...

Michael M. Whitney; Richard W. Garvine

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Ultra-fast outflows (aka UFOs) from AGNs and QSOs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the last decade, strong observational evidence has been accumulated for the existence of massive, high velocity winds/outflows (aka Ultra Fast Outflows, UFOs) in nearby AGNs and in more distant quasars. Here we briefly review some of the most recent developments in this field and discuss the relevance of UFOs for both understanding the physics of accretion disk winds in AGNs, and for quantifying the global amount of AGN feedback on the surrounding medium.

Cappi, M; Giustini, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Fracture characterization study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

First, the origin, nature, and significance of fractures in general are discussed. Next, discussions are directed toward the designation and classification of fractures. Some typical fracture measurement techniques are discussed. Finally, geothermal fracture systems are investigated and correlations made to determine which fracture technologies from oil field work are applicable to geothermal systems. (MHR)

Kehrman, R.F.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Hydrothermal alteration in Oregon's Newberry Volcano No. 2: fluid chemistry and secondary-mineral distribution  

SciTech Connect

Newberry 2 was drilled in the caldera floor of Newberry Volcano, Oregon, by the US Geological Survey during 1979-81. The maximum temperature measured was 265C at the bottom of the hole, 932 m below the surface. Rocks recovered fr9om the drill hole are divided into three intervals on the basis of hydrothermal alteration and mineral deposition: (1) 0-290 m consists of unaltered, largely glassy volcanic material, with present temperatures ranging from 20 to 40C; (2) 290-700 m consists of permeable tuff layers, tuff breccia units, and brecciated and fractured rhyodacitic to dacitic lava flows, with temperatures ranging from 40 to 100C; (3) 700-932 m consists of impermeable andesitic to basaltic lava flows that generally show little effect of alteration, interlayered with permeable hydrothermally altered flow breccia, with temperatures gradually increasing from 100 at 700 m to 265C at 932 m. Hydrothermal alteration throughout the system is controlled by rock permeability, temperature, composition of geothermal fluids, and composition and crystallinity of host rocks. Rock alteration consists mainly of replacement of glass by clay minerals and, locally, zeolites, partial replacement of plagioclase phenocrysts by calcite +/- epidote +/- illite, and whole-rock leaching adjacent to fluids channels. Open-space deposition of hydrothermal minerals in fractures, vesicles, and interbreccia pore space is far more abundant than replacement. A cooling shallow convection system in the upper 700 m is indicated by the occurrence of hydrothermal minerals that were deposited in a slightly higher temperature environment than presently exists. Below 700 m, the heat flow is conductive, and fluid flow is controlled by horizontal lava flows. Homogenization temperatures of secondary quartz fluid inclusions were as high as 370C.

Keith, T.E.C.; Mariner, R.H.; Bargar, K.E.; Evans, W.C.; Presser, T.S.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Land use siting considerations for hydrothermal energy facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal resources are described and discussion is focused on some of the land use and social considerations involved in siting hydrothermal power plants. (MHR)

Oakes, K.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

..., ASM International, 1996, p 371â??380ASM Handbook, Vol 19, Fatigue And FractureS.D. Antolovich and B.F. Antolovich, An Introduction to Fracture

57

DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY Drilling for seawater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies to obtain thermal energy (and other benefits) from a large body of water #12;Microgrid Customer ENERGY : Underground Technologies #12;#12;Microgrid Customer Facilities Drilled Hydrothermal Energy Plant;#12;Microgrid Customer Facilities Drilled Hydrothermal Energy Plant Cooling Power Biofuel / H2 Fresh Water

58

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Cyclic coordinate descent in hydrothermal nonsmooth problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an algorithm, inspired by the cyclic coordinate descent method, which allows the solution of hydrothermal optimization problems involving pumped-storage plants. The proof of the convergence of the succession generated by the ... Keywords: Coordinate descent, Hydrothermal coordination, Optimal control, Zangwill's theorem

Luis Bayón; Jose M. Grau; Maria M. Ruiz; Pedro M. Suárez

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Indications of mineral zoning in a fossil hydrothermal system at the Meager Creek geothermal prospect, British Columbia, Canada, from induced polarization studies  

SciTech Connect

By measuring the induced-polarization parameters m (chargeability) and tau (time-constant) we have found evidence that the center of a presumed fossil hydrothermal system at Meager Creek, British Columbia, lies south of the main manifestation of the present-day convective hydrothermal system. What implication this finding has for development of the present-day system is unknown. However, some of the fractures formed during the development of the fossil hydrothermal system may serve as conduits for fluids of the present-day system. The analysis is limited by the lack of availability of a good subsurface distribution of core samples. Nevertheless, a surface induced-polarization survey is expected to yield information about the geometry of the fossil system. Such knowledge would have implications not only for Meager Creek but for other hydrothermal systems of Cascades volcano type. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Ward, S.H.; Zhao, J.X.; Groenwald, J.; Moore, J.N.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Discs, outflows, and feedback in collapsing magnetized cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pre-stellar cores in which low mass stars form are generally well magnetized. Our simulations show that early protostellar discs are massive and experience strong magnetic torques in the form of magnetic braking and protostellar outflows. Simulations of protostellar disk formation suggest that these torques are strong enough to suppress a rotationally supported structure from forming for near critical values of mass-to-flux. We demonstrate through the use of a 3D adaptive mesh refinement code -- including cooling, sink particles and magnetic fields -- that one produces transient 1000 AU discs while simultaneously generating large outflows which leave the core region, carrying away mass and angular momentum. Early inflow/outflow rates suggest that only a small fraction of the mass is lost in the initial magnetic tower/jet event.

Duffin, Dennis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Interactive fracture design model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer program is described that can be used to design a fracture stimulation treatment for a geothermal reservoir. The program uses state-of-the-art methods to calculate the temperature of the fracture fluid as a function of time and distance in the fracture. This information is used to determine the temperature dependent properties of the fracture fluid. These fluid properties are utilized to calculate the fracture geometry as a function of time. The fracture geometry and temperature distribution of the fracture fluid are coupled so the subroutines that calculate these distributions have been made interactive.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Plasma outflow from a corrugated trap in the kinetic regime  

SciTech Connect

The problem of stationary plasma outflow from an open corrugated trap in the kinetic regime is considered with allowance for pair collisions in the framework of a kinetic equation with the Landau collision integral. The distribution function is studied in the limit of small-scale corrugation and a large mirror ratio. In considering a single corrugation cell, a correction for the distribution function is calculated analytically. An equation describing variations of the distribution function along the system is derived and used to study the problem of plasma outflow into vacuum.

Skovorodin, D. I.; Beklemishev, A. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

What Defines a Separate Hydrothermal System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate hydrothermal systems can be defined in a variety of ways. Criteria which have been applied include separation of heat source, upflow, economic resource and geophysical anomaly. Alternatively, connections have been defined by the effects of withdrawal of economically useful fluid and subsidence, effects of reinjection, changes in thermal features, or by a hydrological connection of groundwaters. It is proposed here that: ''A separate hydrothermal system is one that is fed by a separate convective upflow of fluid, at a depth above the brittle-ductile transition for the host rocks, while acknowledging that separate hydrothermal systems can be hydrologically interconnected at shallower levels''.

Lawless, J.V.; Bogie, I.; Bignall, G.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

67

Equilibration and Circulation of Red Sea Outflow Water in the Western Gulf of Aden  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrographic, direct velocity, and subsurface float observations from the 2001 Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX) are analyzed to investigate the gravitational and dynamical adjustment of the Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) where it is injected ...

Amy S. Bower; William E. Johns; David M. Fratantoni; Hartmut Peters

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Details of Colliding Thunderstorm Outflows as Observed by Doppler Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three cases of colliding outflow boundaries are examined using data collected from the NOAA Doppler lidar and a meteorological tower during the summer of 1986 near Boulder, Colorado. The data are unique because the lidar and the 300 m tower were ...

J. M. Intrieri; A. J. Bedard Jr.; R. M. Hardesty

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Momentum and Energy Balance of the Mediterranean Outflow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field data taken in the Gulf of Cadiz have been analyzed to describe some aspects of the momentum andenergy balance of the Mediterranean outflow. A crucial component of the momentum balance is the total stress(entrainment stress and bottom drag), ...

Molly O’Neil Baringer; James F. Price

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Nucleosynthesis in the Outflow from Gamma Ray Burst Accretion Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the nucleosynthesis products that are produced in the outflow from rapidly accreting disks. We find that the type of element synthesis varies dramatically with the degree of neutrino trapping in the disk and therefore the accretion rate of the disk. Disks with relatively high accretion rates such as 10 M_solar/s can produce very neutron rich nuclei that are found in the r process. Disks with more moderate accretion rates can produce copious amounts of Nickel as well as the light elements such as Lithium and Boron. Disks with lower accretion rates such as 0.1 M_solar/s produce large amounts of Nickel as well as some unusual nuclei such as Ti-49, Sc-45, Zn-64, and Mo-92. This wide array of potential nucleosynthesis products is due to the varying influence of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos emitted from the disk on the neutron-to-proton ratio in the outflow. We use a parameterization for the outflow and discuss our results in terms of entropy and outflow acceleration.

R. Surman; G. C. McLaughlin; W. R. Hix

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

71

Definition: Hydrothermal Reservoir | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Reservoirs are underground zones of porous rock containing hot water and steam, and can be naturally occurring or human-made.1 References x Ret LikeLike...

72

Biomass reforming processes in hydrothermal media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While hydrothermal technologies offer distinct advantages in being able to process a wide variety of biomass feedstocks, the composition of the feedstock will have a large effect on the processing employed. This thesis ...

Peterson, Andrew A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Mesoporous titania nanocrystals by hydrothermal template growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystals have been synthetized by a classical sol-gel route integrated by an hydrothermal growth step using monomeric (dodecylpyridinium chloride, DPC) or dimeric gemini-like (GS3) surfactants as template directing agents. ...

Giuseppe Cappelletti; Silvia Ardizzone; Francesca Spadavecchia; Daniela Meroni; Iolanda Biraghi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

High velocity impact fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An in-depth understanding of dynamic ductile fracture is one of the most important steps to improve the survivability of critical structures such as the lost Twin Towers. In the present thesis, the macroscopic fracture ...

Teng, Xiaoqing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Geothermal Technologies Program Project Type / Topic 2 Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies Project Description Because fractures and faults with sub-commercial permeability can propagate hot fluid and hydrothermal alteration throughout a geothermal reservoir, potential field geophysical methods including resistivity, gravity, heatflow and magnetics cannot distinguish between low-permeability fractures and LAF's (Large Aperature Fractures). USG will develop and test the combination of three-component,long-offset seismic surveying, permanent scatter synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PSInSAR) and structural kinematic analysis as an integrated method for locating and 3-D mapping of LAF's in shallow to intermediate depth (600-4000 feet) geothermal systems. This project is designed to test the methodology on known occurrences of LAF's and then apply the technology to expand an existing production field and find a new production field in a separate but related resource area. A full diameter production well will be drilled into each of the two lease blocks covered by the geophysical exploration program.

77

The use of air as a natural tracer infractured hydrothermal systems, Los Azufres, Mexico, case study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Injection of atmospheric air mixed with cold water has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres geothermal field. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured hydrothermal system could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate, under the action of the induced injection-extraction gradient, from reinjection sectors to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. A coarse numerical estimation of the average permeability tensor existing at Tejamaniles, the southern sector, explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years: the anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock would demand considerably quantities of tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, especially when fluid extraction was low. At the same time concentrations of calcium, cesium, chloride, potassium, rubidium and sodium, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of this field's sector.

Mario Cesar Sudrez Arriaga; Hector Gutierrez Puente, Josefina Moreno Ochoa

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Possible evidence for fluid-rock oxygen isotope disequilibrium in hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is ample evidence from geothermal systems that isotope temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope fractionation between alteration phases and coexisting aquifer fluids agree closely with measured bore-hole temperatures. Similar, but limited evidence is found in epithermal vein deposits where isotopes temperature agree well with fluid inclusion homogenization temperature. Conversely, many hydrothermal systems exhibit varying degrees of fluid-rock oxygen isotope equilibration. There appears to be a crude relationship between increasing degree of equilibrium and increasing temperature and salinity. The observed variations in the degree of exchange may have resulted from local, self-sealing of the fracture network prior to equilibration. The ability for fracture to remain open or to propogate allowing continued fluid flow may be the deciding factor in the attainment of isotopic equilibration.

Cole, D.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Possible evidence for fluid-rock oxygen isotope disequilibrium in hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is ample evidence from geothermal systems that isotope temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope fractionation between alteration phases and coexisting aquifer fluids agree closely with measured bore-hole temperatures. Similar, but limited evidence is found in epithermal vein deposits where isotopes temperature agree well with fluid inclusion homogenization temperature. Conversely, many hydrothermal systems exhibit varying degrees of fluid-rock oxygen isotope equilibration. There appears to be a crude relationship between increasing degree of equilibrium and increasing temperature and salinity. The observed variations in the degree of exchange may have resulted from local, self-sealing of the fracture network prior to equilibration. The ability for fracture to remain open or to propogate allowing continued fluid flow may be the deciding factor in the attainment of isotopic equilibration.

Cole, D.R.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Simulations reveal fast mode shocks in magnetic reconnection outflows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetic reconnection is commonly perceived to drive flow and particle acceleration in flares of solar, stellar, and astrophysical disk coronae but the relative roles of different acceleration mechanisms in a given reconnection environment are not well understood. While outflow fast mode shocks have been predicted analytically, we show for the first time via direct numerical simulations that such shocks do indeed occur in the outflows of fast reconnection when an obstacle is present. These shocks are distinct from the slow mode Petschek inflow shocks. If Fermi acceleration of electrons operates in the weak fast shocks, the associated compression ratios will induce a Fermi acceleration particle spectrum that is significantly steeper than strong fast shocks commonly studied, but consistent with the demands of solar flares. While this is not the only acceleration mechanism operating in a reconnection environment, it is plausibly a ubiquitous one.

Workman, Jared C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, Colorado Mesa University, Grand Junction, Colorado 81501 (United States); Blackman, Eric G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Ren, Chuang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

DISK WINDS AND THE ACCRETION–OUTFLOW CONNECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review recent observational and theoretical results on the relationship between circumstellar accretion disks and jets in young stellar objects. We then present a theoretical framework that interprets jets as accretion-powered, centrifugally driven winds from magnetized accretion disks. Recent progress in the numerical simulation of such outflows is described. We also discuss the structure of the underlying magnetized protostellar disks, emphasizing the role that large-scale, open magnetic fields can play in angular momentum transport. I.

Arieh K Önigl; Ralph E. Pudritz

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

The large-scale ionised outflow of CH Cygni  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HST and ground-based [OII} and [NII] images obtained from 1996 to 1999 reveal the existence of a ionised optical nebula around the symbiotic binary CH Cyg extending out to 5000 A.U. from the central stars. The observed velocity range of the nebula, derived from long-slit echelle spectra, is of 130 km/s. In spite of its complex appearence, the velocity data show that the basic morphology of the inner regions of the optical nebula is that of a bipolar (or conical) outflow extending nearly along the plane of the sky out to some 2000 A.U. from the centre. Even if the extension of this bipolar outflow and its position angle are consistent with those of the radio jet produced in 1984 (extrapolated to the time of our optical imagery), no obvious counterpart is visible of the original, dense radio bullets ejected by the system. We speculate that the optical bipolar outflow might be the remannt of the interaction of the bullets with a relatively dense circumstellar medium.

Corradi, R L M; Livio, M; Mampaso, A; Gonçalves, D R; Schwarz, H E; Corradi, Romano L.M.; Munari, Ulisse; Livio, Mario; Mampaso, Antonio; Goncalves, Denise R.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

The large-scale ionised outflow of CH Cygni  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HST and ground-based [OII} and [NII] images obtained from 1996 to 1999 reveal the existence of a ionised optical nebula around the symbiotic binary CH Cyg extending out to 5000 A.U. from the central stars. The observed velocity range of the nebula, derived from long-slit echelle spectra, is of 130 km/s. In spite of its complex appearence, the velocity data show that the basic morphology of the inner regions of the optical nebula is that of a bipolar (or conical) outflow extending nearly along the plane of the sky out to some 2000 A.U. from the centre. Even if the extension of this bipolar outflow and its position angle are consistent with those of the radio jet produced in 1984 (extrapolated to the time of our optical imagery), no obvious counterpart is visible of the original, dense radio bullets ejected by the system. We speculate that the optical bipolar outflow might be the remannt of the interaction of the bullets with a relatively dense circumstellar medium.

Romano L. M. Corradi; Ulisse Munari; Mario Livio; Antonio Mampaso; Denise R. Goncalves; Hugo E. Schwarz

2001-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

84

Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Hydrothermal vent complexes associated with sill intrusionsin sedimentarybasins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 477 Discussion on structure and evolution of hydrothermal vent complexes in the Karoo Basin, South the paper by Svensen et al. (2006) on South African hydrothermal vents within the Karoo Basin, particularly for their interest in our paper on hydrothermal vent complexes in the Karoo Basin (Svensen et al. 2006). Based

Podladchikov, Yuri

86

Matrix-fracture interactions in dual porosity simulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new method for simulating flow in fractured media is presented which uses a truncated version of the analytical solution to resolve pressure transients in the rock matrix. The point at which the series solution may be truncated is a known function of the problem, and may therefore be readily determined. Furthermore, the functional form of the method is essentially dimension-independent, and implementation of the method requires only minimal modification to an existing dual porosity simulator. Three test cases are presented comparing results from fine grid simulations, Warren and Root simulations, and the new formulation. In each of the three cases presented, excellent agreement with the fine grid simulations is obtained using the new method. The W&R formulation exhibits excessive error throughout the simulated time, first underpredicting outflow rates, and then overpredicting rates. The error using the W&R formulation is largest for 3-D fracture networks, but is large for all cases tested.

Shook, G.M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterMonitoring during hydraulic fracturing using the TG-2 well,fracture processes in hydraulic fracturing, Quarterly Report

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Deep Borehole Measurements for Characterizing the Magma/Hydrothermal System at Long Valley Caldera, CA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Magma Energy Program of the Geothermal Technology Division is scheduled to begin drilling a deep (6 km) exploration well in Long Valley Caldera, California in 1989. The drilling site is near the center of the caldera which is associated with numerous shallow (5-7 km) geophysical anomalies. This deep well will present an unparalleled opportunity to test and validate geophysical techniques for locating magma as well as a test of the theory that magma is still present at drillable depths within the central portion of the caldera. If, indeed, drilling indicates magma, the geothermal community will then be afforded the unique possibility of examining the coupling between magmatic and hydrothermal regimes in a major volcanic system. Goals of planned seismic experiments that involve the well include the investigation of local crustal structure down to depths of 10 km as well as the determination of mechanisms for local seismicity and deformation. Borehole electrical and electromagnetic surveys will increase the volume and depth of rock investigated by the well through consideration of the conductive structure of the hydrothermal and underlying regimes. Currently active processes involving magma injection will be studied through observation of changes in pore pressure and strain. Measurements of in situ stress from recovered cores and hydraulic fracture tests will be used in conjunction with uplift data to determine those models for magmatic injection and inflation that are most applicable. Finally, studies of the thermal regime will be directed toward elucidating the coupling between the magmatic source region and the more shallow hydrothermal system in the caldera fill. To achieve this will require careful logging of borehole fluid temperature and chemistry. In addition, studies of rock/fluid interactions through core and fluid samples will allow physical characterization of the transition zone between hydrothermal and magmatic regimes.

Carrrigan, Charles R.

1989-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

89

Isotope and fluid inclusion studies of geological and hydrothermal processes, northern Peru  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mineralization in the Hualgayoc district of northern Peru occurs in altered Miocene felsic intrusions and in mid-Cretaceous platform sedimentary rocks of the Goyllarisquizga, Inca, and Chulec formations. The ores occur both as stratiform and stratabound pyritiferous base-metal deposits (mantos), and as steeply dipping, sedimentary and intrusive rock-hosted base-metal veins. Igneous rocks in the district are affected by propylytic, sericitic-argillic, sericitic, potassic, and acid-sulfate alteration. K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating and geological evidence indicate multiple stages of intrusive activity and hydrothermal alteration, including close spatial emplacement of two or more separate Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal systems. K-Ar dates on sericite, hydrothermal biotite, and alunite indicate that the most important hydrothermal episodes in the district took place {approx}13.24 and 12.4 Ma. Other K-Ar dates on altered rocks in the district may reflect various amounts of resetting by the emplacement of the 9.05 {+-} 0.2 Ma Hualgayoc rhyodacite. A five-point Rb-Sr isochron for the San Miguel intrusion at Cerro Coymolache yields an age of 45 {+-} 3.4 Ma, which indicates much earlier magmatic activity in this area than recognized previously. Fluid inclusion and paragenetic studies reveal a clear temporal evolution of fluid temperature and chemistry in the San Agustin area at Hualgayoc. Gradually, ore formation shifted to precipitation of vein minerals in the brittle fractures as the mantos became less permeable and were sealed off. Vein formation continued from progressively cooler and more diluted fluids (down to {approx}150{degrees}C and 4.3 wt% NaCl equivalent) as the system waned. No evidence for phase separation is observed in the fluids until the very last paragenetic stage, which contributed no economic mineralization. 53 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

MacFarlane, A.W. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Prol-Ledesma, R.M. [Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Conrad, M.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE MASSIVE MOLECULAR OUTFLOW G331.512-0.103  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The object of this study is one of the most energetic and luminous molecular outflows known in the Galaxy, G331.512-0.103. Observations with ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz; 0.86 mm) reveal a very compact, extremely young bipolar outflow and a more symmetric outflowing shocked shell surrounding a very small region of ionized gas. The velocities of the bipolar outflow are about 70 km s{sup -1} on either side of the systemic velocity. The expansion velocity of the shocked shell is {approx}24 km s{sup -1}, implying a crossing time of about 2000 yr. Along the symmetry axis of the outflow, there is a velocity feature, which could be a molecular ''bullet'' of high-velocity dense material. The source is one of the youngest examples of massive molecular outflow found associated with a high-mass star.

Merello, Manuel; Bronfman, Leonardo; Garay, Guido; Lo, Nadia [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Nyman, Lars-Ake; Cortes, Juan R. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Cunningham, Maria R. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Radiative Effects on Particle Acceleration in Electromagnetic Dominated Outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plasma outflows from gamma-ray bursts (GRB), pulsar winds, relativistic jets, and ultra-intense laser targets radiate high energy photons. However, radiation damping is ignored in conventional PIC simulations. In this letter, we study the radiation damping effect on particle acceleration via Poynting fluxes in two-and-half-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation of electron-positron plasmas. Radiation damping force is self-consistently calculated for each particle and reduces the net acceleration force. The emitted radiation is peaked within a few degrees from the direction of Poynting flux and strongly linear-polarized.

Koichi Noguchi; Edison Liang; Kazumi Nishimura

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

92

Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within the Coso Hot  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within the Coso Hot Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within the Coso Hot Sprints geothermal system Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within the Coso Hot Sprints geothermal system Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Two types of white micas are found in drillhole samples within the geothermal system at Coso Hot Springs. Low-permeability zones of the crystalline basement contain coarse-grained relict muscovite, whereas rock alteration near fracture zones at temperatures > 150°C is characterized by abundant finegrained sericite in association with secondary calcite and quartz and unaltered relict microcline. In this hydrothermal sericite there

93

Understanding Galaxy Outflows as the Product of Unstable Turbulent Support  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interstellar medium is a multiphase gas in which turbulent support is as important as thermal pressure. Sustaining this configuration requires both continuous turbulent stirring and continuous radiative cooling to match the decay of turbulent energy. While this equilibrium can persist for small turbulent velocities, if the one-dimensional velocity dispersion is larger than approximately 35 km/s, the gas moves into an unstable regime that leads to rapid heating. I study the implications of this turbulent runaway, showing that it causes a hot gas outflow to form in all galaxies with a gas surface density above approximately 50 solar masses/pc^2 corresponding to a star formation rate per unit area of 0.1$ solar masses/yr/kpc^2. For galaxies with escape velocities above 200 km/s, the sonic point of this hot outflow should lie interior to the region containing cold gas and stars, while for galaxies with smaller escape velocities, the sonic point should lie outside this region. This leads to efficient cold clou...

Scannapieco, Evan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The Water Vapor Abundance in Orion KL Outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the detection and modeling of more than 70 far-IR pure rotational lines of water vapor, including the 18O and 17O isotopologues, towards Orion KL. Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer Fabry-Perot (LWS/FP; R~6800-9700) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between ~43 and ~197 um. The water line profiles evolve from P-Cygni type profiles (even for the H2O18 lines) to pure emission at wavelengths above ~100 um. We find that most of the water emission/absorption arises from an extended flow of gas expanding at 25+-5 kms^-1. Non-local radiative transfer models show that much of the water excitation and line profile formation is driven by the dust continuum emission. The derived beam averaged water abundance is 2-3x10^-5. The inferred gas temperature Tk=80-100 K suggests that: (i) water could have been formed in the "plateau" by gas phase neutral-neutral reactions with activation barriers if the gas was previously heated (e.g. by shocks) to >500 K and/or (ii) H2O formation in the outflow is dominated by in-situ evaporation of grain water-ice mantles and/or (iii) H2O was formed in the innermost and warmer regions (e.g. the hot core) and was swept up in ~1000 yr, the dynamical timescale of the outflow.

J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; F. Daniel; M. R. Lerate; M. J. Barlow; B. M. Swinyard; E. van Dishoeck; T. L. Lim; S. Viti; J. Yates

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

95

Ultra Fast Outflows: Galaxy-Scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show, using global 3D grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that Ultra Fast Outflows (UFOs) from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous hot hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the inter-cloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically, rather than in a disc. In the latter case the turbulent backflow...

Wagner, A Y; Bicknell, G V

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Evidence for an outflow from the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4051  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New observations using narrow band imaging, long-slit spectroscopy and MERLIN observations of the nuclear region of the Seyfert galaxy NGC~4051 have been made. An edge brightened, triangular region of ionized gas extending 420 pc from the centre of the galaxy has been detected. Long-slit spectra of this ionised gas, taken at 1.5\\arcsec\\ from the core, show the \\oiii\\ emission line to consist of two velocity components, both blue-shifted from the systemic radial velocity, with velocity widths of 140\\kms\\ and separated by 120\\kms. This region is co-spatial with weak extended radio emission and is suggestive of a centrally driven outflow. The \\oiii\\ line spectrum and image of this region have been modelled as an outflowing conical structure at 50\\degr\\ to the line of sight with a half opening angle of 23\\degr . In addition to the extended structure, high resolution MERLIN observations of the 18-cm nuclear radio emission reveal a compact (1\\arcsec) radio triple source in PA 73$^{\\circ}$. This source is coincident with the HST-imaged emission line structure. These high resolution observations are consistent with a more compact origin of activity (i.e. a Seyfert nucleus) than a starburst region.

P. E. Christopoulou; A. J. Holloway; W. Steffen; C. G. Mundell; A. H. C. Thean; C. D. Goudis; J. Meaburn; A. Pedlar; .

1996-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

97

Evidence for an outflow from the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4051  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New observations using narrow band imaging, long-slit spectroscopy and MERLIN observations of the nuclear region of the Seyfert galaxy NGC~4051 have been made. An edge brightened, triangular region of ionized gas extending 420 pc from the centre of the galaxy has been detected. Long-slit spectra of this ionised gas, taken at 1.5\\arcsec\\ from the core, show the øiii\\ emission line to consist of two velocity components, both blue-shifted from the systemic radial velocity, with velocity widths of 140\\kms\\ and separated by 120\\kms. This region is co-spatial with weak extended radio emission and is suggestive of a centrally driven outflow. The øiii\\ line spectrum and image of this region have been modelled as an outflowing conical structure at 50\\degr\\ to the line of sight with a half opening angle of 23\\degr . In addition to the extended structure, high resolution MERLIN observations of the 18-cm nuclear radio emission reveal a compact (1\\arcsec) radio triple source in PA 73$^{\\circ}$. This source is coincident...

Christopoulou, P E; Steffen, W; Mundell, C G; Thean, A; Goudis, C; Meaburn, J; Pedlar, A

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A Rare Isolated Trapezoid Fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Toh S, Tsubo K, et al. An occult fracture of the trapezoiddue to concern for an occult fracture revealed a comminuted

Afifi, Negean; Lu, Jenny J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Hydraulic Fracturing in Particulate Materials .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??For more than five decades, hydraulic fracturing has been widely used to enhance oil and gas production. Hydraulic fracturing in solid materials (e.g., rock) has… (more)

Chang, Hong

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

Pearl, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Fold Catastrophe Model of Fracture Propagation of Hydraulic Fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to energy conservation from the destruction of rock catastrophe, a new calculation method of the length of fracture propagation in hydraulic fracturing is proposed, and assuming the crack extends to approximate ellipse, the width calculation ... Keywords: hydraulic fracture, fold catastrophe, fracture parameters

Zhaowan Chun; Wan Tingting; Ai Chi; Ju Guoshuai

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Evaluation of the relationship between fracture conductivity, fracture fluid production, and effective fracture length  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low-permeability gas wells often produce less than predicted after a fracture treatment. One of the reasons for this is that fracture lengths calculated after stimulation are often less than designed lengths. While actual fracture lengths may be shorter due to fracture growth out of zone, improper proppant settling, or proppant flowback, short calculated fracture lengths can also result from incorrect analysis techniques. It is known that fracturing fluid that remains in the fracture and formation after a hydraulic fracture treatment can decrease the productivity of a gas well by reducing the relative permeability to gas in the region invaded by this fluid. However, the relationships between fracture fluid cleanup, effective fracture length, and well productivity are not fully understood. In this work I used reservoir simulation to determine the relationship between fracture conductivity, fracture fluid production, effective fracture length, and well productivity. I simulated water saturation and pressure profiles around a propped fracture, tracked gas production along the length of the propped fracture, and quantified the effective fracture length (i.e., the fracture length under single-phase flow conditions that gives similar performance as for multiphase flow conditions), the "cleanup" fracture length (i.e., the fracture length corresponding to 90% cumulative gas flow rate into the fracture), and the "apparent" fracture length (i.e., the fracture length where the ratio of multiphase to single-phase gas entry rate profiles is unity). This study shows that the proppant pack is generally cleaned up and the cleanup lengths are close to designed lengths in relatively short times. Although gas is entering along entire fracture, fracturing fluid remains in the formation near the fracture. The water saturation distribution affects the gas entry rate profile, which determines the effective fracture length. Subtle changes in the gas rate entry profile can result in significant changes in effective fracture length. The results I derived from this work are consistent with prior work, namely that greater fracture conductivity results in more effective well cleanup and longer effective fracture lengths versus time. This study provides better explanation of mechanisms that affect fracturing fluid cleanup, effective fracture length, and well productivity than previous work.

