National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hydrothermal gea development

  1. GEA Development Phases | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reporting Terms and Definitions serve to increase the consistency, accuracy, and reliability of industry information presented in the development updates. These updates are a...

  2. GEA Honors Geothermal Leaders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GEA Honors Geothermal Leaders GEA Honors Geothermal Leaders December 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. (December 9, 2013) The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) has announced the winners for the GEA Honors, which recognize companies and individuals that have made significant contributions during the past year to advancing technology, spurring economic development and protecting the environment. The winners were selected in categories including Technological Advancement, Economic

  3. GEA Industry Briefing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry Briefing GEA Industry Briefing U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment was addressed at the State of the Industry Geothermal Briefing in Washington, DC on February 24, 2015. Eric Hass, hydrothermal program manager for the Geothermal Technologies Office presented. Exploration drilling in the Wind River Valley basin validates the geothermal resource there. Source: Wyoming State Geological Survey U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment

  4. GEA Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: GEA Group Place: Bochum, Germany Zip: 44809 Sector: Biofuels, Solar Product: Bochum-based, engineering group specialising in process engineering...

  5. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  6. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Project objective: Build and demonstrate a working prototype ...

  7. CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping & Database Workshop CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping & Database Workshop Mapping ...

  8. GEA Geothermal Summit Presentation … Lauren Boyd | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Summit Presentation … Lauren Boyd GEA Geothermal Summit Presentation … Lauren Boyd GEA geothermal energy industry briefing presentation on February 26, 2013 in Washington, D.C. by Lauren Boyd of the U.S. Department of Energys Geothermal Technologies Office. gea_boyd_2-26-2013.pdf (1.62 MB) More Documents & Publications Stanford Geothermal Workshop - Geothermal Technologies Office 2013 Peer Review Opening Plenary Presentation Geothermal Technologies Program GRC Presentation,

  9. GEA Caldemon formerly known as Caldemon Iberica | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as Caldemon Iberica) Place: Spain Sector: Solar Product: GEA Caldemon manufacturers shell and tube heat exchangers and surface condensers, commonly used in solar thermal power...

  10. GEA Wiegand GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Wiegand GmbH Place: Ettlingen, Germany Zip: 76275 Product: Designs and builds distillation, evaporation, crystallisation and membrane filtration plants used in the production...

  11. GEA's National Geothermal Summit 2016 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    June 7, 2016 8:00AM EDT to June 8, 2016 5:00PM EDT GEA's National Geothermal Summit 2016 Reno, Nevada http:www.geo-energy.orgnationalgeothermalsummitmain.aspx Careers & ...

  12. The Geothermal Technologies Office Congratulates this Year's GEA Honors Awardees

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 10, the Geothermal Energy Association announced its 2013 GEA Honors awards for advances and achievements in geothermal energy. Among this year's eleven winners and honorable mentions are five projects that the Energy Department investe

  13. Hydrothermal industrialization electric-power systems development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The nature of hydrothermal resources, their associated temperatures, geographic locations, and developable capacity are described. The parties involved in development, required activities and phases of development, regulatory and permitting requirements, environmental considerations, and time required to complete development activities ae examined in detail. These activities are put in proper perspective by detailing development costs. A profile of the geothermal industry is presented by detailing the participants and their operating characteristics. The current development status of geothermal energy in the US is detailed. The work on market penetration is summarized briefly. Detailed development information is presented for 56 high temperature sites. (MHR)

  14. GRC Annual Meeting & GEA Geothermal Energy Expo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GRC Annual Meeting & GEA Geothermal Energy Expo GRC Annual Meeting & GEA Geothermal Energy Expo October 23, 2016 9:00AM EDT to October 26, 2016 5:00PM EDT GRC Annual Meeting & GEA Geothermal Energy Expo October 23-26, Sacramento, California, USA http://www.geothermal.org/meet-new.html

  15. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  16. GEA Geothermal Summit Presentation … Lauren Boyd

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OR Cross-Cutting Research & Development: * CSI Technologies AltaRock- Diverters * Baker Hughes - Ultrasonic Fracture Imager * Sandia National Lab - PDC Bits Desert Peak, NV ...

  17. CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping & Database

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop | Department of Energy CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping & Database Workshop CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping & Database Workshop Mapping and database workshop presentation presented at the Canadian Geothermal Energy Association Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference on March 21, 2013 by Arlene Anderson, Physical Scientist Lead for Geothermal Data Provision, Resource Mapping and Energy and Water Life Cycle Analysis

  18. Category:GEA Development Phases | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this category, out of 5 total. G Property:GEADevelopmentPhase P Phase I - Resource Procurement and Identification Phase II - Resource Exploration and Confirmation Phase III -...

  19. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System for EGS Project Type Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and DevelopmentAnalysis Project Type Topic 2 Drilling Systems Project...

  20. Funding Opportunity: Geothermal Technologies Program Seeks Technologies to Reduce Levelized Cost of Electricity for Hydrothermal Development and EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Technologies Program seeks non-prime mover technologies that have the potential to contribute to reducing the levelized cost of electricity from new hydrothermal development to 6¢/ kWh by 2020 and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) to 6¢/ kWh by 2030.

  1. Geothermal hydrothermal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The geothermal hydrothermal section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  2. Newdale Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Standard Steam Trust Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase I - Resource Procurement and...

  3. Mary's River Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Standard Steam Trust Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase I - Resource Procurement and...

  4. Mary's River SW Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Standard Steam Trust Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase I - Resource Procurement and...

  5. Snake River Plain Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Standard Steam Trust Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase I - Resource Procurement and...

  6. New York Canyon Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Terra-Gen Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase III - Permitting and Initial...

  7. Coyote Canyon Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Resource Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Terra-Gen Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase IV - Resource Production and...

  8. El Centro/Superstition Hills Geothermal Project (2) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, NV Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Navy Geothermal Program Project Type Hydrothermal Systems GEA Development Phase Phase II -...

  9. White Mountain Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location County Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Eureka Green Systems Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase II - Resource...

  10. Hydrothermal Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About the Geothermal Technologies Office » Hydrothermal Resources Hydrothermal Resources The Geysers geothermal field in California is still the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The Geysers geothermal field in California is still the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The development of advanced exploration tools and technologies will accelerate the discovery and utilization of the U.S. Geological Survey's estimated 30,000 MWe of undiscovered hydrothermal

  11. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  12. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-08-31

    This two-page fact sheet provides an overview of hydrothermal resources and hydrothermal reservoir creation and operation.

  13. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Process Design and Economics for Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction, a paper from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  14. Development of Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading Technologies for Lipid-Extracted Algae Conversion to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-10-01

    Bench-scale tests were performed for lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA) conversion to liquid fuels via hydrotreating liquefaction (HTL) and upgrading processes. Process simulation and economic analysis for a large-scale LEA HTL and upgrading system were developed based on the best available test results. The system assumes an LEA feed rate of 608 dry metric ton/day and that the feedstock is converted to a crude HTL bio-oil and further upgraded via hydrotreating and hydrocracking to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels, mainly alkanes. Performance and cost results demonstrate that HTL would be an effective option to convert LEA to liquid fuel. The liquid fuels annual yield was estimated to be 26.9 million gallon gasoline-equivalent and the overall energy efficiency at higher heating value basis was estimated to be 69.5%. The minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) was estimated to be $0.75/L with LEA feedstock price at $33.1 metric ton at dry basis and 10% internal rate of return. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the largest effects to production cost would come from the final products yields and the upgrading equipments cost. The impact of plant scale on MFSP was also investigated.

  15. Hydrothermal Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Projects Hydrothermal Projects Hydrothermal Projects Geothermal electricity production has grown steadily, tapping a reliable, nearly inexhaustible reserve of hydrothermal systems where fluid, heat, and permeability intersect naturally in the subsurface. The United States Geological Survey estimates that 30 GW of hydrothermal resources lie beneath the surface--ten times the current installed capacity. Hydrothermal Projects Projects Database Program Links What is Play Fairway

  16. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with

  17. Hydrothermal Exploration at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal Technologies Office, Department of Energy, explored hydrothermal potential at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska and discovered a resource siginificant enough for a spectrum of geothermal energy developments, including on-site power generation.

  18. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity....

  19. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  20. Direct use of hydrothermal energy: a review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.; Layton, D.

    1981-08-28

    The potential environmental impacts of the exploration, development, and production of hydrothermal geothermal energy for direct use applications are reviewed and evaluated. Mitigation strategies and research and development needs are included. (MHR)

  1. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  2. Hydrothermal Alteration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    been provided for this term. Add a Definition Opalized rock is often valued for its spectacular colors and it may indicate past hydrothermal activity (reference: https:...

  3. Colorado's Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado's Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment Author...

  4. Other Hydrothermal Deposits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capping Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products Colorful hydrothermal deposits dot the landscape at the Hverir Geothermal Area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified field...

  5. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Whole Algae Hydrothermal...

  6. W-026, acceptance test report gamma energy assay (GEA) system A(submittal {number_sign}39.8) C3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, T. L.

    1997-01-28

    This test procedure is designed to test all of the functions of the GEA system at the WRAP facility at Hanford, Washington. The procedure is designed to be executed in the sequence given, starting with: * verification of components and labeling * verification or entry of all of the setup parameters * performing the calibrations (energy, efficiency, transmission, and reference peak) * performing the measurements in local mode * performing the measurements in remote mode * confirming the message formats * utility operations (LN2 fill, archiving, password maintenance) The system is designed to be operated in a remote mode in which all commands are received over a network, and the results are returned over the same network. A manual mode is provided for the setup and calibration operations, and for maintenance functions. The system is designed to start up in remote mode. The user can go to local mode when at the keyboard by selecting Exit on the screen shown during remote mode. A user logon screen, requiring 2 username and password, limits access to local mode.

  7. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  8. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet Overview of hydrothermal resources Hydrothermal Fact Sheet.pdf (3.53 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment was addressed at the State of the Industry Geothermal Briefing in Washington, DC on February 24, 2015. Eric Hass, hydrothermal program manager for the Geothermal Technologies Office presented. Exploration drilling in the Wind River Valley basin validates the

  9. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

  10. Property:IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ntifiedHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from identified hydrothermal sites, as determined by the...

  11. Property:UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Type Quantity Description Estimated conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from undiscovered hydrothermal sites, as determined by...

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hierarchical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ANNEALING; BISMUTH COMPOUNDS; CATALYSTS; CITRATES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS; ION ...

  13. GEA International Geothermal Energy Showcase

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    What are the building blocks for successful geothermal projects? Find out March 17, 2016 at the Geothermal Energy Association's 2016 U.S. and International Geothermal Energy Showcase at the Ronald...

  14. GEA | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .presentationml.presentation icon 1. NEPA Database - Presentation applicationvnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation icon GRR Status Update Syndicate content...

  15. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 | Department of Energy Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing highly stable, sulfur-tolerant oxidation catalysts that use less Pt via surface modification of silica supports

  16. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Success Stories Hydrothermal Success Stories June 9, 2015 Hydrothermal Success Stories Energy Department Honored for Inroads in Geothermal Energy As renewable energy takes a stronger role in supplying the U.S. grid, geothermal power could support a more flexible role to balance the intermittent and variable capacity of wind and solar. June 5, 2015 Geothermal energy, traditionally a baseload power source among renewables, is poised to emerge also as a flexible power source, balancing

  17. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for

  18. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis presentation by Kate Young, Dan Getman, and Ariel Esposito at the 2012 Peer Review Meeting on May 10, 2012

  19. Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration Products Numerous types of colorful hydrothermal alterations compose the landscape at Kerlingarfjoll Geothermal area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified...

  20. Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Paleochori, Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermally deposited rock includes rocks and minerals that have precipitated from...

  1. Hydrothermally Altered Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paleochori cliffs Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermal alteration refers to rocks that have been altered from their original...

  2. Basement Structure and Implications for Hydrothermal Circulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Abstract Detailed surface mapping, subsurface drill hole data, and geophysical modeling are the basis of a structural and hydrothermal model for the western part of Long...

  3. Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  4. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  5. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update GTP Peer Review Lunch Presentation Westminster, CO Kate Young Dan Getman Ariel Esposito May 10, 2012 2 Data Gap Analysis PROJECT ...

  6. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal resource base---an assessment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment Author...

  7. Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Rainier, Washington Abstract A once massive hydrothermal system was disgorged from the summit of Mount Rainier in a highly...

  8. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  9. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  10. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  11. Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1995-01-26

    Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

  12. Reconnaissance of the hydrothermal resources of Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rush, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic factors in the Basin and Range province in Utah are more favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources than in other areas on the Colorado Plateaus or in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These geologic factors are principally crustal extension and crustal thinning during the last 17 million years. Basalts as young as 10,000 years have been mapped in the area. High-silica volcanic and intrusive rocks of Quaternary age can be used to locate hydrothermal convection systems. Drilling for hot, high-silica, buried rock bodies is most promising in the areas of recent volcanic activity. Southwestern Utah has more geothermal potential than other parts of the Basin and Range province in Utah. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area, the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale area, and the area to the north as far as 60 kilometers from them probably have the best potential for geothermal development for generation of electricity. Other areas with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C are Thermo, Monroe, Red Hill (in the Monroe-Joseph Known Geothermal Resource Area), Joseph Hot Springs, and the Newcastle area. The rates of heat and water discharge are high at Crater, Meadow, and Hatton Hot Springs, but estimated reservoir temperatures there are less than 150/sup 0/C. Additional exploration is needed to define the potential in three additional areas in the Escalante Desert. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-29

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  14. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  15. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  16. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Liquefaction Technology Pathway Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Whole Algae Hydrothermal

  17. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with

  18. The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Examines the effect of hydrothermal aging on the Nox reduction over a commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst.

  19. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  20. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than

  1. QER- Comment of Geotherman Energy Association (GEA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hi the Geothermal Energy Association would like to submit the attached comments for the 2014 QER process. Thanks,

  2. SaGea | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    installs and maintains equipment for solar energy generation for both private and corporate users. Coordinates: 39.214525, 9.110492 Show Map Loading map......

  3. Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Glenn T.; Zilberstein, Vladimir A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

  4. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  5. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  6. Synthesis of Nanoparticles via Solvothermal and Hydrothermal Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jianlin; Wu, Qingliu; Wu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the synthesis of various types of nanoparticles as well as surface modifications of nanomaterials using hydrothermal and solvothermal methods. First, the definition, history, instrumentation, and mechanism of hydrothermal and solvothermal methods as well as the important parameters af-fecting the nucleation and crystal growth of nanomaterials are briefly introduced. Then the specific hydrothermal and solvothermal methods used to grow oxides, Group II-VI, III-V, IV, transitional metals, and metal-organic framework nanoparticles are summarized. Finally, the hydrothermal and solvothermal strategies used for the surface modification of nanomaterials are discussed.

  7. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  8. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  9. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In...

  10. Characterization of past hydrothermal fluids in the Humboldt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    has permitted hydrothermal circulation, producing both the geothermal area and nearby gold deposits. A total of five wells have been drilled with three obtaining core....

  11. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Valley Caldera, East-Central California, USA, From Recent Pumping Tests And Geochemical Sampling Jump to:...

  12. The Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera, California |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a deep subsystem or hydrothermal reservoir in the welded tuff containing relatively hot ground water. Hydrologic, isotopic, and thermal data indicate that recharge to the...

  13. Clay Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante Geothermal Field (Guadeloupe) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  14. A Hydrothermal Model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Area, Utah...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal system appears to be controlled to some extent by the details of the permeability structure in the immediate vicinity if the high surface heat flow region. Authors...

  15. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  16. Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various Sintering Additives Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of ...

  17. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowland, Christopher C.; Zhou, Zhi; Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growth in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting.

  18. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  19. Interfacial hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanorods towards photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, L.R. Lian, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, L.H.; Yuan, C.Z.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy was developed. 1D SnO{sub 2} nanorods as an advanced photocatalyst. SnO{sub 2} nanorods exhibit photocatalytic degradation of the MO. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) SnO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) have been successfully synthesized by means of an efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy. The resulting product was physically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, etc. The as-fabricated SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation of the methyl orange with high degradation efficiency of 99.3% with only 60 min ultra violet light irradiation. Meanwhile, the 1D SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited intriguing photostability after four recycles.

  20. The Near-Surface Hydrothermal Regime of Long Valley Caldera ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Long Valley Caldera Citation Arthur H. Lachenbruch,Michael L. Sorey,Robert Edward Lewis,John H. Sass. 1976. The Near-Surface Hydrothermal Regime of Long Valley Caldera....

  1. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  2. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Chris M.; Musich, Mark A.; Mann, Michael D.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Richter, John J.; Potas, Todd A.; Willson, Warrack G.

    2000-01-01

    Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

  3. track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review Inability to accurately predict temperature and permeability of the geothermal reservoir from the surface is a major cost and exploration risk for geothermal systems. While the majority of known geothermal resources across America have been identified, the USGS predicts that more than 30 gigawatts of geothermal energy potential - enough to power about 30 million homes - resides deep in the earth in

  4. Hydrothermally altered and fractured granite as an HDR reservoir in the EPS-1 borehole, Alsace,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genter, A.; Traineau, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the European Hot Dry Rocks Project, a second exploration borehole, EPS-1, has been cored to a depth of 2227 m at Soultz-sous-Forets (France). The target was a granite beginning at 1417 m depth, overlain by post-Paleozoic sedimentary cover. Structural analysis and petrographic examination of the 800-m porphyritic granite core, have shown that this rock has undergone several periods of hydrothermal alteration and fracturing. More than 3000 natural structures were recorded, whose distribution pattern shows clusters where low-density fracture zones (less than 1 per meter) alternate with zones of high fracture density (more than 20 per meter). Vein alteration, ascribed to paleohydrothermal systems, developed within the hydrothermally altered and highly fractured zones, transforming primary biotite and plagioclase into clay minerals. One of these zones at 2.2 km depth produced a hot-water outflow during coring, indicating the existence of a hydrothermal reservoir. Its permeability is provided by the fracture network and by secondary porosity of the granitic matrix resulting from vein alteration. This dual porosity in the HDR granite reservoir must be taken into account in the design of the heat exchanger, both for modeling the water-rock interactions and for hydraulic testing.

  5. Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

  6. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal...

  7. Gunun-Salak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities (0) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Java, Indonesia Exploration Region: Sunda Volcanic Arc GEA Development Phase:...

  8. Los Humeros Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (0) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Chignautla, Puebla, Mexico Exploration Region: Transmexican Volcanic Belt GEA Development Phase:...

  9. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Hydrothermal Alteration Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This is a hydrothermal alteration map of the Tularosa Basin area, New Mexico and Texas that was created using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) multispectral data band ratios based upon diagnostic features of clay, calcite, silica, gypsum, ferric iron, and ferrous iron. Mesoproterozoic granite in the San Andreas Range often appeared altered, but this may be from clays produced by weathering or, locally, by hydrothermal alteration. However, no field checking was done. This work was done under U.S. D.O.E. Contract #DE-EE0006730

  10. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  11. Geothermal Energy Association Honors NREL's Dr. Bharathan for Work in Condenser Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) recently announced the finalists for the GEA Honors, which recognizes companies and individuals that have made significant contributions during the past year to advancing technology, spurring economic development or protecting the environment.

  12. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  13. Hydrothermal model of the Momotombo geothermal system, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, M.P.; Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Miranda, K.; Gerardo, J.Y.; Araguas, L.

    1996-01-24

    The Momotombo geotherinal field is situated on the northern shore of Lake Managua at the foot of the active Momotombo volcano. The field has been producing electricity since 1983 and has an installed capacity of 70 MWe. The results of geological, geochemical and geophysical studies have been reported in various internal reports. The isotopic studies were funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna to develop a hydrothermal model of the geothermal system. The chemical and stable isotopic data (δ18O and δD) of the geothermal fluid suggest that the seasonal variation in the production characteristics of the wells is related to the rapid infiltration of local precipitation into the reservoir. The annual average composition of Na+, K+ and Mg2+ plotted on the Na- K-Mg triangular diagram presented by Giggenbach (1988) to identify the state of rock-water interaction in geothermal reservoirs, shows that the fluids of almost every well are shifting towards chemically immature water due to resenroir exploitation. This effect is prominent in wells Mt-2. Mt-12, Mt-22 and Mt-27. The local groundwaters including surface water from Lake Managua have much lower tritium concentrations than sonic of the geothermal well fluids, which have about 6 T.U. The high-tritium wells are located along a fault inferred froin a thermal anomaly. The tritium concentration is also higher in fluids from wells close to the lake. This could indicate that older local precipitation waters are stored in a deep layer within the lake and that they are infiltrating into the geothermal reservoir.

  14. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study ...

  15. GENERAL ASSIGNMENT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GEA Honors Geothermal Leaders GEA Honors Geothermal Leaders December 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. (December 9, 2013) The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) has announced the winners for the GEA Honors, which recognize companies and individuals that have made significant contributions during the past year to advancing technology, spurring economic development and protecting the environment. The winners were selected in categories including Technological Advancement, Economic

  16. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-18

    Wet macroalgal slurries can be converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable oil product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics. As a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of zirconia based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caillot, T. Salama, Z.; Chanut, N.; Cadete Santos Aires, F.J.; Bennici, S.; Auroux, A.

    2013-07-15

    In this work, three equimolar mixed oxides ZrO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a reference ZrO{sub 2} have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. The structural and surface properties of these materials have been fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, surface area measurement, chemical analysis, XPS, infrared spectroscopy after adsorption of pyridine and adsorption microcalorimetry of NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} probe molecules. All investigated mixed oxides are amphoteric and possess redox centers on their surface. Moreover, hydrothermal synthesis leads to catalysts with higher surface area and with better acidbase properties than classical coprecipitation method. Both Lewis and Brnsted acid sites are present on the surface of the mixed oxides. Compared to the other samples, the ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} material appears to be the best candidate for further application in acidbase catalysis. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous amorphous phase with a high surface area of titania zirconia mixed oxide obtained by hydrothermal preparation. - Highlights: Three zirconia based catalysts and a reference were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. Mixed oxides present larger surface areas than the reference ZrO{sub 2}. ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents a mesoporous structure with high surface area. ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents simultaneously strong acidic and basic properties.

  18. Petroleum generation and migration in submarine hydrothermal systems; An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. )

    1990-03-01

    The conversion of organic matter to petroleum by hydrothermal activity is an easy process,occurring in nature in many types of environments. Geologically immature organic matter of mariner sediments is being altered by this process in Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California), Escanaba Trough and Middle Valley (northeast Pacific), Bransfield Strait (Antarctica), and Atlantis II and Kebrit Deeps (Red Sea). Contemporary organic detritus and viable microorganisms are also converted in part to petroleum-like products by the same process when present to become entrained, as for example on the East Pacific Rise at 13{degrees}N and 21{degrees}N and on the mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26{degrees}N. The hydrocarbon products (methane to asphalt) generated in all these areas have been elucidated in terms of composition, organic matter sources, and analogy to reservoir petroleum. This petroleum represents a major input of carbon to the primary chemosynthetic productivity of hydrothermal vent systems and may be important to interactions with metals in hydrothermal ore formation.

  19. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and othermore » conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  20. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and other conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  1. Hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field: Sulphur Springs and the Cochiti mining district

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.

    1989-03-01

    K/Ar dates and oxygen isotope data were obtained on 13 clay separates (<2 ..mu..m) of thermally altered mafic and silicic rocks from the Cochiti mining district (SE Jemez Mountains) and Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP) core hole VC-2A (Sulphur Springs, Valles caldera). Illite with K/sub 2/O contents of 6.68%--10.04% is the dominant clay in the silicic rocks, whereas interstratified illite/smectites containing 1.4%--5.74% K/sub 2/O constitute the altered andesites. Two hydrothermal alteration events are recognized at the Cochiti area (8.07 m.y., n = 1, and 6.5--5.6 m.y., n = 6). The older event correlates with the waning stages of Paliza Canyon Formation andesite volcanism (greater than or equal to13 to less than or equal to8.5 m.y.), whereas the younger event correlates with intrusions and gold- and silver-bearing quartz veins associated with the Bearhead Rhyolite (7.54--5.8 m.y.). The majority of K/Ar dates in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A (0.83--0.66 m.y., n = 4) indicate that hydrothermal alteration developed contemporaneously with resurgence and ring fracture Valles Rhyolite domes (0.89--0.54 m.y.). One date of 0 +- 0.10 m.y. in acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole probably correlates with Holocene hydrothermal activity possibly associated with the final phases of the Valles Rhyolite (0.13 m.y.).

  2. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John P. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Sims, Kenneth W.W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). School of Energy Resources; Pluda, Allison R. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Wyoming High-Precision Isotope Lab.

    2014-03-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  3. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Sims, Kenneth W.W.; Pluda, Allison R.

    2014-06-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  4. Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

  5. Hydrothermal energy extraction, Auburn, New York: Final report: Volume 2, Chapters 6-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castor, T.P.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses a hydrothermal energy extraction system in detail. General topics covered are: Reservoir circulation loop; HVAC buffer loop; and automatic temperature control system. (LSP)

  6. CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Documentation and registration of data set describing 554 Geothermal Wells in Klamath Falls area Documentation and registration of data set describing 404 Co-located Sites In ...

  7. GRC ANNUAL MEETING & GEA GEOEXPO+ | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on NEPA Analyses | Department of Energy GAO Report -- National Environmental Policy Act: Little Information Exists on NEPA Analyses GAO Report -- National Environmental Policy Act: Little Information Exists on NEPA Analyses A report by the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) on the costs, time frames, and benefits of the NEPA process. The report posted here has been modified through the addition of yellow highlighting to denote text referring to DOE or DOE data. The original

  8. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase III final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Wartman, B.L.; Anderson, S.B.

    1982-08-01

    The hydrothermal resources of North Dakota were evaluated. This evaluation was based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples were done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those holes-of-convenience cased.

  9. Characterizing Microbial Community and Geochemical Dynamics at Hydrothermal Vents Using Osmotically Driven Continuous Fluid Samplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robidart, Julie C.; Callister, Stephen J.; Song, Peng F.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wheat, Charles G.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2013-05-07

    Microbes play a key role in mediating all aquatic biogeochemical cycles, and ongoing efforts are aimed at better understanding the relationships between microbial phylogenetic and physiological diversity, and habitat physical and chemical characteristics. Establishing such relationships is facilitated by sampling and studying microbiology and geochemistry at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales, to access information on the past and current environmental state that contributes to observed microbial abundances and activities. A modest number of sampling systems exist to date, few of which can be used in remote, harsh environments such as hydrothermal vents, where the ephemeral nature of venting underscores the necessity for higher resolution sampling. We have developed a robust, continuous fluid sampling system for co-registered microbial and biogeochemical analyses. The osmosis-powered bio-osmosampling system (BOSS) use no electricity, collects fluids with daily resolution or better, can be deployed in harsh, inaccessible environments and can sample fluids continuously for up to five years. Here we present a series of tests to examine DNA, RNA and protein stability over time, as well as material compatability, via lab experiments. We also conducted two field deployments at deep-sea hydrothermal vents to assess changes in microbial diversity and protein expression as a function of the physico-chemical environment. Our data reveal significant changes in microbial community composition co-occurring with relatively modest changes in the geochemistry. These data additionally provide new insights into the distribution of an enigmatic sulfur oxidizing symbiont in its free-living state. Data from the second deployment reveal differences in the representation of peptides over time, underscoring the utility of the BOSS in meta-proteomic studies. In concert, these data demonstrate the efficacy of this approach, and illustrate the value of using this method to study

  10. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  11. Vanadium oxides nanostructures: Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mjejri, I.; Etteyeb, N.; Sediri, F.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Vanadium oxides nanostructures were synthesized hydrothermally. • Reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process. • Doping/dedoping is easier for Li{sup +} to Na{sup +}. • Energy-related applications such as cathodes in lithium batteries. - Abstract: A facile and template-free one-pot strategy is applied to synthesize nanostructured vanadium oxide particles via a hydrothermal methodology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the structure and morphology of the samples. The products are gradually changed from sheet-shaped VO{sub 2}(B) to rod-like V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O with decreasing cyclohexanediol as both protective and reducing agent. The specific surface area of the VO{sub 2}(B) nanosheets and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O nanorods was found to be 22 and 16 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, respectively. Thin films of VO{sub 2}(B) and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O deposited on ITO substrates were electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The voltammograms show reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process corresponding to reversible cation intercalation/de-intercalation into the crystal lattice of the nanorods/nanosheets. This process is easier for the small Li{sup +} cation than larger ones Na{sup +}.

  12. Effect of reductant and PVP on morphology and magnetic property of ultrafine Ni powders prepared via hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jun Wang, Xiucai; Li, Lili; Li, Chengxuan; Peng, Shuge

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The ultrafine Ni powders with the shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using different reductants. Their saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity sequentially increase, and the coercivity of hexagonal sheet-like Ni powders increases by 25% compared with the Ni bulk counterpart. - Highlights: • The ultrafine Ni powders with various shapes of sphere, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet, etc. • Facile and one-step hydrothermal reduction using three reductants and PVP additive was developed. • Magnetic properties of the ultrafine Ni powders with different shapes were measured. • Compared with bulk Ni material, coercivity of hexagonal sheet Ni increases by 25%. • The formation mechanism of the shapes was suggested. - Abstract: The ultrafine nickel particles with different shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using hydrazine hydrate, sodium hypophosphite and ethylene glycol as reductants, polyvinylpyrrolidone as structure-directing agent. It has been verified with the characterization of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission/scanning electronic microscopy that as-prepared products belong to face-centered cubic structure of nickel microcrystals with high purity and fine dispersity. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured at room temperature reveal that the values of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity rise sequentially from silknet, sphere to hexagonal sheet. In comparison with nickel bulk counterpart, the coercivity of the hexagonal sheet nickel powders increases by 25%.

  13. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Wednesday, 29 April 2009 00:00 Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in

  14. Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator for soft x-ray free-electron laser timing-observation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response-time...

  15. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Whole algae hydrothermal liquefaction is one of eight priority pathways chosen to convert biomass into hydrocarbon fuels by the Bioenergy Technologies Office. These pathways were down-selected from an initial list of 18.

  16. Google Earth locations of USA and seafloor hydrothermal vents with associated rare earth element data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2016-02-10

    Google Earth .kmz files that contain the locations of geothermal wells and thermal springs in the USA, and seafloor hydrothermal vents that have associated rare earth element data. The file does not contain the actual data, the actual data is available through the GDR website in two tier 3 data sets entitled "Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR) Hydrothermal Vents" and "Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California"

  17. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2003-12-23

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  18. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  19. SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials with enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yingyong; Jin, Guoqiang; Tong, Xili; Guo, Xiangyun

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Novel SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials were synthesized by adding silicon carbide suspension in the molecular sieve precursor solvent followed by in situ hydrothermal synthesis. The dopped materials have a wormhole-like mesoporous structure and exhibit enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities. Highlights: {yields} SiC-dopped MCM-41 was synthesized by in situ hydrothermal synthesis of molecular sieve precursor combined with SiC. {yields} The dopped MCM-41 materials show a wormhole-like mesoporous structure. {yields} The thermal stability of the dopped materials have an increment of almost 100 {sup o}C compared with the pure MCM-41. {yields} The hydrothermal stability of the dopped materials is also better than that of the pure MCM-41. -- Abstract: SiC-dopped MCM-41 mesoporous materials were synthesized by the in situ hydrothermal synthesis, in which a small amount of SiC was added in the precursor solvent of molecular sieve before the hydrothermal treatment. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N{sub 2} physical adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the thermal and hydrothermal stabilities of MCM-41 materials can be improved obviously by incorporating a small amount of SiC. The structure collapse temperature of SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials is 100 {sup o}C higher than that of pure MCM-41 according to the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Hydrothermal treatment experiments also show that the pure MCM-41 will losses it's ordered mesoporous structure in boiling water for 24 h while the SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials still keep partial porous structure.

  20. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  1. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M.; Ljubicic, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  2. Hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology of the Canino Hydrothermal System (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiodini, G.; Giaquinto, S.; Frondini, F.; Santucci, A. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the Canino area, central Italy, is characterized by the discharge of a large quantity of Ca-SO{sub 4} thermal waters, the total flow rate of which is estimated to be 200 l/s. Ten to twenty l/s of the thermal flow are of an Na-Cl component from a deep source, which was identified by means of the B, Cl, Cs, Na, and Li contents of the waters. The Canino Na-Cl fluids have ratios among these species close to those of the geothermal fluids of Latera. The Canino hydrothermal system, which is located within buried carbonate structures, is therefore made up of a shallower zone, where the Ca-SO{sub 4} hydrotype is prevalent, and another deeper zone where an Na-Cl brine is present. For the sulphate fluids circulating in the upper levels of the system, a temperature of 70-100{degrees} C has been estimated, while a possible higher enthalpy resource may be represented by the chloride aqueous solutions circulating at deeper levels.

  3. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH{sup -} = B(OH){sup -4} was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH{sub 3} -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl{sup -} becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.'

  4. Pengalengan Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Profile Location: Bandung Regency, Indonesia Exploration Region: West Java GEA Development Phase: Operational"Operational" is not in the list of possible values...

  5. McGee Mountain Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 41.8, -118.87 Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  6. Glass Buttes Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Exploration Region: Cascades GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS...

  7. Hot Pot Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 40.922, -117.108 Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  8. Grass Valley Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 40.60333333, -117.645 Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  9. Crane Creek Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 44.3064, -116.7447 Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  10. Dead Horse Wells Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS...

  11. Weiser Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 44.29833333, -117.0483333 Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  12. Shakes Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region: Alaska Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 56.71765648, -132.0025034 Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean...

  13. Redfield Campus Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  14. Hawthorne Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 38.53, -118.65...

  15. Wendel Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Profile Location: California Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Operational"Operational" is not in the...

  16. Rhodes Marsh Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  17. Wabuska Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Operational"Operational" is not in the...

  18. Wilson Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 38.7672, -119.1732...

  19. Canby Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: California Exploration Region: Transition Zone GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 41.438, -120.8676 Resource Estimate...

  20. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of these new projects will provide significant economic benefits, according to GEA. "These new projects will result in the infusion of roughly 15 billion in capital ...

  1. Under Steamboat Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  2. Seven Mile Hole Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  3. Teels Marsh Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  4. Flint Geothermal Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  5. Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  6. Gabbs Alkali Flat Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  7. Jemez Mountain Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  8. Rhodes Marsh Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  9. Glass Buttes Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  10. San Francisco Volcanic Field Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  11. Lassen Volcanic National Park Geothermal Area | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  12. White Mountains Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Hampshire Exploration Region: Other GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  13. Kilauea Summit Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  14. San Juan Volcanic Field Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  15. Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  16. White Mountains Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  17. Kawaihae Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  18. Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  19. Fort Bliss Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Texas Exploration Region: Rio Grande Rift GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  20. Mokapu Penninsula Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  1. Winnemucca Dry Lake Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  2. Obsidian Cliff Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  3. Marysville Mt Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  4. Redfield Campus Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  5. Lester Meadow Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  6. Jemez Pueblo Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  7. Lahaina-Kaanapali Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Region: Hawaii Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  8. Rangely Oilfield Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  9. Mauna Loa Southwest Rift Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  10. Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  11. Florida Mountains Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  12. Kilauea Southwest Rift And South Flank Geothermal Area | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  13. Zuni Mountains Nm Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  14. Lahaina-Kaanapali Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  15. Blackfoot Reservoir Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp: USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: USGS Mean...

  16. East Brawley Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: California Exploration Region: Gulf of California Rift Zone GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 32.99, -115.35 Resource...

  17. New River Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: California Exploration Region: Gulf of California Rift Zone GEA Development Phase: Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  18. Category:Geothermal Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Each year different agencies report the upcoming geothermal developing projects. The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) publishes their findings in their annual US Geothermal...

  19. Ahuachapan Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities (0) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: El Salvador Exploration Region: Central American Volcanic Arc Chain GEA Development Phase:...

  20. Fish debris record the hydrothermal activity in the Atlantis II deep sediments (Red Sea)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudin, E.; Cocherie, A.

    1988-01-01

    The REE and U, Th, Zr, Hf, Sc have been analyzed in samples from Atlantis II and Shaban/Jean Charcot Deeps in the Red Sea. The high Zr/Hf ratio in some sediments indicates the presence of fish debris or of finely crystallized apatite. The positive ..sigma..REE vs P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and ..sigma..REE vs Zr/Hf correlations show that fish debris and finely crystallized apatite are the main REE sink in Atlantis II Deep sediments as in other marine environments. The hydrothermal sediments and the fish debris concentrates have similar REE patterns, characterized by a LREE enrichment and a large positive Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is also observed in E.P.R. hydrothermal solutions. Fish debris from marine environments acquire their REE content and signature mostly from sea water during early diagenesis. The hydrothermal REE signature of Atlantis II Deep fish debris indicate that they probably record the REE signature of their hydrothermal sedimentation and diagenetic environment. The different REE signatures of the Shaban/Jean Charcot and Atlantis II Deep hydrothermal sediments suggest a sea water-dominated brine in the Shaban/Jean Charcot Deep as opposed to the predominantly hydrothermal brine in Atlantis II Deep. Atlantis II Deep fish debris are also characterized by their high U but low Th contents. Their low Th contents probably reflect the low Th content of the various possible sources (sea water, brine, sediments). Their U contents are probably controlled by the redox conditions of sedimentation.

  1. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  2. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  3. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  4. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  5. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  6. A study of thermal properties of sodium titanate nanotubes synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preda, Silviu; Rutar, Melita; Umek, Polona; Zaharescu, Maria

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The microwave-assisted hydrothermal route was used for titanate nanotubes synthesis. • Conversion to single-phase nanotube morphology completes after 8 h reaction time. • The nanotube morphology is stable up to 600 °C, as determined by in-situ XRD and SEM. • Sodium ions migrate to the surface due to thermal motion and structure condensation. - Abstract: Sodium titanate nanotubes (NaTiNTs) were synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of commercial TiO{sub 2}, at constant temperature (135 °C) and different irradiation times (15 min, 1, 4, 8 and 16 h). The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and specific surface area measurements. The irradiation time turned out to be the key parameter for morphological control of the material. Nanotubes were observed already after 15 min of microwave irradiation. The analyses of the products irradiated for 8 and 16 h confirm the complete transformation of the starting TiO{sub 2} powder to NaTiNTs. The nanotubes are open ended with multi-wall structures, with the average outer diameter of 8 nm and specific surface area up to 210 m{sup 2}/g. The morphology, surface area and crystal structure of the sodium titanate nanotubes synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method were similar to those obtained by conventional hydrothermal method.

  7. Hydrothermal Phase Relations Among Uranyl Minerals at the Nopal I Analog Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, William M.

    2007-07-01

    Uranyl mineral paragenesis at Nopal I is an analog of spent fuel alteration at Yucca Mountain. Petrographic studies suggest a variety of possible hydrothermal conditions for uranium mineralization at Nopal I. Calculated equilibrium phase relations among uranyl minerals show uranophane stability over a broad range of realistic conditions and indicate that uranyl mineral variety reflects persistent chemical potential heterogeneity. (author)

  8. Synthesis of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by hydrothermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machmudah, Siti Widiyastuti, W. Prastuti, Okky Putri Nurtono, Tantular Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2014-02-24

    Zirconium oxide (zirconia, ZrO{sub 2}) is the most common material used for electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Zirconia has attracted attention for applications in optical coatings, buffer layers for growing superconductors, thermal-shield, corrosion resistant coatings, ionic conductors, and oxygen sensors, and for potential applications including transparent optical devices and electrochemical capacitor electrodes, fuel cells, catalysts, and advanced ceramics. In this work, zirconia particles were synthesized from ZrCl{sub 4} precursor with hydrothermal treatment in a batch reactor. Hydrothermal treatment may allow obtaining nanoparticles and sintered materials with controlled chemical and structural characteristics. Hydrothermal treatment was carried out at temperatures of 150 200C with precursor concentration of 0.1 0.5 M. Zirconia particles obtained from this treatment were analyzed by using SEM, PSD and XRD to characterize the morphology, particle size distribution, and crystallinity, respectively. Based on the analysis, the size of zirconia particles were around 200 nm and it became smaller with decreasing precursor concentration. The increasing temperature caused the particles formed having uniform size. Zirconia particles formed by hydrothermal treatment were monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic crystal.