Lolon, Elyezer P.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Rainier, Washington Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Rainier, Washington Details Activities (4) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: A once massive hydrothermal system was disgorged from the summit of Mount Rainier in a highly destructive manner about 5000 years ago. Today, hydrothermal processes are depositing clayey alteration products that have the potential to reset the stage for similar events in the future. Areas of active hydrothermal alteration occur in three representative settings: 1. (1) An extensive area (greater than 12,000 m2) of heated ground and slightly acidic boiling-point fumaroles at 76-82°C at

105

Neutrino Interactions in the Outflow from Gamma-Ray Burst Accretion Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the composition of matter as it flows away from gamma ray burst accretion disks, in order to determine what sort of nucleosynthesis may occur. Since there is a large flux of neutrinos leaving the surface of the disk, the electron fraction of the outflowing material will change due to charged current neutrino interactions. We calculate the electron fraction in the wind using detailed neutrino fluxes from every point on the disk and study a range of trajectories and outflow conditions for several different accretion disk models. We find that low electron fractions, conducive to making r-process elements, only appear in outflows from disks with high accretion rates that have a significant region both of trapped neutrinos and antineutrinos. Disks with lower accretion rates that have only a significant region of trapped neutrinos can have outflows with very high electron fractions, whereas the lowest accretion rate disks with little trapping have outflow electrons fractions of closer to one half.

R. Surman; G. C. McLaughlin

2004-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

106

Nucleosynthesis in the Outflow from Gamma Ray Burst Accretion Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the nucleosynthesis products that are produced in the outflow from rapidly accreting disks. We find that the type of element synthesis varies dramatically with the degree of neutrino trapping in the disk and therefore the accretion rate of the disk. Disks with relatively high accretion rates such as ? M = 10 M?/s can produce very neutron rich nuclei that are found in the r process. Disks with more moderate accretion rates can produce copious amounts of Nickel as well as the light elements such as Lithium and Boron. Disks with lower accretion rates such as ? M = 1 M?/s produce large amounts of Nickel as well as some unusual nuclei such as 49 Ti,

R. Surman; G. C. Mclaughlin; W. R. Hix; Zn

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Nucleosynthesis in the outflows associated with accretion disks of Type II collapsars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the outflows from gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, massive stars undergo core collapse to form a proto-neutron star initially and a mild supernova explosion is driven. The supernova ejecta lack momentum and subsequently this newly formed neutron star gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole via massive fallback. The hydrodynamics and the nucleosynthesis in these accretion disks has been studied extensively in the past. Several heavy elements are synthesized in the disk and much of these heavy elements are ejected from the disk via winds and outflows. We study nucleosynthesis in the outflows launched from these disks by using an adiabatic, spherically expanding outflow model, to understand which of these elements thus synthesized in the disk survive in the outflow. While studying this we find that many new elements like isotopes of titanium, copper, zinc etc. are present in the outflows. 56Ni is abundantly synthesized in most of the cases in the outflow which implies that the outflows from these disks in a majority of cases will lead to an observable supernova explosion. It is mainly present when outflow is considered from the He-rich, 56Ni/54Fe rich zones of the disks. However, outflow from the Si-rich zone of the disk remains rich in silicon. Although, emission lines of many of these heavy elements have been observed in the X-ray afterglows of several GRBs by Chandra, BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton etc., Swift seems to have not detected these lines yet.

Indrani Banerjee; Banibrata Mukhopadhyay

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

108

A Cellular Automata Breccia Simulator (CABS) and its application to rounding in hydrothermal breccias  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dissolution processes are ubiquitous in surficial and hydrothermal environments. Solution breccias are formed when dissolution processes dominate and are widely observed in hydrothermal systems. Distinct fragment shapes develop during dissolution and ... Keywords: Breccias, Cellular automata, Hydrothermal alteration, Numerical modelling, Simulation

M. Lalonde; G. Tremblay; M. Jébrak

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic...

110

Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range includes the heat discharged by thermal springs, by "slightly thermal" springs that are only a few degrees warmer than...

111

GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, IDAHO Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: GEOLOGY AND...

112

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Helium Isotope...

113

Why Sequence Bacteria in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents? The project focuses on using single-cell genomics to sequence nearly a dozen genomes of uncultivated bacteria that are found in...

114

Fracturing fluids -- then and now  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracturing fluid provides the means by which the hydraulic fracturing process can take place. All applications of well stimulation by fracturing must include selection of fracturing fluid in the initial phases of fracture design and treatment planning. Fracturing fluid has two important purposes: (1) to provide sufficient viscosity to suspend and transport proppant deep into the created fracture system and (2) to decompose, or break, chemically to a low viscosity to allow flowback of a major part of the fluid to the surface for fracture cleanup after the treatment is completed. Because of the importance of its rheological properties and behavior in the fracture under reservoir conditions during (and immediately after) the treatment, service company research laboratories have spent millions of dollars on R and D of fracturing fluids.

Jennings, A.R. Jr. [Enhanced Well Stimulation Inc., Plano, TX (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Suspensions in hydraulic fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Suspensions or slurries are widely used in well stimulation and hydraulic fracturing processes to enhance the production of oil and gas from the underground hydrocarbon-bearing formation. The success of these processes depends significantly upon having a thorough understanding of the behavior of suspensions used. Therefore, the characterization of suspensions under realistic conditions, for their rheological and hydraulic properties, is very important. This chapter deals with the state-of-the-art hydraulic fracturing suspension technology. Specifically it deals with various types of suspensions used in well stimulation and fracturing processes, their rheological characterization and hydraulic properties, behavior of suspensions in horizontal wells, review of proppant settling velocity and proppant transport in the fracture, and presently available measurement techniques for suspensions and their merits. Future industry needs for better understanding of the complex behavior of suspensions are also addressed. 74 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

Shah, S.N. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

Relative permeability through fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mechanism of two-phase flow through fractures is of importance in understanding many geologic processes. Currently, two-phase flow through fractures is still poorly understood. In this study, nitrogen-water experiments were done on both smooth and rough parallel plates to determine the governing flow mechanism for fractures and the appropriate methodology for data analysis. The experiments were done using a glass plate to allow visualization of flow. Digital video recording allowed instantaneous measurement of pressure, flow rate and saturation. Saturation was computed using image analysis techniques. The experiments showed that gas and liquid phases flow through fractures in nonuniform separate channels. The localized channels change with time as each phase path undergoes continues breaking and reforming due to invasion of the other phase. The stability of the phase paths is dependent on liquid and gas flow rate ratio. This mechanism holds true for over a range of saturation for both smooth and rough fractures. In imbibition for rough-walled fractures, another mechanism similar to wave-like flow in pipes was also observed. The data from the experiments were analyzed using Darcy's law and using the concept of friction factor and equivalent Reynold's number for two-phase flow. For both smooth- and rough-walled fractures a clear relationship between relative permeability and saturation was seen. The calculated relative permeability curves follow Corey-type behavior and can be modeled using Honarpour expressions. The sum of the relative permeabilities is not equal one, indicating phase interference. The equivalent homogeneous single-phase approach did not give satisfactory representation of flow through fractures. The graphs of experimentally derived friction factor with the modified Reynolds number do not reveal a distinctive linear relationship.

Diomampo, Gracel, P.

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Hydrocarbon anomaly in soil gas as near-surface expressions of upflows and outflows in geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

A variety of hydrocarbons, C1 - C12, have been found in volcanic gases (fumarolic) and in geothermal waters and gases. The hydrocarbons are thought to have come from products of pyrolysis of kerogen in sedimentary rocks or they could be fed into the geothermal system by the recharging waters which may contain dissolved hydrocarbons or hydrocarbons extracted by the waters from the rocks. In the hot geothermal zone, 300°+ C, many of these hydrocarbons are in their critical state. It is thought that they move upwards due to buoyancy and flux up with the upflowing geothermal fluids in the upflow zones together with the magmatic gases. Permeability which could be provided by faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures are thought to provide pathways for the upward flux. A sensitive technique (Petrex) utilizing passive integrative adsorption of the hydrocarbons in soil gas on activated charcoal followed by desorption and analysis of the hydrocarbons by direct introduction mass spectrometry allows mapping of the anomalous areas. Surveys for geothermal resources conducted in Japan and in Indonesia show that the hydrocarbon anomaly occur over known fields and over areas strongly suspected of geothermal potential. The hydrocarbons found and identified were n-paraffins (C7-C9) and aromatics (C7-C8). Detection of permeable, i.e. active or open faults, parts of older faults which have been reactivated, e.g. by younger intersecting faults, and the area surrounding these faulted and permeable region is possible. The mechanism leading to the appearance of the hydrocarbon in the soil gas over upflow zones of the geothermal reservoir is proposed. The paraffins seems to be better pathfinders for the location of upflows than the aromatics. However the aromatics may, under certain circumstances, give better indications of the direction of the outflow of the geothermal system. It is thought that an upflow zone can be defined when conditions exist where the recharging waters containing the hydrocarbons feed into the geothermal kitchen. The existence of open and active faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures allow sufficient permeability for the gases to flux up and express themselves at the surface as hydrocarbon anomaly in the soil gas. When any of the requirements is absent, i.e. in the absence of the recharging waters, hydrocarbons, temperature, or permeability, no anomaly can be expected. It assumes a dynamic convective system, i.e. recharging waters, upflow and outflow. The anomalies however can define to a certain extent, regions of geothermal upflow, buoyant transport of gases, and frequently down-gradient of cooling waters.

Ong, H.L.; Higashihara, M.; Klusman, R.W.; Voorhees, K.J.; Pudjianto, R.; Ong, J

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

118

Hydrocarbon anomaly in soil gas as near-surface expressions of upflows and outflows in geothermal systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of hydrocarbons, C1 - C12, have been found in volcanic gases (fumarolic) and in geothermal waters and gases. The hydrocarbons are thought to have come from products of pyrolysis of kerogen in sedimentary rocks or they could be fed into the geothermal system by the recharging waters which may contain dissolved hydrocarbons or hydrocarbons extracted by the waters from the rocks. In the hot geothermal zone, 300°+ C, many of these hydrocarbons are in their critical state. It is thought that they move upwards due to buoyancy and flux up with the upflowing geothermal fluids in the upflow zones together with the magmatic gases. Permeability which could be provided by faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures are thought to provide pathways for the upward flux. A sensitive technique (Petrex) utilizing passive integrative adsorption of the hydrocarbons in soil gas on activated charcoal followed by desorption and analysis of the hydrocarbons by direct introduction mass spectrometry allows mapping of the anomalous areas. Surveys for geothermal resources conducted in Japan and in Indonesia show that the hydrocarbon anomaly occur over known fields and over areas strongly suspected of geothermal potential. The hydrocarbons found and identified were n-paraffins (C7-C9) and aromatics (C7-C8). Detection of permeable, i.e. active or open faults, parts of older faults which have been reactivated, e.g. by younger intersecting faults, and the area surrounding these faulted and permeable region is possible. The mechanism leading to the appearance of the hydrocarbon in the soil gas over upflow zones of the geothermal reservoir is proposed. The paraffins seems to be better pathfinders for the location of upflows than the aromatics. However the aromatics may, under certain circumstances, give better indications of the direction of the outflow of the geothermal system. It is thought that an upflow zone can be defined when conditions exist where the recharging waters containing the hydrocarbons feed into the geothermal kitchen. The existence of open and active faults, fissures, mini and micro fractures allow sufficient permeability for the gases to flux up and express themselves at the surface as hydrocarbon anomaly in the soil gas. When any of the requirements is absent, i.e. in the absence of the recharging waters, hydrocarbons, temperature, or permeability, no anomaly can be expected. It assumes a dynamic convective system, i.e. recharging waters, upflow and outflow. The anomalies however can define to a certain extent, regions of geothermal upflow, buoyant transport of gases, and frequently down-gradient of cooling waters.

Ong, H.L.; Higashihara, M.; Klusman, R.W.; Voorhees, K.J.; Pudjianto, R.; Ong, J

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

119

FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

Subhash Shah

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Faults and gravity anomalies over the East Mesa hydrothermal-geothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed interpretations of gravity anomalies over geothermal systems may be extremely useful for mapping the fracture or fault systems that control the circulation of the thermal waters. This approach seems to be particularly applicable in areas like the Salton Trough where reactions between the thermal waters and the porous sediments produce authigenic-hydrothermal minerals in sufficient quantity to cause distinct gravity anomalies at the surface. A 3-D inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly over the East Mesa geothermal field was made to examine the densified volume of rock. We show that the data not only resolve a north-south and an intersecting northwest structure, but that it may be possible to distinguish between the active present-day hydrothermal system and an older and cooler part of the system. The densified region is compared spatially to self-potential, thermal and seismic results and we find a good concordance between the different geophysical data sets. Our results agree with previous studies that have indicated that the main feeder fault recharging the East Mesa reservoir dips steeply to the west.

Goldstein, N.E.; Carle, S.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterSP response during hydraulic fracturing. Citation: Moore, J.observations during hydraulic fracturing, J. Geophys. Res. ,

Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and T. W. Keech (1977), Hydraulic fracture mapping usingpotential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterSP Monitoring during hydraulic fracturing using the TG-2

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Hydraulic Fracturing Poster | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Fracturing Poster Hydraulic Fracturing Poster Educational poster graphically displaying the key components of hydraulic fracturing. Teachers: If you would like hard...

124

Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Massive Star Formation with Protostellar Outflows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the results of a series of AMR radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive star forming clouds using the ORION code. These simulations are the first to include the feedback effects protostellar outflows, as well as protostellar radiative heating and radiation pressure exerted on the infalling, dusty gas. We find that that outflows evacuate polar cavities of reduced optical depth through the ambient core. These enhance the radiative flux in the poleward direction so that it is 1.7 to 15 times larger than that in the midplane. As a result the radiative heating and outward radiation force exerted on the protostellar disk and infalling cloud gas in the equatorial direction are greatly diminished. The simultaneously reduces the Eddington radiation pressure barrier to high-mass star formation and increases the minimum threshold surface density for radiative heating to suppress fragmentation compared to models that do not include outflows. The strength of both these effects depends on the initial core surface density. Lower surface density cores have longer free-fall times and thus massive stars formed within them undergo more Kelvin contraction as the core collapses, leading to more powerful outflows. Furthermore, in lower surface density clouds the ratio of the time required for the outflow to break out of the core to the core free-fall time is smaller, so that these clouds are consequently influenced by outflows at earlier stages of collapse. As a result, outflow effects are strongest in low surface density cores and weakest in high surface density one. We also find that radiation focusing in the direction of outflow cavities is sufficient to prevent the formation of radiation pressure-supported circumstellar gas bubbles, in contrast to models which neglect protostellar outflow feedback.

Cunningham, A J; Klein, R I; Krumholz, M R; McKee, C F

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

125

Entrainment Mechanisms for Outflows in the L1551 Star-Forming Region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present high sensitivity 12/13CO(1-0) molecular line maps covering the full extent of the parsec scale L1551 molecular outflow, including the redshifted east-west (EW) flow. We also present 12CO(3-2) data that extends over a good fraction of the area mapped in the 1-0 transition. We compare the molecular data to widefield, narrow-band optical emission in H$\\alpha$. While there are multiple outflows in the L1551 cloud, the main outflow is oriented at 50\\arcdeg position angle and appears to be driven by embedded source(s) in the central IRS 5 region. The 3-2 data indicate that there may be molecular emission associated with the L1551 NE jet, within the redshifted lobe of main outflow. We have also better defined the previously known EW flow and believe we have identified its blueshifted counterpart. We further speculate that the origin of the EW outflow lies near HH 102. We use velocity dependent opacity correction to estimate the mass and the energy of the outflow. The resulting mass spectral indices from our analysis, are systematically lower (less steep) than the power law indices obtained towards other outflows in several recent studies that use a similar opacity correction method. We show that systematic errors and biases in the analysis procedures for deriving mass spectra could result in errors in the determination of the power-law indices. The mass spectral indices, the morphological appearance of the position-velocity plots and integrated intensity emission maps of the molecular data, compared with the optical, suggest that jet-driven bow-shock entrainment is the best explanation for the driving mechanism of outflows in L1551. The kinetic energy of the outflows is found to be comparable to the binding energy of the cloud and sufficient to maintain the turbulence in the L1551 cloud.

Irena Stojimirovi?; Gopal Narayanan; Ronald L. Snell; John Bally

2006-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

126

DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR TERMINATION OF OBSCURED STAR FORMATION BY RADIATIVELY DRIVEN OUTFLOWS IN REDDENED QSOs  

SciTech Connect

We present optical to far-infrared photometry of 31 reddened QSOs that show evidence for radiatively driven outflows originating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in their rest-frame UV spectra. We use these data to study the relationships between the AGN-driven outflows, and the AGN and starburst infrared luminosities. We find that FeLoBAL QSOs are invariably IR-luminous, with IR luminosities exceeding 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun} in all cases. The AGN supplies 76% of the total IR emission, on average, but with a range from 20% to 100%. We find no evidence that the absolute luminosity of obscured star formation is affected by the AGN-driven outflows. Conversely, we find an anticorrelation between the strength of AGN-driven outflows, as measured from the range of outflow velocities over which absorption exceeds a minimal threshold, and the contribution from star formation to the total IR luminosity, with a much higher chance of seeing a starburst contribution in excess of 25% in systems with weak outflows than in systems with strong outflows. Moreover, we find no convincing evidence that this effect is driven by the IR luminosity of the AGN. We conclude that radiatively driven outflows from AGNs can have a dramatic, negative impact on luminous star formation in their host galaxies. We find that such outflows act to curtail star formation such that star formation contributes less than {approx}25% of the total IR luminosity. We also propose that the degree to which termination of star formation takes place is not deducible from the IR luminosity of the AGN.

Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Urrutia, Tanya [Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany); Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Carol [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Efstathiou, Andreas [School of Sciences, European University Cyprus, Diogenes Street, Engomi, Nicosia (Cyprus); Afonso, Jose [Observatorio Astronomico de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal); Coppin, Kristen [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hall, Patrick B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Jarrett, Tom; Borys, Colin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bridge, Carrie [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Petty, Sara [UCLA, Physics and Astronomy Building, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Particle swarm optimization technique based short-term hydrothermal scheduling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particle swarm optimization is applied to determine the optimal hourly schedule of power generation in a hydrothermal power system. A multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric system with a nonlinear relationship between water discharge rate, net head and ... Keywords: Cascaded reservoirs, Hydrothermal scheduling, Particle swarm optimization

K. K. Mandal; M. Basu; N. Chakraborty

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Polymer-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchically arranged hydroxyapatite nanoceramic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flower-like hydroxyapatite (HA) nanostructures were synthesized by a polymer-assisted hydrothermal method. The thickness of the petals/plates decreased from 200 nm to 40 nm as the polymer concentration increased. The thickness also decreased as the hydrothermal ...

A. Joseph Nathanael, Sung Soo Han, Tae Hwan Oh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Property:IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential Jump to: navigation, search Property Name IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from identified hydrothermal sites, as determined by the USGS 2008 Geothermal Resource Assessment (Williams et al, 2008). Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS

130

Property:PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration Property Type Quantity Description The estimated potential energy generation from Geothermal Hydrothermal for a particular place. Use this type to express a quantity of energy. The default unit for energy on OpenEI is the Kilowatt hour (kWh), which is 3,600,000 Joules. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_of_energy It's possible types are Watt hours - 1000 Wh, Watt hour, Watthour Kilowatt hours - 1 kWh, Kilowatt hour, Kilowatthour Megawatt hours - 0.001 MWh, Megawatt hour, Megawatthour Gigawatt hours - 0.000001 GWh, Gigawatt hour, Gigawatthour Joules - 3600000 J, Joules, joules Pages using the property "PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration"

131

Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems In The  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems In The Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems In The Western Us Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems In The Western Us Details Activities (5) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing

132

Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal System- A Case Study Of The Geysers Geothermal Field, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal System- A Case Study Of The Geysers Geothermal Field, Usa Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal alteration and the active vapor-dominated geothermal system at The Geysers, CA are related to a composite hypabyssal granitic pluton emplaced beneath the field 1.1 to 1.2 million years ago. Deep drill holes provide a complete transect across the thermal system and samples of the modern-day steam. The hydrothermal system was liquid-dominated prior to formation of the modern vapor-dominated regime at 0.25 to 0.28 Ma. Maximum

133

Property:UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential Jump to: navigation, search Property Name UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Estimated conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from undiscovered hydrothermal sites, as determined by the USGS 2008 Geothermal Resource Assessment (Williams et al, 2008). Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS

134

Influence of asperities on fluid and thermal flow in a fracture: a coupled Lattice Boltzmann study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The characteristics of the hydro-thermal flow which occurs when a cold fluid is injected into a hot fractured bedrock depend on the morphology of the fracture. We consider a sharp triangular asperity, invariant in one direction, perturbing an otherwise flat fracture. We investigate its influence on the macroscopic hydraulic transmissivity and heat transfer efficiency, at fixed low Reynolds number. In this study, numerical simulations are done with a coupled lattice Boltzmann method that solves both the complete Navier-Stokes and advection-diffusion equations in three dimensions. The results are compared with those obtained under lubrication approximations which rely on many hypotheses and neglect the three-dimensional (3D) effects. The lubrication results are obtained by analytically solving the Stokes equation and a two-dimensional (integrated over the thickness) advection-diffusion equation. We use a lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution (for mass and energy transport) on hypercubic and cubic ...

Neuville, Amélie; Toussaint, Renaud

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD FROM ANALYSES OF SHEAR-WAVE SPLITTING Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD FROM ANALYSES OF SHEAR-WAVE SPLITTING Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: This project aims to improve understanding of the subsurface fracture system in the Coso geothermal field, located in the east central California. We applied shear-wave splitting technique on a set of high quality, locally recorded microearthquake (MEQ) data. Four major fracture directions have been identified from the seismograms recorded by the permanent sixteen-station down-hole array: N10- 20W, NS, N20E, and N40-45E,

136

Cosmic-ray Driven Outflows in Global Galaxy Disk Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Galactic-scale winds are a generic feature of massive galaxies with high star formation rates across a broad range of redshifts. Despite their importance, a detailed physical understanding of what drives these mass-loaded global flows has remained elusive. In this paper, we explore the dynamical impact of cosmic rays by performing the first three-dimensional, adaptive mesh refinement simulations of an isolated starbursting galaxy that includes a basic model for the production, dynamics and diffusion of galactic cosmic rays. We find that including cosmic rays naturally leads to robust, massive, bipolar outflows from our 10^12 Msun halo, with a mass-loading factor Mout/SFR = 0.3 for our fiducial run. Other reasonable parameter choices led to mass-loading factors above unity. The wind is multiphase and is accelerated to velocities well in excess of the escape velocity. We employ a two-fluid model for the thermal gas and relativistic CR plasma and model a range of physics relevant to galaxy formation, including r...

Salem, Munier

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Hydrothermal system at Newberry Volcano, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Results of recent geological and geophysical studies at Newberry Volcano have been incorporated into conceptual and numerical models of a magma-based hydrothermal system. Numerical simulations begin with emplacement of a small magma body, the presumed source of silicic eruptions at Newberry that began about 10,000 B.P., into a thermal regime representing 100,000 years of cooling of a large underlying intrusion. Simulated flow patterns and thermal histories for three sets of hypothetical permeability values are compatible with data from four geothermal drill holes on the volcano. Meteoric recharge cools the caldera-fill deposits, but thermal water moving up a central conduit representing a permeable volcanic vent produces temperatures close to those observed in drill holes within the caldera. Meteoric recharge from the caldera moves down the flanks and creates a near-isothermal zone that extends several hundred meters below the water table, producing temperature profiles similar to those observed in drill holes on the flanks. The temperatures observed in drill holes on the flanks are not influenced by the postulated Holocene magma body. The elevated temperature gradients measured in the lower portions of these holes may be related to the cumulative effect of older intrusions. The models also indicate that meteoric recharge to the deep hydrothermal system probably originates within or near the caldera. Relatively low fluid velocities at depth suggest that at least a significant fraction of the thermal fluid may be very old.

Sammel, E.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Mariner, R.H.

1988-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

138

Hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field: Sulphur Springs and the Cochiti mining district  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

K/Ar dates and oxygen isotope data were obtained on 13 clay separates (<2 ..mu..m) of thermally altered mafic and silicic rocks from the Cochiti mining district (SE Jemez Mountains) and Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP) core hole VC-2A (Sulphur Springs, Valles caldera). Illite with K/sub 2/O contents of 6.68%--10.04% is the dominant clay in the silicic rocks, whereas interstratified illite/smectites containing 1.4%--5.74% K/sub 2/O constitute the altered andesites. Two hydrothermal alteration events are recognized at the Cochiti area (8.07 m.y., n = 1, and 6.5--5.6 m.y., n = 6). The older event correlates with the waning stages of Paliza Canyon Formation andesite volcanism (greater than or equal to13 to less than or equal to8.5 m.y.), whereas the younger event correlates with intrusions and gold- and silver-bearing quartz veins associated with the Bearhead Rhyolite (7.54--5.8 m.y.). The majority of K/Ar dates in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A (0.83--0.66 m.y., n = 4) indicate that hydrothermal alteration developed contemporaneously with resurgence and ring fracture Valles Rhyolite domes (0.89--0.54 m.y.). One date of 0 +- 0.10 m.y. in acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole probably correlates with Holocene hydrothermal activity possibly associated with the final phases of the Valles Rhyolite (0.13 m.y.).

WoldeGabriel, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The Impact of Outflow Environment on Tropical Cyclone Intensification and Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the impacts of regions of weak inertial stability on tropical cyclone intensification and peak strength are examined. It is demonstrated that weak inertial stability in the outflow layer minimizes an energy sink of the tropical ...

Eric D. Rappin; Michael C. Morgan; Gregory J. Tripoli

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Compensation for the NADW Outflow in a Global Ocean General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent observational study on the compensation for the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) outflow suggested that the compensation flow loops into the south Indian Ocean, whereby the compensating water gains heat and salt before returning to the ...

Wenju Cai; Richard J. Greatbatch

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Self-Stratification of Tropical Cyclone Outflow. Part I: Implications for Storm Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extant theoretical work on the steady-state structure and intensity of idealized axisymmetric tropical cyclones relies on the assumption that isentropic surfaces in the storm outflow match those of the unperturbed environment ...

Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

142

Surface Analysis of the Rear-Flank Downdraft Outflow in Two Tornadic Supercells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rear-flank downdraft regions of two tornadic supercells were sampled on 12 June 2004 and 9 June 2005 using four “mobile mesonet” probes. These rear-flank downdraft outflows were sampled employing two different data collection routines; ...

Brian D. Hirth; John L. Schroeder; Christopher C. Weiss

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Influence of Sea Surface Temperature on Humidity and Temperature in the Outflow of Tropical Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiple years of measurements of tropical upper-tropospheric temperature and humidity by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) project are analyzed in the vicinity of deep convective outflow to study the ...

Zhengzhao Johnny Luo; Dieter Kley; Richard H. Johnson; G. Y. Liu; Susanne Nawrath; Herman G. J. Smit

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

The Rhine Outflow Plume Studied by the Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data and Numerical Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of the Rhine outflow plume in the proximity of the river mouth is investigated by using remote sensing data and numerical simulations. The remote sensing data consist of 41 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by the First ...

Katrin Hessner; Angelo Rubino; Peter Brandt; Werner Alpers

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Stress on the Mediterranean Outflow Plume: Part II. Turbulent Dissipation and Shear Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bottom and interfacial stresses on the Mediterranean outflow plume are estimated using vertical profiles of turbulent dissipation and velocity collected in the Gulf of Cadiz. Turbulent dissipation is high throughout the plume, with a local ...

Gregory C. Johnson; Rolf G. Lueck; Thomas B. Sanford

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Response to a Steady Poleward Outflow. Part II: Oscillations and Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conceptually simple model is presented for predicting the amplitude and periodicity of eddies generated by a steady poleward outflow in a 1½-layer ?-plane formulation. The prediction model is rooted in linear quasigeostrophic dynamics but is ...

Theodore S. Durland; Michael A. Spall; Joseph Pedlosky

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Breakthrough in fracture mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Fracture mechanics, the science of calculating material characteristics, stress, and flaws in plant equipment to evaluate structural integrity, usually spares the owners of nuclear power plants unnecessary expense. Instead of replacing equipment prematurely or waiting for costly, unscheduled materials failures that can take months to repair and cost thousands of dollars a day for replacement power, utilities use fracture mechanics techniques to carefully consider their options. If analyses show repair is unnecessary, plant operation can confidently be resumed. If repair is required, it can either be done immediately or, if deferrable, be scheduled for a later, more convenient outage.

Lihach, N.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Fracture characterization of multilayered reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracture treatment optimization techniques have been developed using Long-Spaced-Digital-Sonic (LSDS) log, pumpin-flowback, mini-frac, and downhole treating pressure data. These analysis techniques have been successfully applied in massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) of ''tight gas'' wells. Massive hydraulic fracture stimulations have been used to make many tight gas reservoirs commercially attractive. However, studies have shown that short highly conductive fractures are optimum for the successful stimulation of wells in moderate permeability reservoirs. As a result, the ability to design and place optimal fractures in these reservoirs is critical. This paper illustrates the application of fracture analysis techniques to a moderate permeability multi-layered reservoir. These techniques were used to identify large zonal variations in rock properties and pore pressure which result from the complex geology. The inclusion of geologic factors in fracture treatment design allowed the placement of short highly conductive fractures which were used to improve injectivity and vertical sweep, and therefore, ultimate recovery.