  9. Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

    2012-10-16

    A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

  10. Optical characteristics of ZnO single crystal grown by the hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. Z.; Yin, J. G. E-mail: yjg@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, L. H.; Zhang, P. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, Y. C.; Zhang, C. L.; Gu, S. L.; Hang, Y.

    2015-12-15

    ZnO single crystals have been grown by the hydrothermal method. Raman scattering and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) have been used to study samples of ZnO that were unannealed or annealed in different ambient gases. It is suggested that the green emission may originate from defects related to copper in our samples.

  11. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  12. Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-10-01

    Compilation of rare earth element and associated major and minor dissolved constituent analytical data for USA geothermal fields and global seafloor hydrothermal vents. Data is in original units. Reference to and use of this data should be attributed to the original authors and publications according to the provisions outlined therein.

  13. Workshops to rate and assign air and water issues for hydrothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.M.; Wewerka, E.M.

    1980-12-01

    The presentations, discussions, and recommendations associated with a semiformal, 2-day workshop organized and hosted by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory personnel at Los Alamos, NM, for March, 11-12, 1980, and an informal, 2-day workshop hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory at Livermore and Konocti Harbor, CA, from April 15-16, 1980 are described briefly. These workshops were not conducted to determine what the problems are, but rather to determine which ones should be addressed and who should address them. Brief reviews of issues identified by previous workshops and studies are included as background.

  14. Enhanced performance of wearable piezoelectric nanogenerator fabricated by two-step hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Yu; Lei, Jixue; Yin, Bing; Zhang, Heqiu; Ji, Jiuyu; Hu, Lizhong; Bian, Jiming; Liu, Yanhong; Zhao, Yu; Luo, Yingmin

    2014-03-17

    A simple two-step hydrothermal process was proposed for enhancing the performance of the nanogenerator on flexible and wearable terylene-fabric substrate. With this method, a significant enhancement in output voltage of the nanogenerator from ∼10 mV to 7 V was achieved, comparing with the one by conventional one-step process. In addition, another advantage with the devices synthesized by two-step hydrothermal process was that their output voltages are only sensitive to strain rather than strain rate. The devices with a high output voltage have the ability to power common electric devices and will have important applications in flexible electronics and wearable devices.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan; Lai Qiongyu; Xu Xiaoyun

    2010-11-15

    NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

  16. Sonochemical and hydrothermal synthesis of PbTe nanostructures with the aid of a novel capping agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fard-Fini, Shahla Ahmadian; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Mohandes, Fatemeh

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PbTe nanostructures were prepared with the aid of Schiff-base compound. • Sonochemical and hydrothermal methods were employed to fabricate PbTe nanostrucrues. • The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of PbTe was investigated. - Abstract: In this work, a new Schiff-base compound derived from 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde marked as (2-HyNa)-(DaDo) was synthesized, characterized, and then used as capping agent for the preparation of PbTe nanostructures. To fabricate PbTe nanostructures, two different synthesis methods; hydrothermal and sonochemical routes, were applied. To further investigate, the effect of preparation parameters like reaction time and temperature in hydrothermal synthesis and sonication time in the presence of ultrasound irradiation on the morphology and purity of the final products was tested. The products were analyzed with the aid of SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, and EDS. Based on the obtained results, it was found that pure cubic phased PbTe nanostructures have been obtained by hydrothermal and sonochemical approaches. Besides, SEM images showed that cubic-like and rod-like PbTe nanostructures have been formed by hydrothermal and sonochemical methods, respectively. Sonochemical synthesis of PbTe nanostructures was favorable, because the synthesis time of sonochemical method was shorter than that of hydrothermal method.

  17. Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, John B.; Floyd, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500.degree. to about 700.degree. F.

  18. Hydrothermal Processing of Biomass Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Processing of Biomass March 26, 2015 Thermochemical Conversion Doug Elliott, Rich Hallen, and Andy Schmidt Pacific Northwest National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Advance HTL technology towards 2020 goal of $3/gge at 50% reduced GHG. Improve overall process performance and economics Determine the value and best pathway to market for the product Demonstrate high process and carbon

  19. Morphology-controlled synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} by one step template-free hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Keqing; Liu, Jiajia; Wen, Panyue; Hu, Yuan Gui, Zhou

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} crystals had been synthesized by one step template-free hydrothermal method. • The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} plays a crucial role in morphological control of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. • The morphology has significant effect on the optical property of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: We had developed a facile synthetic route of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} crystals with different morphologies via one step template-free hydrothermal method. The phase and composition of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectrum. The morphology and structure of the synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} played a crucial role in morphological control of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. It only obtained Co-based precursor in the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. On the contrary, the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} with different morphologies including nanoparticles, nano-discs and well-defined octahedral nanostructures were synthesized in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In addition, the optical property of the obtained Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} samples was investigated by UV–vis spectra.

  20. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran; CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara ; Pollet, M.; Artemenko, A.; Miclau, M.; Grozescu, I; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  1. Hydrothermal stability of SAPO-34 for refrigeration and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haijun; Cui, Qun; Wu, Juan; Zhu, Yuezhao; Li, Quanguo; Zheng, Kai; Yao, Huqing

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%. - Highlights: • Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. • SAPO-34 with diethylamine as the template shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles, and most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is well maintained. • SAPO-34 has an excellent adsorption performance and a good hydrothermal stability, thus is promising for application in adsorption refrigeration. - Abstract: Hydrothermal stability is one of the crucial factors in applying SAPO-34 molecular sieve to adsorption refrigration. The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Both a vacuum gravimetric method and an intelligent gravimetric analyzer were applied to analyze the water adsorption performance of SAPO-34. Cyclic hydrothermal performance was determined on the modified simulation adsorption refrigeration test rig. Crystal phase, morphology, and porosity of SAPO-34 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} sorption, respectively. The results show that, water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake

  2. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglin, Eric J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is working to develop improved methods for producing high-value hydrocarbon fuels. The development of one such method, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process, is being led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The HTL process uses a wet biomass slurry at elevated temperatures (i.e., 300 to 360°C [570 to 680°F]) and pressures above the vapor pressure of water (i.e., 15 to 20 MPa [2200 to 3000 psi] at these temperatures) to facilitate a condensed-phase reaction medium. The process has been successfully tested at bench-scale and development and testing at a larger scale is required to prove the viability of the process at production levels. Near-term development plans include a pilot-scale system on the order of 0.5 to 40 gpm, followed by a larger production-scale system on the order of 2000 dry metric tons per day (DMTPD). A significant challenge to the scale-up of the HTL process is feeding a highly viscous fibrous biomass wood/corn stover feedstock into a pump system that provides the required 3000 psi of pressure for downstream processing. In October 2011, PNNL began investigating commercial feed and pumping options that would meet these HTL process requirements. Initial efforts focused on generating a HTL feed and pump specification and then providing the specification to prospective vendors to determine the suitability of their pumps for the pilot-scale and production-scale plants. Six vendors were identified that could provide viable equipment to meet HTL feed and/or pump needs. Those six vendors provided options consisting three types of positive displacement pumps (i.e., diaphragm, piston, and lobe pumps). Vendors provided capabilities and equipment related to HTL application. This information was collected, assessed, and summarized and is provided as appendices to this report.

  3. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinbo; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Wu, Lili; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Zou, Ke; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  4. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  5. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.829.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.547.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.451.47, and 1.831.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  6. Hydrothermal oxidation of Navy shipboard excess hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Haroldsen, B.L.; Rice, S.F.; Brown, B.G.

    1997-03-01

    This study demonstrated effective destruction, using a novel supercritical water oxidation reactor, of oil, jet fuel, and hydraulic fluid, common excess hazardous materials found on-board Navy vessels. This reactor uses an advanced injector design to mix the hazardous compounds with water, oxidizer, and a supplementary fuel and it uses a transpiring wall to protect the surface of the reactor from corrosion and salt deposition. Our program was divided into four parts. First, basic chemical kinetic data were generated in a simple, tubular-configured reactor for short reaction times (<1 second) and long reaction times (>5 seconds) as a function of temperature. Second, using the data, an engineering model was developed for the more complicated industrial reactor mentioned above. Third, the three hazardous materials were destroyed in a quarter-scale version of the industrial reactor. Finally, the test data were compared with the model. The model and the experimental results for the quarter-scale reactor are described and compared in this report. A companion report discusses the first part of the program to generate basic chemical kinetic data. The injector and reactor worked as expected. The oxidation reaction with the supplementary fuel was initiated between 400 {degrees}C and 450 {degrees}C. The released energy raised the reactor temperature to greater than 600 {degrees}C. At that temperature, the hazardous materials were efficiently destroyed in less than five seconds. The model shows good agreement with the test data and has proven to be a useful tool in designing the system and understanding the test results. 16 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundarayya, Y. Kumar, K. Ashwini Sondge, Rajesh Srinath, S. Kaul, S. N.

    2014-04-24

    Homogeneous single phase ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO{sub 4} undergoes a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

  9. Preparation of magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-functionalized graphene sheets via a facile hydrothermal method and their adsorption properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Nianwu; Zheng Mingbo; Chang Xiaofeng; Ji Guangbin; Lu Hongling; Xue Luping; Pan Lijia; Cao Jieming

    2011-04-15

    Magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-functionalized graphene sheets (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS) nanocomposites have been synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of inorganic salts and thermal exfoliated graphene sheets. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with sizes of 10-40 nm are well dispersed on graphene sheets. OH{sup -} was recognized as a tie to integrate the inorganic salts with the graphene sheets, which made reaction started and developed on the surface of graphene sheets and formed cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The adsorption kinetics investigation revealed that the adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solution over the as-prepared CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS nanocomposites followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption capacity was examined as high as 71.54 mg g{sup -1}. The combination of the superior adsorption of FGS and the magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be used as a powerful separation tool to deal with water pollution. -- Graphical abstract: OH{sup -} was recognized as a tie to integrate the inorganic salts with the graphene sheets, which made reaction started and developed on the surface of graphene sheets and formed cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on graphene sheets. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. {yields} CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with sizes of 10-40 nm are well dispersed on graphene sheets. {yields} CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS with superior adsorption can be used for water treatment.

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  11. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  12. Faults and gravity anomalies over the East Mesa hydrothermal-geothermal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Carle, S.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed interpretations of gravity anomalies over geothermal systems may be extremely useful for mapping the fracture or fault systems that control the circulation of the thermal waters. This approach seems to be particularly applicable in areas like the Salton Trough where reactions between the thermal waters and the porous sediments produce authigenic-hydrothermal minerals in sufficient quantity to cause distinct gravity anomalies at the surface. A 3-D inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly over the East Mesa geothermal field was made to examine the densified volume of rock. We show that the data not only resolve a north-south and an intersecting northwest structure, but that it may be possible to distinguish between the active present-day hydrothermal system and an older and cooler part of the system. The densified region is compared spatially to self-potential, thermal and seismic results and we find a good concordance between the different geophysical data sets. Our results agree with previous studies that have indicated that the main feeder fault recharging the East Mesa reservoir dips steeply to the west.

  13. Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UVvis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide and study of their optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.; Gharbi, N.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured ZnO were successfully obtained by a hydrothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic precursor and molar ratio are key factors for morphology and particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties were also studied. -- Abstract: Nanostructured ZnO (nanorods, nanoshuttles) have been synthesized by hydrothermal approach using ZnCl{sub 2} or Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as zinc sources and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. Techniques X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the nanostructured zinc oxide. The optical properties of the as-obtained materials were also studied and showing that it is possible to apply the ZnO nanoshuttles and nanorods on the UV filter, photocatalysis, and special optical devices.

  15. Efficient removal rhodamine B over hydrothermally synthesized fishbone like BiVO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xue; Li, Hongji; Yu, Lili; Zhao, Han; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunbo; Zhai, Hongjv

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product was synthesized through hydrothermal method. BiVO{sub 4} sample was characterized by various characterization technologies. Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} presented outstanding photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method without using any surfactant or template. The pH value was found to play an important role in the formation of this morphology. The band gap of the as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample was estimated to be about 2.36 eV from the onset of UVvis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UVvis DRS) of the photocatalyst. The as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample exhibited excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Over this catalyst, the 100% degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) (0.005 mmol L{sup ?1}) was obtained after visible light irradiation (? > 420 nm) for 180 min. This is much higher than that of bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample prepared by solid-state reaction. The reason for the differences in the photocatalytic activities of fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample and bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample was further investigated.

  16. Low temperature hydrothermal maturation of organic matter in sediments form the Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simoneit, B.R.; Grimalt, J.O.; Hayes, J.M.; Hartman, H.

    1987-04-01

    Hydrocarbons and bulk organic matter of two sediment cores located within the Atlantis II Deep have been analyzed. Although the brines overlying the coring areas were reported to be sterile, microbial inputs and minor terrestrial sources represent the major sedimentary organic material. This input is derived from the upper water column above the brines. Both steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons show that extensive acid-catalyzed reactions are occurring in the sediments. In comparison with other hydrothermal or intrusive systems, the Atlantis II Deep exhibits a lower degree of thermal maturation. This is easily deduced from the elemental composition of the kerogens and the absence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of a pyrolytic origin in the bitumen. The lack of carbon number preference among the n-alkanes suggests, especially in the case of the long chain homologs, that the organic matter of Atlantis II Deep sediments has undergone some degree catagenesis. However, the yields of hydrocarbons are much lower than those observed in other hydrothermal areas. The effect of lower temperature and poor source-rock characteristics appear to be responsible for the differences.

  17. The low temperature hydrothermal system of Campiglia, Tuscany (Italy); A geochemical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celati, R.; Grassi, S.; D'Amore, F.; Marcolini, L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Campiglia hydrothermal system which is a low temperature hydrothermal system located in southwestern Tuscany, a region of Italy characterized by intense geothermal activity and by the presence of high temperature exploited geothermal reservoirs. Six water-points, with temperatures ranging between 20 and 47{degrees} C and different chemical and isotopic compositions, are found close to the margins of outcrops of the main regional aquifer formation. Systematic hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic observations and temperature measurements were carried out on the different springs and wells for a period of three years (1984-1986). Constant water characteristics with time were observed in four water-points; two wells had variable trends depending on mixing processes. A groundwater circulation model characterized by flowpaths of different length and depth is suggested by the variety of chemical and isotopic characteristics and is consistent with geothermometry, which indicates temperatures up to 25{degrees} C higher than those measured at the spring emergencies. An important water supply to the system comes from local recharge, although regional circulation may also be present, particularly in the eastern part of the investigated area.

  18. Hydrothermal Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SubTER Crosscut The US Energy Department and National Laboratories have created a crosscutting initiative focused on revolutionizing sustainable subsurface energy production and ...

  19. Hydrothermal Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These geothermal systems can occur in widely diverse geologic settings, sometimes without clear surface manifestations of the underlying resource. In 2008, the U.S. Geological ...

  20. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  1. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobhani, Azam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X

  2. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  3. Preliminary evidence for fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes in ore-forming hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastoe, C.J.; Guilbert, J.M. ); Kaufmann, R.S. )

    1989-03-01

    Chloride from fluid inclusions in hydrothermal minerals is found to have variable and distinctive {delta}{sup 37}Cl values spanning the range -1.1 0/{per thousand} to +0.8 {per thousand}. In Mississippi Valley-type deposits of Tennessee, brines of high (>0{per thousand}) and low (near -1{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 37}Cl are present. High {delta}{sup 37}Cl brines may be saline formation waters, but low {delta}{sup 37}Cl brines remain unexplained. In porphyry copper deposits, both high {delta}{sup 37}Cl (0.8{per thousand}, 0.3{per thousand}) and low {delta}{sup 37}Cl (-1.1{per thousand}, 0.7{per thousand}) hypersaline brines of probable magmatic origin occur. High-salinity magmatic brines with low {delta}{sup 37}Cl values contrast isotopically with high {delta}{sup 37}Cl, less concentrated brines responsible for quartz-sericite-pyrite assemblages.

  4. Process improvement studies on the Battelle Hydrothermal Coal Process. Final report, April 1978-April 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stambaugh, E.P.; Miller, J.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Mezey, E.J.; Smith, R.K.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives results of a study to improve the economic viability of the Battelle Hydrothermal (HT) Coal Process by reducing the costs associated with liquid/solid separation and leachant regeneration. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate process improvements for (1) separating the spent leachant and residual sodium from the coal product, (2) reducing the moisture content of the coal product, and (3) regenerating the leachant. In addition, coal desulfurization experiments were performed and economic studies were conducted to evaluate the impacts of process improvements on coal desulfurization costs. Using countercurrent washing, the optimum washing circuit was composed of four disc-filter stages, six belt-filter stages to separate spent leachant and sodium from the clean coal, and a centrifuge stage to dewater the coal. Several regenerates were found to be effective in removing greater than about 85% of the total sulfide sulfur from the spent leachant: iron carbonate was the leading candidate.

  5. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  6. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  7. Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhe; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Guangci; Hu, Xiaofu; Liu, Chenguang

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► The γ-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ► Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ► Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ► A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the γ-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of anions-doped calcium molybdate red powder phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Shikao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Ji

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Four anion-doped CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphors were prepared by hydrothermal approach. Some samples exhibit nearly spherical morphology and well-distributed fine particles. The red luminescence can be obviously enhanced after certain amount of anion doping. The improved phosphor system is a potential candidate for white LED applications. - Abstract: Applying hydrothermal and subsequent heat-treatment process, CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} was doped with four anions (SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}) to prepare fine red powder phosphors. The introduction of small amount of anions into the host had little influence on the structure, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The anion-doped phosphor samples (except SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) exhibited nearly spherical morphology, and the particle sizes were in the range of 0.30.4 ?m for SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}-doped samples, and 0.81.2 ?m for PO{sub 4}{sup 3?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples. Excited with 395 nm near-UV light, all samples showed typical Eu{sup 3+} red emission at 615 nm, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples enhanced the red luminescence as compared with the individual CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} sample. In particular, relative emission intensity for optimum ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped phosphors reached more than 6-fold that of the commercial red phosphor, which is highly desirable for the powder phosphors used in the solid-state lighting industry.

  9. Characterization of the Aqueous Fractions from Hydrotreatment and Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panisko, Ellen A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Howe, Daniel T.

    2015-03-01

    In this study the aqueous phases resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass and the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis bio-oils were analyzed via TC, COD, GC-MS, GC-FID, HPLC, and ICP-OES to determine the organic and inorganic species present and the quantitative amounts of each. This work is necessary to address a significant knowledge gap in the literature related to the aqueous phases from thermochemical processes. Results showed that water from the hydrotreatment of eight different bio-oils contained less than 1 wt% total carbon, in many cases less than 0.2%. Negligible organic carbon was observed. Hydrothermal liquefaction samples contained between 1-2 wt% carbon, accounting for 34 – 45% of the total carbon sent to the reactor. The majority of this carbon was present as acids, with glycolic acid and acetic acid having the highest concentrations. Alcohols, specifically methanol and ethanol, were also present. Numerous ketones were observed, consisting of mainly acetone and cyclopenta-ones. The amount of the total carbon identified and quantified in the HTL samples ranged from 64 – 82%. Inorganic species present in the HT samples were sodium, silicon, and sulfur. The highest levels of sulfur were observed in the grasses and agricultural residue (corn stover). The HTL samples exhibited much higher inorganic content, with very high levels of sodium and potassium. Alkali and alkali earth metals, as well as sulfur, were also present at levels high enough to raise concerns for the use of catalysts in downstream upgrading or reforming processes.

  10. Eruptive history and petrochemistry of the Bulusan volcanic complex: Implications for the hydrothermal system and volcanic hazards of Mt. Bulusan, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delfin, F.G. Jr.; Panem, C.C.; Defant, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Two contrasting conceptual models of the postcaldera magmatic system of the Bulusan volcanic complex are constructed on the basis of a synthesis of volcanological, petrochemical, and petrologic data. These models predict that hydrothermal convection below the complex will occur either in discrete, structurally-focused zones or over a much broader area. Both models, however, agree that hydrothermal fluids at depth will be highly acidic and volcanic-related. Future ash-fall eruptions and mudflows are likely to affect the area previously chosen for possible drilling. Such risks, combined with the expected acidic character of the hydrothermal system, argue against drilling into this system.

  11. A Roadmap for Strategic Development of Geothermal Exploration Technologies

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: A Roadmap for Strategic Development of Geothermal Exploration Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Roadmap for Strategic Development of Geothermal Exploration Technologies Characterizing productive geothermal systems is challenging yet critical to identify and develop an estimated 30 gigawatts electric (GWe) of undiscovered hydrothermal resources in the western U.S. This paper, undertaken by the U.S. Department of

  12. Luminescent nanocrystals in the rare-earth niobatezirconia system formed via hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Masanori Dozono, Hayato

    2013-08-15

    Luminescent nanocrystals based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}, were hydrothermally formed as cubic phase under weakly basic conditions at 240 C. The lattice parameter of the as-prepared nanoparticles corresponding to the composition of Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7}4ZrO{sub 2} that was estimated as a single phase of cubic gradually increased as the content of europium x increased. The existence of small absorbance peaks at 395 and 466 nm corresponding to the Eu{sup 3+7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}L{sub 6}, and {sup 7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}D{sub 2} excitation transition, respectively, was clearly observed in the diffuse reflectance spectra of the as-prepared samples containing europium. The optical band gap of the as-prepared samples was in the range from 3.5 to 3.7 eV. The photoluminescence spectra of the as-prepared nanocrystals containing europium showed orange and red luminescences with main peaks at 590 and 610 nm, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions of Eu{sup 3+}, respectively, under excitation at 395 nm Xe lamp. The emission intensity corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition increased as heat-treatment temperature rose from 800 to 1200 C. - Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract shows the excitation and emission spectra and a transmission electron microscopy image of nanocrystals (with composition based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}) formed via hydrothermal route. Display Omitted - Highlights: Nanocrystals composed of 50 mol% Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2} was directly formed. The nanocrystals were hydrothermally formed under weakly basic conditions at 240 C. The Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} showed an UV-blue and broad

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds for photovoltaic applications and solar energy conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Murugesan, Sankaran

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to formation of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds, such as bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, via a hydrothermal synthesis process, with the resulting compound(s) having multifunctional properties such as being useful in solar energy conversion, environmental remediation, and/or energy storage, for example. In one embodiment, a hydrothermal method is disclosed that transforms nanoparticles of TiO.sub.2 to bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, optionally loaded with palladium nanoparticles. The method includes reacting titanium dioxide nanotubes with a bismuth salt in an acidic bath at a temperature sufficient and for a time sufficient to form bismuth titanate crystals, which are subsequently annealed to form bismuth titanate nanocubes. After annealing, the bismuth titanate nanocubes may be optionally loaded with nano-sized metal particles, e.g., nanosized palladium particles.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles and their application for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Zhigang; Zheng, Feng; Yu, Hongchun; Jiang, Ziran; Liu, Kanglian

    2013-02-15

    SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles consist of tetragonal nanorods with size readily tunable. Their electrochemical properties and application as anode for lithium-ion battery were evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge testing and cycle voltammetry. SnO{sub 2} nanorod flowers possess improved discharge capacity of 694 mA h g{sup −1} up to 40th cycle at 0.1 C. - Highlights: ► The flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles with tunable size by controlling concentration of SnCl{sub 4}. ► A probable formation mechanism of SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles has been proposed.

  15. The effects of hydrothermal temperature on the photocatalytic performance of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} for hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Fei; Zhu, Rongshu; Song, Kelin; Niu, Minli; Ouyang, Feng; Cao, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} (120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) was prepared. • The activities splitting water to hydrogen under visible light were evaluated. • The activity achieved the best when hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C. • The activity order is related to the surface morphology and surface defects. - Abstract: A series of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal method with different hydrothermal temperatures (120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) and characterized by various analysis techniques, such as UV–vis, XRD, SEM, BET and PL. The results indicated that these photocatalysts had a similar band gap. The hydrothermal temperature had a huge influence on the properties of the photocatalysts such as the BET surface area, the total pore volume, the average pore diameter, the defects and the morphology. The photocatalytic activities of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were evaluated based on photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under visible-light irradiation. The activity order is attributed to the coefficient of the surface morphology and the surface defects. The hydrogen production efficiency achieved the best when the hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C. On the basis of the characterization of the catalysts, the effects of the hydrothermal temperature on the photocatalytic activity of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were discussed.

  16. Temporal relations of volcanism and hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Goff, F. )

    1989-11-01

    Two hydrothermal alteration events (8.07 Ma, one sample; 6.51-5.60 Ma, six samples) related to the waning stages of late Miocene volcanism ({ge} 13 to {le} 5.8 Ma) are recognized at the Cochiti district (southeast Jemez Mountains). Most of the K/Ar dates (0.83 {plus minus} 0.11-0.66 {plus minus} 0.21 Ma, four samples) in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A at Sulfur Springs, Valles caldera, indicate post-Valles caldera hydrothermal alteration. A sample from acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole was too young to be dated by the K/Ar method and is possibly associated with current hot-spring activity and the youngest pulses of volcanism. Oxygen-isotope data from illite/smectite clays in the Cochiti district are zonally distributed and range from {minus}2.15{per thousand} to {plus}7.97{per thousand} (SMOW), depending upon temperature, extent of rock-fluid interaction, and composition. The samples from VC-2A get lighter with depth ({minus}0.20{per thousand} to {plus}1.62{per thousand}). The K/Ar and oxygen-isotope data provide strong evidence that the epithermal quartz-vein-hosted gold-silver mineralization at Cochiti and the sub-ore grade molybdenite at VC-2A were deposited in the late Miocene (5.99-5.60 Ma) and mid-Quaternary ({approximately}0.66 Ma), respectively, by hydrothermal fluids composed primarily of meteoric water.

  17. Comparison of LiMnPO4 made by Combustion and Hydrothermal Syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiajun; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-05-15

    Among the olivine-structured metal phosphate family, LiMnPO{sub 4} exhibits a high discharge potential (4V), which is still compatible with common electrolytes, making it interesting for use in the next generation of Li ion batteries. The extremely low electronic conductivity of this material severely limits its electrochemical performance, however. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to make LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticulate to decrease the diffusion distance. Another is to add a carbon or other conductive coating in intimate contact with the nanoparticles of the main phase, as is commonly done with LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} is highly dependent on the quality of the carbon coatings on the particles [1-2], among other variables. Combustion synthesis allows the co-synthesis of nanoparticles coated with carbon in one step. Hydrothermal synthesis is used industrially to make LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials [3] and affords a good deal of control over purity, crystallinity, and particle size. A wide range of olivine-structured materials has been successfully prepared by this technique [4], including LiMnPO{sub 4} in this study. In this paper, we report on the new synthesis of nano-LiMnPO{sub 4} by a combustion method. The purity is dependent upon the conditions used for synthesis, including the type of fuel and precursors that are chosen. The fuel to nitrate ratio influences the combustion temperature, which determines the type and amount of carbon found in the LiMnPO{sub 4} composites. This can further be modified by use of carbon structural modifiers added during a subsequent (optional) calcination step. Figure 1 shows a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the spherical nano-sized LiMnPO{sub 4} particles typically formed by combustion synthesis. The average particle size is around 30 nm, in agreement with values obtained by the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. The small size of the particles cause the peak

  18. Comparison of LiMnPO4 made by Combustion and Hydrothermal Syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiajun; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-10-12

    Among the olivine-structured metal phosphate family, LiMnPO{sub 4} exhibits a high discharge potential (4V), which is still compatible with common electrolytes, making it interesting for use in the next generation of Li ion batteries. The extremely low electronic conductivity of this material severely limits its electrochemical performance, however. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to make LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticulate to decrease the diffusion distance. Another is to add a carbon or other conductive coating in intimate contact with the nanoparticles of the main phase, as is commonly done with LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} is highly dependent on the quality of the carbon coatings on the particles, among other variables. Combustion synthesis allows the co-synthesis of nanoparticles coated with carbon in one step. Hydrothermal synthesis is used industrially to make LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials and affords a good deal of control over purity, crystallinity, and particle size. A wide range of olivine-structured materials has been successfully prepared by this technique, including LiMnPO{sub 4} in this study. In this paper, we report on the new synthesis of nano-LiMnPO{sub 4} by a combustion method. The purity is dependent upon the conditions used for synthesis, including the type of fuel and precursors that are chosen. The fuel to nitrate ratio influences the combustion temperature, which determines the type and amount of carbon found in the LiMnPO{sub 4} composites. This can further be modified by use of carbon structural modifiers added during a subsequent (optional) calcination step. Figure 1 shows a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the spherical nano-sized LiMnPO{sub 4} particles typically formed by combustion synthesis. The average particle size is around 30 nm, in agreement with values obtained by the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. The small size of the particles cause the peak broadening evident

  19. Flower-like NiO structures: Controlled hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical characteristic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Hui; Chen, Xuan; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Jia, Dianzeng; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Bao, Shujuan; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Zhou, Wanyong

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Flower-like porous NiO was obtained via thermal decomposition of the precursor prepared by a hydrothermal process using hexamethylenetetramine and polyethylene glycol as hydrolysis-controlling agent and surfactant, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of as-synthesized NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the flower-like porous NiO has high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}) with excellent cycling performance as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors (ECs), which may be attributed to the unique microstrcture of NiO. Data analyses indicated that NiO with novel porous structure attractive for practical and large-scale applications in electrochemical capacitors. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Synthesis and characterization of NiO with novel porous structure is presented in this work. ? The electrochemical performance of product was examined. ? NiO with excellent performance as electrode materials may be due to the unique microstrcture. ? NiO with novel porous structure attractive for practical with high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}). -- Abstract: Flower-like porous NiO was obtained by thermal decomposition of the precursor prepared by a hydrothermal process with hexamethylenetetramine and polyethylene glycol as hydrolysis-controlling agent and surfactant, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of as-synthesized NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resulting structures of NiO exhibited porous like petal building blocks. The electrochemical measurements results demonstrated that flower-like porous NiO has high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}) with excellent cycling performance as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

  20. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of titanium dioxide nanotubes as novel lithium adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moazeni, Maryam; Hajipour, Hengameh; Askari, Masoud; Nusheh, Mohammad

    2015-01-15

    The ion exchange process is a promising method for lithium extraction from brine and seawater having low concentrations of this element. To achieve this goal, it is vital to use an effective adsorbent with maximum lithium adsorption potential together with a stable structure during extraction and insertion of the ions. In this study, titanium dioxide and then lithium titanate spinel with nanotube morphology was synthesized via a simple two-step hydrothermal process. The produced Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} spinel ternary oxide nanotube with about 70 nm diameter was then treated with dilute acidic solution in order to prepare an adsorbent suitable for lithium adsorption from local brine. Morphological and phase analysis of the obtained nanostructured samples were done by using transmission and scanning electron microscopes along with X-ray diffraction. Lithium ion exchange capacity of this adsorbent was finally evaluated by means of adsorption isotherm. The results showed titanium dioxide adsorbent could recover 39.43 mg/g of the lithium present in 120 mg/L of lithium solution.

  2. One-step synthesis of titanium oxide nanocrystal- rutile by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Evyan Yang Chia; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2014-09-03

    Pure rutile phase titanium oxides (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystals were synthesized via hydrothermal method with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and water (H{sub 2}O) treated in an autoclave. The particle size and phase assemblages were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Band gap energy (E{sub g}) of the nanocrystals was estimated from the Ultra violet – visible light (UV-vis) absorption spectra. It was demonstrated that TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals can be prepared through increasing of temperature and period of treatment. It is believed that the presence of acid chloride (HCl) as by-product during the hydrolysis played an important role in controlling the growth of morphology and crystal structures. The E{sub g} of the samples were estimated from the plot of modified Kubelka-Munk function were in the range of 3.04 – 3.26eV for the samples synthesized at temperature ranging from 50 to 200°C for 16 hours.

  3. Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system, Leyte Province, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.G.; Giggenbach, W.F.; Saleras, J.R.M.; Salonga, N.D.; Vergara, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    Based on detailed petrological information on secondary mineral assemblages and the composition of fluids trapped in inclusions and discharged from five wells, the Alto Peak geothermal field was found to represent a combined vapor and liquid-dominated system. A central core or chimney, with a diameter of about 1 km, a height of some 3 km and occupied by a high gas vapor (1.1 to 5.6 molal CO{sub 2}), is surrounded by an envelope of intermediate salinity water (7,000 mg/kg Cl) with temperatures between 250 and 350 C. The transition from purely vapor-dominated to liquid-dominated zones takes place via two-phase zones occupied by fluid mixtures of highly variable compositions. Much of the lower temperature, mature neutral pH Cl water is likely to have formed during an earlier stage in the evolution of the system. High temperatures of > 300 C, and associated alteration, are limited to wells AP-1D and the lower parts of AP-2D and are ascribed to re-heating by recent magmatic intrusions. The isotopic composition of the well discharges suggests that they contain some 40 to 50% of magmatic water. Alto Peak is considered a typical example of hydrothermal systems associated with many dormant volcanoes.

  4. Recent reservoir engineering developments at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Recent reservoir engineering developments at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recent reservoir engineering developments at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada Brady's Hot Springs is a hydrothermal area located approximately 28Km northeast of Fernley, Nevada. Surface manifestations of geothermal activity occur along a north-northeast trend fault zone (herein referred to as the Brady Thermal Fault) at the eastern margin of Hot Springs

  5. Geothermal Energy Growth Continues, Industry Survey Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey released by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) shows continued growth in the number of new geothermal power projects under development in the United States, a 20% increase since January of this year.

  6. Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in bisulfate and about one-half-order in initial dextrose concentration, and shows a very strong dependence on pH. The kinetics of sulfate reduction by fructose at 250C are virtually the same. The lack of sulfate reduction by formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 250 C indicates that the reducing power of dextrose and fructose cannot be attributed to carbonyl, carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups. The form of the rate law for sulfate reduction by dextrose and the presence of an induction period rather suggest that the initial reduction of sulfate occurs with free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of the hexoses or their alteration products. The inferred sulfate-reduction reaction mechanism suggest that aqueous sulfate may be reduced to sulfide in geologic environments such as deep sedimentary basins. The observed acid-catalysis of the reaction in the laboratory may be supplanted by clay-mineral catalysis in geologic environments. Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during the reduction of sulfate by dextrose under hydrothermal conditions. Computer simulations of the isotopic evolution of the experiments suggest that sulfate-sulfide isotopic exchange largely controls the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide. The extent of isotopic fractionation due solely to sulfate reduction thus cannot be determined from the experiments

  7. Contact metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals in the SH2 deep well, Sabatini Volcanic District, Latium, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavarretta, G.; Tecce, F.

    1987-01-01

    Metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals were logged throughout the SH2 geothermal well, which reached a depth of 2498 m in the Sabatini volcanic district. Below 460 m of volcanics, where the newly formed minerals were mainly chlorite, calcite and zeolites (mostly phillipsite), drilling entered the Allochthonous Flysch Complex. Evidence of the ''Cicerchina facies'' was found down to 1600 m depth. Starting from 1070 m, down to hole bottom, a contact metasomatic complex was defined by the appearance of garnet. Garnet together with K-fledspar, vesuvianite, wilkeite, cuspidine, harkerite, wollastonite and apatite prevail in the top part of the contact metasomatic complex. Vesuvianite and phlogopite characterize the middle part. Phlogopite, pyroxene, spinel and cancrinite predominate in the bottom part. The 1500 m thick metasomatic complex indicates the presence at depth of the intrusion of a trachytic magma which released hot fluids involved in metasomatic mineral-forming reactions. Minerals such as harkerite, wilkeite, cuspidine, cancrinite, vesuvianite and phlogopite indicate the intrusive melt had a high volatile content which is in agreement with the very high explosivity index of this volcanic district. The system is at present sealed by abundant calcite and anhydrite. It is proposed that most, if not all, of the sulphates formed after reaction of SO/sub 2/ with aqueous calcium species rather than from sulphates being remobilized from evaporitic (Triassic) rocks as previously inferred. The hypothesis of a CO/sub 2/-rich deep-derived fluid ascending through major fracture systems and contrasting cooling in the hottest areas of Latium is presented.

  8. Development and Validation of an Advanced Stimulation Prediction Model for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Develop a true 3D hydro-thermal fracturing and proppant flow/transport simulator that is particularly suited for EGS reservoir creation. Perform laboratory scale model tests of hydraulic fracturing and proppant flow/transport using a polyaxial loading device, and use the laboratory results to test and validate the 3D simulator.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and afterglow luminescence properties of hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres for potential application in drug delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiachi Qin, Qingsong; Hu, Rui; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: We designed a novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} for the first time. Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres with afterglow were prepared by hydrothermal method. Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} is a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery. - Abstract: A novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} with hollow sphere shape and intense afterglow luminescence is prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 C for the first time. The morphology and the sphere growth process of this material are investigated by scanning electron microscopy in detail. The afterglow measurement shows that this hydrothermal obtained material exhibits obvious red afterglow luminescence (550700 nm) of Sm{sup 3+} which can last for 542 s (0.32 mcd/m{sup 2}). The depth of traps in this hydrothermal obtained material is calculated to be as shallow as 0.58 eV. The results demonstrate that although it is necessary to further improve the afterglow performance of the hydrothermal derived hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres, it still can be regarded as a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery.

  10. Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes in hydrothermal sediments: potential influences on sulfur cycling and microbial diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, MM; Hoarfrost, AL; Bose, A; Joye, SB; Girguis, PR

    2013-05-14

    Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C-2), propane (C-3), and butane (C-4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C-1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C-1-C-4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C-1-C-4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75 degrees C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C-2-C-4 alkanes. Maximum C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55 degrees C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C-3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C-4, C-2, and C-1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C-2-C(4)alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C-1 derived from these hydrothermal systems.

  11. Origin of fluids and the evolution of the Atlantis II deep hydrothermal system, Red Sea: Strontium isotope study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anschutz, P.; Blanc, G.; Stille, P.

    1995-12-31

    Atlantis II is the largest and most mineralized of the deeps along the axis of the Red Sea spreading center. Its basaltic substratum is covered by recent layered metalliferous sediments, which precipitated from an overlying brine pool. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio and the strontium concentration of interstitial waters within these sediments range between 0.70708 and 0.70725 and between 43 and 53 ppm, respectively. They are close to what is found for the present-day deep brine pool (0.707105, 45.10 ppm). The strontium concentration and the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of the Atlantis II Deep brines can be derived from those of the interstitial waters of the surrounding Miocene evaporite by hydrothermal interaction with oceanic basaltic rocks at a maximal water/rock ratio 2-3. This water/rock ratio is similar to that calculated for oceanic hydrothermal systems on sediment-free ridges. Interstitial waters show a linear trend on plot of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr vs. 1/Sr. The highest strontium concentration and the most radiogenic interstitial waters correspond to sediment samples enriched in iron and manganese oxide minerals. These waters reflect the diagenetic release of strontium by oxide minerals and initially precipitated at the interface between the brine pool and more radiogenic seawater. The solid fraction of the sediment has {sup 87}sr{sup 86}Sr isotopic compositions intermediate to those of the brines and seawater. The solid fraction of the sediment has {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic compositions intermediate to those of the brines and seawater. The most radiogenic strontium values were observed in samples strongly enriched in marine microbiota. The gradual isotopic evolution in the lowest part of the western basin sediments testifies to the gradual influence of the hydrothermal activity in the deep in the beginning of the Atlantis II Deep sedimentary history. 62 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Recovery Act. Development and Validation of an Advanced Stimulation Prediction Model for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutierrez, Marte

    2013-12-31

    This research project aims to develop and validate an advanced computer model that can be used in the planning and design of stimulation techniques to create engineered reservoirs for Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The specific objectives of the proposal are to; Develop a true three-dimensional hydro-thermal fracturing simulator that is particularly suited for EGS reservoir creation; Perform laboratory scale model tests of hydraulic fracturing and proppant flow/transport using a polyaxial loading device, and use the laboratory results to test and validate the 3D simulator; Perform discrete element/particulate modeling of proppant transport in hydraulic fractures, and use the results to improve understand of proppant flow and transport; Test and validate the 3D hydro-thermal fracturing simulator against case histories of EGS energy production; and Develop a plan to commercialize the 3D fracturing and proppant flow/transport simulator. The project is expected to yield several specific results and benefits. Major technical products from the proposal include; A true-3D hydro-thermal fracturing computer code that is particularly suited to EGS; Documented results of scale model tests on hydro-thermal fracturing and fracture propping in an analogue crystalline rock; Documented procedures and results of discrete element/particulate modeling of flow and transport of proppants for EGS applications; and Database of monitoring data, with focus of Acoustic Emissions (AE) from lab scale modeling and field case histories of EGS reservoir creation.