Britt, L.K.; Larsen, M.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Role of thermal conduction in an advective accretion with bipolar outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steady-state advective accretion flows in the presence of thermal conduction are studied. All three components of velocity in a spherical coordinates are considered and the flow displays both inflowing and outflowing regions according to our similarity solutions. Thermal conductivity provides latitudinal energy transport and so, the flow rotates more slowly and becomes hotter with increasing thermal conductivity coefficient. We also show that opening angle of the outflow region decreases as thermal conduction becomes stronger.

Khajenabi, Fazeleh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Hydrothermal time analysis of seed dormancy in true (botanical) potato seeds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

germination and shoot-radicle elongation of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Weed Science 47, 557­562. Hydrothermal

Bradford, Kent

151

Investigation of Created Fracture Geometry through Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Successful development of shale gas reservoirs is highly dependent on hydraulic fracture treatments. Many questions remain in regards to the geometry of the created fractures. Production data analysis from some shale gas wells quantifies a much smaller stimulated pore volume than what would be expected from microseismic evidence and reports of fracturing fluids reaching distant wells. In addition, claims that hydraulic fracturing may open or reopen a network of natural fractures is of particular interest. This study examines hydraulic fracturing of shale gas formations with specific interest in fracture geometry. Several field cases are analyzed using microseismic analysis as well as net pressure analysis of the fracture treatment. Fracture half lengths implied by microseismic events for some of the stages are several thousand feet in length. The resulting dimensions from microseismic analysis are used for calibration of the treatment model. The fracture profile showing created and propped fracture geometry illustrates that it is not possible to reach the full fracture geometry implied by microseismic given the finite amount of fluid and proppant that was pumped. The model does show however that the created geometry appears to be much larger than half the well spacing. From a productivity standpoint, the fracture will not drain a volume more than that contained in half of the well spacing. This suggests that for the case of closely spaced wells, the treatment size should be reduced to a maximum of half the well spacing. This study will provide a framework for understanding hydraulic fracture treatments in shale formations. In addition, the results from this study can be used to optimize hydraulic fracture treatment design. Excessively large treatments may represent a less than optimal approach for developing these resources.

Ahmed, Ibraheem 1987-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Rigid Body Simulation with Local Fracturing Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Focusing on the real-time and interactive ability features in the Virtual Reality application, we propose a fracture pattern based on local fracture mechanism. Taking advantage of the experience analysis or the offline computation verified fracture characteristic, ... Keywords: Rigid Body, pre-fracture, fracture pattern, local fracture, dynamics

Wu Bo; Zeng Liang; Wu Yagang

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Method for fracturing silicon-carbide coatings on nuclear-fuel particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a device for fracturing particles. It is designed especially for use in "hot cells" designed for the handling of radioactive materials. In a typical application, the device is used to fracture a hard silicon-carbide coating present on carbon-matrix microspheres containing nuclear-fuel material, such as uranium or thorium compounds. To promote remote control and facilitate maintenance, the particle breaker is pneumatically operated and contains no moving parts. It includes means for serially entraining the entrained particles on an anvil housed in a leak-tight chamber. The flow rate of the gas is at a value effecting fracture of the particles; preferably, it is at a value fracturing them into product particulates of fluidizable size. The chamber is provided with an outlet passage whose cross-sectional area decreases in the direction away from the chamber. The outlet is connected tangentially to a vertically oriented vortex-flow separator for recovering the product particulates entrained in the gas outflow from the chamber. The invention can be used on a batch or continuous basis to fracture the silicon-carbide coatings on virtually all of the particles fed thereto.

Turner, Lloyd J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Willey, Melvin G. (Knoxville, TN); Tiegs, Sue M. (Lenoir City, TN); Van Cleve, Jr., John E. (Kingston, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

A Physically Based Approach for Modeling Multiphase Fracture-Matrix Interaction in Fractured Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in modeling multiphase flow in porous and fractured media,multiphase tracer transport in heterogeneous fractured porousof multiphase flow through fractured or porous media.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A physically based numerical approach for modeling fracture-matrix interaction in fractured reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in modeling multiphase flow in porous and fractured media,multiphase tracer transport in heterogeneous fractured porousof multiphase flow through fractured or porous media. 3.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heat source Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heat source Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluids have been sampled from 9 wells and 2 fumaroles from the East Flank of the Coso hydrothermal system with a view to identifying, if possible, the location and characteristics of the heat source inflows into this portion of the geothermal field. Preliminary results show that there has been extensive vapor loss in the system, most probably in response to

157

Direct use of hydrothermal energy: a review of environmental aspects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential environmental impacts of the exploration, development, and production of hydrothermal geothermal energy for direct use applications are reviewed and evaluated. Mitigation strategies and research and development needs are included. (MHR)

O'Banion, K.; Layton, D.

1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

158

Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge Exchange  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge Exchange Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge Exchange on Openei Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge Exchange on Openei Abstract Though exploring for hydrothermal resources is not new, advances in exploration technologies and the pursuit of less visible resources have created a need to outline exploration best practices. This multi-year study outlines 21 geothermal exploration regions in the Western United States. These regions were developed based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) physiographic regions, then adjusted to fit geothermal parameters such as differences in geologic regime, structure, heat source, surface effects

159

Property:PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from Geothermal Hydrothermal for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

160

Rational control of hydrothermal nanowire synthesis and its applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrothermal nanowire synthesis is a rapidly emerging nanowire discipline that enables low temperature growth and batch process. It has a major impact on the development of novel energy conversion devices, high density ...

Joo, Jaebum

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

provide a complete transect across the thermal system and samples of the modern-day steam. The hydrothermal system was liquid-dominated prior to formation of the modern...

162

Forecasting Electricity Prices in an Optimization Hydrothermal Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an economic dispatch algorithm in a hydrothermal system within the framework of a competitive and deregulated electricity market. The optimization problem of one firm is described

J. M. Matías; L. Bayón; P. Suárez; A. Argüelles; J. Taboada

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404  

SciTech Connect

Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. They also examined products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Sanchez, J.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New Mexico- A 36Cl Study Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

165

Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

Anderson, Chris M. (Shakopee, MN); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND); Mann, Michael D. (Thompson, ND); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Richter, John J. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); Willson, Warrack G. (Fairbanks, AK)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS TOWARD CANDIDATE LOW-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect

We present a systematic single-dish search for molecular outflows toward a sample of nine candidate low-luminosity protostars and 30 candidate very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L{sub int} {<=} 0.1 L{sub Sun }). The sources are identified using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope cataloged by Dunham et al. toward nearby (D < 400 pc) star-forming regions. Each object was observed in {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 2 {yields} 1 simultaneously using the sideband separating ALMA Band-6 prototype receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope at 30'' resolution. Using five-point grid maps, we identify five new potential outflow candidates and make on-the-fly maps of the regions surrounding sources in the dense cores B59, L1148, L1228, and L1165. Of these new outflow candidates, only the map of B59 shows a candidate blue outflow lobe associated with a source in our survey. We also present larger and more sensitive maps of the previously detected L673-7 and the L1251-A-IRS4 outflows and analyze their properties in comparison to other outflows from VeLLOs. The accretion luminosities derived from the outflow properties of the VeLLOs with detected CO outflows are higher than the observed internal luminosity of the protostars, indicating that these sources likely had higher accretion rates in the past. The known L1251-A-IRS3 outflow is detected but not re-mapped. We do not detect clear, unconfused signatures of red and blue molecular wings toward the other 31 sources in the survey indicating that large-scale, distinct outflows are rare toward this sample of candidate protostars. Several potential outflows are confused with the kinematic structure in the surrounding core and cloud. Interferometric imaging is needed to disentangle large-scale molecular cloud kinematics from these potentially weak protostellar outflows.

Schwarz, Kamber R.; Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Numerical Investigation of Interaction Between Hydraulic Fractures and Natural Fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing of a naturally-fractured reservoir is a challenge for industry, as fractures can have complex growth patterns when propagating in systems of natural fractures in the reservoir. Fracture propagation near a natural fracture (NF) considering interaction between a hydraulic fracture (HF) and a pre-existing NF, has been investigated comprehensively using a two dimensional Displacement Discontinuity Method (DDM) Model in this thesis. The rock is first considered as an elastic impermeable medium (with no leakoff), and then the effects of pore pressure change as a result of leakoff of fracturing fluid are considered. A uniform pressure fluid model and a Newtonian fluid flow model are used to calculate the fluid flow, fluid pressure and width distribution along the fracture. Joint elements are implemented to describe different NF contact modes (stick, slip, and open mode). The structural criterion is used for predicting the direction and mode of fracture propagation. The numerical model was used to first examine the mechanical response of the NF to predict potential reactivation of the NF and the resultant probable location for fracture re-initiation. Results demonstrate that: 1) Before the HF reaches a NF, the possibility of fracture re-initiation across the NF and with an offset is enhanced when the NF has weaker interfaces; 2) During the stage of fluid infiltration along the NF, a maximum tensile stress peak can be generated at the end of the opening zone along the NF ahead of the fluid front; 3) Poroelastic effects, arising from fluid diffusion into the rock deformation can induce closure and compressive stress at the center of the NF ahead of the HF tip before HF arrival. Upon coalescence when fluid flows along the NF, the poroelastic effects tend to reduce the value of the HF aperture and this decreases the tension peak and the possibility of fracture re-initiation with time. Next, HF trajectories near a NF were examined prior to coalesce with the NF using different joint, rock and fluid properties. Our analysis shows that: 1) Hydraulic fracture trajectories near a NF may bend and deviate from the direction of the maximum horizontal stress when using a joint model that includes initial joint deformation; 2) Hydraulic fractures propagating with higher injection rate or fracturing fluid of higher viscosity propagate longer distance when turning to the direction of maximum horizontal stress; 3) Fracture trajectories are less dependent on injection rate or fluid viscosity when using a joint model that includes initial joint deformation; whereas, they are more dominated by injection rate and fluid viscosity when using a joint model that excludes initial joint deformation.

Xue, Wenxu

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

Williford, Ralph E. (Kennewick, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Uncertainty in the maximum principal stress estimated from hydraulic fracturing Measurements due to the presence of the induced fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory study of hydraulic fracturing pressure data?Howevaluation of hydraulic fracturing stress measurementreopening during hydraulic fracturing stress determinations.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-fu; Stephansson, Ove

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Practical simulation of hierarchical brittle fracture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel practical method for brittle fracture simulation is presented. Our fracture model is represented by a tree structure, and all elementary fracture pieces are hierarchically connected. Each node in a fracture tree has a glue table to define connections ... Keywords: fluid, fracture, rigid body

Seungtaik Oh; Seunghyup Shin; Hyeryeong Jun

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

On the X-ray low- and high-velocity outflows in AGNs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An exploration of the relationship between bolometric luminosity and outflow velocity, for two classes of X-ray outflows in a large sample of active galactic nuclei has been performed. We find that line radiation pressure could be one physical mechanism that might accelerate the gas we observe in warm absorber, v~100-1000 km/s, and on comparable but less stringent grounds the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), v~0.03-0.3c. If comparable with the escape velocity of the system; the first is naturally located at distances of the dusty torus, ~ 1 pc, and the second at sub-parsec scales, ~ 0.01 pc, in accordance with large set of observational evidence existing in the literature. The presentation of this relationship might give us key clues for our understanding of the different physical mechanisms acting in the center of galaxies, the feedback process and its impact on the evolution of the host galaxy.

Ramirez, J M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Wormhole formation in dissolving fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dissolution of artificial fractures with three-dimensional, pore-scale numerical simulations. The fluid velocity in the fracture space was determined from a lattice-Boltzmann method, and a stochastic solver was used for the transport of dissolved species. Numerical simulations were used to study conditions under which long conduits (wormholes) form in an initially rough but spatially homogeneous fracture. The effects of flow rate, mineral dissolution rate and geometrical properties of the fracture were investigated, and the optimal conditions for wormhole formation determined.

Szymczak, P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Reconnaissance of the hydrothermal resources of Utah  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geologic factors in the Basin and Range province in Utah are more favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources than in other areas on the Colorado Plateaus or in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These geologic factors are principally crustal extension and crustal thinning during the last 17 million years. Basalts as young as 10,000 years have been mapped in the area. High-silica volcanic and intrusive rocks of Quaternary age can be used to locate hydrothermal convection systems. Drilling for hot, high-silica, buried rock bodies is most promising in the areas of recent volcanic activity. Southwestern Utah has more geothermal potential than other parts of the Basin and Range province in Utah. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area, the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale area, and the area to the north as far as 60 kilometers from them probably have the best potential for geothermal development for generation of electricity. Other areas with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C are Thermo, Monroe, Red Hill (in the Monroe-Joseph Known Geothermal Resource Area), Joseph Hot Springs, and the Newcastle area. The rates of heat and water discharge are high at Crater, Meadow, and Hatton Hot Springs, but estimated reservoir temperatures there are less than 150/sup 0/C. Additional exploration is needed to define the potential in three additional areas in the Escalante Desert. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

Rush, F.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Interferometric hydrofracture microseism localization using neighboring fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is the process of injecting high-pressure fluids into a reservoir to induce fractures and thus improve reservoir productivity. Microseismic event localization is used to locate created fractures. ...

Poliannikov, Oleg V.

175

Periodic deep?sea hydrothermal vent activities observed by hydrophones at Mariana, Okinawa, and Mid?Atlantic Ridge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep?sea hydrothermal vent activities were studied done by digital OBS/Hs(Ocean Bottom Seismometer / Hydrophone) at three hydrothermal vent areas

Kasahara Junzo; Sato Toshinori; Nishizawa Azusa; Fujioka Kantaro

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Geothermal Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Drilling Systems Project Description Potter Drilling has recently demonstrated hydrothermal spallation drilling in the laboratory. Hydrothermal spallation drilling creates boreholes using a focused jet of superheated water, separating individual grains ("spalls") from the rock surface without contact between the rock and the drill head. This process virtually eliminates the need for tripping. Previous tests of flame-jet spallation achieved ROP of 50 ft/hr and higher in hard rock with minimal wear on the drilling assembly, but operating this technology in an air-filled borehole created challenges related to cuttings transport and borehole stability. The Potter Drilling system uses a water based jet technology in a fluid-filled borehole and as a result has the potential to achieve similarly high ROP that is uncompromised by stability or cuttings transport issues.

177

Fracture detection and mapping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

Goldstein, N.E.; Iovenitti, J.L.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Meshless animation of fracturing solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new meshless animation framework for elastic and plastic materials that fracture. Central to our method is a highly dynamic surface and volume sampling method that supports arbitrary crack initiation, propagation, and termination, while ... Keywords: elasticity, fracture, meshless methods, physics-based animation, plasticity

Mark Pauly; Richard Keiser; Bart Adams; Philip Dutré; Markus Gross; Leonidas J. Guibas

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Verification of numerical models for hydrothermal plume water through field measurements at TAG  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrothermal vents discharge superheated, mineral rich water into our oceans, thereby providing a habitat for exotic chemosynthetic biological communities. Hydrothermal fluids are convected upwards until they cool and reach ...

Wichers, Sacha

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Geochemistry of hydrothermal vent fluids from the northern Juan De Fuca Ridge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The presence of aqueous organic compounds derived from sedimentary organic matter has the potential to influence a range of chemical processes in hydrothermal vent environments. For example, hydrothermal alteration experiments ...

Cruse, Anna M. (Anna Marie)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

icon K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico And Their Relation To Alteration In A Large Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation,...

182

NETL: Discrete Fracture Reservoir Simulation Software  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Discrete Fracture Reservoir Simulation FRACGENNFFLOW Shale Gas Flow Simulation Shale Gas Flow Simulation FRACGENNFFLOW, a fractured reservoir modeling software developed by the...

183

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and T. W. Keech (1977), Hydraulic fracture mapping usingpotential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of Bunterbetween electrical and hydraulic flow patterns from rock

Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Some Fundamental Mechanisms of Hydraulic Fracturing .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation focuses mainly on three topics: (1) mixed-mode branching and segmentation of hydraulic fractures in brittle materials, (2) hydraulic fracture propagation in particulate materials,… (more)

Wu, Ruiting

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Centers Field Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture...

186

“Hanging” Pelvic Gallbladder Simulating Occult Hip Fracture Versus Appendicitis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pelvic Gallbladder Simulating Occult Hip Fracture Versuspossibility of either an occult hip fracture or a subacute

Dolbec, Katherine W D; Higgins, George L; Jung, Michale W

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Downhole tool sniffs out fractures  

SciTech Connect

This article reports that a new tool has been designed and successfully tested that can designate which direction from a borehole a particular fracture is located. Albuquerque-based Sandia National Laboratories tested the new tool. The prototype was built by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio. During field tests, the tool detected simulated fractures more than 30 ft away from a test borehole. It determines fracture direction by transmitting highly directional and powerful radar pulses in a known direction. The pulses last eight billionths of a second and their frequency spectrum range up to the VHF (very high frequency) band. Discontinuities in the rock interrupt and reflect radar signals so that a signal's return to the tool indicates the presence of fractures. The return signal's time delay translates into distance from the borehole. The transmitter and receiver rotate in place, permitting the tool to scan for fractures in all directions.

Not Available

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

On the Mechanisms of Episodic Salinity Outflow Events in the Strait of Hormuz  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations in the Strait of Hormuz (26.26°N, 56.08°E) during 1997–98 showed substantial velocity fluctuations, accompanied by episodic changes in the salinity outflow events with amplitude varying between 1 and 2 psu on time scales of several ...

Prasad G. Thoppil; Patrick J. Hogan

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Water cooling of shocks in protostellar outflows: Herschel-PACS map of L1157  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of the Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program, maps in water lines of several outflows from young stars are being obtained, to study the water production in shocks and its role in the outflow cooling. This paper reports the first results of this program, presenting a PACS map of the o-H2O 179 um transition obtained toward the young outflow L1157. The 179 um map is compared with those of other important shock tracers, and with previous single-pointing ISO, SWAS, and Odin water observations of the same source that allow us to constrain the water abundance and total cooling. Strong H2O peaks are localized on both shocked emission knots and the central source position. The H2O 179 um emission is spatially correlated with emission from H2 rotational lines, excited in shocks leading to a significant enhancement of the water abundance. Water emission peaks along the outflow also correlate with peaks of other shock-produced molecular species, such as SiO and NH3. A strong H2O ...

Nisini, B; Codella, C; Giannini, T; Liseau, R; Neufeld, D; Tafalla, M; van Dishoeck, E F; Bachiller, R; Baaudry, A; Benz, O A; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Bruderer, S; Caselli, P; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Encrenaz, P; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Doty, S; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Goicoechea, J R; de Graaw, Th; Helmich, F; Herczeg, G; Herpin, F; Hogerheijde, M; Jacq, T; Johnstone, D; Jorgensen, J; Kaufman, M; Kirstensen, L; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Marseille, M; McCoey, C; Melnick, G; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J; Plime, R; Risacher, C; Santiago, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; van Kempen, T A; Visser, R; Viti, S; Wampfler, S; Wyrowski, F; van der Tak, F; Yildiz, U A; Delforge, B; Desbat, J; Hatch, W A; Peron, I; Schieder, R; Stern, J A; Teyssier, D; Whyborn, N

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations of Asian outflow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations for biomass burning using AVHRR satellite observations of fire activity corrected for data gaps and scan angle biomass burning in SE Asia was a major contributor to the outflow of Asian pollution observed in TRACE

Palmer, Paul

191

Outflowing atomic and molecular gas at $z \\sim 0.67$ towards 1504+377  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of OH 1667 MHz and wide HI 21cm absorption at $z \\sim 0.67$ towards the red quasar 1504+377, with the Green Bank Telescope and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. The HI 21cm absorption extends over a velocity range of $\\sim 600$ km/s blueward of the quasar redshift ($z=0.674$), with the new OH 1667 MHz absorption component at $\\sim -430$ \\kms, nearly coincident with earlier detections of mm-wave absorption at $z \\sim 0.6715$. The atomic and molecular absorption appear to arise from a fast gas outflow from the quasar, with a mass outflow rate ${\\dot M} \\sim 12 M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ and a molecular hydrogen fraction $f_{\\rm H_2} \\equiv (N_{\\rm H_2}/N_{\\rm HI}) \\sim 0.2$. The radio structure of 1504+377 is consistent with the outflow arising due to a jet-cloud interaction, followed by rapid cooling of the cloud material. The observed ratio of HCO$^+$ to OH column densities is $\\sim 20$ times higher than typical values in Galactic and high-$z$ absorbers. This could arise due to small-scale structure in the outflowing gas on sub-parsec scales, which would also explain the observed variability in the HI 21cm line.

Nissim Kanekar; Jayaram N. Chengalur

2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

192

The Structure and Evolution of Gap Outflow over the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoscale-model simulations are used to examine the structure and dynamics of a gap-outflow event over the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico, that was associated with a surge of cold air along the eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre. The simulated gap-...

W. James Steenburgh; David M. Schultz; Brian A. Colle

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Lisburne Formation fracture characterization and flow modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of fractured reservoirs for fluid flow and optimal well placement is often very complicated. In general, fractures enhance permeability and increase access to matrix surface, but their random aspects create difficulties for analysis and performance prediction. Each reservoir has unique aspects which require individual assessment. This study examined fracture properties in a part of the Carboniferous Lisburne Formation. Field study of outcrops yielded information on two sets of large-scale fractures (NNW and ENE orientations) from the lower Wahoo Limestone in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Several statistical methods were used on these data to find appropriate models describing the megafracture properties. For NNW fracture height and ENE fracture spacing, the gamma model appears to adequately describe the distribution. NNW fracture spacing and ENE fracture height are lognormally distributed. Results of the statistical analyses were used as input for fracture set generation and modeling using "FracMan". Modeling different borehole orientations in the fractured domain revealed that horizontal wells with 60? azimuth have an optimal trajectory, resulting in the maximum number and area of fracture connections. The orientation maximizing the number of fracture connections did not necessarily give the maximum area. Conductivity analysis showed that the fracture network is weakly anisotropic and above the percolation threshold. The fracture conductance is strongly dependent on the NNW fracture set; larger fractures influence fluid flow more than smaller fractures. Fracture strike and dip variability increased the system interconnectivity, but did not affect the optimal wellbore orientation. Incorporating ENE fracture termination against the NNW fractures decreased the system conductance and shifted the optimal wellbore trajectory towards the direction perpendicular to the NNW set. Reservoir engineering implications of this study include: guidelines for optimal wellbore orientations, the relative placement of injectors and producers along the bisectors between the two fracture sets, and the importance of including fracture terminations. Further work should investigate the influence of variations in fracture aperture and transmissivities, and drainage area, and extend the analysis to additional units of the Lisburne Group.

Karpov, Alexandre Valerievich

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

Mark D. Habana

2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of Yellowstone National Park- Inferences From River Solute Fluxes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of Yellowstone National Park- Inferences From River Solute Fluxes Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: We present and analyze a chemical dataset that includes the concentrations and fluxes of HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, and F- in the major rivers draining Yellowstone National Park (YNP) for the 2002-2004 water years (1 October 2001 - 30 September 2004). The total (molar) flux in all rivers decreases in the following order, HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- > F-, but each river is characterized by a distinct chemical composition, implying large-scale

196

Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) Revealed By Geophysical And Geochemical Approaches- Implications For General Fluid Flow Models On Volcanoes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) Revealed By Geophysical And Geochemical Approaches- Implications For General Fluid Flow Models On Volcanoes Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: On March 15th 2007 a paroxysmal explosion occurred at the Stromboli volcano. This event generated a large amount of products, mostly lithic blocks, some of which impacted the ground as far as down to 200 m a.s.l., about 1.5 km far away from the active vents. Two days after the

197

Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range includes the heat discharged by thermal springs, by "slightly thermal" springs that are only a few degrees warmer than ambient temperature, and by fumaroles. Thermal-spring heat discharge is calculated on the basis of chloride-flux measurements and geothermometer temperatures and totals ~ 240 MW in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range, excluding the transient post-1980 discharge

198

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluids from springs, fumaroles, and wells throughout Dixie Valley, NV were analyzed for noble gas abundances and isotopic compositions. The helium isotopic compositions of fluids produced from the Dixie Valley geothermal field range from 0.70 to 0.76 Ra, are among the highest values in the valley, and indicate that similar to 7.5% of the total helium is derived from the mantle. A lack of recent volcanics or other potential sources requires flow of mantle-derived helium up along the

199

Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Details Activities (4) Areas (4) Regions (0) Abstract: A system for analysis of inclusion gas contents based upon quadrupole mass spectrometry has been designed, assembled and tested during the first 7 months of funding. The system is currently being tested and calibrated using inclusions with known gas contents from active geothermal systems. Analyses are in progress on inclusions from the Salton Sea, Valles Caldera, Geysers, and Coso geothermal systems. Author(s): Mckibben, M. A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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201

An organized effort to develop the hydrothermal energy resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As a response to America's need for alternate energy sources, the US Department of Energy has a Geothermal Program. Within this program is a Hydrothermal category. Currently, a wide range of tasks are being addressed as part of the Hydrothermal Program. The tasks include Industrialization, Reservoir Technology, Hard Rock Penetration and Conversion Technology. It is thought that successes already made in this program combined with upcoming successes will increase the likelihood of geothermal energy becoming a contributor to our nation's future energy needs. 4 refs.

Taylor, K.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

An Organized Effort to Develop the Hydrothermal Energy Resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As a response to America's need for Alternate Energy sources, the U.S. Department of Energy has a Geothermal Program. Within this program is a Hydrothermal category. Currently, a wide range of tasks are being addressed as part of the Hydrothermal Program. The tasks include Industrialization, Reservoir Technology, Hard Rock Penetration and Conversion Technology. It is thought that successes already made in this program combined with upcoming successes will increase the likelihood of geothermal energy becoming a contributor to our nations future energy needs.

Taylor, Kenneth J.

1989-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

203

Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Documentation Page Documentation Page 1. Report No. DE - FC 21 - 92MC29077 2. 3. Recipient's Accession No. 5. Report Date August 31, 2000 4. Title and Subtitle Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility 6. 7. Author(s) The University of Oklahoma 8. Performing Organization Rept. No. 10. Project/Task/Work Unit No. 9. Performing Organization Name and Address The University of Oklahoma Sarkeys Energy Center T301 100 E Boyd St Norman, OK 73019 11. Contract (C) or Grant (G) No. DOE:DE FC21 92 MC29077 13. Type of Report & Period Covered Final Report 09 30 92 - 03 31 00 12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address US Dept of Energy - FETL 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26505 14. 15. Supplementary Notes Several technical papers were prepared and presented at various Society of Petroleum Engineers Conferences and US

205

Explosive fracturing method  

SciTech Connect

A method of inducing a fracture system and multiple cavities in earthen formations is described. A first explosive, preferably nuclear, is buried at a sufficient depth so that its subsequent detonation is fully contained within the earth. Thereafter a second explosive, also preferably nuclear, is buried a predetermined distance from the situs of the first explosive. After detonation of the first explosive, time is allowed to elapse during which the cavity formed by the first explosive collapses to form a rubblized chimney. Thereafter, the second explosive is detonated to create a second chimney parallel to that of the first explosive together with a zone of enhanced permeability between the first and second. (10 claims)

Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

1973-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

206

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are consistent with deposition during transient boiling or rock-water exchange (fracturing) events. Author(s): N. C. Sturchio, T. E. C. Keith, K. Muehlenbachs Published:...

207

SPALL FRACTURE AND SPALL FRACTURE AND COMPACTION COMPACTION  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

SPALL FRACTURE AND SPALL FRACTURE AND SPALL FRACTURE AND SPALL FRACTURE AND COMPACTION COMPACTION IN NATURAL URANIUM IN NATURAL URANIUM UNDER SHOCK UNDER SHOCK - - WAVE LOADING WAVE LOADING O.A. O.A. Tyupanova Tyupanova , S.S. , S.S. Nadezhin Nadezhin , A.N. , A.N. Malyshev Malyshev , , O.N. O.N. Ignatova Ignatova , V.I. , V.I. Skokov Skokov , V.N. , V.N. Knyazev Knyazev , , V.A. V.A. Raevsky Raevsky , N.A. , N.A. Yukina Yukina Russian Federal Nuclear Center Russian Federal Nuclear Center - - VNIIEF, VNIIEF, Sarov Sarov , Russia , Russia Introduction Introduction  Nucleation and growth of defects inside a solid under pulse tensile stresses signify a necessity to consider it as a damaged medium.  A certain volume of experimental data, obtained in correct tests, which are sensitive to a characteristic under study, is necessary

208

Tracing element sources of hydrothermal mineral deposits: REE and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

inclusion studies are the only way to obtain direct evidence from these ... and eastern part of the Derbyshire Dome (Fig. 1). The ... calcite is more abundant in the western part of the vein ...... and hydrothermal fluids, it is hard to understand why.

209

Fracture of aluminum naval structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural catastrophic failure of naval vessels due to extreme loads such as underwater or air explosion, high velocity impact (torpedoes), or hydrodynamic loads (high speed vessels) is primarily caused by fracture. ...

Galanis, Konstantinos, 1970-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Temporary Sealing of Fractures | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temporary Sealing of Fractures Temporary Sealing of Fractures Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Temporary Sealing of Fractures 2 Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for Temporary Sealing of Fractures Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Temporary Sealing of Fractures Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026

211

Ductile Fracture Handbook: Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-volume Ductile Fracture Handbook provides the structural analyst with computational methods for evaluating the integrity of flawed structures that are fabricated from ductile materials or have loads that may produce significant plasticity, specifically easy-to-use fracture mechanics solutions for a wide range of problems dealing with cylinders subjected to several types of elastic-plastic loading. Volume 2 presents new solutions and significant expansion of previous solutions, typically in the ...