  13. NREL's Bharathan honored by Geothermal Energy Association - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL's Bharathan honored by Geothermal Energy Association Engineer recognized for development of condenser technology July 2, 2012 Dr. Desikan Bharathan Dr. Desikan Bharathan Dr. Desikan Bharathan, a principal engineer with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has been recognized with a GEA Honors Award by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA). The awards program gives special recognition to companies and individuals who have made notable

  14. Extrinsic and intrinsic properties in metalinsulator transition of hydrothermally prepared vanadium dioxide crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don

    2014-03-01

    The clear insulator (monoclinic-VO{sub 2}) to metal (rutile-VO{sub 2}) transition (IMT) was observed in electrical conductivity and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements at around 340 K, which is IMT temperature (T{sub H}), in the hydrothermally prepared VO{sub 2} crystals. The occurrence of metal to insulator transition (MIT) temperature (T{sub C}) was observed below 333 K during the first resistance measurement cycle in the most of cases. The sudden jump of the electrical resistance at IMT and MIT points was amplified several times than that of the first cycle during the repeated successive thermal cycles (heating and cooling across the IMT and MIT temperatures). T{sub C} and T{sub H} shifted to higher temperature by the repeated successive thermal cycles. This shift and the amplified jump might be related to the mechanical stress between the VO{sub 2} crystals, i.e. extrinsic properties. However, the starting point of MIT, T{sub CS} = ? 336 K, and the starting point of IMT, T{sub HS} = ? 338 K, kept almost constant during the repeated thermal cycles (< 10 times). These two temperatures may be related to the intrinsic properties of the VO{sub 2}: the phase transitions initiated at these temperatures regardless of the number of the repeated thermal cycles. The neat surface of the VO{sub 2} crystals was severely damaged and the average size of particles reduced from 110 nm to 7090 nm after extensively repeated thermal cycles (> 70 times). The damaged surface and the smaller particles, which would be originated from the mechanical stress caused by crystal volume change during the first order transition of the VO{sub 2}, would weaken the electrical conduction path (loosen grain boundaries) between the VO{sub 2} single crystals and would result in the amplified jump at the following MIT. This report may boost the study for the improved stability and lifetime of the VO{sub 2} based electronic devices. - Highlights: The sharp phase transition in

  15. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Novel Zn-Triazole-Benzenedicarboxylate Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hyunsoo; Moureau, David M.; Parise, John B.

    2008-10-03

    Three new metal-organic coordination polymers were synthesized hydrothermally using Zn2+ ion, 1,2,4-triazole, and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC): Zn5(H2O)2(C2H2N3)4(C8H4O4)3 {center_dot} 3.9H2O (1), Zn2(C2H2N3)2(C2H3N3)(C8H4O4) {center_dot} 2.5H2O (2), and Zn4(H2O)2(C2H2N3)4(C8H4O4)2 {center_dot} 14H2O (3). Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their thermal properties were examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Structure 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group with a = 10.192(2) {angstrom}, b = 17.764(4) {angstrom}, c = 24.437(5) {angstrom}, {beta} = 91.19(3){sup o}, and V = 4423.3(15) {angstrom}3. Structure 2 crystallizes in the triclinic P space group with a = 7.797(2) {angstrom}, b = 10.047(2) {angstrom}, c = 13.577(3) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 110.18(3){sup o}, {beta} = 105.46(3){sup o}, {gamma} = 93.90(3){sup o}, and V = 947.0(3) {angstrom}3. Structure 3 crystallizes in monoclinic P21/n space group with a = 13.475(3) {angstrom}, b = 26.949(5) {angstrom}, c = 13.509(3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 95.18(3){sup o}, and V = 4885.7(17) {angstrom}3. In structure 1, the units of the triazole-Zn polyhedra are linked by BDC in a zigzag fashion to create the stacking of phenyl groups along the a axis. In structure 2, both triazole and BDC bridge Zn polyhedra in the (011) plane, resulting in the eight-membered channels along the a axis. In the case of structure 3, the BDC links the Zn polyhedra along the b axis to form a pillared open framework. This structure is the most porous of the compounds presented in this work.

  16. Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing EGS Reservoir |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy EGS Reservoir Monitoring and Modeling Fluid Flow in a Developing EGS Reservoir Project objectives: Better understand and model fluid injection into a tight reservoir on the edges of a hydrothermal field. Use seismic data to constrain geomechanical/hydrologic/thermal model of reservoir. seismic_fehler_fluid_flow.pdf (1.15 MB) More Documents & Publications Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs Detection and

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn vanadate nanosheets and visible-light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.Z. Xie, Y.K.; Pei, Y.Q.; Jiang, Y.X.; Yu, H.Y.; Cai, Z.Y.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. The formation of Mn vanadate nanosheets can be controlled by growth conditions. Mn vanadate nanosheets exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. - Abstract: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route using ammonium metavanadate and Mn acetate as the raw materials, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the Mn vanadate nanosheets are composed of monoclinic MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicates that the nanosheets have the average thickness of about 50 nm, length of 210 ?m and width of 800 nm to 2 ?m. The growth process of the Mn vanadate nanosheets has also been discussed based on the analysis of the roles of the growth conditions on the formation of the Mn vanadate nanosheets. The nanosheets show good photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. About 72.96% MB can be degraded after visible light irradiation for 1 h over 10 mg Mn vanadate nanosheets in 10 mL MB solution with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup ?1}.

  18. Investigation of the long-term performance of betafite and zirconolite in hydrothermal veins from Adamello, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumpkin, G.R.; Day, R.A.; McGlinn, P.J.; Payne, T.E.; Giere, R.; Williams, C.T.

    1999-07-01

    Betafite and zirconolite occur in Ti-rich hydrothermal veins emplaced within dolomite marble in the contact aureole of the Adamello batholith, northern Italy. Zirconolite contains up to 18 wt% ThO{sub 2} and 24 wt% UO{sub 2}, and exhibits strong compositional zoning. Some zirconolite grains were corroded by the hydrothermal fluid. Betafite, the Ti-rich member of the pyrochlore group, often occurs as overgrowths on zirconolite. The betafite is weakly zoned and contains 29--34 wt% UO{sub 2}. In terms of end-members, betafite contains approximately 50 mole percent CaUTi{sub 2}O{sub 7} and is the closest known natural composition to the pyrochlore phase proposed for use in titanate waste forms. Amorphization and volume expansion of the betafite caused cracks to form in the enclosing silicate mineral grains. Backscattered electron images reveal that betafite was subsequently altered along crystal rims, particularly near the cracks. EPMA data reveal little difference in composition between altered and unaltered areas, except for lower totals, suggesting that alteration is primarily due to hydration. The available evidence demonstrates that both betafite and zirconolite retained actinides for approximately 40 million years after the final stage of vein formation. During this time, betafite and zirconolite accumulated a total alpha-decay dose of 3--4 x 10{sup 16} and 0.2--2 x 10{sup 16} {alpha}/mg, respectively.

  19. Natural input of arsenic into a coral-reef ecosystem by hydrothermal fluids and its removal by Fe(III) oxyhydroxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichler, T.; Veizer, J.; Hall, G.E.M.

    1999-05-01

    The coral reef that circles Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, is exposed to the discharge of a hot, mineralized hydrothermal fluid. The hydrothermal fluids have a pH of {approximately}6 and are slightly reducing and rich in As. Seven individual vents discharge an estimated 1500 g of As per day into an area of approximately 50 x 100 m that has an average depth of 6 m. Despite the amount of As released into the bay, corals, clams, and fish do not show a response to the elevated values. The authors analyzed hydrothermal precipitates for their chemical and mineralogical composition in order to determine As sinks. Two mechanisms efficiently control and buffer the As concentration: (1) dilution by seawater and (2) incorporation in and adsorption on Fe(III) oxyhydroxides that precipitate when the hydrothermal fluids mix with ambient seawater. Fe(III) oxyhydroxides contain up to 76,000 ppm As, by an order of magnitude the highest As values found in a natural marine environment. Following adsorption, As is successfully retained in the Fe(III) oxyhydroxide deposits because oxidizing conditions prevail and high As activity allows for the formation of discrete As minerals, such as claudetite, arsenic oxide, and scorodite.

  20. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  1. Correlation of wireline log characteristics with hydrothermal alteration and other reservoir properties of the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal fields, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muramoto, F.S.; Elders, W.A.

    1984-05-01

    A detailed study of wireline logs from 11 wells in the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal systems was undertaken in order to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the response of electrical and gamma-gamma density well logs. For the Salton Sea geothermal field, definite correspondence between log responses and hydrothermal mineralogy is evident, which in turn is related to the physical properties of the rocks. Three hydrothermal and one unaltered zone can be identified from log data on shales. These are: (1) the unaltered montmorillonite zone (<100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C); (2) the illite zone (100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C to 230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C); (3) the chlorite zone (230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C to 290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C); and (4) the feldspar zone (>290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C). The characteristic responses on well logs by which these zones are identified result primarily from changes in clay mineralogy of the shales and increases in density with progressive hydrothermal metamorphism. In the Westmorland geothermal field, differentiating mineral zones from log responses was only partially successful. However, analyses of both well log and petrologic data for wells Landers 1 and Kalin Farms 1 suggest that the former is heating up and the latter is cooling.

  2. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  3. Synthesis of ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite via facile hydrothermal method and their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Wai Kian; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia; Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-03-15

    ZnO composite films consisting of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets were prepared by low-temperature hydrothermal processing at 80 C on seeded glass substrates. The seed layer was coated on glass substrates by solgel dip-coating and pre-heated at 300 C for 10 min prior to hydrothermal growth. The size of the grain formed after pre-heat treatment was ?40 nm. A preferred orientation seed layer at the c-axis was obtained, which promoted vertical growth of the ZnO nanorod arrays and formation of the ZnO nanosheets. X-ray diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) images confirmed that the ZnO nanorods and nanosheets consist of single crystalline and polycrystalline structures, respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite films exhibited band-edge ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission (blue and green) indicating the formation of ZnO crystals with good crystallinity and are supported by Raman scattering results. The formation of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays and two-dimensional (2D) ZnO nanosheet films using seeded substrates in a single low-temperature hydrothermal step would be beneficial for realization of device applications that utilize substrates with limited temperature stability. The ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure demonstrated higher photocatalytic activity during degradation of aqueous methylene blue under visible-light irradiation. -- Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite structure formation by hydrothermal at low-temperature of 80 C against time. Highlights: Novel simultaneous formation of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure. Facile single hydrothermal step formation at low-temperature. Photoluminescence showed ultraviolet and visible emission. Feasible application on substrates with low temperature stability. Improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation.

  4. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Hart, Todd R.

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  5. Surfactant free hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanorods with their microstructure and Raman studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amutha, A.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Amirthapanian, S.; Thangadurai, P.

    2014-04-24

    SnO{sub 2} nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal method without any surfactant. Their microstructure was studied with X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The range of nanorods diameter size is ∼3 to 19 nm. The crystal structure was confirmed to be SnO{sub 2} rutile tetragonal structure. The nanorods were single crystalline in nature as confirmed by HRTEM. Electron energy loss studies were carried out. EELS analysis showed presence SnO{sub 2} phase and SnO phase was not observed. New Raman modes (352 and 579 cm{sup −1}) corresponding to small size effects were observed for the SnO{sub 2} nanorods.

  6. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from

  7. Geothermal Update NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES / NOVEMBER 4, 2013 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Update NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES / NOVEMBER 4, 2013 Geothermal Update NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES / NOVEMBER 4, 2013 GTO-NAS.pdf (1.4 MB) More Documents & Publications GEA Geothermal Summit Presentation … Lauren Boyd Geothermal R&D: The DOE Perspective U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment was addressed at the State of the Industry Geothermal Briefing in Washington, DC on February 24, 2015. Eric Hass, hydrothermal program manager

  8. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhixin; Li Danzhen; Xiao Guangcan; He Yunhui; Xu Yijun

    2012-02-15

    Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method with the temperature ranging from 80 to 195 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the products. It was found that the crystallographic structure and optical property of the products synthesized at different temperatures were almost the same. The degradation of methyl orange (MO) under the visible light irradiation has been used as a probe reaction to investigate the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}, which shows that the ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} sample synthesized at 195 Degree-Sign C shows the best photocatalytic activity for MO degradation. In addition, the photocatalytic activities of all the samples prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method are better than those prepared by a normal hydrothermal method, which could be attributed to the formation of more defect sites during the microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment. - Graphical abstract: Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at 80-195 Degree-Sign C with a very short reaction time of 10 min. The as-prepared ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} sample can be used as visible light photocatalyst for degradation of organic dyes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure and optical property of the products were almost the same. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increment of the temperature renders high surface area due to the bubbling effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} synthesized at 195 Degree-Sign C shows the best visible catalytic activity for MO.

  9. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Resources » Presentations Presentations Energy Department presentations allow stakeholders to learn and engage around innovative technology development. Source: Geothermal Resources Council Energy Department presentations allow stakeholders to learn and engage around innovative technology development. Source: Geothermal Resources Council Douglas Hollett, former office director for the Geothermal Technologies Office, addresses over 1,000 during his keynote address at the annual

  10. Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment" by Yuri Dublyansky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.

    2008-11-17

    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  11. Fluid rare earth element anlayses from geothermal wells located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland and Middle Valley seafloor hydrothermal system on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-05-01

    Results for fluid rare earth element analyses from four Reykjanes peninsula high-temperature geothermal fields. Data for fluids from hydrothermal vents located 2400 m below sea level from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge are also included. Data have been corrected for flashing. Samples preconcentrated using a chelating resin with IDA functional group (InertSep ME-1). Analyzed using an Element magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of 3-D hydrated bismuth oxalate coordination polymers with open-channel structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xinxiang; Cao Yanning; Zhang Hanhui Chen Yiping; Chen Xuehuan; Chai Xiaochuan

    2008-05-15

    Two new 3-D porous bismuth coordination polymers, (C{sub 5}NH{sub 6}){sub 2}[Bi{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 4}].2H{sub 2}O 1 and (NH{sub 4})[Bi(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O 2, have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic symmetry, P2{sub 1}/c space group with a=10.378(2) A, b=17.285(3) A, c=16.563(5) A, {alpha}=90 deg., {beta}=119.66(2) deg., {gamma}=90 deg., V=2581.8(10) A{sup 3}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0355 and wR{sub 2}=0.0658 for unique 4713 reflections I >2{sigma}(I). Compound 2 crystallizes in the tetragonal symmetry, I4{sub 1}/amd space group with a=11.7026(17) A, b=11.7026(17) A, c=9.2233(18) A, {alpha}=90 deg., {beta}=90 deg., {gamma}=90 deg., V=1263.1(4) A{sup 3}, Z=32, R{sub 1}=0.0208 and wR{sub 2}=0.0518 for unique 359 reflections I> 2{sigma}(I). Compounds 1 and 2 are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6{sup 6} uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers, study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by K{sup +} on potassium ion exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the open-channel frameworks are thermally stable up to 200 deg. C, and other characterizations are also described by elemental analysis, IR and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectionintegral spectrum (UV-Vis DRIS). - Graphical abstract: Two novel 3-D extended porous coordination polymers have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. Both compounds are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6{sup 6} uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers. Study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by K{sup +} on potassium ion exchange.

  13. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, M. H.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.

    2015-07-15

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni{sub 59}Zr{sub 20}Ti{sub 16}Si{sub 2}Sn{sub 3} metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO{sub 3}, ZrTiO{sub 4} and ZrSnO{sub 4} ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  14. The Timber Mountain magmato-thermal event: An intense widespread culmination of magmatic and hydrothermal activity at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.R. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    Eruption of the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members Timber Mountain Tuff at about 11.5 and 11.3 Ma, respectively, resulted in formation of the timber Mountain (TM) caldera; new K-Ar ages show that volcanism within and around the TM caldera continued for about 1 m.y. after collapse. Some TM age magmatic activity took place west and southeast of the TM caldera in the Beatty -- Bullfrog Hills and Shoshone Mountain areas, suggesting that volcanic activity at the TM caldera was an intense expression of an areally extensive magmatic system active from about 11.5 to 10Ma. Epithermal Au-Ag, Hg and fluorite mineralization and hydrothermal alteration are found in both within and surrounding the Timber Mountain -- Oasis Valley caldera complex. New K-Ar ages date this hydrothermal activity between about 13 and 10 Ma, largely between about 11.5 and 10 Ma, suggesting a genetic relation of hydrothermal activity to the TM magmatic system.

  15. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phasesmore » changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  16. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  17. Microstructure and magnetic properties of MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Co, Ni, and Mn) ferrite nanocrystals prepared using colloid mill and hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei Ding, Zui; Zhao, Xiruo; Wu, Sizhu; Li, Feng; Yue, Ming; Liu, J. Ping

    2015-05-07

    Three kinds of spinel ferrite nanocrystals, MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Co, Ni, and Mn), are synthesized using colloid mill and hydrothermal method. During the synthesis process, a rapid mixing and reduction of cations with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) take place in a colloid mill then through a hydrothermal reaction, a slow oxidation and structural transformation of the spinel ferrite nanocrystals occur. The phase purity and crystal lattice parameters are estimated by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show the morphology and particle size of the as-synthesized ferrite nanocrystals. Raman spectrum reveals active phonon modes at room temperature, and a shifting of the modes implies cation redistribution in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Magnetic measurements show that all the obtained samples exhibit higher saturation magnetization (M{sub s}). Meanwhile, experiments demonstrate that the hydrothermal reaction time has significant effects on microstructure, morphologies, and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized ferrite nanocrystals.

  18. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume I. Review and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topies covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, Public Utilities Commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  19. Facile fabrication of rutile monolayer films consisting of well crystalline nanorods by following an IL-assisted hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng Peng; Liu Xiaodi; Sun, Chuansheng; Ma Jianmin; Zheng Wenjun

    2009-05-15

    In this study, rutile films consisting of rectangular nanorods were facilely deposited on glass substrates from strongly acid solution of TiCl{sub 4}. The highly ordered array of nanorods was realized in presence of ionic liquid (IL) of [Bmim]Br by following a hydrothermal process. In this process, Degussa P25 nanoparticles served as seeds that were pre-deposited on the substrates to facilitate the array of rutile nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectrum were used to characterize the obtained nanorod films. The measurements showed that the nanorods were rectangular with width of 100-200 nm and length of more than 1 {mu}m, and grew up typically along c-axis to form the arrays against the substrate. The presence of IL was found vital for the formation of rutile nanorods, and the suitable molar ratio of [Bmim]Br to TiCl{sub 4} ranged from 500:1 to 1500:1. The excessive [Bmim]Br may hinder the precipitation of rutile particles. - Graphical abstract: The rutile film consisting of rectangular nanorods is successfully deposited on glass substrate in presence of ionic liquid (IL) of [Bmim]Br. The nanorods were rectangular with width of 100-200 nm and length of more than 1 {mu}m, which grew up typically along c-axis to form the arrays against the substrate.