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Ductile Fracture Handbook: Volume 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-volume Ductile Fracture Handbook provides the structural analyst with computational methods for evaluating the integrity of flawed structures that are fabricated from ductile materials or have loads that may produce significant plasticity, specifically easy-to-use fracture mechanics solutions for a wide range of problems dealing with cylinders subjected to several types of elastic-plastic loading. Volume 3 presents solutions for axial part-throughwall cracks, cracks in elbows, tees, and nozzles...

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

MHK Projects/Old River Outflow Channel Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Old River Outflow Channel Project Old River Outflow Channel Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"File:Aquamarine-marker.png","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.0636,"lon":-91.7096,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"http:\/\/prod-http-80-800498448.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com\/w\/images\/7\/74\/Aquamarine-marker.png","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

214

Analysis of a radial-outflow reaction turbine concept for geothermal application  

SciTech Connect

The radial-outflow reaction turbine, a pure-reaction turbine designed to improve the conversion efficiency of geothermal energy into electrical power is described. It also has potential as a total-flow turbine for low-temperature water. The principle of incomplete expansion can be used to obtain a reduction in turbine size when the turbine exhausts into a low-pressure condenser. And, by adding this turbine to single- and two-stage flashed-steam systems, the conversion efficiency of systems utilizing low- and high-energy wellhead sources, respectively can be improved. The Appendix outlines the analysis of the radial-outflow reaction turbine and leads to an expression for engine efficiency.

House, P.A.

1978-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

215

Power-law scaling of asymmetries in viscous flow with PT-symmetric inflow and outflow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, open systems with balanced loss and gain, that are invariant under the combined parity and time-reversal (PT) operations, have been studied via asymmetries of their solutions. They represent systems as diverse as coupled optical waveguides, silicon photonic circuits, and electrical or mechanical oscillators. We numerically investigate the asymmetries of incompressible viscous flow in two and three dimensions with "balanced" inflow-outflow (PT-symmetric) configurations. By introducing configuration-dependent classes of asymmetry functions in velocity, kinetic energy density, and vorticity fields, we find that the flow asymmetries exhibit power-law scaling in the laminar regime with the Reynolds number ranging over four decades. At small Reynolds numbers, the flow asymmetries in the balanced configurations are orders of magnitude smaller than those that occur in traditional configurations. Our results imply that PT-symmetric inflow-outflow configurations provide a hitherto unexplored avenue to tune flow properties.

Huidan; Yu; Xi Chen; Yousheng Xu; Yogesh N. Joglekar

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

216

CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION IN MAGNETIC CLOUDS: PROPERTIES OF DENSE CORES FORMED IN OUTFLOW-DRIVEN TURBULENCE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the physical properties of dense cores formed in turbulent, magnetized, parsec-scale clumps of molecular clouds, using three-dimensional numerical simulations that include protostellar outflow feedback. The dense cores are identified in the simulated density data cube through a clumpfind algorithm. We find that the core velocity dispersion does not show any clear dependence on the core size, in contrast to Larson's linewidth-size relation, but consistent with recent observations. In the absence of a magnetic field, the majority of the cores have supersonic velocity dispersions. A moderately strong magnetic field reduces the dispersion to a subsonic or at most transonic value typically. Most of the cores are out of virial equilibrium, with the external pressure dominating the self-gravity. The implication is that the core evolution is largely controlled by the outflow-driven turbulence. Even an initially weak magnetic field can retard star formation significantly, because the field is amplified by the outflow-driven turbulence to an equipartition strength, with the distorted field component dominating the uniform one. In contrast, for a moderately strong field, the uniform component remains dominant. Such a difference in the magnetic structure is evident in our simulated polarization maps of dust thermal emission; it provides a handle on the field strength. Recent polarization measurements show that the field lines in cluster-forming clumps are spatially well ordered. It is indicative of a moderately strong, dynamically important field which, in combination with outflow feedback, can keep the rate of star formation in embedded clusters at the observationally inferred, relatively slow rate of several percent per free-fall time.

Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Li Zhiyun, E-mail: fumitaka.nakamura@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

217

Delayed outflows from black hole accretion tori following neutron star binary coalescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Expulsion of neutron-rich matter following the merger of neutron star (NS) binaries is crucial to the radioactively-powered electromagnetic counterparts of these events and to their relevance as sources of r-process nucleosynthesis. Here we explore the long-term (viscous) evolution of remnant black hole accretion disks formed in such mergers by means of two-dimensional, time-dependent hydrodynamical simulations. The evolution of the electron fraction due to charged-current weak interactions is included, and neutrino self-irradiation is modeled as a lightbulb that accounts for the disk geometry and moderate optical depth effects. Over several viscous times (~1s), a fraction ~10% of the initial disk mass is ejected as a moderately neutron-rich wind (Y_e ~ 0.2) powered by viscous heating and nuclear recombination, with neutrino self-irradiation playing a sub-dominant role. Although the properties of the outflow vary in time and direction, their mean values in the heavy-element production region are relatively robust to variations in the initial conditions of the disk and the magnitude of its viscosity. The outflow is sufficiently neutron-rich that most of the ejecta forms heavy r-process elements with mass number A >130, thus representing a new astrophysical source of r-process nucleosynthesis, distinct from that produced in the dynamical ejecta. Due to its moderately high entropy, disk outflows contain a small residual fraction ~1% of helium, which could produce a unique spectroscopic signature.

Rodrigo Fernández; Brian D. Metzger

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

218

OBSERVATIONS OF MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN CAR 291.6-01.9  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the first observations of a dense molecular gas nebula and bipolar outflow in Car 291.6-01.9, showing characteristics of an embedded young stellar object (YSO). Using the Mopra radio telescope near Coonabarabaran, Australia, we image the kinematic structure of several emission features to examine physical properties within a molecular clump of mass {approx}3.2 {+-} 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} in which a stellar cluster may be forming. Motivated by acquiring a more thorough understanding of star formation we ask what may have initiated collapse in the clump; observed outflow alignment is suggestive of {approx}1.0 pc distant massive star HD 308280 radiative-driven compression as a formation trigger for the dense core. An outflow derived age of <10{sup 6} years, together with significant C{sup 18}O and SO core depletion, support the case for the core as the host of an extremely YSO cluster.

Saul, M. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Saul, L., E-mail: msaul@phys.unsw.edu.au, E-mail: luke.saul@space.unibe.ch [Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern CH-3012 (Switzerland)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

219

Outflowing atomic and molecular gas at $z \\sim 0.67$ towards 1504+377  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of OH 1667 MHz and wide HI 21cm absorption at $z \\sim 0.67$ towards the red quasar 1504+377, with the Green Bank Telescope and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. The HI 21cm absorption extends over a velocity range of $\\sim 600$ km/s blueward of the quasar redshift ($z=0.674$), with the new OH 1667 MHz absorption component at $\\sim -430$ \\kms, nearly coincident with earlier detections of mm-wave absorption at $z \\sim 0.6715$. The atomic and molecular absorption appear to arise from a fast gas outflow from the quasar, with a mass outflow rate ${\\dot M} \\sim 12 M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ and a molecular hydrogen fraction $f_{\\rm H_2} \\equiv (N_{\\rm H_2}/N_{\\rm HI}) \\sim 0.2$. The radio structure of 1504+377 is consistent with the outflow arising due to a jet-cloud interaction, followed by rapid cooling of the cloud material. The observed ratio of HCO$^+$ to OH column densities is $\\sim 20$ times higher than typical values in Galactic and high-$z$ absorbers. This could arise due to small-scale ...

Kanekar, Nissim

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

A physically based numerical approach for modeling fracture-matrix interaction in fractured reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured porous media, Soc.flow through unsaturated fractured porous media, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A Physically Based Approach for Modeling Multiphase Fracture-Matrix Interaction in Fractured Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured porous media, Soc.flow through unsaturated fractured porous media, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Essential Work of Fracture Method Applied to Mode II Interlaminar Fracture in Fiber Reinforced Polymers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a new method for determining mode II interlaminar fracture toughness in fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) using the essential work of fracture (EWF)… (more)

McKinney, Scott D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Hydraulic fracture optimization using hydraulic fracture and reservoir modeling in the Piceance Basin, Colorado.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydraulic fracturing is an important stimulation method for producing unconventional gas reserves. Natural fractures are present in many low-permeability gas environments and often provide important… (more)

Reynolds, Harris Allen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Brian Somerday, Chris San Marchi, and Dorian Balch Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, GA August 30-31, 2005 SNL has 40+ years experience with effects of high-pressure hydrogen gas on materials * Design and maintenance of welded stainless steel pressure vessels for containment of high-pressure H 2 isotopes - Extensive testing of stainless steels exposed to high-pressure H 2 gas * Six-year program in 1970s focused on feasibility of using natural gas pipeline network for H 2 gas - Materials testing in high-pressure H 2 gas using laboratory specimens and model pipeline - Examined fusion zone and heat affected zones of welds * Active SNL staff have authored 70+ papers and organized 6

225

Nonisothermal injection tests in fractured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The paper extends the analysis of nonisothermal pressure transient data to fractured reservoirs. Two cases are considered: reservoirs with predominantly horzontal fractures and reservoirs with predominantly vertical fractures. Effects of conductive heat transfer between the fractures and the rock matrix are modeled, and the resulting pressure transients evaluated. Thermal conduction tends to retard the movement of the thermal front in the fractures, which significantly affects the pressure transient data. The purpose of the numerical simulation studies is to provide methods for analyzing nonisothermal injection/falloff data for fractured reservoirs.

Cox, B.L.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Monitoring hydraulic fracture growth: Laboratory experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors carry out small-scale hydraulic fracture experiments to investigate the physics of hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory experiments are combined with time-lapse ultrasonic measurements with active sources using both compressional and shear-wave transducers. For the time-lapse measurements they focus on ultrasonic measurement changes during fracture growth. As a consequence they can detect the hydraulic fracture and characterize its shape and geometry during growth. Hence, this paper deals with fracture characterization using time-lapse acoustic data. Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil and gas industry to stimulate reservoir production.

Groenenboom, J.; Dam, D.B. van

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in Dixie Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in Dixie Valley, Nevada Abstract Hyperspectral (HyMap) data was used to map the location ofoutcrops of high temperature, hydrothermally alterated minerals(including alunite, pyrophyllite, and hematite) along a 15 kmswath of the eastern front of the Stillwater Mountain Range inDixie Valley, Nevada. Analysis of this data set reveals that severaloutcrops of these altered minerals exist in the area, and thatone outcrop, roughly 1 square kilometer in area, shows abundanthigh temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the alteredregion using a

228

Lectures on geochemical interpretation of hydrothermal waters | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Lectures on geochemical interpretation of hydrothermal waters Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Lectures on geochemical interpretation of hydrothermal waters Abstract The alkali carbonates, Na, K, and Li, are relatively soluble at all temperatures and generally precipitate only where there is extreme evapora- tion. In contrast, the alkaline earth carbonates. Ca. Ht, Sr, and Ba, are moderately to sparingly soluble and commonly precipitate in bydrothecmal systems. Calcite is by far the most abundant and important carbonate found

229

Why Sequence Thermoacidophiles of deep-sea hydrothermal vents?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoacidophiles of Thermoacidophiles of deep-sea hydrothermal vents? Bacteria that live in hydrothermal vents on land and deep underwater need to be able to tolerate high temperatures and harsh, nutrient-poor environments with high concentrations of metals. As a result of living in such environments, however, these bacteria have enzymes that are stable at high temperatures, which could be useful for producing alternative fuels. Thermoacidophiles Photo: University of Delaware Aquificales bacteria are often found in thermal streams and associated with sulfide precipitation. Sequencing some of these bacterial genomes -- specifically, Thermocrinis ruber, S. rodmanii and S. kristjansonnii -- could provide researchers with so-called "anchor genomes" that would be applied in turn to studies already being done on microbial communities in

230

Mechanochemical-hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of fluoridated hydroxyapatite  

SciTech Connect

Fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHAp) was successfully synthesized from the starting materials of CaCO{sub 3}, CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O, and CaF{sub 2} via a mechanochemical-hydrothermal route. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, surface area measurements, and scanning electron microscopy identified the resultant powders as FHAp nanocrystals with the specific surface areas of up to 114.72 m{sup 2}/g. The mechanism study revealed that under such mechanochemical-hydrothermal conditions the formation reactions of FHAp were completed in two stages. The starting materials firstly reacted into a poorly crystallized calcium-deficient apatite and the complete incorporation of fluoride ions into apatite occurred in the second stage.

Zhang Huigang [Multiphase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhu Qingshan [Multiphase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: qszhu@home.ipe.ac.cn; Xie Zhaohui [Multiphase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100080 (China)

2005-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

231

Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

232

Flow and permeability structure of the Beowawe, Nevada hydrothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review of past geologic, geochemical, hydrological, pressure transient, and reservoir engineering studies of Beowawe suggests a different picture of the reservoir than previously presented. The Beowawe hydrothermal contains buoyant thermal fluid dynamically balanced with overlying cold water, as shown by repeated temperature surveys and well test results. Thermal fluid upwells from the west of the currently developed reservoir at the intersection of the Malpais Fault and an older structural feature associated with mid-Miocene rifting. A tongue of thermal fluid rises to the east up the high permeability Malpais Fault, discharges at the Geysers area, and is in intimate contact with overlying cooler water. The permeability structure is closely related to the structural setting, with the permeability of the shallow hydrothermal system ranging from 500 to 1,000 D-ft, while the deeper system ranges from 200 to 400 D-ft.

Faulder, D.D. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johnson, S.D.; Benoit, W.R. [Oxbow Power Services, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Hydraulic Fracturing | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydraulic Fracturing Hydraulic Fracturing Jump to: navigation, search More info on OpenEI Oil and Gas Gateway Federal Environmental Statues Federal Oil and Gas Statutes Oil and Gas Companies United States Oil and Gas Boards International Oil and Gas Boards Other Information Fracking Regulations by State Wells by State Fracking Chemicals Groundwater Protection Related Reports A Perspective on Health and Natural Gas Operations: A Report for Denton City Council Just the Fracking Facts The Politics of 'Fracking': Regulating Natural Gas Drilling Practices in Colorado and Texas Addressing the Environmental Risks from Shale Gas Development Water Management Technologies Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers Methane contamination of drinking wateraccompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing

234

Method for directional hydraulic fracturing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

Swanson, David E. (West St. Paul, MN); Daly, Daniel W. (Crystal, MN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

High-temperature hydrothermal systems in West Yunnan Province, China  

SciTech Connect

There are more than 660 thermal springs in West Yunnan Province, 30 of which are high-temperature hydrothermal systems with reservoir temperatures above 150/sup 0/C. All thermal springs in West Yunnan are under the control of tectonics, most of them distributed at anticlinoria of metamorphic rocks and granites. This paper discusses the relationship between thermal areas and tectonics, the correlation between thermal springs in West Yunnan and North Thailand, and the geothermal prospects in West Yunnan.

Laio, Z.; Tong, W.; Liu, S.; Zhao, F.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Results of acid treatments in hydrothermal direct heat experiment wells  

SciTech Connect

Matrix acid treatments have been employed in two low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal wells with successful results. These two wells showed flow rate increases of 40% and 50%. The increased flow reduced the payback periods for the heating systems to nearly one-half of what they were before acidization. It is recommended that well designs in certain areas consider accommodating such acid stimulation techniques, if testing suggests they are warranted as a well completion tool.

Strawn, J.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank wastes: Process modeling and control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hydrothermal process, waste streams are first pressurized and heated as they pass through a continuous flow tubular reactor vessel. The waste is maintained at reaction temperature of 300--550 C where organic destruction and sludge reformation occur. This report documents LANL activities in process modeling and control undertaken in FY94 to support hydrothermal process development. Key issues discussed include non-ideal flow patterns (e.g. axial dispersion) and their effect on reactor performance, the use and interpretation of inert tracer experiments, and the use of computational fluid mechanics to evaluate novel hydrothermal reactor designs. In addition, the effects of axial dispersion (and simplifications to rate expressions) on the estimated kinetic parameters are explored by non-linear regression to experimental data. Safety-related calculations are reported which estimate the explosion limits of effluent gases and the fate of hydrogen as it passes through the reactor. Development and numerical solution of a generalized one-dimensional mathematical model is also summarized. The difficulties encountered in using commercially available software to correlate the behavior of high temperature, high pressure aqueous electrolyte mixtures are summarized. Finally, details of the control system and experiments conducted to empirically determine the system response are reported.

Currier, R.P. [comp.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

flow-controlling fractures; (5) deposits of CaCO3 at depth where flashing of brine to steam has occurred due to pressure release. The geochemical enrichments are not, in...

240

Acoustic Character Of Hydraulic Fractures In Granite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fractures in homogeneous granitic rocks were logged with conventional acoustic-transit-time, acoustic-waveform, and acoustic-televiewer logging systems. Fractured intervals ranged in depth from 45 to 570m. and ...

Paillet, Frederick I.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Effects of dry fractures on matrix diffusion in unsaturated fractured rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Symposium on Multiphase Transport in Porous Media, ASMEmultiphase heat and mass flow in unsaturated fractured porous

Seol, Yongkoo; Liu, Hui Hai; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of fluid motion through an unsaturated fracture and fracture junction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiphase fluid motion in unsaturated fractures and fracture networks involves complicated fluid dynamics, which is difficult to model using grid-based continuum methods. In this paper, the application of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), a relatively ... Keywords: Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), Fracture, Fracture flow, Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), Weight functions

Moubin Liu; Paul Meakin; Hai Huang

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Summary of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...in this Volume."Stress Intensity Factors"A brief summary of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) concepts

244

Development of a fixation device for robot assisted fracture reduction of femoral shaft fractures: A biomechanical study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Robot assisted fracture reduction of femoral shaft fractures provides precise alignment while reducing the amount of intraoperative imaging. The connection between the robot and the fracture fragment should allow conventional intramedullary nailing, ... Keywords: Robot, femur shaft, fracture reduction, interface

T. S. Weber-Spickschen; M. Oszwald; R. Westphal; C. Krettek; F. Wahl; T. Gosling

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Optimizing fracture stimulation using treatment-well tiltmeters and integrated fracture modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper covers the optimization of hydraulic fracture treatments in a new coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir in Wyoming. A multiwell pilot project was conducted in the Copper Ridge (CR) field to assess future development potential. Hydraulic fracture mapping was successfully performed with treatment-well tiltmeters on six wells including the first-ever used on propped treatments. The mapped fracture height was then used to calibrate the fracture model, perform on-site fracture-design changes, and optimize future fracture treatments. This paper shows how early use of fracture diagnostics can assist in the development of a new reservoir.

Mayerhofer, M.; Stutz, L.; Davis, E.; Wolhart, S. [Pinnacle Technology Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

Janecky, D.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Geothermal hydrothermal direct heat use: US market size and market penetration estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study estimates the future regional and national market penetration path of hydrothermal geothermal direct heat applications in the United States. A Technology Substitution Model (MARPEN) is developed and used to estimate the energy market shares captured by low-temperature (50 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal geothermal energy systems over the period 1985 to 2020. The sensitivity of hydrothermal direct heat market shares to various government hydrothermal commercialization policies is examined. Several substantive recommendations to help accelerate commercialization of geothermal direct heat utilization in the United States are indicated and possible additional analyses are discussed.

El Sawy, A.H.; Entingh, D.J.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

The value of rolling horizon policies for risk-averse hydro-thermal ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 7, 2010 ... Abstract: We consider the optimal management of a hydro-thermal power system in the mid and long terms. From the optimization point of view, ...

249

A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrotherm...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal Calcites, Long Valley Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home...

250

Hydrothermal energy extraction, Auburn, New York: Final report: Volume 2, Chapters 6-10  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses a hydrothermal energy extraction system in detail. General topics covered are: Reservoir circulation loop; HVAC buffer loop; and automatic temperature control system. (LSP)

Castor, T.P.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Fractured shale reservoirs: Towards a realistic model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractured shale reservoirs are fundamentally unconventional, which is to say that their behavior is qualitatively different from reservoirs characterized by intergranular pore space. Attempts to analyze fractured shale reservoirs are essentially misleading. Reliance on such models can have only negative results for fractured shale oil and gas exploration and development. A realistic model of fractured shale reservoirs begins with the history of the shale as a hydrocarbon source rock. Minimum levels of both kerogen concentration and thermal maturity are required for effective hydrocarbon generation. Hydrocarbon generation results in overpressuring of the shale. At some critical level of repressuring, the shale fractures in the ambient stress field. This primary natural fracture system is fundamental to the future behavior of the fractured shale gas reservoir. The fractures facilitate primary migration of oil and gas out of the shale and into the basin. In this process, all connate water is expelled, leaving the fractured shale oil-wet and saturated with oil and gas. What fluids are eventually produced from the fractured shale depends on the consequent structural and geochemical history. As long as the shale remains hot, oil production may be obtained. (e.g. Bakken Shale, Green River Shale). If the shale is significantly cooled, mainly gas will be produced (e.g. Antrim Shale, Ohio Shale, New Albany Shale). Where secondary natural fracture systems are developed and connect the shale to aquifers or to surface recharge, the fractured shale will also produce water (e.g. Antrim Shale, Indiana New Albany Shale).

Hamilton-Smith, T. [Applied Earth Science, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Hierarchical Growth and Cosmic Star Formation: Enrichment, Outflows and Supernova Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cosmic star formation histories are evaluated for different minimum masses of the initial halo structures, with allowance for realistic gas outflows. With a minimum halo mass of 10^{7} - 10^{8} M_odot and a moderate outflow efficiency, we reproduce both the current baryon fraction and the early chemical enrichment of the IGM. The intensity of the formation rate of ``normal'' stars is also well constrained by the observations: it has to be dominated by star formation in elliptical galaxies, except perhaps at very low redshift. The fraction of baryons in stars is predicted as are also the type Ia and II supernova event rates. Comparison with SN observations in the redshift range z=0-2 allows us to set strong constraints on the time delay of type Ia supernovae (a total delay of \\sim 4 Gyr is required to fit the data), the lower end of the mass range of the progenitors (2 - 8 M_odot) and the fraction of white dwarfs that reproduce the type Ia supernova (about 1 per cent). The intensity in the initial starburst of zero metallicity stars below 270 M_\\odot must be limited in order to avoid premature overenrichment of the IGM. Only about 10 - 20 % of the metals present in the IGM at z = 0 have been produced by population III stars at very high z. The remaining 80 - 90 % are ejected later by galaxies forming normal stars, with a maximum outflow efficiency occurring at a redshift of about 5. We conclude that 10^{-3} of the mass in baryons must lie in first massive stars in order to produce enough ionizing photons to allow early reionization of the IGM by z \\sim 15.

Frederic Daigne; Keith A. Olive; Joe Silk; Felix Stoehr; Elisabeth Vangioni

2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

253

Simple Models of Metal-Line Absorption and Emission from Cool Gas Outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Because the FeII lines are connected by optically-thin transitions to fine-structure levels, their profiles more closely reproduce the intrinsic opacity of the wind. Together these results naturally explain the absorption and emission-line characteristics observed for star-forming galaxies at zabsorption-line profiles, the surface brightness profiles offer a unique means of assessing the morphology and size of galactic-scale winds. Furthermore, the kinematics and line-ratios offer powerful diagnostics of outflows, motivating deep, spatially-extended spectroscopic observations.

Prochaska, J Xavier; Rubin, Kate

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot spring deposits in the Roosevelt thermal area consist of opaline sinter, and siliceous-sinter-cemented alluvium. Alluvium, granite to granodiorite plutonic rocks, and amphibolite facies gneiss have been altered by acid-sulfate water to alunite and opal at the surface, and to kaolinite, alunite, montmorillonite, and muscovite to a depth of 60 m. Marcasite and pyrite occur below the water table at about 30m. Deeper alteration sampled to a depth of 2.26 km consists of muscovite, chlorite, calcite, K-feldspar, albite, and epidote with pyrite and sparse chalcopyrite. Thermal water is dilute (ionic strength 0.1 to 0.2) sodium chloride brine. Surface water contains 10 times as much calcium and 100 times as much magnesium as the deep water. Sulfate varies from 48 to 200 mg/l. Present-day spring temperature is 25/sup 0/C but in 1950 the spring temperature was 85/sup 0/C. Computed Na-K-Ca temperature is 241/sup 0/C for the present-day spring, 274/sup 0/C for a well and 283/sup 0/C for the 1957 spring. Quartz saturation temperatures are 170/sup 0/C for the present-day spring, 283/sup 0/C for the well, and 213/sup 0/C for the 1957 spring. A plausible model for development of the near-surface alteration consists of hydrothermal fluid which convectively rises along major fractures. Water cools by conduction and steam separation, and hydrogen ion is produced by oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. The low pH water percolates from the surface downward and reacts with rocks to produce alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite as hydrogen is consumed.

Parry, W.T.; Bryant, N.L.; Dedolph, R.E.; Ballantyne, J.M.; Ballantyne, G.H.; Rohrs, D.T.; Mason, J.L.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures  

SciTech Connect

The project supported graduate students working on experimental and numerical modeling of rock fracture, with the following objectives: (a) perform laboratory testing of fluid-saturated rock; (b) develop predictive models for simulation of fracture; and (c) establish educational frameworks for geologic sequestration issues related to rock fracture. These objectives were achieved through (i) using a novel apparatus to produce faulting in a fluid-saturated rock; (ii) modeling fracture with a boundary element method; and (iii) developing curricula for training geoengineers in experimental mechanics, numerical modeling of fracture, and poroelasticity.

Makhnenko, R.; Nikolskiy, D.; Mogilevskaya, S.; Labuz, J.

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

Method for enhancement of sequential hydraulic fracturing using control pulse fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for creating multiple sequential hydraulic fractures via hydraulic fracturing combined with controlled pulse fracturing where two wells are utilized comprising: (a) drilling and completing a first and second well so that the wells will be in fluid communication with each other after subsequent fracturing in each well; (b) creating more than two simultaneous multiple vertical fractures via a controlled pulse fracturing method in the second well; (c) thereafter hydraulically fracturing the reservoir via the first well thereby creating fractures in the reservoir and afterwards shutting-in the first well without any induced pressure; (d) applying thereafter hydraulic pressure to the reservoir via the second well in an amount sufficient to fracture the reservoir thereby forming a first hydraulic fracture perpendicular to the least principal in-situ stress; (e) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the reservoir while pumping via the second well alternate slugs of a thin-fluid spacer and a temporary blocking agent having a proppant therein whereupon a second hydraulic fracture is initiated; (f) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the second well while pumping alternate slugs of spacer and blocking agent into the second hydraulic fracture thereby causing the second hydraulic fracture to propagate away from the first hydraulic fracture in step (e) in a curved trajectory which intersects a fracture created in the first well; (g) maintaining the hydraulic pressure while pumping as in step (f) whereupon another hydraulic fracture initiates causing another curved fracture trajectory to form and intersect the fracture created in the first well; and (h) repeated steps (f) and (g) until a desired number of hydraulic fractures are created which allows a substantial improvement in removing a natural resource from the reservoir.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Strubhar, M.K.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

257

RESEARCH PROGRAM ON FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulation of water injection in discrete fractured media with capillary pressure is a challenge. Dual-porosity models in view of their strength and simplicity can be mainly used for sugar-cube representation of fractured media. In such a representation, the transfer function between the fracture and the matrix block can be readily calculated for water-wet media. For a mixed-wet system, the evaluation of the transfer function becomes complicated due to the effect of gravity. In this work, they use a discrete-fracture model in which the fractures are discretized as one dimensional entities to account for fracture thickness by an integral form of the flow equations. This simple step greatly improves the numerical solution. Then the discrete-fracture model is implemented using a Galerkin finite element method. The robustness and the accuracy of the approach are shown through several examples. First they consider a single fracture in a rock matrix and compare the results of the discrete-fracture model with a single-porosity model. Then, they use the discrete-fracture model in more complex configurations. Numerical simulations are carried out in water-wet media as well as in mixed-wet media to study the effect of matrix and fracture capillary pressures.

Abbas Firoozabadi

2002-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

258

Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, we find that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture-force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

Hals, Kjetil M D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a method by which microseismic events can be discriminated/detected that correspond to only the portion of the hydraulic fracture that contains the proppant material and can be expected to be conductive to the flow of oil and gas. July 3, 2013 Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Figure 1: A graph of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature for the anti-perovskite Li3OCl. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Applications: Oil and gas production Geophysical exploration Benefits: Tracks the disposition of material in a hydraulic fracturing

260

OUTFLOWS AND DARK BANDS AT ARCADE-LIKE ACTIVE REGION CORE BOUNDARIES  

SciTech Connect

Observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode have revealed outflows and non-thermal line broadening in low intensity regions at the edges of active regions (ARs). We use data from Hinode's EIS, Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer instrument to investigate the boundaries of arcade-like AR cores for NOAA ARs 11112, 10978, and 9077. A narrow, low intensity region that is observed at the core's periphery as a dark band shows outflows and increased spectral line broadening. This dark band is found to exist for days and appears between the bright coronal loop structures of different coronal topologies. We find a case where the dark band region is formed between the magnetic field from emerging flux and the field of the pre-existing flux. A magnetic field extrapolation indicates that this dark band is coincident with the spine lines or magnetic separatrices in the extrapolated field. This occurs over unipolar regions where the brightened coronal field is separated in connectivity and topology. This separation does not appear to be infinitesimal and an initial estimate of the minimum distance of separation is found to be Almost-Equal-To 1.5-3.5 Mm.

Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.; Tarr, L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hydrodynamics of a vertical hydraulic fracture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed a numerical algorithm, HUBBERT, to simulate the hydrodynamics of a propagating vertical, rectangular fracture in an elastic porous medium. Based on the IFD method, this algorithm assumes fracture geometry to be prescribed. The breakdown and the creation of the incipient fracture is carried out according to the Hubbert-Willis theory. The propagation of the fracture is based on the criterion provided by Griffith, based on energy considerations. The deformation properties of the open fracture are based on simple elasticity solutions. The fracture is assumed to have an elliptical shape to a distance equal to the fracture height, beyond which the shape is assumed to be parallel plate. A consequence of Griffith's criterion is that the fracture must propagate in discrete steps. The parametric studies carried out suggest that for a clear understanding of the hydrodynamics of the hydraulic fracture many hitherto unrecognized parameters must be better understood. Among these parameters one might mention, efficiency, aperture of the newly formed fracture, stiffness of the newly formed fracture, relation between fracture aperture and permeability, and well bore compliance. The results of the studies indicate that the patterns of pressure transients and the magnitudes of fracture length appear to conform to field observations. In particular, the discrete nature of fracture propagation as well as the relevant time scales of interest inferred from the present work seem to be corroborated by seismic monitoring in the field. The results suggest that the estimation of least principal stress can be reliably made either with shut in data or with reinjection data provided that injection rates are very small.

Narasimhan, T.N.

1987-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

262

Potential benefits of geothermal electrical production from hydrothermal resources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential national benefits of geothermal electric energy development from the hydrothermal resources in the West are estimated for several different scenarios. The U.S. electrical economy is simulated by computer using a linear programming optimization technique. Under most of the scenarios, benefits are estimated at $2 to $4 billion over the next 50 years on a discounted present value basis. The electricity production from hydrothermal plants reaches 2 to 4 percent of the national total, which will represent 10 to 20 percent of the installed capacity in the West. Installed geothermal capacity in 1990 is estimated to be 9,000 to 17,000 Mw(e). The geothermal capacity should reach 28,000 to 65,000 Mw(e) by year 2015. The ''most likely'' scenario yields the lower values in the above ranges. Under this scenario geothermal development would save the utility industry $11 billion in capital costs (undiscounted); 32 million separative work units; 64,000 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/; and 700 million barrels of oil. The most favorable scenario for geothermal energy occurs when fossil fuel prices are projected to increase at 5 percent/year. The benefits of geothermal energy then exceed $8 billion on a discounted present value basis. Supply curves were developed for hydrothermal resources based on the recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment, resource characteristics, and projected power conversion technology and costs. Geothermal plants were selected by the optimizing technique to fill a need for ''light load'' plants. This infers that geothermal plants may be used in the future primarily for load-following purposes.

Bloomster, C.H.; Engel, R.L.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Evaluation and Effect of Fracturing Fluids on Fracture Conductivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using Dynamic Fracture Conductivity Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unconventional gas has become an important resource to help meet our future energy demands. Although plentiful, it is difficult to produce this resource, when locked in a massive sedimentary formation. Among all unconventional gas resources, tight gas sands represent a big fraction and are often characterized by very low porosity and permeability associated with their producing formations, resulting in extremely low production rate. The low flow properties and the recovery factors of these sands make necessary continuous efforts to reduce costs and improve efficiency in all aspects of drilling, completion and production techniques. Many of the recent improvements have been in well completions and hydraulic fracturing. Thus, the main goal of a hydraulic fracture is to create a long, highly conductive fracture to facilitate the gas flow from the reservoir to the wellbore to obtain commercial production rates. Fracture conductivity depends on several factors, such as like the damage created by the gel during the treatment and the gel clean-up after the treatment. This research is focused on predicting more accurately the fracture conductivity, the gel damage created in fractures, and the fracture cleanup after a hydraulic fracture treatment under certain pressure and temperature conditions. Parameters that alter fracture conductivity, such as polymer concentration, breaker concentration and gas flow rate, are also examined in this study. A series of experiments, using a procedure of “dynamical fracture conductivity test”, were carried out. This procedure simulates the proppant/frac fluid slurries flow into the fractures in a low-permeability rock, as it occurs in the field, using different combinations of polymer and breaker concentrations under reservoirs conditions. The result of this study provides the basis to optimize the fracturing fluids and the polymer loading at different reservoir conditions, which may result in a clean and conductive fracture. Success in improving this process will help to decrease capital expenditures and increase the production in unconventional tight gas reservoirs.

Correa Castro, Juan

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

A new hydrothermal scenario for the 2006 Lusi eruption, Indonesia. Insights from gas geochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acquired a wide set of data of molecular and isotopic composition of gas sampled in several Lusi vents, in the surrounding mud volcanoes, in the closest natural gas field (Wunut), and in the hydrothermal ventsA new hydrothermal scenario for the 2006 Lusi eruption, Indonesia. Insights from gas geochemistry

Mazzini, Adriano

265

Design of novel hybrid controller for automatic generation control of hydrothermal system under open market scenario  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the analysis of Automatic generation control (AGC) of a two-area hydrothermal system under open market scenario by considering a novel hybrid controller which combines the principles of variable structure controller (VSC) and conventional ... Keywords: AGC, VSC, deregulated system, hybrid controller, hydrothermal system, open market system

C. Srinivasa Rao; S. Siva Nagaraju; P. Sangameswara Raju

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Modeling of the fault-controlled hydrothermal ore-forming systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A necessary precondition for the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits is a strong focusing of hydrothermal flow as fluids move from the fluid source to the site of ore deposition. The spatial distribution of hydrothermal deposits favors the concept that such fluid flow focusing is controlled, for the most part, by regional faults which provide a low resistance path for hydrothermal solutions. Results of electric analog simulations, analytical solutions, and computer simulations of the fluid flow, in a fault-controlled single-pass advective system, confirm this concept. The influence of the fluid flow focusing on the heat and mass transfer in a single-pass advective system was investigated for a simplified version of the metamorphic model for the genesis of greenstone-hosted gold deposits. The spatial distribution of ore mineralization, predicted by computer simulation, is in reasonable agreement with geological observations. Computer simulations of the fault-controlled thermoconvective system revealed a complex pattern of mixing hydrothermal solutions in the model, which also simulates the development of the modern hydrothermal systems on the ocean floor. The specific feature of the model considered, is the development under certain conditions of an intra-fault convective cell that operates essentially independently of the large scale circulation. These and other results obtained during the study indicate that modeling of natural fault-controlled hydrothermal systems is instructive for the analysis of transport processes in man-made hydrothermal systems that could develop in geologic high-level nuclear waste repositories.

Pek, A.A.; Malkovsky, V.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Hydrothermal industrialization electric-power systems development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The nature of hydrothermal resources, their associated temperatures, geographic locations, and developable capacity are described. The parties involved in development, required activities and phases of development, regulatory and permitting requirements, environmental considerations, and time required to complete development activities ae examined in detail. These activities are put in proper perspective by detailing development costs. A profile of the geothermal industry is presented by detailing the participants and their operating characteristics. The current development status of geothermal energy in the US is detailed. The work on market penetration is summarized briefly. Detailed development information is presented for 56 high temperature sites. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Potential impact of R and D on hydrothermal energy cost  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potentital impact of the DOE/Geothermal Technology Development programs on the cost of geothermal power has been estimated using the computer program IMGEO.300. Results indicate a potential 30 to 40% cost reduction for hydrothermal systems with a 40 to 50% cost reduction potential for binary systems. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate the use of IMGEO. The initial results are tentative because the R and D goals have not been finalized and the code has not been completely validated.

Traeger, R.K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

THE STATE OF THE ART OF NUMERICAL MODELING OF THERMOHYDROLOGIC FLOW IN FRACTURED ROCK MASSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improving production by hydraulic fracturing 8 the focus otfor fractures. (d) Hydraulic Fracturing: The model has been

Wang, J.S.Y.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Hydraulic fracturing of jointed formations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measured by volume, North America's largest hydraulic fracturing operations have been conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico to create geothermal energy reservoirs. In the largest operation 21,000 m/sup 3/ of water were injected into jointed granitic rock at a depth of 3.5 km. Microearthquakes induced by this injection were measured with geophones placed in five wells drilled into, or very close, to the reservoir, as well as 11 surface seismometers. The large volume of rock over which the microearthquakes were distributed indicates a mechanism of hydraulic stimulation which is at odds with conventional fracturing theory, which predicts failure along a plane which is perpendicular to the least compressive earth stress. A coupled rock mechanics/fluid flow model provides much of the explanation. Shear slippage along pre-existing joints in the rock is more easily induced than conventional tensile failure, particularly when the difference between minimum and maximum earth stresses is large and the joints are oriented at angles between 30 and 60 degrees to the principal earth stresses, and a low viscosity fluid like water is injected. Shear slippage results in local redistribution of stresses, which allows a branching, or dendritic, stimulation pattern to evolve, in agreement with the patterns of microearthquake locations. These results are qualitatively similar to the controversial process known as ''Kiel'' fracturing, in which sequential injections and shut-ins are repeated to create dendritic fractures for enhanced oil and gas recovery. However, we believe that the explanation is shear slippage of pre-existing joints and stress redistribution, not proppant bridging and fluid blocking as suggested by Kiel. 15 refs., 10 figs.

Murphy, H.D.; Fehler, M.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Valley Caldera, East-Central California, Usa, From Recent Pumping Tests And Geochemical Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Valley Caldera, East-Central California, Usa, From Recent Pumping Tests And Geochemical Sampling Details Activities (6) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Quaternary volcanic unrest has provided heat for episodic hydrothermal circulation in the Long Valley caldera, including the present-day hydrothermal system, which has been active over the past 40 kyr. The most recent period of crustal unrest in this region of east-central California began around 1980 and has included periods of

272

K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico And Their Relation To Alteration In A Large Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico And Their Relation To Alteration In A Large Hydrothermal System Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Seventeen K/Ar dates were obtained on illitic clays within Valles caldera (1.13 Ma) to investigate the impact of hydrothermal alteration on Quaternary to Precambrian intracaldera and pre-caldera rocks in a large,

273

An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Hydrothermal Alteration In The Lake City  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotope Study Of Hydrothermal Alteration In The Lake City Isotope Study Of Hydrothermal Alteration In The Lake City Caldera, San Juan Mountains, Colorado Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Hydrothermal Alteration In The Lake City Caldera, San Juan Mountains, Colorado Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A 23-m.y.-old, fossil meteoric-hydrothermal system in the Lake City caldera (11 _ 14 km) has been mapped out by measuring Δ 18O values of 300 rock and mineral samples. Δ 18O varies systematically throughout the caldera, reaching values as low as -2. Great topographic relief, regional tilting, and variable degrees of erosion within the caldera all combine to give us a very complete section through the hydrothermal system, from the

274

Evolution Of Hydrothermal Waters At Mount St Helens, Washington, Usa | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evolution Of Hydrothermal Waters At Mount St Helens, Washington, Usa Evolution Of Hydrothermal Waters At Mount St Helens, Washington, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Evolution Of Hydrothermal Waters At Mount St Helens, Washington, Usa Details Activities (4) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal water samples at Mount St. Helens collected between 1985 and 1989 and in 1994 are used to identify water types and describe their evolution through time. Two types of low temperature hydrothermal systems are associated with the 1980 eruptions and were initiated soon after emplacement of shallow magma and pyroclastic flows. The Loowit hot spring system is located in the breach zone and is associated with the magma conduit and nearby avalanche deposits, whereas the Pumice Plain (PP)

275

Fluid Flow Within Fractured Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractures provide preferential flow paths to subterranean fluid flows. In reservoir scale modeling of geologic flows fractures must be approximated by fairly simple formulations. Often this is accomplished by assuming fractures are parallel plates subjected to an applied pressure gradient. This is known as the cubic law. An induced fracture in Berea sandstone has been digitized to perform numerical flow simulations. A commercially available computational fluid dynamics software package has been used to solve the flow through this model. Single phase flows have been compared to experimental works in the literature to evaluate the accuracy with which this model can be applied. Common methods of fracture geometry classification are also calculated and compared to experimentally obtained values. Flow through regions of the fracture where the upper and lower fracture walls meet (zero aperture) are shown to induce a strong channeling effect on the flow. This model is expanded to include a domain of surrounding porous media through which the flow can travel. The inclusion of a realistic permeability in this media shows that the regions of small and zero apertures contribute to the greatest pressure losses over the fracture length and flow through the porous media is most prevalent in these regions. The flow through the fracture is shown to be the largest contributor to the net flow through the media. From this work, a novel flow relationship is proposed for flow through fractured media.

Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.; Bromhal, G.S.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Well test analysis in fractured media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The behavior of fracture systems under well test conditions and methods for analyzing well test data from fractured media are investigated. Several analytical models are developed to be used for analyzing well test data from fractured media. Numerical tools that may be used to simulate fluid flow in fractured media are also presented. Three types of composite models for constant flux tests are investigated. These models are based on the assumption that a fracture system under well test conditions may be represented by two concentric regions, one representing a small number of fractures that dominates flow near the well, and the other representing average conditions farther away from the well. Type curves are presented that can be used to find the flow parameters of these two regions and the extent of the inner concentric region. Several slug test models with different geometric conditions that may be present in fractured media are also investigated. A finite element model that can simulate transient fluid flow in fracture networks is used to study the behavior of various two-dimensional fracture systems under well test conditions. A mesh generator that can be used to model mass and heat flow in a fractured-porous media is presented.

Karasaki, K.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Nonlinear Hertzian indentation fracture mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Indentation cracking under blunt indenters is analyzed using nonlinear fracture mechanics. The usual assumptions of linear elastic fracture mechanics have been replaced with a nonlinear load vs load-point displacement curve while assuming the material is linear elastic. The load, the load-point displacement, and a function of the crack area have been related to the crack driving force, J, while assuming a cone fracture under the Hertzian sphere. Experimentally, it was found that the load-displacement curve during loading, cracking, and unloading is nonlinear. The crack length is empirically shown to be proportional to the load-point displacement for several indenters. The experimentally measured relations between indenter load, load-point displacement, and crack geometries are then analyzed with mechanical energy balances based on the similitude of crack lengths with load-point displacements. The Hertz hardness that describes the nonlinear load vs load-point displacement relation during cracking is derived on the constant J line in load-displacement space. Finally, well-known experimental expressions that relate load to crack length are shown to be indistinguishable from the load-point displacement analysis reported.

Burns, S.J.; Chia, K.Y. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

new fracture surface by hydraulic fracturing. Termination ofwas impossible until hydraulic fracturing was applied. ForFor conventional hydraulic fracturing, this is not crucial

Faybishenko, Boris; Witherspoon, Paul A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Acoustic Emission in a Fluid Saturated Hetergeneous Porous Layer with Application to Hydraulic Fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

responses during hydraulic fracturing, and aid developmentFracture Monitoring Hydraulic fracturing is a method forfluids" used for hydraulic fracturing, the above frequencies

Nelson, J.T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Investigation of the effect of gel residue on hydraulic fracture conductivity using dynamic fracture conductivity test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The key to producing gas from tight gas reservoirs is to create a long, highly conductive flow path, via the placement of a hydraulic fracture, to stimulate flow from the reservoir to the wellbore. Viscous fluid is used to transport proppant into the fracture. However, these same viscous fluids need to break to a thin fluid after the treatment is over so that the fracture fluid can be cleaned up. In shallower, lower temperature (less than 250°F) reservoirs, the choice of a fracture fluid is very critical to the success of the treatment. Current hydraulic fracturing methods in unconventional tight gas reservoirs have been developed largely through ad-hoc application of low-cost water fracs, with little optimization of the process. It seems clear that some of the standard tests and models are missing some of the physics of the fracturing process in low-permeability environments. A series of the extensive laboratory "dynamic fracture conductivity" tests have been conducted. Dynamic fracture conductivity is created when proppant slurry is pumped into a hydraulic fracture in low permeability rock. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially, we pump proppant/ fracturing fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. Test results indicate that increasing gel concentration decreases retained fracture conductivity for a constant gas flow rate and decreasing gas flow rate decreases retained fracture conductivity. Without breaker, the damaging effect of viscous hydraulic fracturing fluids on the conductivity of proppant packs is significant at temperature of 150°F. Static conductivity testing results in higher retained fracture conductivity when compared to dynamic conductivity testing.

Marpaung, Fivman

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Investigation of the effect of gel residue on hydraulic fracture conductivity using dynamic fracture conductivity test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The key to producing gas from tight gas reservoirs is to create a long, highly conductive flow path, via the placement of a hydraulic fracture, to stimulate flow from the reservoir to the wellbore. Viscous fluid is used to transport proppant into the fracture. However, these same viscous fluids need to break to a thin fluid after the treatment is over so that the fracture fluid can be cleaned up. In shallower, lower temperature (less than 250oF) reservoirs, the choice of a fracture fluid is very critical to the success of the treatment. Current hydraulic fracturing methods in unconventional tight gas reservoirs have been developed largely through ad-hoc application of low-cost water fracs, with little optimization of the process. It seems clear that some of the standard tests and models are missing some of the physics of the fracturing process in low-permeability environments. A series of the extensive laboratory “dynamic fracture conductivity” tests have been conducted. Dynamic fracture conductivity is created when proppant slurry is pumped into a hydraulic fracture in low permeability rock. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially, we pump proppant/ fracturing fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. Test results indicate that increasing gel concentration decreases retained fracture conductivity for a constant gas flow rate and decreasing gas flow rate decreases retained fracture conductivity. Without breaker, the damaging effect of viscous hydraulic fracturing fluids on the conductivity of proppant packs is significant at temperature of 150oF. Static conductivity testing results in higher retained fracture conductivity when compared to dynamic conductivity testing.

Marpaung, Fivman

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Using seismic tomography to characterize fracture systems induced by hydraulic fracturing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing have been studied by many investigators to characterize fracture systems created by the fracturing process and to better understand the locations of energy resources in the earth`s subsurface. The pattern of the locations often contains a great deal of information about the fracture system stimulated during the hydraulic fracturing. Seismic tomography has found applications in many areas for characterizing the subsurface of the earth. It is well known that fractures in rock influence both the P and S velocities of the rock. The influence of the fractures is a function of the geometry of the fractures, the apertures and number of fractures, and the presence of fluids in the fractures. In addition, the temporal evolution of the created fracture system can be inferred from the temporal changes in seismic velocity and the pattern of microearthquake locations. Seismic tomography has been used to infer the spatial location of a fracture system in a reservoir that was created by hydraulic fracturing.

Fehler, M.; Rutledge, J.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The hydrothermal system in central Twin Falls County, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a study to define the areal extent and thickness of the hydrothermal reservoir in Twin Falls County and to propose a generalized conceptual model of the system. Specific objectives of the study, done in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, were to evaluate the existing resource as to its volume, temperature, pressure, and water chemistry, and to determine the effects of present development on the resource. The study was limited to Twin Falls County. Some geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic data for the hydrothermal system were available from earlier studies. However, information about the subsurface at depths greater than 1000 feet was sparse. One well for which data were available was drilled to 2525 feet; several others were drilled to depths between 1200 and 2200 feet. Direct-current electrical resistivity soundings conducted during the summer of 1985 as part of the study provided valuable information about the subsurface at depths less than about 6000 feet. Interpretation of computer-generated subsurface profiles constructed from the soundings provided the basis for determining the thickness of the Idavada Volcanics over much of the study area. 42 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Lewis, R.E.; Young, H.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Testing geochemical modeling codes using New Zealand hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of selected portions of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will: (1) ensure that we are providing adequately for all significant processes occurring in natural systems; (2) determine the adequacy of the mathematical descriptions of the processes; (3) check the adequacy and completeness of thermodynamic data as a function of temperature for solids, aqueous species and gases; and (4) determine the sensitivity of model results to the manner in which the problem is conceptualized by the user and then translated into constraints in the code input. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions. The kinetics of silica precipitation in EQ6 will be tested using field data from silica-lined drain channels carrying hot water away from the Wairakei borefield.

Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Bourcier, W.L.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture. 13 figs.

Warpinski, N.R.; Steinfort, T.D.; Branagan, P.T.; Wilmer, R.H.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

286

Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture.

Warpinski, Norman R. (Albuquerque, NM); Steinfort, Terry D. (Tijeras, NM); Branagan, Paul T. (Las Vegas, NV); Wilmer, Roy H. (Las Vegas, NV)

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Injection into a fractured geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed study is made on the movement of the thermal fronts in the fracture and in the porous medium when 100{sup 0}C water is injected into a 300{sup 0}C geothermal reservoir with equally spaced horizontal fractures. Numerical modeling calculations were made for a number of thermal conductivity values, as well as different values of the ratio of fracture and rock medium permeabilities. One important result is an indication that although initially, the thermal front in the fracture moves very fast relative to the front in the porous medium as commonly expected, its speed rapidly decreases. At some distance from the injection well the thermal fronts in the fracture and the porous medium coincide, and from that point they advance together. The implication of this result on the effects of fractures on reinjection into geothermal reservoirs is discussed.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Tsang, C.F.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

A finite element model for three dimensional hydraulic fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the development of a model for the numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing processes with 3d fracture propagation. It takes into account the effects of fluid flow inside the fracture, fluid leak-off through fracture walls ... Keywords: boundary elements, finite elements, hydraulic fracturing, petroleum recovery

Philippe R. B. Devloo; Paulo Dore Fernandes; Sônia M. Gomes; Cedric Marcelo Augusto Ayala Bravo; Renato Gomes Damas

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Magnetized GRB outflow model: weak reverse shock emission and short energy transfer timescale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the absence of the bright optical flashes in most {\\it Swift} Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) afterglows can be explained, if the reverse shock region is magnetized with a $\\sigma \\sim 1$, or the emission spectrum of the electrons accelerated in the mildly magnetized ($0.1magnetized outflow is sub-relativistic, where $\\sigma$ is the ratio of the magnetic energy flux to the particle energy flux. We also find that for $\\sigma\\gg 1$, the energy transfer between the magnetized ejecta and the forward shock may be too quick to account for the shallow decline phase that is well detected in many {\\it Swift} GRB X-ray afterglows.

Yi-Zhong Fan

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

290

SIMULATION OF DESCENDING MULTIPLE SUPRA-ARCADE RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS IN SOLAR FLARES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After recent Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations by Savage, McKenzie, and Reeves, we revisit the scenario proposed by us in previous papers. We have shown that sunward, generally dark plasma features that originated above posteruption flare arcades are consistent with a scenario where plasma voids (which we identify as supra-arcade reconnection outflows, SAROs) generate the bouncing and interfering of shocks and expansion waves upstream of an initial localized deposition of energy that is collimated in the magnetic field direction. In this paper, we analyze the multiple production and interaction of SAROs and their individual structures that make them relatively stable features while moving. We compare our results with observations and with the scenarios proposed by other authors.

Cecere, M.; Schneiter, M.; Costa, A.; Elaskar, S. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Maglione, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

SWIFT J164449.3+573451: A PLUNGING EVENT WITH A POYNTING-FLUX-DOMINATED OUTFLOW  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Swift J164449+573451 is a peculiar outburst which is most likely powered by the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole. Within the tidal disruption scenario, we show that the periastron distance is considerably smaller than the disruption radius and the outflow should be launched mainly via magnetic activities (e.g., the Blandford-Znajek process), otherwise the observed long-lasting X-ray afterglow emission satisfying the relation L{sub X}{proportional_to} M-dot cannot be reproduced, where L{sub X} is the X-ray luminosity and M-dot is the accretion rate. We also suggest that L{sub X}{proportional_to} M-dot may hold in the quick decline phase of gamma-ray bursts.

Gao Weihong, E-mail: gaoweihong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

292

The coronal source of extreme-ultraviolet line profile asymmetries in solar active region outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High resolution spectra from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) have revealed that coronal spectral line profiles are sometimes asymmetric, with a faint enhancement in the blue wing on the order of 100 km/s. These asymmetries could be important since they may be subtle, yet diagnostically useful signatures of coronal heating or solar wind acceleration processes. It has also been suggested that they are signatures of chromospheric jets supplying mass and energy to the corona. Until now, however, there have been no studies of the physical properties of the plasma producing the asymmetries. Here we identify regions of asymmetric profiles in the outflows of AR 10978 using an asymmetric Gaussian function and extract the intensities of the faint component using multiple Gaussian fits. We then derive the temperature structure and chemical composition of the plasma producing the asymmetries. We find that the asymmetries are dependent on temperature, and are clearer and stronger in coronal lines. The temperatur...

Brooks, David H

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

The Performance of Fractured Horizontal Well in Tight Gas Reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal wells have been used to increase reservoir recovery, especially in unconventional reservoirs, and hydraulic fracturing has been applied to further extend the contact with the reservoir to increase the efficiency of development. In the past, many models, analytical or numerical, were developed to describe the flow behavior in horizontal wells with fractures. Source solution is one of the analytical/semi-analytical approaches. To solve fractured well problems, source methods were advanced from point sources to volumetric source, and pressure change inside fractures was considered in the volumetric source method. This study aims at developing a method that can predict horizontal well performance and the model can also be applied to horizontal wells with multiple fractures in complex natural fracture networks. The method solves the problem by superposing a series of slab sources under transient or pseudosteady-state flow conditions. The principle of the method comprises the calculation of semi-analytical response of a rectilinear reservoir with closed outer boundaries. A statistically assigned fracture network is used in the study to represent natural fractures based on the spacing between fractures and fracture geometry. The multiple dominating hydraulic fractures are then added to the natural fracture system to build the physical model of the problem. Each of the hydraulic fractures is connected to the horizontal wellbore, and the natural fractures are connected to the hydraulic fractures through the network description. Each fracture, natural or hydraulically induced, is treated as a series of slab sources. The analytical solution of superposed slab sources provides the base of the approach, and the overall flow from each fracture and the effect between the fractures are modeled by applying superposition principle to all of the fractures. It is assumed that hydraulic fractures are the main fractures that connect with the wellbore and the natural fractures are branching fractures which only connect with the main fractures. The fluid inside of the branch fractures flows into the main fractures, and the fluid of the main fracture from both the reservoir and the branch fractures flows to the wellbore. Predicting well performance in a complex fracture network system is extremely challenged. The statistical nature of natural fracture networks changes the flow characteristic from that of a single linear fracture. Simply using the single fracture model for individual fracture, and then adding the flow from each fracture for the network could introduce significant error. This study provides a semi-analytical approach to estimate well performance in a complex fracture network system.

Lin, Jiajing

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Hydraulic fracturing and shale gas extraction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the past decade the technique of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has been improved so much that it has become a cost effective method… (more)

Klein, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Injection through fractures  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Injection through fractures Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot...

296

Fatigue and Fracture I - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Fretting Corrosion Induced Fracture of a Floating Bearing Base Plate in a 250 Tons Yankee Paper Drum: Pierre Dupont1; 1Schaeffler Belgium ...

297

Hydraulic fractures traced by monitoring microseismic events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: The trend toward production of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs (tight gas, shale oilgas) has caused a large increase in the use of hydraulic fracture...

298

Method of fracturing a geological formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Fracture of Thin Films and Nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Fracture Toughness of SPD-Deformed Nanostructured Rail Steels and Its Implications on the In-Service Behaviour: Christoph Kammerhofer1; ...

300

Deformation and Fracture - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Investigations on the crack propagation resistance showed an increasing fracture resistance with crack extension, so-called R-curve behavior.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on methods to detect naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. This report discusses 3D-3C seismic acquisition and 3D P-wave alternate processing.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The trend toward production of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs (tight gas, shale oilgas) has caused a large increase in the use of hydraulic fracture stimulation of...

303

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thermoset Fracture with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of resin chain extensibility and dilution on fracture behavior are studied by testing a variety of molecular systems. The molecular bases for precursors ...

304

MML Leads Discussion of Dynamic Fracture Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic Fracture in Steel. ... More recently, the pipeline industry has been adopting the CTOA ... fatigue characteristics of new pipeline steels, as these ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Well test analysis in fractured media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study the behavior of fracture systems under well test conditions and methods for analyzing well test data from fractured media are investigated. Several analytical models are developed to be used for analyzing well test data from fractured media. Numerical tools that may be used to simulate fluid flow in fractured media are also presented. Three types of composite models for constant flux tests are investigated. Several slug test models with different geometric conditions that may be present in fractured media are also investigated. A finite element model that can simulate transient fluid flow in fracture networks is used to study the behavior of various two-dimensional fracture systems under well test conditions. A mesh generator that can be used to model mass and heat flow in a fractured-porous media is presented. This model develops an explicit solution in the porous matrix as well as in the discrete fractures. Because the model does not require the assumptions of the conventional double porosity approach, it may be used to simulate cases where double porosity models fail.

Karasaki, K.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Hydraulic fracturing: insights...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing: insights from field, lab, and numerical studies Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search...

307

Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macro-scale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low permeability soils consisting of fine grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture from the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 Darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 Darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing.

Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M.; Liskowitz, J.L.; Fitzgerald, C.; Schuring, J.R.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

THE CORONAL SOURCE OF EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET LINE PROFILE ASYMMETRIES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION OUTFLOWS  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution spectra from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer have revealed that coronal spectral line profiles are sometimes asymmetric, with a faint enhancement in the blue wing on the order of 100 km s{sup -1}. These asymmetries could be important since they may be subtle yet diagnostically useful signatures of coronal heating or solar wind acceleration processes. It has also been suggested that they are signatures of chromospheric jets supplying mass and energy to the corona. Until now, however, there have been no studies of the physical properties of the plasma producing the asymmetries. Here we identify regions of asymmetric profiles in the outflows of AR 10978 using an asymmetric Gaussian function and extract the intensities of the faint component using multiple Gaussian fits. We then derive the temperature structure and chemical composition of the plasma producing the asymmetries. We find that the asymmetries are dependent on temperature, and are clearer and stronger in coronal lines. The temperature distribution peaks around 1.4-1.8 MK with an emission measure at least an order of magnitude larger than that at 0.6 MK. The first ionization potential bias is found to be 3-5, implying that the high-speed component of the outflows may also contribute to the slow-speed wind. Observations and models indicate that it takes time for plasma to evolve to a coronal composition, suggesting that the material is trapped on closed loops before escaping, perhaps by interchange reconnection. The results, therefore, identify the plasma producing the asymmetries as having a coronal origin.