  20. Partitioning and Leaching Behavior of Actinides and Rare Earth Elements in a Zirconolite- Bearing Hydrothermal Vein System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Hart, Kaye P.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; McGlinn, Peter J.; Giere, Reto

    2007-07-01

    Chemical extraction techniques and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the distribution and behavior of actinides and rare earth elements (REE) in hydrothermal veins at Adamello (Italy). The six samples discussed in this paper were from the phlogopite zone, which is one of the major vein zones. The samples were similar in their bulk chemical composition, mineralogy, and leaching behavior of major elements (determined by extraction with 9 M HCl). However, there were major differences in the extractability of REE and actinides. The most significant influence on the leaching characteristics appears to be the amounts of U, Th and REE incorporated in resistant host phases (zirconolite and titanite) rather than readily leached phases (such as apatite). Uranium and Th are very highly enriched in zirconolite grains. Actinides were more readily leached from samples with a higher content of U and Th, relative to the amount of zirconium. The results show that REE and actinides present in chemically resistant host minerals can be retained under aggressive leaching conditions. (authors)

  1. Laser hydrothermal reductive ablation of titanium monoxide: Hydrated TiO particles with modified Ti/O surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazevska-Gilev, Jadranka; Jandova, Vera; Kupcik, Jaroslav; Bastl, Zdenek; Subrt, Jan; Bezdicka, Petr; Pola, Josef

    2013-01-15

    IR laser- and UV laser-induced ablation of titanium monoxide (TM) in hydrogen (50 Torr) is compared to the same process induced in vacuum and shown to result in deposition of hydrated surface modified nanostructured titanium suboxide films. Complementary analyses of the films deposited in vacuum and in hydrogen by Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy allowed to determine different features of both films and propose a mechanism of surface modification of ejected particles, which involves hydrothermal reduction of TM and subsequent reactions of evolved water. The films exert good adhesion to metal and quartz surfaces and are hydrophobic in spite of having their surface coated with adsorbed water. - Graphical abstract: Laser ablation of titanium monoxide (TiO) in hydrogen involves a sequence of H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O eliminations and additions and yields hydrated amorphous nanostructured titanium suboxide which is richer in oxygen than TiO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR and UV laser ablated particles of titanium monoxide (TiO) undergo amorphization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in vacuum have TiO stoichiometry and are oxidized in atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in hydrogen are hydrated and have more O in topmost layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films modification in hydrogen is explained by reactions in hydrogen plasma.

  2. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of coral-like Au/ZnO catalyst and photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.K.; Lee, G.J.; Davies, S.H.; Masten, S.J.; Amutha, R.; Wu, J.J.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Coral-like Au/ZnO was successfully prepared using green synthetic method. ? Gold nanoparticles were deposited on the ZnO structure using NaBH{sub 4} and ?-D-glucose. ? Coral-like Au/ZnO exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to degrade Orange II. - Abstract: A porous coral-like zinc oxide (c-ZnO) photocatalyst was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The coral-like structure was obtained by precipitating Zn{sub 4}(CO{sub 3})(OH){sub 6}H{sub 2}O (ZnCH), which forms nanosheets that aggregate together to form microspheres with the coral-like structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that after heating at 550 C the ZnCH microspheres can be converted to ZnO microspheres with a morphology similar to that of ZnCH microspheres. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows this conversion takes place at approximately 260 C. A simple electrostatic self-assembly method has been employed to uniformly disperse Au nanoparticles (1 wt.%) on the ZnO surface. In this procedure ?-D-glucose was used to stabilize the Au nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that the diameter of coral-like ZnO microspheres (c-ZnO) is about 8 ?m. X-ray diffraction reveals that the ZnO is highly crystalline with a wurtzite structure and the Au metallic particles have an average size of about 13 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies have confirmed the presence of ZnO and also showed that the Au is present in the metallic state. The photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye, with either ultraviolet or visible light, is faster on Au/c-ZnO than on c-ZnO.

  4. Hydrothermal dolomitization of Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones in the southern Alps (Italy): Relation to tectonics and volcanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervato, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitization has affected up to 750m of the Jurassic and Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the southern continental margin of the Alpine Tethys; the sequence crops out in the southern Alps of Italy (Monti Lessini). Late Paleocene to Miocene extrusion of basaltic tuffs, breccias, and lavas was contemporaneous with the dolomitization was was associated with extensive tectonism in an ancient back-arc basin. More than 200 samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotope ratios (carbon, oxygen, strontium), and clay mineralogy. The dolomite contains 40% to 50% MgCO{sub 3}. In thin sections, the crystal size distribution is unimodal (about 100 {mu}m), possibly indicating a single nucleation for the main crystallization phase. The {delta}{sup 13}C of the dolomite is not appreciably different from the undolomitized pelagic limestone (+1.0{per thousand} to +2.0{per thousand} Peedee belemnite (PDB)). The {delta}{sup 18}O variation (-5.0{per thousand} to -13.0{per thousand} PDB) is due to temperature variation in the system. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in the dolomite (0.70839-0.70867) is consistent with the ratio in late Oligocene-Miocene marine water. Clay minerals in limestone and dolomite differ in the presence of neoformed Mg-chlorite, indicating a maximum temperature of about 150C for dolomitization. The dolomite is suggested to have a hydrothermal origin. The heat flow associated with the volcanism allowed marine water to penetrate the system and circulate in convective cells through the tectonic breccias, locally dolomitizing the limestone.

  5. Model for the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.

    1981-01-01

    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto led to the development of a qualitative model for fluid flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. This one-dimensional model assumes that the heat source was a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compilation of various information of the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1 cm thick sections across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion were considered as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculations of heat transfer. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4 km wide emplaced at a depth of 5 km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system.

  6. Structural and electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlazan, P.; Ursu, D.H.; Irina-Moisescu, C.; Miron, I.; Sfirloaga, P.; Rusu, E.

    2015-03-15

    TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in two stages: first stage is the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and second stage the obtained ZnO nanoparticles are encapsulated in TiO{sub 2}. The obtained ZnO, TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller and resistance measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of both, TiO{sub 2} and ZnO phases in TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. According to transmission electron microscopy images, ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal shapes, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a spherical shape, and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles present agglomerates and the shape of particles is not well defined. The activation energy of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about 101 meV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of XRD, TEM and BET. • Electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated. • The activation energy of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about E{sub a} = 101 meV.

  7. Hierarchical Na-doped cubic ZrO{sub 2} synthesis by a simple hydrothermal route and its application in biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Garca, Hugo A.; Romero-Ibarra, Issis C.; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    2014-10-15

    Hierarchical growth of cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase was successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process in the presence of different surfactants (cationic, non-ionic and anionic) and sodium hydroxide. The structural and microstructural characterizations of different ZrO{sub 2} powders were performed using various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption, scanning electron microscopy and infrared. Results indicated that sodium addition stabilized the cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase by a Na-doping process, independently of the surfactant used. In contrast, microstructural characteristics varied as a function of the surfactant and sodium presence. In addition, water vapor (H{sub 2}O) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sorption properties were evaluated on ZrO{sub 2} samples. Results evidenced that sample surface reactivity changed as a function of the sodium content. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction using the different synthesized samples, obtaining yields of 93%. - Graphical abstract: Hierarchical growth of cubic Na-ZrO{sub 2} phase was synthesized by hydrothermal processes in the presence of surfactants and sodium. Sodium addition stabilized the cubic phase by a Na-doping process, while the microstructural characteristics varied with surfactants. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction. - Highlights: Cubic-ZrO{sub 2} phase was synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process. ZrO{sub 2} structure and microstructures changed as a function of the surfactant. Cubic-ZrO{sub 2} phase was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction.

  8. In situ synthesis of TiH{sub 2} layer on metallic titanium foil through gaseous hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Na; Wang, Guancong; Liu, Hong; Ohachi, Tadashi

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: The reaction mechanism for in situ synthesizing TiH{sub 2} layer on titanium foil by a gaseous hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal methodology. - Highlights: • A dense TiH{sub 2} layer is synthesized by a hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal method. • Hydrogen in a TiH{sub 2} layer synthesized can release at low temperature. • During the dehydrogenation process, there is no any intermediate phase forming. • We report a method of low-cost, low-risk and convenience toward productive TiH{sub 2}. - Abstract: A novel strategy for synthesis of TiH{sub 2} layer on surface of metallic titanium by using an acid-hydrothermal method was proposed. During the synthesis process, no any elemental hydrogen was involved. X-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy results confirmed that a TiH{sub 2} layer of 20 μm thickness on a Ti foil surface can be formed in situ by an interface reaction of metallic titanium with sulfuric acid solution, hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid, which is a hydrogen self-storage process. By tuning reaction parameters, for example, concentration of acid, composition and morphology of TiH{sub 2}-Ti hybrid materials can be adjusted. The TiH{sub 2} layer on a metallic titanium surface can be decompounded completely heated below 400 °C. This convenient, safe and low-cost method is a promising gaseous hydrogen free approach for the synthesis of hydride-based hydrogen storage materials.

  9. Selective hydrothermal synthesis of BiOBr microflowers and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao Peipei; Zhu Lingling; Zhu Yongchun; Qian Yitai

    2011-06-15

    Through controlling the amount of NaOH added, BiOBr and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} with different shapes were hydrothermally synthesized in the reaction system of Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}-hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-NaOH. As 8 mmol of NaOH was added, BiOBr microflowers constructed of nanoflakes were synthesized. The thickness of these single-crystal nanoflakes was about 20 nm. In the similar condition, when the amount of NaOH added was 28 mmol, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces were obtained. The length of these shuttles was 100 {mu}m and the diameter at the middle of these shuttles was 50 {mu}m. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared BiOBr microflowers was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation ({lambda}>420 nm), which was up to 96% within 90 min. - Graphical abstract: Through controlling the amount of NaOH added, BiOBr microflowers and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces were hydrothermally synthesized in the reaction system of Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}-hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-NaOH. Highlights: > BiOBr microflowers constructed of nanoflakes were synthesized hydrothermally. > Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces were also synthesized. > Their formation mechanisms were studied based on the experimental results. > The photocatalytic activity of BiOBr microflowers was evaluated under visible-light irradiation.

  10. TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposite via a facile in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy for visible light photodegradation of eosin Y

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yingliang; Pei, Fuyun Lu, Ruijuan; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene is synthesized via in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are chemically anchored on N-graphene nanosheets. The band gap of TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene is red-shifted from neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. 5-NGT nanocomposite has the best visible light photodegradation performance. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites are synthesized via a facile in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy in order to improve the photocatalytic efficiency for pollutant photodegradation under visible light irradiation. The as-prepared nanocomposites are respectively characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Results indicated that neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have an average diameter about 6.70 nm while TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites synthesized through in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy bear an average diameter of ?1 nm and are anchored on N-graphene nanosheets via chemical bonding. Both neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and chemically anchored TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites take on the crystal type of anatase. The band gap of TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites is red-shifted compared with neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The evaluation of photodegradation performance under visible light irradiation suggested that the nanocomposite with 5 wt% N-graphene content has the best visible light photodegradation performance.

  11. The thermal conductivity of rock under hydrothermal conditions: measurements and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Colin F.; Sass, John H.

    1996-01-24

    The thermal conductivities of most major rock-forming minerals vary with both temperature and confining pressure, leading to substantial changes in the thermal properties of some rocks at the high temperatures characteristic of geothermal systems. In areas with large geothermal gradients, the successful use of near-surface heat flow measurements to predict temperatures at depth depends upon accurate corrections for varying thermal conductivity. Previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of dry rock samples as a function of temperature were inadequate for porous rocks and susceptible to thermal cracking effects in nonporous rocks. We have developed an instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks at temperatures from 20 to 350 °C and confining pressures up to 100 MPa. A transient line-source of heat is applied through a needle probe centered within the rock sample, which in turn is enclosed within a heated pressure vessel with independent controls on pore and confining pressure. Application of this technique to samples of Franciscan graywacke from The Geysers reveals a significant change in thermal conductivity with temperature. At reservoir-equivalent temperatures of 250 °C, the conductivity of the graywacke decreases by approximately 25% relative to the room temperature value. Where heat flow is constant with depth within the caprock overlying the reservoir, this reduction in conductivity with temperature leads to a corresponding increase in the geothermal gradient. Consequently, reservoir temperature are encountered at depths significantly shallower than those predicted by assuming a constant temperature gradient with depth. We have derived general equations for estimating the thermal conductivity of most metamorphic and igneous rocks and some sedimentary rocks at elevated temperature from knowledge of the room temperature thermal conductivity. Application of these equations to geothermal exploration should improve estimates

  12. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of the three-layered sodium cobaltite P3-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x ∼ 0.60)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miclau, M.; Bokinala, K.; Miclau, N.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We report direct synthesis of the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}. • The hydrothermal synthesis of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} involves one step and low temperature. • The yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been builded up to 250 °C. • We propose a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory. • The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of HT-XRD. - Abstract: In order to obtain the layered sodium cobalt oxide materials by hydrothermal synthesis, the yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been built and studied. In the same time, the well-known data of Co–H{sub 2}O system have been extended at 250 °C in basic solution. We had first synthesized directly the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} by a one-step low-temperature hydrothermal method. The rhombohedral structure of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the purity of phases has been confirmed by XPS. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction in 298–873 K range and when the temperature has reached 723 K, the completely transformation of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} in the rhombohedral stable phase α-NaCoO{sub 2} (space group R-3m) was observed. Also, a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory in the hydrothermal process was proposed.

  13. Characterization, properties and catalytic application of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes prepared by ultrasonic-assisted sol-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jinyuan; Wang, Huijuan; Wei, Xiuzhen; Zhu, Liping

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel class of titania nanotubes (TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method using tetrabutyl titanate and ethanol as the precursors. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, BrunauerEmmettTeller method, Differential Scanning Calorimeters-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSCTG) and UVvis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the products was evaluated in terms of reactive brilliant red X-3B in an aqueous solution under UV irradiation for 1 h. The results showed that the catalyst revealed an excellent photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of reactive brilliant X-3B could be up to 96%. Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted sol-hydrothermal method. ? TEM, HRTEM, XRD, and BET were used to study morphology and crystalline structure. ? FTIR, DSC-TG was used to investigate pyrolytic process and phase structure. ? UVvis absorption spectra were used to evaluate the photocatalysis of catalysts. ? Dye degradation result showed that the catalyst had excellent photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: A novel class of titania nanotubes (TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method using tetrabutyl titanate and ethanol as the precursors. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) method, Differential Scanning Calorimeters-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSC-TG) and UVvis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the products was evaluated in terms of reactive brilliant red X-3B in an aqueous solution under UV irradiation for 1 h. The results showed that the anatase nanotubes prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of reactive brilliant X-3B

  14. Biogenic iron oxyhydroxide formation at mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents: Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toner, Brandy M.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Wirth, Richard; Chan, Clara S.; McCollom, Thomas; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-05-22

    Here we examine Fe speciation within Fe-encrusted biofilms formed during 2-month seafloor incubations of sulfide mineral assemblages at the Main Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The biofilms were distributed heterogeneously across the surface of the incubated sulfide and composed primarily of particles with a twisted stalk morphology resembling those produced by some aerobic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms. Our objectives were to determine the form of biofilm-associated Fe, and identify the sulfide minerals associated with microbial growth. We used micro-focused synchrotron-radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping (mu XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu EXAFS), and X-ray diffraction (mu XRD) in conjunction with focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning, and highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and mineralogical composition of an Fe-encrusted biofilm was queried at different spatial scales, and the spatial relationship between primary sulfide and secondary oxyhydroxide minerals was resolved. The Fe-encrusted biofilms formed preferentially at pyrrhotite-rich (Fe1-xS, 0<_ x<_ 0.2) regions of the incubated chimney sulfide. At the nanometer spatial scale, particles within the biofilm exhibiting lattice fringing and diffraction patterns consistent with 2-line ferrihydrite were identified infrequently. At the micron spatial scale, Fe mu EXAFS spectroscopy and mu XRD measurements indicate that the dominant form of biofilm Fe is a short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxide characterized by pervasive edge-sharing Fe-O6 octahedral linkages. Double corner-sharing Fe-O6 linkages, which are common to Fe oxyhydroxide mineral structures of 2-line ferrihydrite, 6-line ferrihydrite, and goethite, were not detected in the biogenic iron oxyhydroxide (BIO). The suspended development of the BIO mineral structure is consistent with Fe(III) hydrolysis and polymerization in the presence of high concentrations of Fe-complexing ligands. We hypothesize that

  15. FTIR study of the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene over UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} nanoballs synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zhengru [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Qidong; Qu, Zhenping; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Ling [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Chen, Guohua [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, photocatalysts of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs were obtained via a hydrothermal treating of commercial P25 in alkaline solution, and then characterized with SEM, XRD, BET and surface photovoltage spectroscopy techniques. The UV-assisted photodegradation of gaseous benzene over P25 and the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs was monitored by an in situ infrared technique. The results demonstrated that the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs in anatase form were more active than commercial P25 in photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous benzene. The promoted activity of the hydrothermal-treated TiO{sub 2} is attributed to the increasing specific surface area and larger band gap induced by the reduced crystallite size. The spectra of FTIR indicated that weakly adsorbed phenol was formed as the reaction progress. Hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs are able to react with photo-produced phenol, which is then retained on the catalyst surface leading to the progressive deactivation of the catalyst in the gas-solid system.

  16. Effects of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Cocations on the Activity and Hydrothermal Stability of Cu/SSZ-13 NH3-SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Yilin; Washton, Nancy M.; Kollar, Marton; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-10-13

    Using a three-step aqueous solution ion-exchange method, cocation modified Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts were synthesized. These catalysts, in both fresh and hydrothermally aged forms, were characterized with several methods including temperature-programmed reduction by H2 (H2-TPR), temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD), and 27Al solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and diffuse reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopies. Their catalytic performance was probed using steady-state standard NH3-SCR. Characterization results indicate that cocations weaken interactions between Cu-ions and the CHA framework making them more readily reducible. By removing a portion of Brønsted acid sites, cocations also help to mitigate hydrolysis of the zeolite catalysts during hydrothermal aging as evidenced from 27Al NMR. Reaction tests show that certain cocations, especially Li+ and Na+, promote low-temperature SCR rates while others show much less pronounced effects. In terms of applications, our results indicate that introducing cocations can be a viable strategy to improve both low- and high-temperature performance of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts.

  17. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Exploration methods are categorized into five groups: Geology Characterizing geology-rock types, structures, faults, and temperatures- is a fundamental step in discovering new ...

  18. A Roadmap for Strategic Development of Geothermal Exploration Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Benjamin R.; Ziagos, John; Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur; Hass, Eric

    2013-02-13

    Characterizing productive geothermal systems is challenging yet critical to identify and develop an estimated 30 gigawatts electric (GWe) of undiscovered hydrothermal resources in the western U.S. This paper, undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO), summarizes needs and technical pathways that target the key geothermal signatures of temperature, permeability, and fluid content, and develops the time evolution of these pathways, tying in past and current GTO exploration Research and Development (R&D) projects. Beginning on a five-year timescale and projecting out to 2030, the paper assesses technologies that could accelerate the confirmation of 30 GWe. The resulting structure forms the basis for a Geothermal Exploration Technologies Roadmap, a strategic development plan to help guide GTO R&D investments that will lower the risk and cost of geothermal prospect identification. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to geothermal@ee.doe.gov.

  19. Hydrothermal chemistry of Th(IV) with aromatic dicarboxylates: New framework compounds and in situ ligand syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegelgruber, Kate L.; Knope, Karah E.; Frisch, Mark; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2008-02-15

    A novel thorium (IV) coordination polymer, Th(C{sub 5}H{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1), has been prepared under the hydrothermal reaction of thorium nitrate tetrahydrate and 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylic acid (H{sub 3}pdc). Compound 1 (orthorhombic, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, a=6.9362(5) A, b=10.7806(8) A, c=17.9915(14) A, Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0210, wR{sub 2}=0.0470) consists of thorium metal centers connected via H{sub 3}pdc linkages to form an overall three-dimensional structure containing {pi}-{pi} interactions between the pyrazole rings. 2,3-Pyrazinedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}pzdc) was explored as well to (1) study the effect of the location of the carboxylic groups around the aromatic ring and (2) produce heterometallic compounds. Thorium (IV) and copper (II) were combined with H{sub 2}pzdc, resulting in an interesting decomposition reaction characterized though the isolation of Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (2) (monoclinic, C2/c, a=13.8507(12) A, b=7.8719(7) A, c=10.7961(16) A, {beta}=118.0310(10){sup o}, Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0160, wR{sub 2}=0.0349), Cu(C{sub 6}H{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}) (3) (monoclinic, C2/c, a=11.499(3) A, b=7.502(2) A, c=7.402(2) A, {beta}=93.892(5){sup o}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0472, wR{sub 2}=0.0745) and Cu(C{sub 5}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}O{sub 2})(NO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O) (4). The capture of these species provides mechanistic evidence for the formation of the oxalate anions observed in 2 via the decarboxylation of H{sub 2}pzdc to yield the linker in 4: 2-pyrazinecarboxylate anions. - Graphical abstract: 3,5-Pyrazoledicarboxylic and 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid were utilized in synthesizing two novel thorium (IV) coordination polymers. Attempts to synthesize a Th-Cu bimetallic compound with 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid resulted in a triphasic mixture (2, 3 and 4, respectively). The oxalate anion observed in Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (2) is theorized to result from decarboxylation of 2

  20. Direct synthesis of Al-SBA-15 containing aluminosilicate species plugs in an acid-free medium and structural adjustment by hydrothermal post-treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Lei; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Na; Lin, Sen; Li, Xiangping; Guo, Peng; Li, Xuebing

    2013-07-15

    A series of Al-SBA-15 with controllable aluminosilicate plug structures inside straight mesopores has been hydrothermally synthesized in a one-step synthesis in an environmentally friendly acid-free medium, using triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as a structure-directing agent, water as solvent, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and aluminum nitrate (Al(NO){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O) as silica and aluminum sources, respectively. The effects of the P123/Si molar ratio in the initial solution and aging temperature on the structural properties of the resulting materials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption at 77 K, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TG), FT-IR spectra and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses. The nature of the Al species and the acidity of the resultant samples were studied by solid state {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and pyridine adsorption measurements. The specific surface area (935–755 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}), pore volume (1.03–0.56 cm{sup 3}g{sup −1}) and especially the concentration and distribution of open type mesopores (0–68% to the total pores) of the synthesized Al-SBA-15 can be controlled by a simple adjustment of the P123/Si molar ratio in the initial solution. Moreover, increasing the aging temperature higher than 363 K can remarkably decrease the formation of plug structures to obtain “open” form mesopores. The observation by TEM of alternate defined gray and white areas inside the mesopores gives the strong evidence of isolated microporous aluminosilicate plugs inside the channels. In addition, a moderate hydrothermal post-treatment can finely modify the mesostructures through the partial or complete dissolution of the aluminosilicate plugs. - Graphical abstract: The plugs-containing structures can be interpreted as the distribution of individual isolated plugs along the mesoporous channel. - Highlights: • Al-SBA-15 with controllable

  1. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  2. A National-Scale Comparison of Resource and Nutrient Demands for Algae-Based Biofuel Production by Lipid Extraction and Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-01

    Algae’s high productivity provides potential resource advantages over other fuel crops. However, demand for land, water, and nutrients must be minimized to avoid impacts on food production. We apply our national-scale, open-pond, growth and resource models to assess several biomass to fuel technological pathways based on Chlorella. We compare resource demands between hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and lipid extraction (LE) to meet 1.89E+10 and 7.95E+10 L yr-1 biofuel targets. We estimate nutrient demands where post-fuel biomass is consumed as co-products and recycling by anaerobic digestion (AD) or catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG). Sites are selected through prioritization based on fuel value relative to a set of site-specific resource costs. The highest priority sites are located along the Gulf of Mexico coast, but potential sites exist nationwide. We find that HTL reduces land and freshwater consumption by up to 46% and saline groundwater by around 70%. Without recycling, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) demand is reduced 33%, but is large relative to current U.S. agricultural consumption. The most nutrient-efficient pathways are LE+CHG for N and HTL+CHG for P (by 42%). Resource gains for HTL+CHG are offset by a 344% increase in N consumption relative to LE+CHG (with potential for further recycling). Nutrient recycling is essential to effective use of alternative nutrient sources. Modeling of utilization availability and costs remains, but we find that for HTL+CHG at the 7.95E+10 L yr-1 production target, municipal sources can offset 17% of N and 40% of P demand and animal manures can generally meet demands.

  3. Flower-like nanostructure MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (M = Mn, Zn) with high surface area: Hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xue; Jing, Yan; Yang, Jia; Ju, Jing; Cong, Rihong; Gao, Wenliang; Yang, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} was prepared by a mild two-step hydrothermal method. • Their flower-like nanostructure morphology was studied by SEM and TEM. • High BET surface areas for MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (∼50 m{sup 2}/g) and ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (∼100 m{sup 2}/g). • Band gap energies were estimated by UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. • Photocatalytic activities were evaluated under UV-light irradiation. - Abstract: Nano-scaled MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (M = Mn, Zn) was successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal method. It is important to control the exact pH of the reaction solution in order to obtain pure products. The as-prepared samples both crystallize in the columbite structure. Interestingly, the products possess a flower-like morphology in a pseudo-six-fold symmetry, which is in fact arrayed by two-dimensional nanosheets. Their surface areas (51 m{sup 2}/g for MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and 103 m{sup 2}/g for ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are about 25–50 times of those prepared by solid state reaction. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra show the nano-scaled sample has a stronger absorption and a narrower band gap than its bulk form. The estimated band gap energies are 2.70 eV (MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) and 3.77 eV (ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}), respectively. The nano-scaled ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} exhibits a double enhancement of photocatalytic activity in the decolorization of methylene blue than bulk ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zima, Tatyana; Baklanova, Natalya; Bataev, Ivan

    2013-02-15

    Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments-nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The typical images of hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence chitosan and mixed chitosan with aminoterephthalic acid. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various shapes of TiO{sub 2} based structures can be produced in the presence of organic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An addition of chitosan results in the formation of the elongated nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures have multilayered morphology and increased distance between layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different agglomerates are formed when chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid are mixed.

  5. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Models - About...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    both hydrothermal and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) power generation projects based on exploration and drilling activities, power plant construction, and ongoing operations. ...

  6. Geothermal Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Creation of significant, accessible, and sustainable surface areasvolumes for mining the ... of Figure 1.3. Although the technical evolution to EGS from hydrothermal geothermal ...

  7. Development Wells At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Suemnicht...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the geothermal power plants. References Gene A. Suemnicht, Michael L. Sorey, Joseph N. Moore, Robert Sullivan (2007) The Shallow Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera,...

  8. Recovery Act. Development and Validation of an Advanced Stimulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydro-thermal fracturing simulator that is particularly suited for EGS ... results to test and validate the 3D simulator. 3) Perform discrete elementparticulate ...

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate via a metastable one-dimensional phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Khainakova, Olena A.; Espina, Aránzazu; Amghouz, Zakariae; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Alfonso, Belén F.; Blanco, Jesús A.; García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-05-15

    A two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, formulated as (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.1165(3) Å, b=26.2301(10) Å, c=8.3595(4) Å, and β=110.930(5)°) and the hydrogen atom positions were optimized by DFT calculations. A single-crystal corresponding to one-dimensional metastable phase, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D), was also isolated and the crystal structure was determined (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.9120(6) Å, b=14.0290(1) Å, c=12.2494(5) Å, and β=130.884(6)°). The bulk was characterized by chemical (C–H–N) analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), powder X-ray thermodiffractometry (HT-XRD), transmission electron microscopy (STEM(DF)-EDX and EFTEM), and thermal analysis (TG/SDTA-MS), including activation energy data of its thermal decomposition. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), have been reported. The crystal structure of a one-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D) a metastable phase during the hydrothermal synthesis, was also determined. The thermal behavior of 2D compound is strongly dependent on the selected heating rate and the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Highlights: • A 2D piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate has been synthesized and characterized. • Crystal

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of urchin-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures and their electrochemical sensing performance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkaoui, Sami; Haddaoui, Marwa; Dhaouadi, Hassouna; Raouafi, Noureddine; Touati, Fathi

    2015-08-15

    Nanostructured tricobalt tetraoxide, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, was hydrothermally synthesized starting from cobalt dichloride hexahydrate (CoCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O) and urea (H{sub 2}NCONH{sub 2}) as precursor and polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) as a structure-directing agent. Uniform urchin-like nanostructures were hydrothermally obtained at 150 °C for 16 h, and the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} morphology did not collapse after a subsequent calcination at 300 °C for 2 h. XRD measurements indicated that the average sizes of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles prior and after heating at 300 °C are 64 and 44 nm, respectively. This material has been successfully used for the nanostructuration of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) which were used for the sensitive electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The sensor is endowed with a large dynamic range (0.1 to 50 µM) and a limit of detection of 0.145 µM. The as obtained results show that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanomaterial could be a candidate to be used as sensors for the detection of analytes. - Graphical abstract: The nanowires appear to have a common center and grow to the outside along the radial direction. - Highlights: • Nanostructured was hydrothermally prepared using PEG-400. • Uniform urchin-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures were hydrothermally obtained. • X-ray diffraction showed a cubic structure after calcinations process. • Nanostructured Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was used for the sensitive electrochemical detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2.} • The sensor is endowed with a large dynamic range 0.1 to 50 µM.

  11. Effect of calcination temperature on structural and photocatalyst properties of nanofibers prepared from low-cost natural ilmenite mineral by simple hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpraditpan, Athapon; Wirunmongkol, Thanakorn; Pavasupree, Sorapong; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Nanofibers were prepared from low-cost ilmenite mineral via simple hydrothermal. High photocatalyst nanofibers were prepared via post heat treatment method. The nanofibers calcined at 100700 C for 2 h maintained nanofiber structure. The calcined nanofibers at 400 C showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanate nanofibers were synthesized via the hydrothermal method (120 C for 72 h) using natural ilmenite mineral (FeTiO{sub 3}) as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) for specific surface area. The nanofibers were 2090 nm in diameter and 27 ?m in length. The as-synthesized nanofibers calcined at 300400 C showed TiO{sub 2} (B) whereas the nanofibers calcined at 500 C revealed a mixture of two phases of TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase. The nanofibers calcined at high temperature of 6001000 C showed a mixture of tri-crystalline of anatase, rutile, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The rutile phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The nanofibers calcined at 300700 C maintained their structure while the morphology of the nanofibers calcined at 8001000 C transformed into submicron rod-like structure. This increase of calcination temperature led to the phase transformation from thermodynamically metastable anatase to the most stable form of rutile phase. The crystallite size of prepared samples increased with increasing calcination temperature. Interestingly, with increasing calcination temperature, the absorption edge of the prepared samples shows an obvious shift to visible light region due to the change of crystallite phase and increased crystallite size. Therefore, the band gap energy of the prepared samples became narrower with increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the

  12. The Geothermal Technologies Office Congratulates this Year's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Geothermal Technologies Office Congratulates this Year's GEA Honors Awardees The Geothermal Technologies Office Congratulates this Year's GEA Honors Awardees December 11, 2013...

  13. Geothermal Energy Association Recognizes the National Geothermal Data System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) announced today the winners of their 2014 GEA Honors, which recognizes companies, projects, and individuals who have demonstrated outstanding achievement in...

  14. Senate Energy Committee Passes New Geothermal Legislation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Senate Energy Committee moved the ball forward for geothermal energy by passing two important geothermal measures, S. 1142 and S. 1149, on December 15. "These two measures will support exploration drilling, expand geothermal research into heating uses, and expedite leasing and development," remarked GEA Executive Director Karl Gawell.

  15. Integrated model for the natural flow regime in the Cerro Prieto hydrothermal system, B. C. , Mexico, based upon petrological and isotope geochemical criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of cuttings and core at Cerro Prieto have now been extended to more than 50 boreholes. The aims of this petrological and isotopic work are to determine the shape of the reservoir, its physical properties, and its temperature distribution and flow regime before the steam field was produced. A map showing the first occurrence of hydrothermal epidote shows a dome-shaped top to the steam-producing zone. The hottest of the mapped mineral zones - the biotite vermiculite zone - shows a dome displaced to the northeast relative to the epidote zone. Patterns of mineral zones observed in wells are consistent with patterns of oxygen isotopic ratios in calcite and quartz. Using both criteria all of the boreholes so far studied were classified as belonging to one of four different regimes. These are: (a) the thermal plume of upward flowing water close to boiling, marked by a regular sequence of prograde mineral zones and large isotopic shifts; (b) the discharge system where fluid leaks to the surface, as indicated by the occurrence of only a few low temperature mineral zones, which extend over large depth intervals with little isotope exchange; (c) the horizontal flow zone, in which boreholes penetrate reversals of both mineral zones and isotope shifts with increasing depth; and (d) the recharge zone where cold water is descending. Plotting these four types of boreholes on a map reveals a simple, consistent, pattern. This is interpreted to have been produced by a thermal plume dipping at 45/sup 0/ to the northeast.

  16. Microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Gyawali, Gobinda; Sekino, Tohru; Wohn Lee, Soo

    2013-01-15

    Simulated solar light responsive Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} composite photocatalyst was synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal process. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and BET surface area analyzer to investigate the crystal structure, morphology, chemical composition, optical properties and surface area of the composite photocatalyst. This photocatalyst exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation. Dye degradation efficiency of composite photocatalyst was found to be increased significantly as compared to that of the commercial WO{sub 3} nanopowder. Increase in photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was explained on the basis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect caused by the silver nanoparticles present in the composite photocatalyst. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic experiment was performed under simulated solar light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite photocatalyst was very active as compared to WO{sub 3} commercial powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPR effect due to Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photocatalytic activity.

  17. Microwave hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic activity of AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} for the degradation of dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Wenjuan; Li Danzhen; Sun Meng; Shao Yu; Chen Zhixin; Xiao Guangcan; Fu Xianzhi

    2010-10-15

    AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} powders were successfully synthesized by a microwave hydrothermal method for the first time. This method is a mild and highly efficient route involves no templates, catalysts, or surfactants. Therefore, it is very promising for the low-cost and large-scale industrial production. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} nanoparticles was investigated through the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. Compared with TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} has exhibited a superior activity under the same condition. A liquid chromatogram-mass spectrometer was used to separate and identify the dye and degradation products generated during the reaction. According to the experiment results, a possible mechanism for the degradation of organic pollutant over AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} was proposed. - Graphical abstract: Compared with TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} has exhibited a superior activity under the same condition.

  18. Development of a Plan to Implement Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) in the Animas Valley, New Mexico - Final Report - 07/26/2000 - 02/01/2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schochet, Daniel N.; Cunniff, Roy A.

    2001-02-01

    The concept of producing energy from hot dry rock (HDR), originally proposed in 1971 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, contemplated the generation of electric power by injecting water into artificially created fractures in subsurface rock formations with high heat flow. Recognizing the inherent difficulties associated with HDR, the concept of Enhanced Geothermal Systems was proposed. This embraces the idea that the amount of permeability and fluid in geothermal resources varies across a spectrum, with HDR at one end, and conventional hydrothermal systems at the other. This report provides a concept for development of a ''Combined Technologies Project'' with construction and operation of a 6 MW (net) binary-cycle geothermal power plant that uses both the intermediate-depth hydrothermal system at 1,200 to 3,300 feet and a deeper EGS capable system at 3,000 to 4,000 feet. Two production/injection well pairs will be drilled, one couplet for the hydrothermal system, and one for the E GS system. High-pressure injection may be required to drive fluid through the EGS reservoir from the injection to the production well.

  19. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model Geothermal User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.; Augustine, C.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-09-01

    The Geothermal Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an Excel-based user-friendly tools that estimates the economic impacts of constructing and operating hydrothermal and Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) power generation projects at the local level for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Model Geothermal User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in using and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted.

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oil and Hydrotreated Product from Pine Feedstock Characterized by Heteronuclear Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Cort, John R.; Hallen, Richard T.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) crude oil and hydrotreated product from pine tree farm waste (forest product residual, FPR) have been analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes and high-resolution twodimensional heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. FT-ICR MS resolves thousands of compounds in complex oils and provides unparalleled compositional details for individual molecules for identification of compound class (heteroatom content), type (number of rings plus double bonds to carbon or double bond equivalents (DBE) and carbon number (degree of alkylation). Heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy provides one-bond and multiple-bond correlations between pairs of 1H and 13C chemical shifts that are characteristic of different organic functional groups. Taken together this information provides a picture of the chemical composition of these oils. Pyrolysis crude oil product from pine wood was characterized for comparison. Generally, pyrolysis oil is comprised of a more diverse distribution of heteroatom classes with higher oxygen number relative to HTL oil as shown by both positive- and negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS. A total of 300 N1, 594 O1 and 267 O2 compounds were observed as products of hydrotreatment. The relative abundance of N1O1, N1O2, N1O3, N2, N2O1, N2O2 and O3 compounds are reduced to different degrees after hydrotreatment and other higher heteroatom containing species (O4-O10, N1O4, N1O5 and N2O3) are completely removed by hydrotreatment.

  1. sustainable development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sustainable development - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Hydrogen Infrastructure Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells ...

  2. Fabrication of free-standing NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoarrays via a facile modified hydrothermal synthesis method and their applications for lithium ion batteries and high-rate alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Qingyun Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Youming

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal-synthesized NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays exhibit porous structure and high capacity as well as good cycling life for lithium ion batteries and alkaline batteries. - Highlights: • Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays are prepared by a hydrothermal method. • NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show high capacity and good cycling life. • Porous nanoflake arrays structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays on nickel foam are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflakes with thicknesses of ∼25 nm grow vertically to the nickel foam substrate and form an interconnected porous network with pore diameters of 50–500 nm. As anode material of LIBs, the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show a high initial coulombic efficiency of 76%, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity of 880 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1}, and 523 mAh g{sup −1} at 1.5 A g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. As the cathode of alkaline batteries, a high capacity of 95 mAh g{sup −1} is achieved at 2 A g{sup −1} and 94% retention is maintained after 10,000 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique nanoflake arrays structure with large surface area and shorter diffusion length for mass and charge transport.

  3. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Behavior in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Reimus, P. W.; Newell, D.; Watson, Tom B.

    2010-06-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the United States while incurring minimal environmental impacts. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distributions, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for commercial development of geothermal energy. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. Modeling capabilities are being developed as part of this project to support laboratory and field testing to characterize engineered geothermal systems in single- and multi-well tests using tracers. The objective of this report is to describe the simulation plan and the status of model development for simulating tracer tests for characterizing EGS.

  4. Economic Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economic Development Economic Development Los Alamos is committed to investing and partnering in economic development initiatives and programs that have a positive impact to stimulate business growth that creates jobs and strengthens communities in Northern New Mexico. September 20, 2013 R&M Construction from Santa Clara Pueblo is a 2015 Native American Venture Acceleration Fund recipient. R&M Construction from Santa Clara Pueblo is a 2015 Native American Venture Acceleration Fund

  5. Program Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation covers how to go about developing a human reliability program. In particular, it touches on conceptual thinking, raising awareness in an organization, the actions that go into developing a plan. It emphasizes evaluating all positions, eliminating positions from the pool due to mitigating factors, and keeping the process transparent. It lists components of the process and objectives in process development. It also touches on the role of leadership and the necessity for audit.

  6. Technology Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Developing advanced materials such as novel coatings and composites. Defining and validating control strategies for wave energy converters (WECs) to improve power performance. ...