Brooks, David H. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P., E-mail: dhbrooks@ssd5.nrl.navy.mil [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

309

1 Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and 2 Arabia: Biomass/biofuel burning and fossil fuel combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Characterization of carbonaceous aerosols outflow from India and 2 Arabia: Biomass/biofuel tracer for biomass/biofuel burning, 16 number concentration of submicrometer carbon-containing particles and biomass/biofuel 22 burning are subject to long-range transport, thereby contributing to anthropogenic 23

Dickerson, Russell R.

310

Surrogate-based optimization of hydraulic fracturing in pre-existing fracture networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing has been used widely to stimulate production of oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy in formations with low natural permeability. Numerical optimization of fracture stimulation often requires a large number of evaluations of objective ... Keywords: Fractal dimension, Global sensitivity, Hydraulic fracturing, Optimization, Surrogate model

Mingjie Chen, Yunwei Sun, Pengcheng Fu, Charles R. Carrigan, Zhiming Lu, Charles H. Tong, Thomas A. Buscheck

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

GMINC - A MESH GENERATOR FOR FLOW SIMULATIONS IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation of Fluid Flow in Fractured Porous Media, Watergovern fluid flow in fractured porous media. These are (i)for Modeling Fluid and Heat Flow in fractured Porous Media,

Pruess, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Ductile fracture modeling : theory, experimental investigation and numerical verification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fracture initiation in ductile materials is governed by the damaging process along the plastic loading path. A new damage plasticity model for ductile fracture is proposed. Experimental results show that fracture ...

Xue, Liang, 1973-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Hydrothermal research and development assessment. Task Force report: projections for direct-heat applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Low and moderate temperature hydrothermal resources suitable for direct-heat applications have been identified in 37 states. The extent to which three resources might be used over the next 20 years were evaluated and the probable impact of Federal programs on hydrothermal resource utilization was assessed. The use types that comprise the bulk of the market were determined. Representative firms and municipalities were interviewed to determine their willingness to use hydrothermal energy, and to determine the investment decision criteria that would influence their actions. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal magma systems: geochemistry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief discussion is given of the geochemical objectives and questions that must be addressed in such an evaluation. A summary of the currently published literature that is pertinent in answering these questions is presented for each of the five areas: The Geysers-Clear Lake region, Long Valley, Rio Grand Rift, Roosevelt Hot Springs, and the Salton Trough. The major geochemical processes associated with proposed hydrothermal sites are categorized into three groups for presentation: geochemistry of magma and associated volcanic rocks, geochemistry of hydrothermal solutions, and geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration. (MHR)

White, A.F.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Low temperature hydrothermal destruction of organics in Hanford tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to evaluate and develop a low temperature hydrothermal process (HTP) for the destruction of organics that are present wastes temporarily stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Organic compounds contribute to tank waste safety issues, such as hydrogen generation. Some organic compounds act as complexants, promoting the solubility of radioactive constituents such as {sup 90}Sr and {sup 241}Am, which is undesirable for waste pretreatment processing. HTP is thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that is typically operated between 250{degrees}C and 375{degrees}C and approximately 200 atm. Testing with simulated tank waste, containing a variety of organics has been performed. The distribution of strontium, cesium and bulk metals between the supernatant and solid phases as a function of the total organic content of the waste simulant will be presented. Test results using simulant will be compared with similar tests conducted using actual radioactive waste.

Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Schmidt, A.J.; Jones, E.O.; Hart, T.R.; Poshusta, J.C.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Hydrothermal electric and direct heat. Commercialization Phase III planning  

SciTech Connect

Nine environmental concerns have been identified: airborne effluents, waterborne effluents, noise, subsidence, enhanced seismicity, water use conflicts, land use, socioeconomic impacts, and system safety and occupational health. Resolution of these issues is expected to occur at staggered intervals over the next 8 to 10 years. Of these concerns, airborne emissions and water use conflicts are judged to have a medium likelihood of having research findings adverse to commercialization. Waterborne effluents and subsidence are also judged to have a medium likelihood. The other concerns--noise, enhanced seismicity, land use, socioeconomic impacts and system safety and occupational health--are judged to have a low likelihood of adverse findings. The overall environmental research and development plan related to hydrothermal electric and direct heat includes funds to assess the adequacy of candidate control technology options. However, it does not include the resource requirements to fully develop and demonstrate commercial control hardware, process modifications, and for strategies. The conclusions, stated as probabilities, are given.

Clusen, R.C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Integration of hydrothermal energy economics related quantitative studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An evaluation of the existing hydrothermal energy economics related quantitative studies is provided. The objective is to present the similarities and differences in methodology and assumptions, and explain the impact of these differences on the energy price estimates. A brief summary of the study categories, economic evaluation methodology, technical and economic assumptions and major outputs of the studies is presented. The relative importance and the likely effects of the most important technical and economic factors on the cost of energy are discussed. The sensitivity analysis results provided are useful in judging the credibility as well as the relative weaknesses and strengths of the various cost of energy estimation studies. The major conclusions of the evaluation and the recommendations for future research are presented.

Not Available

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Permeability enhancement using high energy gas fracturing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper reports the results of a preliminary study of using High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF) techniques for geothermal well stimulation. Experiments conducted in the G-tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) showed that multiple fractures could be created in water-filled boreholes using HEGF. Therefore, the method is potentially useful for geothermal well stimulation. 4 refs., 11 figs.

Chu, T.Y.; Cuderman, J.F.; Jung, J.; Jacobson, R.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

low-permeability fractures and LAF's (Large Aperature Fractures). USG will develop and test the combination of three-component,long-offset seismic surveying, permanent scatter...

320

Characterizing Fractures in Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water through existing fractures into hot wet and hot dry rocks by thermo-elastic cooling shrinkage. The stimulated, existing fractures thus enhance the permeability of the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Modeling Of Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation In Shale Gas Reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The most effective method for stimulating shale gas reservoirs is massive hydraulic fracture treatments. Recent fracture diagnostic technologies such as microseismic technology have shown that… (more)

Ahn, Chong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Microearthquakes in the geothermal field are proposed as indicators of shear fracturing associated with fluid injection and circulation along major pre-existing fractures....

323

A physical model for fracture surface features in metallic glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 30, 2010 ... at a rate of 1000 mm/ min, fracturing the grease in the sample. Photographs were then taken of the fracture surfaces. The photographs were ...

324

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic...

325

An Alternate Approach for Characterizing the Fracture Resistance of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the elastic properties and strength of fish scales have received considerable attention, the resistance to fracture has not. Here the fracture resistance of ...

326

Coupled thermohydromechanical analysis of a heater test in unsaturated clay and fractured rock at Kamaishi Mine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

injection and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements inlevel measured with hydraulic fracturing (reproduced from

Rutqvist, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Optimization of Construction Discharge Rate and Proppant Slugs for Preventing Complex Fractures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For volcanic rock and fracture type reservoir, etc, steering fractures, branching fractures and their combined herringbone fractures are usually caused by hydraulic fracturing. The generation of these complex fractures is one of the crucial factors that ... Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, construction discharge rate, complex fractures, proppant slug, optimization

Dali Guo; Yang Lin; Yong Ji; Jiangwen Xu; Guobin Wang

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Hydraulic Fracturing Technology | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil & Gas » Shale Gas » Hydraulic Oil & Gas » Shale Gas » Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Image taken from "Shale Gas: Applying Technology to Solve America's Energy Challenges," NETL, 2011. Image taken from "Shale Gas: Applying Technology to Solve America's Energy Challenges," NETL, 2011. Hydraulic fracturing is a technique in which large volumes of water and sand, and small volumes of chemical additives are injected into low-permeability subsurface formations to increase oil or natural gas flow. The injection pressure of the pumped fluid creates fractures that enhance gas and fluid flow, and the sand or other coarse material holds the fractures open. Most of the injected fluid flows back to the wellbore and is pumped to the surface.

329

Occult fractures of the knee: tomographic evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Seven adults with painful effusions of the knee were examined for occult fractures using pluridirectional tomograph in the coronal and lateral planes. Six patients (ages 50 to 82 years) were osteopenic and gave histories ranging from none to mild trauma; one 26-year-old man was not osteopenic and had severe trauma. In all cases, routine radiographs were interpreted as negative, but tomography demonstrated a fracture. Five fractures were subchondral. Bone scans in 2 patients were positive. The authors conclude that osteopenic patients with a painful effusion of the knee should be considered to have an occult fracture. While bone scans may be helpful, tomography is recommended as the procedure of choice to define the location and extent of the fracture.

Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Allen, N.B.; Caldwell, D.S.; Rice, J.R.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

SciTech Connect

The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

2007-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

331

New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera, California,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera, California, New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera, California, From Wells, Fluid Sampling, Electrical Geophysics, And Age Determinations Of Hot-Spring Deposits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera, California, From Wells, Fluid Sampling, Electrical Geophysics, And Age Determinations Of Hot-Spring Deposits Abstract Data collected since 1985 from test drilling, fluid sampling, and geologic and geophysical investigations provide a clearer definition of the hydrothermal system in Long Valley caldera than was previously available. This information confirms the existence of high-temperature (> 200°C) reservoirs within the volcanic fill in parts of the west moat. These

332

Hydrothermal Circulation At Mount St Helens Determined By Self-Potential  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Hydrothermal Circulation At Mount St Helens Determined By Self-Potential Measurements Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Hydrothermal Circulation At Mount St Helens Determined By Self-Potential Measurements Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The distribution of hydrothermal circulation within active volcanoes is of importance in identifying regions of hydrothermal alteration which may in turn control explosivity, slope stability and sector collapse. Self-potential measurements, indicative of fluid circulation, were made within the crater of Mount St. Helens in 2000 and

333

Hydrothermal synthesis of Sb2S3nanorods using iodine via redox mechanism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystalline antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) with nanorods morphology was successfully prepared via hydrothermal method by the reaction of elemental sulfur, antimony, and iodine as starting materials with high yield at 180°C for 24 ...

Abdolali Alemi; Sang Woo Joo; Younes Hanifehpour; Aliakbar Khandar; Ali Morsali; Bong-Ki Min

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

A Handheld Sampler for Collecting Organic Samples from Shallow Hydrothermal Vents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe here a new handheld sampler, specially designed to be deployed by SCUBA divers, to collect fluid samples from shallow hydrothermal vents. The new sampler utilizes a syringe-like titanium sampling bottle with regulated filling rate to ...

Shi-Jun Wu; Can-Jun Yang; Chen-Tung Arthur Chen

335

Mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks by the EO-1 Hyperion sensor, Northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An EO-1 Hyperion scene was used to identify and map hydrothermally altered rocks and a Precambrian metamorphic sequence at and around the Alid volcanic dome, at the northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea. Mapping was coupled with laboratory analyses, including ...

Ronen Gersman; Eyal Ben-Dor; Michael Beyth; Dov Avigad; Michael Abraha; Alem Kibreab

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

A Handheld Sampler for Collecting Organic Samples from Shallow Hydrothermal Vents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study describes a new handheld sampler, specially designed to be deployed by scuba divers, to collect fluid samples from shallow hydrothermal vents. The new sampler utilizes a syringe-like titanium sampling bottle with a regulated filling ...

Shi-Jun Wu; Can-Jun Yang; Chen-Tung Arthur Chen

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Laboratory and field-based investigations of subsurface geochemical processes in seafloor hydrothermal systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the results of four discrete investigations into processes governing the organic and inorganic chemical composition of seafloor hydrothermal fluids in a variety of geologic settings. Though Chapters 2 ...

Reeves, Eoghan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Surface-discharging hydrothermal systems at Yucca Mountain: Examining the evidence  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses exposures of altered rock that have been thought to form by recent discharge of water from depth. They were examined to address a concern that hydrothermal processes could compromise the isolation capability of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Suspected hot-spring and hydrothermal-vent deposits are more likely the products of infiltration of meteoric water into newly deposited and still-hot pyroclastic flows >12 Myr ago.

Levy, S.S.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA)

2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

340

Fracture Modeling and Flow Behavior in Shale Gas Reservoirs Using Discrete Fracture Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluid flow process in fractured reservoirs is controlled primarily by the connectivity of fractures. The presence of fractures in these reservoirs significantly affects the mechanism of fluid flow. They have led to problems in the reservoir which results in early water breakthroughs, reduced tertiary recovery efficiency due to channeling of injected gas or fluids, dynamic calculations of recoverable hydrocarbons that are much less than static mass balance ones due to reservoir compartmentalization, and dramatic production changes due to changes in reservoir pressure as fractures close down as conduits. These often lead to reduced ultimate recoveries or higher production costs. Generally, modeling flow behavior and mass transport in fractured porous media is done using the dual-continuum concept in which fracture and matrix are modeled as two separate kinds of continua occupying the same control volume (element) in space. This type of numerical model cannot reproduce many commonly observed types of fractured reservoir behavior since they do not explicitly model the geometry of discrete fractures, solution features, and bedding that control flow pathway geometry. This inaccurate model of discrete feature connectivity results in inaccurate flow predictions in areas of the reservoir where there is not good well control. Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) model has been developed to aid is solving some of these problems experienced by using the dual continuum models. The Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN) approach involves analysis and modeling which explicitly incorporates the geometry and properties of discrete features as a central component controlling flow and transport. DFN are stochastic models of fracture architecture that incorporate statistical scaling rules derived from analysis of fracture length, height, spacing, orientation, and aperture. This study is focused on developing a methodology for application of DFN to a shale gas reservoir and the practical application of DFN simulator (FracGen and NFflow) for fracture modeling of a shale gas reservoir and also studies the interaction of the different fracture properties on reservoir response. The most important results of the study are that a uniform fracture network distribution and fracture aperture produces the highest cumulative gas production for the different fracture networks and fracture/well properties considered.

Ogbechie, Joachim Nwabunwanne

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Brittle fracture phenomena: An hypothesis  

SciTech Connect

It is proposed that: volumetric dilation is a fundamental requirement for brittle fracture involving shear; such dilation commonly involves or is expressed as zonal overpressures; the overpressured zones radiate particle motions which are significant to or dominate seismic radiation from blasting; the overpressures are commonly significant to and may dominate the energetics of blastings. Outstanding problems and gaps in our knowledge regarding fragmentation are discussed. It is argued that there is a common missing factor, dilatancy. Supporting evidence is presented from soils and rock mechanics, blasting experimental data and blasting experience. Computer modeling of fragmentation is discussed and the necessity for the inclusion of dilatancy established. Implications are discussed and a test of the hypothesis proposed.

Britton, K.; Walton, O.R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Preservation of iron(II) by carbon-rich matrices in a hydrothermal plume  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal venting associated with mid-ocean ridge volcanism is globally widespread. This venting is responsible for a dissolved iron flux to the ocean that is approximately equal to that associated with continental riverine runoff. For hydrothermal fluxes, it has long been assumed that most of the iron entering the oceans is precipitated in inorganic forms. However, the possibility of globally significant fluxes of iron escaping these mass precipitation events and entering open-ocean cycles is now being debated, and two recent studies suggest that dissolved organic ligands might influence the fate of hydrothermally vented metals. Here we present spectromicroscopic measurements of iron and carbon in hydrothermal plume particles at the East Pacific Rise mid-ocean ridge. We show that organic carbon-rich matrices, containing evenly dispersed iron(II)-rich materials, are pervasive in hydrothermal plume particles. The absence of discrete iron(II) particles suggests that the carbon and iron associate through sorption or complexation. We suggest that these carbon matrices stabilize iron(II) released from hydrothermal vents in the region, preventing its oxidation and/or precipitation as insoluble minerals. Our findings have implications for deep-sea biogeochemical cycling of iron, a widely recognized limiting nutrient in the oceans.

Toner, Brandy M.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Manganini, Steven J.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Moffett, James W.; Rouxel, Olivier; German, Christopher R.; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

343

Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged Cu/Beta Zeolite Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The hydrothermal stability of Cu/beta NH3 SCR catalysts are explored here. In particular, this paper focuses on the interesting ability of this catalyst to maintain and even enhance high-temperature performance for the "standard" SCR reaction after modest (900 °C, 2 hours) hydrothermal aging. Characterization of the fresh and aged catalysts was performed with an aim to identify possible catalytic phases responsible for the enhanced high temperature performance. XRD, TEM and 27Al NMR all showed that the hydrothermally aging conditions used here resulted in almost complete loss of the beta zeolite structure between 1 and 2 hours aging. While the 27Al NMR spectra of 2 and 10 hour hydrothermally-aged catalysts showed significant loss of a peak associated with tetrahedrally-coordinated Al species, no new spectral features were evident. Two model catalysts, suggested by these characterization data as possible mimics of the catalytic phase formed during hydrothermal aging of Cu/beta, were prepared and tested for their performance in the "standard" SCR and NH3 oxidation reactions. The similarity in their reactivity compared to the 2 hour hydrothermally-aged Cu/beta catalyst suggests possible routes for preparing multi-component catalysts that may have wider temperature windows for optimum performance than those provided by current Cu/zeolite catalysts.

Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun; Burton, Sarah D.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Jen, H. W.; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

344

Incorporating Rigorous Height Determination into Unified Fracture Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing plays an important role in increasing production rate in tight reservoirs. The performance of the reservoir after fracturing can be observed from the productivity index. This parameter is dependent on the fracture geometry; height, length and width. Unified fracture design (UFD) offers a method to determine the fracture dimensions providing the maximum productivity index for a specific proppant amount. Then, in order to achieve the maximum productivity index, the treatment schedules including the amount of liquid and proppant used for each stage must be determined according to the fracture dimensions obtained from the UFD. The proppant number is necessary for determining the fracture geometry using the UFD. This number is used to find the maximum productivity index for a given proppant amount. Then, the dimensionless fracture conductivity index corresponding to the maximum productivity index can be computed. The penetration ration, the fracture length, and the propped fracture width can be computed from the dimensionless fracture conductivity. However, calculating the proppant number used in UFD requires the fracture height as an input. The most convenient way to estimate fracture height to input to the UFD is to assume that the fracture height is restricted by stress contrast between the pay zone and over and under-lying layers. In other words, the fracture height is assumed to be constant, independent of net pressure and equal to the thickness of the layer which has the least minimum principal stress. However, in reality, the fracture may grow out from the target formation and the height of fracture is dependent on the net pressure during the treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to couple determination of the fracture height with determination of the other fracture parameters. In this research, equilibrium height theory is applied to rigorously determine the height of fracture. Solving the problem iteratively, it is possible to incorporate the rigorous fracture height determination into the unified fracture design.

Pitakbunkate, Termpan

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Optimizing reservoir management through fracture modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fracture flow will become increasingly important to optimal reservoir management as exploration of geothermal reservoirs continues and as injection of spent fluid increases. The Department of Energy conducts research focused on locating and characterizing fractures, modeling the effects of fractures on movement of fluid, solutes, and heat throughout a reservoir, and determining the effects of injection on long-term reservoir production characteristics in order to increase the ability to predict with greater certainty the long-term performance of geothermal reservoirs. Improvements in interpreting and modeling geophysical techniques such as gravity, self potential, and aeromagnetics are yielding new information for the delineation of active major conduits for fluid flow. Vertical seismic profiling and cross-borehole electromagnetic techniques also show promise for delineating fracture zones. DOE funds several efforts for simulating geothermal reservoirs. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has adopted a continuum treatment for reservoirs with a fracture component. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has developed simulation techniques which utilize discrete fractures and interchange of fluid between permeable matrix and fractures. Results of these research projects will be presented to industry through publications and appropriate public meetings. 9 refs.

Renner, J.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Galactic Coronae in the Intracluster Environment: Semi-confined Stellar-feedback-driven Outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently X-ray observations have shown the common presence of compact galactic coronae around intermediate-mass spheroid galaxies embedded in the intracluster/intragroup medium (ICM). We conduct 2-D hydrodynamic simulations to study the quasi-steady-state properties of such coronae as the natural products of the ongoing distributed stellar feedback semi-confined by the thermal and ram pressures of the ICM. We find that the temperature of a simulated corona depends primarily on the specific energy of the feedback, consistent with the lack of the correlation between the observed hot gas temperature and K-band luminosity of galaxies. The simulated coronae typically represent subsonic outflows, chiefly because of the semi-confinement. As a result, the hot gas density increases with the ICM thermal pressure. The ram pressure, on the other hand, chiefly affects the size and lopsidedness of the coronae. The density increase could lead to the compression of cool gas clouds, if present, and hence the formation of star...

Lu, Zhankui

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

The shocked outflow in NGC 4051 - momentum-driven feedback, UFO's and warm absorbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An extended XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 in 2009 revealed an unusually rich absorption spectrum with outflow velocities, in both RGS and EPIC spectra, up to ~ 9000 km/s (Pounds and Vaughan 2011). Evidence was again seen for a fast ionised wind with velocity ~ 0.12c (Tombesi 2010, Pounds and Vaughan 2012). Detailed modelling with the XSTAR photoionisation code now confirms the general correlation of velocity and ionisation predicted by mass conservation in a Compton-cooled shocked wind (King 2010). We attribute the strong column density gradient in the model to the addition of strong two-body cooling in the later stages of the flow, causing the ionisation (and velocity) to fall more quickly, and confining the lower ionisation gas to a narrower region. The column density and recombination timescale of the highly ionised flow component, seen mainly in Fe K lines, determine the primary shell thickness which, when compared with the theoretical Compton cooling length, determines a shock r...

Pounds, Ken

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

A Detailed Spatiokinematic Model of the Conical Outflow of the Multipolar Planetary Nebula, NGC 7026  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an extensive, long-slit, high-resolution coverage of the complex planetary nebula (PN), NGC 7026. We acquired ten spectra using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer at San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, Mexico, and each shows exquisite detail, revealing the intricate structure of this object. Incorporating these spectra into the 3-dimensional visualization and kinematic program, SHAPE, and using HST images of NGC 7026, we have produced a detailed structural and kinematic model of this PN. NGC 7026 exhibits remarkable symmetry consisting of three lobe-pairs and four sets of knots, all symmetrical about the nucleus and displaying a conical outflow. Comparing the 3-D structure of this nebula to recent, XMM-Newton X-ray observations, we investigate the extended X-ray emission in relation to the nebular structure. We find that the X-ray emission, while confined to the closed, northern lobes of this PN, shows an abrupt termination in the middle of the SE lobe, which our long slit data shows ...

Clark, D M; Steffen, W; Richer, M G

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Blocking of the Hepatic Vein Outflow by Neointima Covering a Wallstent Across a Membranous Stenosis of the Inferior Vena Cava  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 31-year-old man presented with idiopathic membranous obstruction of the suprahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) and was treated by balloon dilation and placement of a Wallstent. The patient improved markedly. However, he developed obstruction of the hepatic vein outflow secondary to neointima formation over the stent that covered the hepatic vein ostia. The patient died of liver failure and septicemia. We believe that this is the first report of such a serious complication.

Dutta, Usha; Garg, Pramod K. [Department of Gastroenterology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Agarwal, Rajeev [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Gupta, S. Dutta [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Prasad, G. A. [Department of Gastroenterology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Kaul, Upendra [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Tandon, Rakesh K. [Department of Gastroenterology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India)

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

The Numerical Simulation of Non-Supercell Tornadogenesis. Part I: Initiation and Evolution of Pretornadic Misocyclone Circulations along a Dry Outflow Boundary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution three-dimensional simulations are used to study misocyclone initiation and development along the leading edge of an outflow boundary. Model conditions were designed such that this development could be simulated independent of ...

Bruce D. Lee; Robert B. Wilhelmson

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Convection Produced by Interacting Thunderstorm Outflows. Part I: Control Simulation and Low-Level Moisture Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Klemp–Wilhelmson three-dimensional numerical cloud model is used to investigate cloud development along intersecting thunderstorm outflow boundaries. The model initial environment is characterized by a temperature and moisture profile ...

Kelvin K. Droegemeier; Robert B. Wilhelmson

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers by Tom Myers Abstract Hydraulic fracturing of deep shale beds to develop natural gas has caused concern regarding the potential and preferential flow through fractures--could allow the transport of contaminants from the fractured shale

353

Hydrothermal factors in porosity evolution and caprock formation at the Geysers steam field, California--insight from the Geysers Coring Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE)/geothermal industry-sponsored Geysers Coring Project (GCP) has yielded 236.8 m of continuous core apparently spanning the transition between the uppermost Geysers steam reservoir and its caprock. Both zones in the corehole are developed in superficially similar, fractured, complexly veined and locally sericitized, Franciscan (late Mesozoic) graywacke-argillite sequences. However, whereas the reservoir rocks host two major fluid conduits (potential steam entries), the caprock is only sparingly permeable. This discrepancy appears to reflect principally vein texture and mineralogy. Two types of veins are common in the core--randomly-oriented, Franciscan metamorphic quartz-calcite veins; and high-angle, late Cenozoic veins deposited by The Geysers hydrothermal system. The older veins locally contain hydrothermal carbonate-dissolution vugs, which, although concentrated at the larger fluid conduit, are scattered throughout the core. The younger veins, commonly with intercrystalline vugs, consist dominantly of euhedral quartz, calcite, K-feldspar, wairakite, and pyrite--those in the reservoir rock also contain minor epidote and illite. The corresponding caprock veins are devoid of epidote but contain abundant, late-stage, mixed-layer illite/smecite (5-18% smectite interlayers) with minor chlorite/smectite (40-45% smectite interlayers). We suggest that clots of these two expandable clays in the caprock clog otherwise permeable veins and carbonate-dissolution networks at strategic sites to produce or enhance the seal on the underlying steam reservoir. Illite/smectite geothermometry indicates that the SB-15-D caprock clays were precipitated in the approximate temperature range 180-218 C, and those in the reservoir at about 218-238 C. These temperatures, along with occurrence of the clays on commonly etched calcite, K-feldspar, or wairakite, suggest that the clays were precipitated from mildly acidic steam condensate under conditions similar to those now prevailing.

Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nielson, Dennis L.

1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

354

Does hydraulic-fracturing theory work in jointed rock masses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hypocenter locations of micro-earthquakes (acoustic emissions) generated during fracturing typically are distributed three-dimensionally suggesting that fracturing stimulates a volumetric region, rather than the planar fracture theoretically expected. The hypocenter maps generated at six operating, or potential, HDR reservoirs in the US, Europe and Japan are examined in detail and the fracture dimensions are correlated with fracture injection volumes and formation permeability. Depsite the volumetric appearance of the maps we infer that the induced fractures are mainly planar and may propagate aseismically. The induced seismicity stems from nearby joints, which are not opened significantly by fracturing, but are caused to shear-slip because of local pore pressure.

Murphy, H.D.; Keppler, H.; Dash, Z.V.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Well fracturing method using liquefied gas as fracturing fluid  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for fracturing an oil well or gas well with a mixture of liquid carbon dioxide and liquid petroleum gas. The objective is to be able to inject the liquid into the well bore at a relatively high pumping rate without causing the liquid to boil. Prior to injection, both the liquid CO/sub 2/ and the LPG are held in separate supply tanks at a temperature and pressure at which the liquid phase will not boil. The temperature of the LPG is substantially higher than the liquid CO/sub 2/. During the pumping operation, part of the liquid CO/sub 2/ and all of the LPG are fed through a heat exchanger. In the exchanger, the amount of heat transferred from the LPG to the liquid CO/sub 2/ is enough to vaporize the liquid. The CO/sub 2/ vapor is then circulated back into the CO/sub 2/ tank. The recycled vapor thus maintains the liquid-vapor phase in the tank at equilibrium, so that the liquid will not boil at the desired pumping rate. (4 claims)

Zingg, W.M.; Grassman, D.D.

1974-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

356

Physical model of a fractured reservoir | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

model of a fractured reservoir model of a fractured reservoir Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Physical model of a fractured reservoir Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The objectives of the physical modeling effort are to: (1) evaluate injection-backflow testing for fractured reservoirs under conditions of known reservoir parameters (porosity, fracture width, etc.); (2) study the mechanisms controlling solute transport in fracture systems; and (3) provide data for validation of numerical models that explicitly simulate solute migration in fracture systems. The fracture network is 0.57-m wide, 1.7-m long, and consists of two sets of fractures at right angles to one another with a fracture spacing of 10.2 cm. A series of

357

Method of optimizing the conductivity of a propped fractured formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of reducing viscosity of a fracturing fluid containing proppant, a polymer, a delayed breaker and a nondelayed breaker, it comprises: introducing the fracturing fluid into a subterranean formation to form at least one fracture; depositing the proppant and the polymer in the fracture; determining an after closure polymer viscosity of the deposited polymer in the fracture; selecting a proppant pack permeability in the fracture; calculating an amount of breaker necessary to reduce the after closure viscosity of the deposited polymer to attain the selected permeability of; determining a minimum viscosity of the fracturing fluid which maintains the proppant in suspension in the fluid during pumping in the fracture; and introducing an effective amount of delayed breaker and nondelayed breaker into the fracturing fluid to attain the selected proppant pack permeability while maintaining the minimum viscosity to maintain the proppant in suspension in the fluid during pumping in the fracture.

Brannon, H.D.; Gulbis, J.; King, M.T.; Hawkins, G.W.

1992-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Domain Decomposition for Flow in Porous Media with Fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this article. The fractures that we are concerned with are filled with debris so we consider them as porous media. The permeability in the fracture is large in comparison with that in the surrounding rock, so the fluid circulates faster in the fracture. Thus we have a highly heterogeneous porous medium. One idea that has been used to take this into account is to treat the fracture as an interface and to assume that the fluid that flows into the fracture stays in the fracture. In fact, in many models the contrast in permeabilities is of such an order that the flow outside of the fracture is neglected. However, here we are concerned with the situation in which the exchange between the fracture and the rest of the domain is significant. To deal with this case we need to model both what happens in the fracture and what happens outside the fracture. One

Clarisse Alboin; Jerome Jaffre; Jean Roberts; Christophe Serres

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A Study of Latrogenic Fracture Risk in Reduction of Pipkin Fracture ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluated the risk of such fractures during closed reduction of Pipkin ... of Ti-6Al-4V for Medical Applications after Surface Modification by Anodization.

360

Geomechanical review of hydraulic fracturing technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing as a method for recovering unconventional shale gas has been around for several decades. Significant research and improvement in field methods have been documented in literature on the subject. The ...

Arop, Julius Bankong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Studies of injection into naturally fractured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A semi-analytical model for studies of cold water injection into naturally fractured reservoirs has been developed. The model can be used to design the flow rates and location of injection wells in such systems. The results obtained using the model show that initially the cold water will move very rapidly through the fracture system away from the well. Later on, conductive heat transfer from the rock matrix blocks will retard the advancement of the cold water front, and eventually uniform energy sweep conditions will prevail. Where uniform energy sweep conditions are reached the cold waer movement away from the injection well will be identical to that in a porous medium; consequently maximum energy recovery from the rock matrix will be attained. The time of uniform energy sweep and the radial distance from the injection well where it occurs are greatly dependent upon the fracture spacing, but independent of the fracture aperture.

Boedvarsson, G.S.; Lai, C.H.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Definition: Hydraulic Fracturing | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Hydraulic Fracturing The process used in the Oil and Gas industry of drilling deep into the ground and injecting water, sand, and other...

363

Multiphase flow in fractured porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major goal of this research project was to improve the understanding of the gas-oil two-phase flow in fractured porous media. In addition, miscible displacement was studied to evaluate its promise for enhanced recovery.

Firoozabadi, A.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

On Water Flow in Hot Fractured Rock -- A Sensitivity Study on the Impact of Fracture-Matrix Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous andmultiphase heat and mass flow in unsaturated fractured porous

Birkholzer, Jens T.; Zhang, Yingqi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Hydraulic fracturing and propping tests at Yakedake field in Japan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing experiments have been conducted at Yakedake field in Gifu prefecture, Japan. From the data obtained during the fracturing operation, the open-hole section permeability was estimated of the wellbore, the minimum pressure required to propagate the fracture, the impedances before and after the propping, and the earth stress normal to the fracture plane. The final fracture plane was also mapped with the microseismic events.

Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Seo, Kunio; Suga, Shoto; Itoh, Toshinobu; Kuriyagawa, Michio

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

NFFLOW: A reservoir simulator incorporating explicit fractures (SPE 153890)  

SciTech Connect

NFFLOW is a research code that quickly and inexpensively simulates flow in moderately fractured reservoirs. It explicitly recognizes fractures separately from rock matrix. In NFFLOW fracture flow is proportional to the pressure gradient along the fracture, and flow in the rock matrix is determined by Darcy’s Law. The two flow mechanisms are coupled through the pressure gradient between a fracture and its adjacent rock matrix. Presented is a promising change to NFFLOW that allows for flow across a rock matrix block.

Boyle, E.J.; Sams, W.N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Poroelastic response of orthotropic fractured porous media  

SciTech Connect

An algorithm is presented for inverting either laboratory or field poroelastic data for all the drained constants of an anisotropic (specifically orthotropic) fractured poroelastic system. While fractures normally weaken the system by increasing the mechanical compliance, any liquids present in these fractures are expected to increase the stiffness somewhat, thus negating to some extent the mechanical weakening influence of the fractures themselves. The analysis presented quantifies these effects and shows that the key physical variable needed to account for the pore-fluid effects is a factor of (1 - B), where B is Skempton's second coe#14;fficient and satisfies 0 {<=} #20; B < 1. This scalar factor uniformly reduces the increase in compliance due to the presence of communicating fractures, thereby stiffening the fractured composite medium by a predictable amount. One further goal of the discussion is to determine how many of the poroelastic constants need to be known by other means in order to determine the rest from remote measurements, such as seismic wave propagation data in the field. Quantitative examples arising in the analysis show that, if the fracture aspect ratio a{sub f} ~ 0.1 and the pore fluid is liquid water, then for several cases considered Skempton's B ~ 0:9, so the stiffening effect of the pore-liquid reduces the change in compliance due to the fractures by a factor 1-B ~ 0.1, in these examples. The results do however depend on the actual moduli of the unfractured elastic material, as well as on the pore-liquid bulk modulus, so these quantitative predictions are just examples, and should not be treated as universal results. Attention is also given to two previously unremarked poroelastic identities, both being useful variants of Gassmann's equations for homogeneous -- but anisotropic -- poroelasticity. Relationships to Skempton's analysis of saturated soils are also noted. The paper concludes with a discussion of alternative methods of analyzing and quantifying fluid-substitution behavior in poroelastic systems, especially for those systems having heterogeneous constitution.

Berryman, J.G.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L. (eds.)

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.

Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Gemini GMOS/IFU spectroscopy of NGC 1569 - II: Mapping the roots of the galactic outflow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a set of four Gemini-North GMOS/IFU observations of the central disturbed regions of the dwarf irregular starburst galaxy NGC 1569, surrounding the well-known super star clusters A and B. This continues on directly from a companion paper, in which we describe the data reduction and analysis techniques employed and present the analysis of one of the IFU pointings. By decomposing the emission line profiles across the IFU fields, we map out the properties of each individual component identified and identify a number of relationships and correlations that allow us to investigate in detail the state of the ionized ISM. Our observations support and expand on the main findings from the analysis of the first IFU position, where we conclude that a broad (cool gas knots, set up by the impact of the fast-flowing cluster winds. We discuss the kinematic, electron density and excitation maps of each region in detail and compare our results to previous studies. Our analysis reveals a very complex environment with many overlapping and superimposed components, including dissolving gas knots, rapidly expanding shocked shells and embedded ionizing sources, but no evidence for organised bulk motions. We conclude that the four IFU positions presented here lie well within the starburst region where energy is injected, and, from the lack of substantial ordered gas flows, within the quasi-hydrostatic zone of the wind interior to the sonic point. The net outflow occurs at radii beyond 100-200 pc, but our data imply that mass-loading of the hot ISM is active even at the roots of the wind.

M. S. Westmoquette; L. J. Smith; J. S. Gallagher III; K. M. Exter

2007-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

371

On the excitation of the infrared knots in the HH99 outflow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present near infrared (IR) spectra (0.98--2.5 mu m) from the group of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects comprising HH99: a series of knots forming a bow, HH99B, and a separate knot, HH99A. Observations of H2, [Fe II] and [C I] are used to constrain shock model parameters and determine the origin of the emission. Previous work has shown that it is likely that the atomic and ionic emission arises in regions of higher ionization than the molecular emission. On the basis of observations, it has often been suggested that the [Fe II] and [C I] emission could arise, for example, at the apex of a bow shock, with the H2 emission produced in the wings. Accordingly, we have combined models of C-component and J-type shocks in order to reproduce the observed H2, [Fe II] and [C I] line spectra. We can account for the H2 emission towards the HH99B complex by means of J-type shocks with magnetic precursors. We derive shock velocities of about 30 km s-1 and ages of order 100 yr; the pre-shock gas has a density of approximately 10^4 cm-3 and the magnetic field is approximately 100 mu G. The J-type shocks required to reproduce the intensities of the observed [Fe II] and [C I] lines have velocities of 50 km s-1. It is necessary to assume that Fe has been previously eroded from grains, probably by the earlier passage of a C-type shock wave. Thus, our analysis supports the view that molecular outflows are episodic phenomena whose observed emission arises in shock waves.

C. McCoey; T. Giannini; D. R. Flower; A. Caratti o Garatti

2004-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

372

ON THE DIVERSITY AND COMPLEXITY OF ABSORPTION LINE PROFILES PRODUCED BY OUTFLOWS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the origin of active galactic nucleus (AGN) absorption line profiles and their diversity could help to explain the physical structure of the accretion flow, and also to assess the impact of accretion on the evolution of the AGN host galaxies. Here, we present our first attempt to systematically address the issue of the origin of the complexities observed in absorption profiles. Using a simple method, we compute absorption line profiles against a continuum point source for several simulations of accretion disk winds. We investigate the geometrical, ionization, and dynamical effects on the absorption line shapes. We find that significant complexity and diversity of the absorption line profile shapes can be produced by the non-monotonic distribution of the wind velocity, density, and ionization state. Non-monotonic distributions of such quantities are present even in steady-state, smooth disk winds, and naturally lead to the formation of multiple and detached absorption troughs. These results demonstrate that the part of a wind where an absorption line is formed is not representative of the entire wind. Thus, the information contained in the absorption line is incomplete if not even insufficient to well estimate gross properties of the wind such as the total mass and energy fluxes. In addition, the highly dynamical nature of certain portions of disk winds can have important effects on the estimates of the wind properties. For example, the mass outflow rates can be off by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to estimates based on a spherically symmetric, homogeneous, constant velocity wind.

Giustini, Margherita [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Proga, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 891541-4002 (United States)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

373

Identifying Fracture Types and Relative Ages Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Understanding the life cycle of a fracture in a geothermal system is fundamental to the development of techniques for creating fractures. Recognizing the stage of a fracture, whether it is currently open and transmitting fluids; if it recently has closed; or if it is an ancient fracture would assist in targeting areas for further fracture stimulation. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will also assist in fracture stimulation selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures, and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. Our hypothesis is that fractures over their life cycle have different chemical signatures that we can see in fluid inclusion gas analysis and by using the new method of fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) the different stages of fractures, along with an estimate of fracture size can be identified during the well drilling process. We have shown with this study that it is possible to identify fracture locations using FIS and that different fractures have different chemical signatures however that signature is somewhat dependent upon rock type. Open, active fractures correlate with increase concentrations of CO2, N2, Ar, and to a lesser extent H2O. These fractures would be targets for further enhancement. The usefulness of this method is that it is low cost alternative to current well logging techniques and can be done as a well is being drilled.

Dilley, Lorie M.; Norman, David; Owens, Lara

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

374

Transport of Bottom Water in the Romanche Fracture Zone and the Chain Fracture Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two moored arrays deployed in the Romanche Fracture Zone and Chain Fracture Zone in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean provide two-year-long time series of current and temperature in the Lower North Atlantic Deep Water and the Antarctic Bottom Water. ...

Herlé Mercier; Kevin G. Speer

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORING STRESS MEASUREMENTS IN A DEEP BOREHOLE AT THE STRIPA TEST MINE, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

u l y 2 , 1 9 8 1 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORING STRESSI nun LBL-12478 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORING STRESSthe calculated stress. n HYDRAULIC FRACTURING EQUIPMENT AND

Doe, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Pressure analysis of the hydromechanical fracture behaviour in stimulated tight sedimentary geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zimmermann, G. , 2005. Hydraulic fracturing in a sedimentaryare described in the hydraulic fracturing context, in whichoverview. However, hydraulic fracturing theories and related

Wessling, S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

A STATISTICAL FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH TO THE STRENGTH OF BRITTLE ROCK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carlsson, H. , "Hydraulic fracturing and overcoring stress1949). Haimson, B.C. , "Hydraulic fracturing in porous andc.B. , "Laboratory hydraulic fracturing experiments in

Ratigan, J.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A triple-continuum approach for modeling flow and transport processes in fractured rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiphase Tracer Transport in Heterogeneous Fractured Porousmultiphase, nonisothermal flow and solute transport in fractured porousmultiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and chemical migration in a fractured porous

Wu, Yu-Shu; Liu, H.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S; Zellmer, K .E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Introducing a Clinical Practice Guideline Using Early CT in the Diagnosis of Scaphoid and Other Fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

61-6. 30. Kusano N. Diagnosis of Occult Scaphoid Fracture: AMJ, Schaefer-Prokop C, et al. Occult scaphoid fractures:revealing radiographically occult scaphoid fractures. [see

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Fundamental Chemistry And Thermodynamics Of Hydrothermal Oxidation Processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) is a promising technology for the treatment of aqueous-fluid hazardous and mixed waste streams. Waste streams identified as likely candidates for treatment by this technology are primarily aqueous fluids containing hazardous organic compounds, and often containing inorganic compounds including radioisotopes (mixed wastes). These wastes are difficult and expensive to treat by conventional technologies (e.g. incineration) due to their high water content; in addition, incineration can lead to concerns related to stack releases. An especially attractive potential advantage of HTO over conventional treatment methods is the total containment of all reaction products within the overall system. The potential application of hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) technology for the treatment of DOE hazardous or mixed wastes has been uncertain due to concerns about safe and efficient operation of the technology. In principle, aqueous DOE wastes, including hazardous an d mixed waste, can be treated with this technology. Oxidation reactions are carried out in the aqueous phase at high temperatures ({approx}600 C), effectively converting organic waste constituents to nonhazardous materials (e.g., CO2). Inorganic materials which become insoluble in supercritical water may precipitate as scales adhering to components of the reactor, limiting reactor availability and necessitating frequent cleaning of the system. Also, most hazardous organic compounds contain heteroatoms (other than carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen). These heteroatoms, including halides (F, Cl, Br, I), sulfur, phosphorus, and some nitrogen groups, form strong mineral acids on oxidation of the organic compounds, resulting in a solution having low pH and high oxidation potential. This combination, in conjunction with the high temperatures and high fluid densities attained in both the heating and cooling regions of an HTO reactor, can lead to corrosion of structural materials (usually metal s) anticipated for use in HTO reactor construction. Methods have been suggested for mitigating the problems arising from the production of mineral acids and insoluble solids in HTO processes (Barnes et al., 1993). Previous work in this Laboratory centered on the problems arising from the presence of corrosive or insoluble inorganic compounds in HTO fluids (Simonson et al., 1993, 1994, 1995). However, significant gaps in our knowledge of process chemistry remained at the initiation of this project. It was not possible to determine accurately the properties of coexisting fluid phases; the solubilities of radioactive components of mixed wastes were unknown at high temperatures; and molecular level understanding of interparticle interactions was needed for reliable extrapolation of phenomenological equations for solution behavior beyond the range of experimental results. The present project was undertaken to address these deficiencies. The project was undertaken to provide fundamental information needed to support deployment decisions related to HTO technology, and no innovations in the technology per se were anticipated. Rather, the innovations of this project involved applying new or existing experimental and modeling approaches to studies of aqueous inorganic reactions and properties under the rigorous anticipated HTO operating conditions. This work was made possible in part through the support of researchers at ORNL and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy. This support has allowed significant, unique experimental and 2 computational resources to be developed for studies of aqueous solution chemistry at high temperatures and pressures.

Simonson, J.M.

2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

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381

A PKN Hydraulic Fracture Model Study and Formation Permeability Determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is an important method used to enhance the recovery of oil and gas from reservoirs, especially for low permeability formations. The distribution of pressure in fractures and fracture geometry are needed to design conventional and unconventional hydraulic fracturing operations, fracturing during water-flooding of petroleum reservoirs, shale gas, and injection/extraction operation in a geothermal reservoir. Designing a hydraulic fracturing job requires an understanding of fracture growth as a function of treatment parameters. There are various models used to approximately define the development of fracture geometry, which can be broadly classified into 2D and 3D categories. 2D models include, the Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) fracture model, and the Khristianovic-Geertsma-de. Klerk (KGD) fracture model, and the radial model. 3D models include fully 3D models and pseudo-three-dimensional (P-3D) models. The P-3D model is used in the oil industry due to its simplification of height growth at the wellbore and along the fracture length in multi-layered formations. In this research, the Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) fracture model is adopted to simulate hydraulic fracture propagation and recession, and the pressure changing history. Two different approaches to fluid leak-off are considered, which are the classical Carter's leak-off theory with a constant leak-off coefficient, and Pressure-dependent leak-off theory. Existence of poroelastic effect in the reservoir is also considered. By examining the impact of leak-off models and poroelastic effects on fracture geometry, the influence of fracturing fluid and rock properties, and the leak-off rate on the fracture geometry and fracturing pressure are described. A short and wide fracture will be created when we use the high viscosity fracturing fluid or the formation has low shear modulus. While, the fracture length, width, fracturing pressure, and the fracture closure time increase as the fluid leak-off coefficient is decreased. In addition, an algorithm is developed for the post-fracture pressure-transient analysis to calculate formation permeability. The impulse fracture pressure transient model is applied to calculate the formation permeability both for the radial flow and linear fracture flow assumption. Results show a good agreement between this study and published work.

Xiang, Jing

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.01 m, host rock sulfidation can explain the origin of arsenic and antimony minerals within the paragenetic sequence.

Bessinger, Brad; Apps, John A.

2003-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

383

Workshop on magma/hydrothermal drilling and instrumentation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discussions, conclusions, and recommendations of the Magma/Hydrothermal Drilling and Instrumentation Workshop, Albuquerque, NM, May 31--June 2, 1978 are summarized. Three working groups were organized as follows: Drilling Location and Environment, Drilling and Completion Technology, and Logging and Instrumentation Technology. The first group discussed potential drilling sites and the environment that could be expected in drilling to magma depth at each site. Sites suggested for early detailed evaluation as candidate drilling sites were The Geysers-Clear Lake, CA, Kilauea, HI, Long Valley-Mono Craters, CA, and Yellowstone, WY. Magma at these sites is expected to range from 3 to 10 km deep with temperatures of 800 to 1100{sup 0}C. Detailed discussions of the characteristics of each site are given. In addition, a list of geophysical measurements desired for the hole is presented. The Drilling and Completion Group discussed limitations on current rotary drilling technology as a function of depth and temperature. The group concluded that present drilling systems can be routinely used to temperatures of 200{sup 0}C and depths to 10 km; drilling to 350{sup 0}C can be accomplished with modifications of present techniques, drilling at temperatures from 350{sup 0}C to 1100{sup 0}C will require the development of new drilling techniques. A summary of the limiting factors in drilling systems is presented, and recommendations for a program directed at correcting these limitations is described. The third group discussed requirements for instrumentation and established priorities for the development of the required instruments. Of highest priority for development were high resolution temperature tools, sampling techniques (core, formation fluids), chemical probes, and communications techniques. A description of instrumentation requirements for the postulated hole is given, and the tasks necessary to develop the required devices are delineated.

Varnado, S.G.; Colp, J.L. (eds.)

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Fracturing operations in a dry geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fracturing operations at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Test Site initiated unique developments necessary to solve problems caused by an extremely harsh downhole environment. Two deep wells were drilled to approximately 15,000 ft (4.6 km); formation temperatures are in excess of 600/sup 0/F (315/sup 0/C). The wells were drilled during 1979 to 1981, inclined at 35 degrees, one above the other, and directionally drilled in an azimuthal direction orthogonal to the least principal in-situ crustal stress field. Hydraulic fracturing experiments to connect the two wells have used openhole packers, hydraulic jet notching of the borehole wall, cemented-in insolation liners and casing packers. Problems were encountered with hole drag, high fracture gradients, H/sub 2/S in vent back fluids, stress corrosion cracking of tubulars, and the complex nature of three-dimensional fracture growth that requires very large volumes of injected water. Two fractured zones have been formed by hydraulic fracturing and defined by close-in, borehole deployed, microseismic detectors. Initial operations were focused in the injection wellbore near total depth, where water injection treatments totalling 51,000 bbls (8100 m/sup 3/) were accomplished by pumping through a cemented-in 4-1/2 in. liner/PBR assembly. Retrievable casing packers were used to inject 26,000 bbls (4100 m/sup 3/) in the upper section of the open hole. Surface injection pressures (ISIP) varied from 4000 to 5900 psi (27 to 41 MPa) and the fracture gradient ranged from 0.7 to 0.96 psi/ft.

Rowley, J.C.; Pettitt, R.A.; Hendron, R.H.; Sinclair, A.R.; Nicholson, R.W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Daily combined economic emission scheduling of hydrothermal systems with cascaded reservoirs using self organizing hierarchical particle swarm optimization technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily optimum economic emission scheduling of hydrothermal systems is an important task in the operation of power systems. Many heuristic techniques such as differential evolution, and particle swarm optimization have been applied to solve this problem ... Keywords: Cascaded reservoirs, Combined economic emission scheduling (CEES), Hydrothermal systems, Self-organizing particle swarm optimization with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SOHPSO_TVAC)

K. K. Mandal; N. Chakraborty

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Low temperature hydrothermally synthesized nanocrystalline orthorhombic LiMnO2 cathode material for lithium-ion cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline orthorhombic LiMnO2 particles with an average particle size of about 35 nm in diameter were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal process at 160-180 °C from trimanganese tetroxide (Mn3O4) prepared ... Keywords: hydrothermal process, lithium ion battery, nanocrystalline, orthorhombic LiMnO2, solvothermal process

Mengqiang Wu; Ai Chen; Rongqing Xu; Yue Li

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Nitrogen geochemistry as a tracer of fluid flow in a hydrothermal vent complex in the Karoo Basin, South Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen geochemistry as a tracer of fluid flow in a hydrothermal vent complex in the Karoo Basin and hydrothermal vent complexes (HVC) in the Karoo Basin in South Africa. The HVC formed during phreatic eruptions from the lower stratigraphic units of the Karoo Basin shows that the vitrinite reflectance and d15 N

Svensen, Henrik

388

Abstract--A stochastic dynamic programming hydrothermal dispatch model to simulate a bid-based market is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on dynamic programming that optimizes and validates the bid prices strategies for each power plant in a hydro-thermal, and simulating them as if they were a single power plant. In a hydro-thermal system as the one simulated several plants. Emphasis is given to hydro reservoir modeling and to the assessment of their market power

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

389

A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal Calcites, Long Valley Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal Calcites, Long Valley Caldera, California Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The 87Sr/86Sr values of thermal waters and hydrothermal calcites of the Long Valley caldera geothermal system are more radiogenic than those of young intracaldera volcanic rocks. Five thermal waters display 87Sr/86Sr

390

Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Chemical interaction of thermal fluids with reservoir rock in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah, has resulted in the development of characteristic trace-element dispersion patterns. Multielement analyses of surface rock samples, soil samples and drill cuttings from deep exploration wells provide a three-dimensional perspective of chemical redistribution within this structurally-controlled hot-water geothermal system. Five distinctive elemental suites of chemical enrichment are

391

Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New Mexico- A 36Cl Study Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New Mexico- A 36Cl Study Abstract The Valles caldera in New Mexico hosts a high-temperature geothermal system, which is manifested in a number of hot springs discharging in and around the caldera. In order to determine the fluid pathways and the origin of chloride in this system, we measured 36Cl/Cl ratios in waters from high-temperature drill holes and from surface springs in this region. The waters fall into two general categories: recent meteoric water samples with low Cl- concentrations (< 10 mg/L) and relatively high 36Cl/Cl ratios

392

A comparison of hydrothermal reservoirs of the Western United States. Topical Report 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a portion of the results from a one-year feasibility study sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assess the feasibility of constructing a 25 to 50 MWe geothermal power plant using low salinity hydrothermal fluids as the energy source. It contains the results of a comparative study of sixteen hydrothermal reservoirs in the US. The reservoirs were selected for comparison on the basis of available data, development potential, and representativeness of known hydrothermal reservoirs in the US. Six reservoir and fluid criteria were considered the most important in determining the development and power conversion potential: depth and lithology, reservoir temperature, tested flow rate per well, fluid chemistry, magnitude of the reserve and reinjection potential. These criteria were evaluated for each of the selected reservoirs.

Meidav, H. Tsvi; Sanyal, Subir

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The potential for photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents: a new avenue for life in the Universe?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform a quantitative assessment for the potential for photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean. The photosynthetically active radiation in this case is from geothermal origin: the infrared thermal radiation emitted by hot water, at temperatures ranging from 473 up to 673 K. We find that at these temperatures the photosynthetic potential is rather low in these ecosystems for most known species. However, species which a very high efficiency in the use of light and which could use infrared photons till 1300nm, could achieve good rates of photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents. These organisms might also thrive in deep hydrothermal vents in other planetary bodies, such as one of the more astrobiologically promising Jupiter satellites: Europa.

Perez, Noel; Martin, Osmel; Leiva-Mora, Michel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

Not Available

1981-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

395

Lithology and hydrothermal alteration determination from well logs for the Cerro Prieto Wells, Mexico  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of geophysical well logs against the sand-shale series of the sedimentary column of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico. The study shows that the changes in mineralogy of the rocks because of hydrothermal alteration are not easily detectable on the existing logs. However, if the behavior of clay minerals alone is monitored, the onset of the hydrothermally altered zones may be estimated from the well logs. The effective concentration of clay-exchange cations, Q/sub v/, is computed using the data available from conventional well logs. Zones indicating the disappearance of low-temperature clays are considered hydrothermally altered formations with moderate to high-permeability and temperature, and suitable for completion purposes.

Ershaghi, I.; Ghaemian, S.; Abdassah, D.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND INDUCED SEISMICITY IN KANSAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For some time the public has asked questions about seismic activity related to hydraulic fracturing and other oil-field related activities. In particular, there is concern that the energy that goes into the subsurface during hydraulic fracturing is sufficient to cause felt earthquakes. The following is a response to those questions. 1) Seismic activity that is related to human activities is generally referred to as “induced seismicity ” or “triggered seismicity. ” Induced seismicity is defined as “seismic events attributable to human activities ” (National Research Council, 2012). The term “triggered seismicity ” is also used to describe situations in which human activities “could potentially ‘trigger ’ large and potentially damaging earthquakes ” (Shemeta et al., 2012). The following discussion uses only the term “induced seismicity ” to refer to seismic activity in which human activity plays a role. 2) Because it uses energy to fracture rocks to release oil or natural gas, hydraulic fracturing does create microseismic events (of a magnitude less than 2.0). Felt earthquake activity (generally greater than a magnitude 3.0) resulting from hydraulic fracturing has been confirmed from only one location in the world (National Research Council, 2012). In the

unknown authors

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: THE MASS OF THE ACCRETION DISK AND THE INITIAL RADIUS OF THE OUTFLOW  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we estimate the accretion-disk mass in the specific scenario of binary-neutron-star merger with current observational data. Assuming that the outflows of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are driven via neutrino-antineutrino annihilation we estimate the disk mass of about half of short bursts in the sample to be {approx}0.01-0.1 M{sub sun}, in agreement with that obtained in the numerical simulations. Massive disks ({approx}several 0.1 M{sub sun}) found in some other short GRBs may point to the more efficient magnetic process of extracting energy or the neutron star and black hole binary progenitor. Our results suggest that some short bursts may be really due to the coalescence of double neutron stars and are promising gravitational wave radiation sources. For future short GRBs with simultaneous gravitational-wave detections, the disk mass may be reliably inferred and the validity of our approach will be tested. We also propose a method to constrain the initial radius of a baryonic outflow where it is launched (R{sub 0}) without the need of identifying an ideal thermal spectrum component. We then apply it to GRB 090510 and get R{sub 0} {approx}< 6.5 x 10{sup 6}({Gamma}{sub ph}/2000){sup -4} cm, suggesting that the central engine is a black hole with a mass <22 M{sub sun}({Gamma}{sub ph}/2000){sup -4}, where {Gamma}{sub ph} is the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow at the photospheric radius.

Fan Yizhong; Wei Daming, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

398

Case studies of low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal energy development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Six development projects are examined that use low- (less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F)) to-moderate (90 to 150/sup 0/C (194 to 302/sup 0/F)) temperature geothermal resources. These projects were selected from 22 government cost-shared projects to illustrate the many facets of hydrothermal development. The case studies describe the history of this development, its exploratory methods, and its resource definition, as well as address legal, environmental, and institutional constraints. A critique of procedures used in the development is also provided and recommendations for similar future hydrothermal projects are suggested.

Not Available

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase I, Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This evaluation is based on an analysis of existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies. The principle source of data used was the oil and gas well files maintained by the NDGS. A computer library was created containing all the necessary oil and gas well data in the North Dakota Geological Survey oil and gas well files. Stratigraphic data, bottomhole-temperature data, and chemical data are presented in map form to show the geothermal gradient, temperature, and depth of potential hydrothermal aquifers and the chemical characteristics of potential hydrothermal aquifers.

Harris, K.L.; Winczewski, L.M.; Umphrey, H.R.; Anderson, S.B.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Anomalous fracture-extension pressure in granitic rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fracture-extension pressures appreciably higher than the least principal earth-stress were observed in hydraulic fractures formed in a pair of 3 km (9600 ft) deep boreholes drilled near the Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Pressurization of open wellbores in rock containing preexisting fractures may open these fractures, instead of creating new fractures at right angles to the least principal stress. The pressure necessary to flow into these fractures may be appreciably higher than the least principal stress. Upon sand-propping one such pre-existing fracture, a lower fracture extension pressure was observed. A second fracture in a parallel well-bore 92 m (300 ft) away, at the same depth of 2 km (6500 ft) exhibited the lower fracture extension pressure without propping, but with about 90/sup 0/ difference in fracture direction. Fractures created through perforations at a depth of 3 km (9600 ft) not only exhibited breakdown pressures upon initial pressurization, but sometimes even higher ''breakdown'' pressures upon repressurization. These phenomena may be of interest in the interpretation of earth stress measurements made by hydraulic fracturing.

Aamodt, R.L.; Potter, R.M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Fracture Characterization Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fracture Characterization Technologies Fracture Characterization Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for Fracture Characterization Technologies Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

402

Pressure transient analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New ideas are presented for the interpretation of pressure transient tests for wells in naturally fractured reservoirs. This work is based on the transient matrix flow model formulated by de Swaan. The differences between this model and the Warren and Root model occur during the transition flow period. It is demonstrated that the behavior of a naturally fractured reservoir can be correlated by using three dimensionless parameters. It is established that regardless of matrix geometry the transition period might exhibit a straight line whose slope is equal to half the slope of the classical parallel semilog straight lines, provided the transient matrix linear flow is present. In addition, information is provided on the estimation of fracture area per unit matrix volume or matrix parameters from the transition period semilog straight line. It is shown that matrix geometry might be identified when pressure data are smooth. Field examples are included to illustrate the application and the validity of the theoretical results of this study.

Cinco-ley, H.; Samaniego, F.V.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

On the fracture toughness of advanced materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as the fracture toughness K{sub Ic}.

Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

404

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production Company. The well was producing from a gas condensate reservoir. Questions were raised about whether flowing bottomhole pressure below dewpoint would be appropriate. Condensate damage in the hydraulic fracture was expected to be of significant effect. In the most recent work done by Adedeji Ayoola Adeyeye, this subject was studied when the effects of reservoir depletion were minimized by introduction of an injector well with fluid composition the same as the original reservoir fluid. He also used an infinite conductivity hydraulic fracture along with a linear model as an adequate analogy. He concluded that the skin due to liquid build-up is not enough to prevent lower flowing bottomhole pressures from producing more gas. This current study investigated the condensate damage at the face of the hydraulic fracture in transient and boundary dominated periods when the effects of reservoir depletion are taken into account. As a first step, simulation of liquid flow into the fracture was performed using a 2D 1-phase simulator in order to help us to better understand the results of gas condensate simulation. Then during the research, gas condensate models with various gas compositions were simulated using a commercial simulator (CMG). The results of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas into the hydraulic fracture.

Reza, Rostami Ravari

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Application of a 3D hydraulic-fracturing simulator for design of acid-fracturing treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field experience during 1989--90 shows that application of a 3D hydraulic-fracturing simulator increases success of acid-fracturing well treatments. Fracture extension can be limited to the oil-bearing pay, maximum lateral extension can be realized within the height constraint, and acid/rock contact time can be increased by a factor of between 3 and 30. Oil-production response can be improved over other stimulation designs while water-production response can be limited. These methods have been applied in mature waterfloods of the Permian Basin and Cedar Creek anticline.

Morgenthaler, L.N. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

On equivalence of thinning fluids used for hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper aims to answer the question: if and how non-Newtonian fluids may be compared in their mechanical action when used for hydraulic fracturing? By employing the modified formulation of the PKN problem we obtain its simple analytical solutions in the cases of perfectly plastic and Newtonian fluids. Since the results for shear thinning fluids are intermediate between those for these cases, the obtained equation for the fracture length suggests a criterion of the equivalence of various shear thinning fluids for the problem of hydraulic fractures. We assume fluids equivalent in their hydrofracturing action, when at a reference time they produce fractures of the same length. The equation for the fracture length translates the equivalence in terms of the hydraulic fracture length and treatment time into the equivalence in terms of the properties of a fracturing fluid (behavior and consistency indices). Analysis shows that the influence of the consistency and behavior indices on the fracture length, particle v...

Linkov, Alexander

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

How can we use one fracture to locate another?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is an important tool that helps extract fluids from the subsurface. It is critical in applications ranging from enhanced oil recovery to geothermal energy pro-duction. As the goal of fracturing is to ...

Poliannikov, Oleg V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research April 26, 2013 - 11:05am Addthis Statement of Guido DeHoratiis Acting Deputy...

409

Permeability Estimation From Velocity Anisotropy In Fractured Rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cracks in a rock mass subjected to a uniaxial stress will be preferentially closed depending on the angle between the fracture normal vectors and the direction of the applied stress. If the prestress fracture orientation ...

Gibson, Richard L., Jr.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Rigid-body fracture sound with precomputed soundbanks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a physically based algorithm for synthesizing sounds synchronized with brittle fracture animations. Motivated by laboratory experiments, we approximate brittle fracture sounds using time-varying rigid-body sound models. We extend methods for ...

Changxi Zheng; Doug L. James

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Predicting the occurrence of open natural fractures in shale reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Prolific oil and gas production has been established from naturally fractured shale reservoirs. For example, in the last few years over 4 Tcf of gas reserves have been established within the self-sourcing Antrim Shale of the Michigan Basin. Historically, locating subsurface fracture systems essential for commercial production has proven elusive and costly. An integrated exploration approach utilizing available geologic, geophysical, and remote sensing data has successfully located naturally fractured zones within the Antrim Shale. It is believed that fracturing of the Antrim shale was a result of basement involved tectonic processes. Characteristic integrated stacked signatures of known fracture systems within the Antrim were built using gravity and magnetic data, structure maps, fracture identification logs, and Landsat imagery. Wireline fracture logs pinpointed the locations and geometries of subsurface fracture systems. Landsat imagery was interpreted to reveal surficial manifestations of subsurface structures.

Decker, A.D.; Klawitter, A.L. (Advanced Resources International, Denver, CO (United States))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model  

SciTech Connect

Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Upscaling solute transport in naturally fractured porous media with the continuous time random walk method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fracture model for multiphase ?ow in porous media. AIChEsingle- and multiphase transport in fractured porous media

Geiger, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are defined from the numerical solution of a complex hypersingular integral equation written for a given fracture configuration and loading. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures with existing discontinuities such as faults and joints. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two- and three-dimensional heat extraction solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate heat extraction and the variations of the reservoir stress with cooling. The numerical models have been developed in a user-friendly environment to create a tool for improving fracture design and investigating single or multiple fracture propagation in rock.

Ahmad Ghassemi

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

415

Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Los Alamos National Laboratory Other Principal Investigators Grant Bromhal, National Energy Technology Laboratory Targets Milestones - Improve image resolution for fracture...

416

Fluid Flow in Fractured Rock: Theory and Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Porous Media, Pullman, WA, July 9-18,1989, and to be published in the Proceedings Fluid Flow in Fractured

Long, J.C.S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fracture Criterion of Discontinuous Carbon Fiber Dispersed SiC ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Ceramic Matrix Composites. Presentation Title, Fracture Criterion of ...

418

Towards Understanding the Deformation and Fracture Behavior of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Towards Understanding the Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Gas Turbine Structural Materials at Elevated Temperatures. Author(s)  ...

419

Experimental and Analytical Research on Fracture Processes in ROck  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental studies on fracture propagation and coalescence were conducted which together with previous tests by this group on gypsum and marble, provide information on fracturing. Specifically, different fracture geometries wsere tested, which together with the different material properties will provide the basis for analytical/numerical modeling. INitial steps on the models were made as were initial investigations on the effect of pressurized water on fracture coalescence.

Herbert H.. Einstein; Jay Miller; Bruno Silva

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fan Blade Fracture in a Welded Assembly - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Fan Blade Fracture in a ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fracture and Delamination in Thin Film Si Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors. Presentation Title, Fracture and Delamination in Thin Film Si Electrodes.

422

Ductile Fracture Handbook, Volume 1: Circumferential Throughwall Cracks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past 10 years, the focus of fracture research related to nuclear power plants has shifted from brittle fractures to fractures of steels used for piping and vessels. This handbook developed by EPRI and Novetech Corporation is the first single-source document containing formulas for evaluating throughwall cracks in these tough ductile steels.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Experimental Study of Acid Fracture Conductivity of Austin Chalk Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acid fracture conductivity and the effect of key variables in the etching process during acid fracturing can be assessed at the laboratory scale. This is accomplished by using an experimental apparatus that simulates acid injection fluxes comparable to those in actual acid fracture treatments. After acid etching, fracture conductivity is measured at different closure stresses. This research work presents a systematic study to investigate the effect of temperature, rock-acid contact time and initial condition of the fracture surfaces on acid fracture conductivity in the Austin Chalk formation. While temperature and rock-acid contact are variables normally studied in fracture conductivity tests, the effect of the initial condition of the fracture surface has not been extensively investigated. The experimental results showed that there is no significant difference in acid fracture conductivity at high closure stress using smooth or rough fracture surfaces. In addition, we analyzed the mechanisms of acid etching and resulting conductivity creation in the two types of fracture surfaces studied by using surface profiles. For smooth surfaces, the mechanism of conductivity creation seems connected to uneven etching of the rock and roughness generation. For rough surfaces, acid conductivity is related to smoothing and deepening of the initial features on the sample surface than by creating more roughness. Finally, we compared the experimental results with Nirode-Kruk correlation for acid fracture conductivity.

Nino Penaloza, Andrea

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Efficient fracturing of all angle shaped VLSI mask pattern data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracturing (i.e., filling area by rectangles) is one of the most important tasks of an artwork system for a pattern generator. Growing chip complexity requires efficient algorithms to perform this non-trivial data transformation. In order to solve this ... Keywords: CAD for VLSI, computational geometry, coverage, dissection, exposure system, fracturing, hierarchical fracturing, pattern generator, plane sweep

Georg Pelz; Volker Meyer zu Bexten

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Particle-based fracture simulation on the GPU  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a particle-based framework is presented to simulate the fracture phenomenon in computer graphics field. First, the object is represented as discrete particles, and then we introduce the Extend Discrete Element Method (EDEM) simulation ... Keywords: CUDA, EDEM, anti-fracture mechanism, fracture

Jiangfan Ning; Huaxun Xu; Liang Zeng; Sikun Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

6. Fracture mechanics lead author: J, R. Rice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6. Fracture mechanics lead author: J, R. Rice Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University. F. Shih, and the ASME/AMD Technical Committee on Fracture Mechanics, pro- vided by A. S. Argon, S. N, W. D. Stuart, and R. Thomson. 6.0 ABSTRACT Fracture mechanics is an active research field

427

Synthetic benchmark for modeling flow in 3D fractured media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intensity and localization of flows in fractured media have promoted the development of a large range of different modeling approaches including Discrete Fracture Networks, pipe networks and equivalent continuous media. While benchmarked usually within ... Keywords: Benchmark, Fractured media, Single-phase flow, Stochastic model

Jean-Raynald De Dreuzy; GéRaldine Pichot; Baptiste Poirriez; Jocelyne Erhel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Fracture analysis of the upper devonian antrim shale, Michigan basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Antrim Shale is a fractured, unconventional gas reservoir in the northern Michigan basin. Controls on gas production are poorly constrained but must depend on the fracture framework. Analyses of fracture geometry (orientation, spacing, and aperture width) were undertaken to better evaluate reservoir permeability and, hence, pathways for fluid migration. Measurements from nearly 600 fractures were made from outcrop, core, and Formation MicroScanner logs covering three members of the Antrim Shale (Norwood, Paxton, Lachine) and the Ellsworth Shale. Fracture analyses indicate pronounced reservoir anisotropy among the members. Together related with lithologic variations, this leads to unique reservoir characteristics within each member. There are two dominant fracture sets, northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast. Fracture density varies among stratigraphic intervals but always is lowest in the northwest-southeast fracture set and is greatest in the northeast-southwest fracture set. While aperture width decreases markedly with depth, subsurface variation in mean aperture width is significant. Based on fracture density and mean aperture width, the Norwood member has the largest intrinsic permeability and the Ellsworth Shale the lowest intrinsic permeability. The highest intrinsic fracture permeability in all intervals is associated with the northeast-southwest fracture set. The Norwood and Lachine members thus exhibit the best reservoir character. This information is useful in developing exploration strategies and completion practices in the Antrim Shale gas play.

Richards, J.A.; Budai, J.M.; Walter, L.M.; Abriola, L.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Estimating Major and Minor Natural Fracture Patterns in Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating Major and Minor Natural Fracture Patterns in Gas Shales Using Production Data Razi Identification of infill drilling locations has been challenging with mixed results in gas shales. Natural fractures are the main source of permeability in gas shales. Natural fracture patterns in shale has a random

Mohaghegh, Shahab

430

On Water Flow in Hot Fractured Rock -- A Sensitivity Study on the Impact of Fracture-Matrix Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for both liquid and heat transfer processes. In order to beprocesses in hot fractured rock with ( 1) flow channeling in fractures, (2) interface reduction in F-M heat transfer,

Birkholzer, Jens T.; Zhang, Yingqi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates  

SciTech Connect

A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

432

Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to circulate over long distance and bioavailability to sea life as an essential nutrient. Now, a collaboration led by researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has reported that the hydrothermal plumes emerging from the vents actually contain iron in both Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxidation states associated with organic material from nearby flora and fauna. The collaboration suggests that the organic matrices prevent oxidation and precipitation of the Fe(II), perhaps increasing both its circulation through the world's oceans and its bioavailability as a deep-sea nutrient.

433

Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to circulate over long distance and bioavailability to sea life as an essential nutrient. Now, a collaboration led by researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has reported that the hydrothermal plumes emerging from the vents actually contain iron in both Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxidation states associated with organic material from nearby flora and fauna. The collaboration suggests that the organic matrices prevent oxidation and precipitation of the Fe(II), perhaps increasing both its circulation through the world's oceans and its bioavailability as a deep-sea nutrient.

434

Understanding the Formation and Evolution of Ceria Nanoparticles Under Hydrothermal Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation and evolution of ceria nanoparticles during hydrothermal synthesis was investigated by in-situ total scattering and powder diffraction. The nucleation of pristine crystalline ceria nanoparticles originated from previously unknown cerium dimer complexes. The nanoparticle growth was highly accelerated under supercritical conditions.

Tyrsted, Christoffer; Ørnsbjerg; #8197; Jensen, Kirsten Marie; Bøjesen, Espen Drath; Lock, Nina; Christensen, Mogens; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Brummerstedt; #8197; Iversen, Bo (Aarhus); (Columbia)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

435

Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013  

SciTech Connect

This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF WHEAT STRAW ON PILOT PLANT SCALE Anders Thygesena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solid material is one of the most important factors for production of bioethanol. Conversion for production of sugars for bio ethanol and an alkali free solid material for combustion in an incineration). After combined hydrothermal treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis the maximum sugar, yields were 30 g

437

Duration of hydrothermal activity at Steamboat Springs, Nevada, from ages of spatially associated volcanic rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Steamboat Springs is a presently active equivalent of epithermal gold-silver ore-forming systems. Hot-spring sinter deposits contain small amounts of gold, silver, mercury, antimony, and arsenic. Hot-spring activity probably started before extrusion of the basaltic andesite of Steamboat Springs. Old sinter from the Steamboat Springs system occurs in gravels above and below the basaltic andesite. Intense hydrothermal alteration, including almost complete replacement by hydrothermal potassium-feldspar, has affected the basaltic andesite. Three plagioclase separates of differing potassium content from fresh basaltic andesite yielded potassium-argon ages of 2.52 to 2.55 m.y. Basaltic andesite almost completely replaced by potassium-feldspar yielded an age of 1.1 m.y. The source of energy for the thermal convection system is probably a large rhyolitic magma chamber that supplied the pumice and from which the rhyolite domes were emplaced. Sanidine and obsidian from four of the rhyolite domes yielded potassium-argon ages of 1.15 to 1.52 m.y. and obsidian from one of the northeastern domes yielded apparent ages of 2.97 and 3.03 m.y. The data indicate that hydrothermal activity has occurred at Steamboat Springs, possibly intermittently, for more than 2-1/2 m.y. These data agree with other radiogenic age studies indicating 1- and 2-m.y. lifetimes for the hydrothermal systems that generate epithermal gold-silver deposits.

Silberman, M.L.; White, D.E.; Keith, T.E.C.; Dockter, R.D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Recently developed well test insrumentation for low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The engineering drawings, assembly instructions, and recommended usage for several of the instruments developed for low and moderate temperature (< 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal well testing are presented. Included are the drawings for: a downhole pressure and temperature instrument, a multi-conductor cablehead, a line driver to be used with the downhole pressure and temperature instrument, and a fluid-level detector.

Solbau, R.; Goranson, C.B.; Benson, S.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Experimental Determination of Tracer Dispersivity in Fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reinjection of waste hot water is commonly practiced in most geothermal fields, primarily as a means of disposal. Surface discharge of these waste waters is usually unacceptable due to the resulting thermal and chemical pollution. Although reinjection can help to main reservoir pressure and fluid volume, in some cases a decrease in reservoir productivity has been observed. This is caused by rapid flow of the reinjected water through fractures connecting the injector and producers. As a result, the water is not sufficiently heated by the reservoir rock, and a reduction in enthalpy of the produced fluids is seen. Tracer tests have proven to be valuable to reservoir engineers for the design of a successful reinjection program. By injecting a slug of tracer and studying the discharge of surrounding producing wells, an understanding of the fracture network within a reservoir can be provided. In order to quantify the results of a tracer test, a model that accurately describes the mechanisms of tracer transport is necessary. One such mechanism, dispersion, is like a smearing out of a tracer concentration due to the velocity gradients over the cross section of flow. If a dispersion coefficient can be determined from tracer test data, the fracture width can be estimated. The purpose of this project was to design and construct an apparatus to study the dispersion of a chemical tracer in flow through a fracture.

Gilardi, J.; Horns, R.N.

1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

440

Unsteady Flow Model for Fractured Gas Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developing low permeability reservoirs is currently a big challenge to the industry. Because low permeability reservoirs are of low quality and are easily damaged, production from a single well is low, and there is unlikely to be any primary recovery. ... Keywords: Low permeability, Fractured well, Orthogonal transformation, Unsteady, Productivity

Li Yongming; Zhao Jinzhou; Gong Yang; Yao Fengsheng; Jiang Youshi

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrothermal outflow fracture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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441

Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing (or lack thereof)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: "subsurface emplacement of fluids by well injection." 42 U.S.C. § 300h(d)(1). #12;UIC Program Requirements, EPA has concluded that the injection of hydraulic fracturing fluids into [coalbed methane] wells poses Water Act The federal Safe Drinking Water Act prohibits "underground injection" that is not authorized

Boufadel, Michel

442

Mixing in the Romanche Fracture Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Romanche Fracture Zone is a major gap in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the equator, which is deep enough to allow significant eastward flows of Antarctic Bottom Water from the Brazil Basin to the Sierra Leone and Guinea Abyssal Plains. While ...

Bruno Ferron; Herlé Mercier; Kevin Speer; Ann Gargett; Kurt Polzin

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

GEOLOGY AND FRACTURE SYSTEM AT STRIPA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

g. ~C,K iiE,30~~ nK,~K E E CoK 28S C ;~K, 70K~tC K SO C kite 50,65 C K,t Ii f ~g K CoK (XBL 799-11950 ) U K,e FRACTURE

Olkiewicz, O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Evaluation of waste disposal by shale fracturing  

SciTech Connect

The shale fracturing process is evaluated as a means for permanent disposal of radioactive intermediate level liquid waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The estimated capital operating and development costs of a proposed disposal facility are compared with equivalent estimated costs for alternative methods of waste fixation.

Weeren, H.O.

1976-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Deriving the shape factor of a fractured rock matrix  

SciTech Connect

Fluid flow from a fractured rock matrix was investigated for accurately predicting oil recovery from fractured reservoirs. To relate the oil rate with rock geometry and average rock matrix pressure, a shape factor is used in the mathematical model of fractured reservoirs. The shape factor in the transfer function was derived by solving the three-dimensional diffusivity equation of a rock matrix block under unsteady-state production, in contrast to the quasi-steady-state condition assumed by most previous studies denoted in the literature. The diffusivity equation in the x, y, and z coordinate was solved in four cases by assuming different boundary conditions of (1) constant fracture pressure; (2) constant flow rate; (3) constant fracture pressure followed by linearly declining fracture pressure; and (4) linearly declining fracture pressure followed by constant fracture pressure. Shape factor values are high at the initial depletion stage under an unsteady-state condition. When the fracture pressure is constant, the shape factor converges to {pi}{sup 2}/L{sup 2}, 2{pi}{sup 2}/L{sup 2}, and 3{pi}{sup 2}/L{sup 2} for one-, two-, and three-dimensional rock matrix, respectively, at the dimensionless time ({tau}) of about 0.1. When the flow rate between the rock matrix and the fracture is constant, the fracture pressure varies with location on the rock surface. Based on the average fracture pressure, the shape factor decreases with production time until a {tau} value of 0.1 is reached. The boundary conditions of constant fracture pressure followed by a constant decline in fracture pressure are equivalent to the condition of a constant fracture pressure followed by a period of constant flow rate.

Chang, Ming-Ming

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Supply of geothermal power from hydrothermal sources: A study of the cost of power in 20 and 40 years  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study develops estimates for the amount of hydrothermal geothermal power that could be on line in 20 and 40 years. This study was intended to represent a snapshot'' in 20 and 40 years of the hydrothermal energy available for electric power production should a market exist for this power. This does not represent the total or maximum amount of hydrothermal power, but is instead an attempt to estimate the rate at which power could be on line constrained by the exploration, development and support infrastructure available to the geothermal industry, but not constrained by the potential market for power.

Petty, S. (Petty (Susan) Consulting, Solano Beach, CA (United States)); Livesay, B.J. (Livesay Consultants, Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States)); Long, W.P. (Carlin Gold Co., Inc., Grass Valley, CA (United States)); Geyer, J. (Geyer (John) and Associates, Vancouver, WA (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field, Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field are investigated using seismicity, focal mechanisms and stress analysis. Comparison of hypocenters of microearthquakes with locations of development wells indicates that microseismic activity has increased since the commencement of fluid injection and circulation. Microearthquakes in the geothermal field are proposed as indicators of shear fracturing associated with fluid injection and circulation along major pre-existing

448

High-permeability fracturing: The evolution of a technology  

SciTech Connect

Since its introduction almost 50 years ago, hydraulic fracturing has been the prime engineering tool for improving well productivity either by bypassing near-wellbore damage or by actually stimulating performance. Historically (and in many instances erroneously), the emphasis for propped fracturing was on fracture length, culminating in massive treatments for tight-gas sands with several million pounds of proppant and design lengths in excess of 1,500 ft. More recently, the importance of fracture conductivity has become appreciated. This paper uses field examples to trace the history, development, and application of TSO fracturing to high-permeability formations, including fracturing to increase PI, as well as applications aimed at improving completions in unconsolidated sands. Potential applications of fracturing to bypass the need for sand control are explored. Finally, the use of fracturing as a reservoir-management tool is examined through use of a propped fracture to alter the vertical flow profile of a well to maximize reserves. This particular use of fracturing leads to cases where careful design of both fracture length and conductivity is required; i.e., too much conductivity is as damaging to reservoir management as too little.

Smith, M.B.; Hannah, R.R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Characterization of Fractures in Geothermal Reservoirs Using Resistivity |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Characterization of Fractures in Geothermal Reservoirs Using Resistivity Characterization of Fractures in Geothermal Reservoirs Using Resistivity Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Characterization of Fractures in Geothermal Reservoirs Using Resistivity Abstract The optimal design of production in fractured geothermal reservoirs requires knowledge of the resource's connectivity, therefore making fracture characterization highly important. This study aims to develop methodologies to use resistivity measurements to infer fracture properties in geothermal fields. The resistivity distribution in the field can be estimated by measuring potential differences between various points and the data can then be used to infer fracture properties due to the contrast in resistivity between water and rock.

450

Estimating fracture apertures from hydraulic data and comparison with theory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Estimates of fracture openings, or apertures, were made for massive hydraulic fracture experiments at the Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The basis of these estimates is that if the injection rate is suddenly increased during fracturing, and the subsequent pressure increase to sustain this additional flow is measured, then the pressure increase must be related to the fracture aperture. More detailed considerations indicate that the fracture aperture estimated in this manner is affected by the nature of the fracture geometry, its propagation distance, and its viscous characteristics, but these effects are surprisingly unimportant. The result is a reasonably accurate aperture estimate, which considering the elusive nature of this measurement by other means, is quite satisfactory. These estimates are in good agreement with the fracturing theory of Geertsma and de Klerk. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Dash, Z.V.; Murphy, H.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Monitoring the Width of Hydraulic Fractures With Ultrasonic Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction During hydraulic fracturing experiments in the laboratory the opening of hydraulic fractures is monitored with ultrasonic transducers. The experiment closely resembles seismic monitoring surveys in the field [MEADOWS AND WIN- TERSTEIN 1994, WILLS ET AL. 1992]. The extraction of information out of these experiments is critically dependent on the understanding of the elastodynamic behaviour of the thin fluid filled fractures. The laboratory experiments provide useful information on what determines the seismic visibility of these fractures, both for compressional and shear waves. The role of the fracture thickness or width on the elastodynamic response and a new method for monitoring fracture opening is investigated. Most theoretical approaches postulate the use of the classical boundary conditions. The void boundary condition assumes a stress free surface. The "fluid-filled" fracture boundary condition

J. Groenenboom; A.J.W. Duijndam; J.T. Fokkema

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Feasibility of a borehole VHF radar technique for fracture mapping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of a downhole high-frequency electromagnetic technique for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver operated at 30 to 300 MHz was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole VHF radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole.

Chang, H.T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

The Birth of a Relativistic Outflow in the Unusual {\\gamma}-ray Transient Swift J164449.3+573451  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Active galactic nuclei (AGN), powered by long-term accretion onto central supermassive black holes, produce relativistic jets with lifetimes of greater than one million yr that preclude observations at birth. Transient accretion onto a supermassive black hole, for example through the tidal disruption of a stray star, may therefore offer a unique opportunity to observe and study the birth of a relativistic jet. On 2011 March 25, the Swift {\\gamma}-ray satellite discovered an unusual transient source (Swift J164449.3+573451) potentially representing such an event. Here we present the discovery of a luminous radio transient associated with Swift J164449.3+573451, and an extensive set of observations spanning centimeter to millimeter wavelengths and covering the first month of evolution. These observations lead to a positional coincidence with the nucleus of an inactive galaxy, and provide direct evidence for a newly-formed relativistic outflow, launched by transient accretion onto a million solar mass black hole...

Zauderer, B A; Soderberg, A M; Loeb, A; Narayan, R; Frail, D A; Petitpas, G R; Brunthaler, A; Chornock, R; Carpenter, J M; Pooley, G G; Mooley, K; Kulkarni, S R; Margutti, R; Fox, D B; Nakar, E; Patel, N A; Volgenau, N H; Culverhouse, T L; Bietenholz, M F; Rupen, M P; Max-Moerbeck, W; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J; Shepherd, M; Storm, S; Hull, C L H

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Final report on the design and development of a Rolling Float Meter for drilling-fluid outflow measurement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lost circulation, which is the loss of well drilling fluids to the formation while drilling, is a common problem encountered while drilling geothermal wells. The rapid detection of the loss of well drilling fluids is critical to the successful and cost-effective treatment of the wellbore to stop or minimize lost circulation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an instrument to accurately measure the outflow rate of drilling fluids while drilling. This instrument, the Rolling Float Meter, has been under development at Sandia since 1991 and is now available for utilization by interested industry users. This report documents recent Rolling Float Meter design upgrades resulting from field testing and industry input, the effects of ongoing testing and evaluation both in the laboratory and in the field, and the final design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wright, E.K.; Glowka, D.A.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

GREEN BANK TELESCOPE DETECTION OF POLARIZATION-DEPENDENT H I ABSORPTION AND H I OUTFLOWS IN LOCAL ULIRGs AND QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a 21 cm H I survey of 27 local massive gas-rich late-stage mergers and merger remnants with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study sample of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub 8{sub -{sub 1000{sub {mu}m}}}} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) and quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and sample the later phases of the proposed ULIRG-to-quasar evolutionary sequence. We find the prevalence of H I absorption (emission) to be 100% (29%) in ULIRGs with H I detections, 100% (88%) in FIR-strong quasars, and 63% (100%) in FIR-weak quasars. The absorption features are associated with powerful neutral outflows that change from being mainly driven by star formation in ULIRGs to being driven by the AGN in the quasars. These outflows have velocities that exceed 1500 km s{sup -1} in some cases. Unexpectedly, we find polarization-dependent H I absorption in 57% of our spectra (88% and 63% of the FIR-strong and FIR-weak quasars, respectively). We attribute this result to absorption of polarized continuum emission from these sources by foreground H I clouds. About 60% of the quasars displaying polarized spectra are radio-loud, far higher than the {approx}10% observed in the general AGN population. This discrepancy suggests that radio jets play an important role in shaping the environments in these galaxies. These systems may represent a transition phase in the evolution of gas-rich mergers into ''mature'' radio galaxies.

Teng, Stacy H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Baker, Andrew J., E-mail: stacy.h.teng@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

457

LARGE-SCALE STAR-FORMATION-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS AT 1 < z < 2 IN THE 3D-HST SURVEY  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass (log(M {sub *}/M {sub Sun }) {approx} 9.75) star-forming (SFR > 4 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) galaxies observed at z = 1.24, z = 1.35, and z = 1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W {sup {lambda}2796} {sub r} {approx}> 0.8 A) Mg II absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the H{alpha} emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well exceeds 0.1 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.65 < z < 2.6 galaxies with H {sub 140} {approx}< 24 proximate to the quasar sight line, we detect Mg II absorption associated with galaxies extending to physical distances of 130 kpc. We determine that the W{sub r} > 0.8 A Mg II covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 2 may be as large as unity on scales extending to at least 60 kpc, providing early constraints on the typical extent of starburst-driven winds around galaxies at this redshift. Our observations additionally suggest that the azimuthal distribution of W{sub r} > 0.4 A Mg II absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from z {approx} 2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star-formation-driven outflows with time from z {approx} 3.

Lundgren, Britt F.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Bezanson, Rachel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbe, Ivo; Patel, Shannon [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Da Cunha, Elizabete; Rix, Hans Walter; Schmidt, Kasper [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Erb, Dawn K. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Physics and Astronomy Department, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); and others

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

458

A detailed study of G35.2-0.7N: collimated outflows in a cluster of high-mass young stellar objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a series of JCMT, BIMA and VLA observations of the massive star-forming region associated with G35.2--0.7N. These new observations shed considerable light on the nature of the outflows in this region. The combination of our CO, SiO and radio data suggest that there are perhaps as many as four outflows emanating from the core containing G35.2--0.7N. The most striking result is that the radio jet is ruled out as the driving source of the large-scale CO flow. The jet drives its own highly-collimated CO outflow. Molecular line emission from H13CN and H13CO+ peaks towards the centre of the large-scale CO outflow, but no radio source is detected within. A third flow may be seen in SiO emission, which appears to be centred on another peak in H13CO+. The fourth flow is not seen in CO or SiO, but is inferred from previous L'-band data and the discovery of a radio source at the proposed centre of this flow.

A. G. Gibb; M. G. Hoare; L. T. Little; M. C. H. Wright

2002-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

459

Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of HCl and some metal chlorides in magmatic/hydrothermal systems. Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal experiments on the partitioning of HCl and copper chloride in the system silicate melt-hydrosaline liquid-aqueous vapor are described. Modelling of the aqueous phase evolution process is discussed. (MHR)

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

460