  7. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng; Li Danzhen; Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi

    2012-06-15

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  8. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.; Begg, J.; Boggs, M.; Dai, Z.; Kersting, A. B.

    2015-05-27

    across a range of temperatures (25-200 °C) that represent hydrothermal conditions representative of the underground nuclear test cavities (when groundwater has re-saturated the nuclear melt glass and glass dissolution occurs). Colloid loads and Pu concentrations were monitored along with the mineralogy of both the colloids and the secondary mineral phases. The intent was to establish an upper limit for Pu concentrations at the NNSS, provide context regarding the Pu concentrations observed at the NNSS to date and the Pu concentrations that may be observed in the future. The results provide a conceptual model for the risks posed by Pu migration at the NNSS.

  9. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  10. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the underlying resource.1 Occurrence Models "To search efficiently for blind geothermal systems, general geographic regions must first be identified based upon...

  11. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  12. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    those promising locations to focus exploration efforts and investment. In so doing, such models can increase the expected success rate of exploratory drilling, reduce risk, and...

  13. Hydrothermal Reservoirs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 km below the Earth's surface where there is heat, water and a permeable material (permeability in rock formations results from fractures, joints, pores, etc.). Often,...

  14. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of Wet Wastes James Oyler July 2014 Slide 1 Slide 2 Q: What is possible with Waste-to-Energy (WTE)? A: Up to 25% of US Liquid Fuel Supply. 25% Sounds High-Is That Possible? * Available technology and wet wastes can start toward this goal now * 285,000 barrels of oil per day by 2025 - 3.3 million bbl/d by 2045 (17% of US demand); also produces more than 6 million MCF/d of methane - Continue growing to 25% of US demand by adding more feedstocks (chart shown later) * Using wastes solves

  15. Software Developers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Because SEED will provide a common, open-source data framework, software developers will be able to write applications that access the data in a consistent way (with proper permissions), or build functionalities onto the SEED platform in a replicable way.

  16. Leadership Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Leadership & Development Programs are designed to strengthen the participant’s capacity to lead by deepening their understanding of the DOE’s core values and key leadership characteristics and behaviors, which is the foundation of our model for success.

  17. A highly coercive carbon nanotube coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Huiqun; Zhu Meifang Li Yaogang; Liu Jianhong; Ni Zhuo; Qin Zongyi

    2007-11-15

    Novel magnetic composites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process. The composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), etc. A temperature of about 200 deg. C was identified to be an appropriate hydrothermal condition to obtain Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs, being lower than the synthesis temperature of a single-phase Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. The sizes of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the composites were smaller than those of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals in single phase. The composites exhibited more superparamagnetic than Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals in their relaxation behaviors. The magnetic properties measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the composites had a high coercive field of 386.0 Oe at room temperature, higher than those of MWCNT and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. - Graphical abstract: Novel magnetic composites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process. The composites had a high coercive field of 386.0 Oe, higher than those of MWCNT and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals.

  18. Instrument Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud and Aerosol Characterization for the ARM Central Facility: Multiple Remote Sensor Techniques Development K. Sassen Department of Meteorology University of Utah Salt lake City, UT 84112 overcome the poor data-handling capabilities that handi- capped multiple-channellidar studies in the past. The true diversity of transmitted and received polarization states of our system is illustrated at the bottom of Table 1. Note that the first full POL field tests will be made at the upcoming 1991

  19. Geology, hydrothermal petrology, stable isotope geochemistry, and fluid inclusion geothermometry of LASL geothermal test well C/T-1 (Mesa 31-1), East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, K.R.; Elders, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    Borehole Mesa 31-1 (LASL C/T-1) is an 1899-m (6231-ft) deep well located in the northwestern part of the East Mesa Geothermal Field. Mesa 31-1 is the first Calibration/Test Well (C/T-1) in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. The purpose of this study is to provide a compilation of drillhole data, drill cuttings, well lithology, and formation petrology that will serve to support the use of well LASL C/T-1 as a calibration/test well for geothermal logging. In addition, reviews of fluid chemistry, stable isotope studies, isotopic and fluid inclusion geothermometry, and the temperature log data are presented. This study provides the basic data on the geology and hydrothermal alteration of the rocks in LASL C/T-1 as background for the interpretation of wireline logs.

  20. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} and its defect chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Woodward, David I.; Peel, Martin D.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-11-15

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} (0?x?1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce{sup 3+} there is evidence for Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetic Ce{sup 3+} affects the chemical shift and line width of {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. {sup 2}H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D{sub 2}O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D{sub 2}O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce{sup 4+} to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce{sup 3+} on the {sup 23}Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from {sup 2}H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetism of Ce{sup 3+} shifts and broadens the {sup 23}Na solid-state NMR. The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect.

  1. Novel Y doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst: Hydrothermal fabrication, characterization and enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B degradation and photocurrent generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ranran; Huang, Hongwei; Tian, Na; Zhang, Yihe; Guo, Yuxi; Zhang, Tierui

    2015-03-15

    Visible-light-driven (VLD) Yttrium (Y) ion doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route. Incorporation of Y{sup 3} {sup +} into Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} lattice was successfully confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ICP analysis. The microstructure and optical property of the as-prepared samples have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic experiments indicated that the Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} showed a much higher photocatalytic activity than the pristine Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and photocurrent (PC) generation. This enhancement should be ascribed to the slightly increased band gap and the generated defects by Y{sup 3} {sup +} doping, thus resulting in a much lower recombination rate of the photoinduced electrons and holes. Such a process was verified by the photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In addition, the active species trapping experiments indicated that holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) play important roles in the photocatalytic reaction. - Highlights: • Novel Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst has been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. • Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} exhibits a much higher photocatalytic activity than pristine Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • Holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) are the two main active species. • Y{sup 3} {sup +} ion can result in a low recombination of photogenerated electron and hole.

  2. Nozzle development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, F.T.; Dodge, L.G.; Johnson, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this program has been the development of experimental techniques and data processing procedures to allow for the characterization of multi-phase fuel nozzles using laboratory tests. Test results were to be used to produce a single value coefficient-of-performance that would predict the performance of the fuel nozzles independent of system application. Several different types of fuel nozzles capable of handling multi-phase fuels have been characterized for: (a) fuel flow rate versus delivery pressure, (b) fuel-air ratio throughout the fuel spray or plume and the effective cone angle of the injector, and (c) fuel drop- or particle-size distribution as a function of fluid properties. Fuel nozzles which have been characterized on both single-phase liquids and multi-phase liquid-solid slurries include a variable-film-thickness nozzle, a commercial coal-water slurry (CWS) nozzle, and four diesel injectors of different geometries (tested on single-phase fluids only). Multi-phase mixtures includes CWS with various coal loadings, surfactant concentrations, and stabilizer concentrations, as well as glass-bead water slurries with stabilizing additives. Single-phase fluids included glycerol-water mixtures to vary the viscosity over a range of 1 to 1500 cP, and alcohol-water mixtures to vary the surface tension from about 22 to 73 dyne/cm. In addition, tests were performed to characterize straight-tube gas-solid nozzles using two differences size distributions of glass beads in air. Standardized procedures have been developed for processing measurements of spray drop-size characteristics and the overall cross-section average drop or particle size. 43 refs., 60 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Development of a Geothermal Well Database for Estimating In-Field EGS Potential in the State of Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillary Hanson; Greg Mines

    2001-09-01

    A database containing information on full-sized geothermal wells at hydrothermal power plants was developed. The goal of the database development was to identify the name, location, and status of all full-sized geothermal wells drilled to date. Early design and population of the database focused on wells at hydrothermal power plants in Nevada. The database was created by aggregating and cleaning data from publicly available datasets. The database was designed to track data sources for each well data point, so that information in the database can be traced back to its original source. The initial database was then examined for missing or possibly erroneous data. These data points were further investigated and corrected using original source documents, such as well logs, permitting documents, etc. when possible, and the data source of the information updated as well. The resulting database design allows for the database to be continually updated and improved as new information becomes available, and for original data sources to be identified and consulted when conflicting or erroneous information about a well is uncovered, or if further information about the data point from the original data source is desired. The geothermal well database is still being developed, and future plans call for adding wells from geothermal installations in remaining US states. Although still in development, analysis of the database has yielded some promising results. A preliminary version of the database was used to create maps of the well fields for select power plant sites in Nevada. It was demonstrated that the status of existing wells and their location relative to productive wells can be used to help determine candidate wells for in-field EGS applications: existing wells that can be stimulated to increase their permeability and/or connect them to the existing reservoir so that they can be re-purposed as production or injection wells. These maps and the information in the geothermal

  4. Geothermal Industry Ends 2012 on a High Note | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ends 2012 on a High Note Geothermal Industry Ends 2012 on a High Note December 18, 2012 - 12:14pm Addthis Year-end highlights include new domestic projects, international development and policy benchmarks Washington, D.C. - The past 12 months saw continued economic challenges for many American industries, including those in the renewable energy field, but the country's geothermal community witnessed a year of growth, both domestically and abroad. The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) today

  5. Technological Advancements Paving the Way for Geothermal Growth |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Technological Advancements Paving the Way for Geothermal Growth Technological Advancements Paving the Way for Geothermal Growth February 12, 2013 - 2:47pm Addthis Preliminary results show an increase in 2012 year-end geothermal capacity Washington, D.C. (Geothermal Energy Association) - As the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) prepares to release its annual development report at the State of the Geothermal Energy Industry Briefing on February 26 in Washington,

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanotubes for enhanced photoluminescence properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Linhui; Wang, Guangfa; Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Weijie; Ou, Guofu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes. • Hydrothermal synthesis of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanostructures assissted with a further heat treatment. • Tunable coating ratios of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphor. • Enhanced photoluminescence intensity of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} more than 60% by Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface coating. - Abstract: Novel Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanotubes with different coating ratios were synthesized successfully by a facile two-step process, including hydrothermal synthesis of Y(OH){sub 3} coated Y(OH){sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} as precursors and then calcination of them at 1000 °C for 2 h. X-ray diffraction patterns and field emission scanning electron microscope images indicated these Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors possess tubular nanostructures. The photoluminescence properties of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} were systematically investigated by photoluminescence spectra, and photoluminescence enhancement was observed after proper coating. In other words, the coating ratio played a crucial role in photoluminescence efficiency. When it was 1/9, the photoluminescence intensity of {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} emission (about 613 nm) was 60% higher than that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+} phosphors under 255 nm excitation. Therefore, surface coating may be an alternative route for enhanced photoluminescence properties of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} red-emitting phosphor.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a new inorganic/organic hybrid of scandium sulfate: (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Jianjiang [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: j.lu@anl.gov; Schlueter, John A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Geiser, Urs [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The first organically templated layered structure of scandium sulfate, (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}, (en=ethylenediamine) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the title compound, scandium ions are bridged by sulfate groups with a ratio of 1:2 into a 4{sub 3}{sup 6} layer structure. These layers are parallel packed and separated from each other by ethylenediammonium dications and water molecules. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c, with cell parameters a=8.5966(13)A, b=5.1068(8)A, c=18.847(3)A, {beta}=91.210(3){sup o}, V=827.2(2)A{sup 3} and Z=2. Refinement gave R{sub 1}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0354 and wR{sub 2}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0878. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that this material is thermally stable to above 400 deg. C.

  8. National Geothermal Data System: Case Studies on Exploration and Development of Potential Geothermal Sites Through Distributed Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Arlene; Allison, Lee; Richard, Steve; Caudill-Daugherty, Christy; Patten, Kim

    2014-09-29

    The NGDS released version 1 of the system on April 30, 2014 using the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) as its data integration platform. NGDS supports the 2013 Open Data Policy, and as such, the launch was featured at the 2014 Energy Datapalooza. Currently, the NGDS features a comprehensive user interface for searching and accessing nearly 41,000 documents and more than 9 million data points shared by scores of data providers across the U.S. The NGDS supports distributed data sharing, permitting the data owners to maintain the raw data that is made available to the consumer. Researchers and industry have been utilizing the NGDS as a mechanism for promoting geothermal development across the country, from hydrothermal to ground source heat pump applications. Case studies in geothermal research and exploration from across the country are highlighted.

  9. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  10. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

    2013-05-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  11. The Role of Low-Angle Extensional Tectonics, Flat Fracture Domains, and Gravity Slides in Hydrothermal and EGS Resources of the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Moore

    2011-08-24

    The Steamboat Springs geothermal system provides the most dramatic example of subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in crystalline rock in the Basin and Range, but this is by no means an isolated case. Similar but more diffuse subhorizontal permeability has been reported at Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove-Fort Sulphurdale, Utah; and a km-scale gravity-slide block channels injectate at Dixie Valley, Nevada. During the course of this phase of the project 2543 reports including text, figures and large format enclosures, 1428 maps, and 698 well logs were scanned. The information is stored in a Microsoft Access Database on the Geothermal Server. Detailed geologic cross sections of the Desert Peak geothermal field were developed to identify the structural controls on the geothermal system and locate possible fluid flow paths. The results of this work were published by Lutz and others (2009, Appendix 1) in the Stanford Reservoir Engineering Conference Proceedings.

  12. DOE/RL-2013-53

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    As Available 90 Sr Liver 1 BE (2014) As Available GEA, Pu, ICP-MS, Hg-CVAA Cottontail Rabbits 300 Area (d) Muscle 3 BE (2015) Jan. - Dec. GEA Bone 3 BE (2015) Jan. - Dec. 90 Sr...

  13. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felix, Larry; Farthing, William; Hoekman, S. Kent

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific

  14. Environmental overview for the development of geothermal resources in the State of New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, M.; Starkey, A.H.; Dick-Peddie, W.A.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview of the present day geothermal applications for hydrothermal electrical generation and direct heat use and their environmental implications is provided. Technologies and environmental impacts are considered at all points on the pathway of development resource exploration; well field, plant and transmission line construction; and plant operation. The technologies for electrical generation-direct, dry steam conversion; separated steam conversion; single-flash conversion, separated-steam/single-flash conversion and binary cycle conversion and the technologies for direct heat use - direct use of geothermal waters, surface heat exhanger, down-the hole heat exchanger and heat pump are described. A summary of the geothermal technologies planned or in operation within New Mexico geothermal areas is provided. A review of regulations that affect geothermal development and its related environmental impact in New Mexico is presented. The regulatory pathway, both state and federal, of geothermal exploration after the securing of appropriate leases, development, and construction and implementation of a geothermal facility are described. Six categories (Geophysical, Water, Air, Noise, Biota and Socioeconomics) were selected for environmental assessment. The data available is described.

  15. Fuel Fabrication Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development Fuel Cycle Research & Development The mission of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is to conduct research and development to help develop sustainable fuel cycles, as described in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. Sustainable fuel cycle options are those that improve uranium resource utilization, maximize energy generation, minimize waste generation, improve safety, and limit

  16. New Fission-Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandra Navrotsky

    2010-07-30

    Research performed on the program New Fission Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization, in the last three years has fulfilled the objectives of the proposal which were to 1) establish ceramic waste forms for disposing of Cs, Sr and minor actinides, 2) fully characterize the phase relationships, structures and thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of promising waste forms, 3) establish a sound technical basis for understanding key waste form properties, such as melting temperatures and aqueous durability, based on an in-depth understanding of waste form structures and thermochemistry, and 4) establish synthesis, testing, scaleup and commercialization routes for wasteform implementation through out in-kind collaborations. In addition, since Cs and Sr form new elements by radioactive decay, the behavior and thermodynamics of waste forms containing different proportions of Cs, Sr and their decay products were discovered using non-radioactive analogues. Collaborations among researchers from three institutions, UC Davis, Sandia National Laboratories, and Shott Inc., were formed to perform the primary work on the program. The unique expertise of each of the members in the areas of waste form development, structure/property relationships, hydrothermal and high temperature synthesis, crystal/glass production, and thermochemistry was critical to program success. In addition, collaborations with the Brigham Young Univeristy, Ben Gurion University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, were established for standard entropies of ceramic waste forms, sol-gel synthesis, and high temperature synthesis. This work has had a significant impact in a number of areas. First, the studies of the thermodynamic stability of the mineral analogues provided an important technical foundation for assessment the viability of multicomponent oxide phases for Cs and Sr removal. Moreover, the thermodynamic data discovered in this program established information on the reaction pathways

  17. Geothermal Program Review VII: proceedings. DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an indepth review of its entire geothermal R and D program. The 2--3 day conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R and D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. This year's conference, Program Review 7, was held in San Francisco on March 21--23, 1989. As indicated by its title, ''DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace'', Program Review 7 emphasized developing technologies, concepts, and innovations having potential for commercial application in the foreseeable future. Program Review 7 was comprised of eight sessions including an opening session and a special presentation on the ''Role of Geothermal Energy in Minimizing Global Environmental Problems.'' The five technical sessions covered GTD-sponsored R and D in the areas of hydrothermal (two sessions), hot dry rock, geopressured, and magma. Presentations were made by the relevant field researchers, and sessions were chaired by the appropriate DOE Operations Office Geothermal Program Manager. The technical papers and commentary of invited speakers contained in these Proceedings have been compiled in the order in which they were presented at Program Review 7.

  18. Teacher Development Programs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    teachers Teacher Development Programs LLNL Teacher Development LLNL's Science Education Program provides professional development instruction to in-service and pre-service middle school, high school, and community college science teachers

  19. SES CANDIDATE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development Plan (EDP) NAME OF SES CANDIDATE: DATE: EXECUTIVE CORE QUALIFICATION 1: LEADING CHANGE This core qualification encompasses the ability to develop and implement an ...

  20. Clean Energy Development Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vermont's Clean Energy Development Fund (CEDF) was established in 2005 to promote the development and deployment of cost-effective and environmentally sustainable electric power and thermal...

  1. Sustainable Development Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    team wins best paper award at Sustainable Development Conference October 22, 2015 LANL ... Best Paper Award at the Third Annual International Conference for Sustainable Development. ...

  2. ORISE: Web Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Web Development As computer-based applications become increasingly popular for the delivery of health care training and information, the need for Web development in support of ...

  3. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  4. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.

  5. NETL: SOFC Systems Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development Systems Development-This key technology maintains a portfolio of projects that focus on the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) of SOFC power systems. Project participants (Industry Teams) are independently developing unique and proprietary SOFC technology suitable for either syngas- or natural gas fueled applications. The Industry Teams are responsible for the design and manufacture of the fuel cells, integration of cells hardware development, manufacturing process

  6. PNNL VOLTTRON Application Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PNNL VOLTTRON TM Application Development Srinivas Katipamula DOE Building Technologies Office: Technical Meeting on Software Framework for Transactive Energy July 23-24, 2014 1 Presentation Outline Application Development Environment PNNL Developed VOLTTRON Apps VOLTTRON Services Used by PNNL Apps Walkthrough of an Application Development Lessons Learned Concluding Remarks 3 Application Development Environment and Language Support VOLTTRON is a native Linux application Can be run on PC and MAC

  7. Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    abundanthigh temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the alteredregion using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) suggests that thisoutcrop is bounded on all sides by a set of...

  8. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Biddy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MICROALGAL-DERIVED BIOFUEL; HYDROCARBON FUEL; BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY; Bioenergy MICROALGAE;...

  9. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. ... to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, ... Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries. Final ...

  10. Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Resource Potential Estimate

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katherine Young

    2016-06-30

    Compilation of data (spreadsheet and shapefiles) for several low-temperature resource types, including isolated springs and wells, delineated area convection systems, sedimentary basins and coastal plains sedimentary systems. For each system, we include estimates of the accessible resource base, mean extractable resource and beneficial heat. Data compiled from USGS and other sources. The paper (submitted to GRC 2016) describing the methodology and analysis is also included.

  11. Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eakman, James M.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.

    1979-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

  12. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    Industries and municipalities generate substantial amounts of biomass as high-moisture waste streams, such as animal manure, food processing sludge, stillage from ethanol production, and municipal wastewater sludge.

  13. Hydrothermal Convection Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater than or equal to 90 degrees C Authors Brook, Mariner, Mabey, Swanson, Guffanti and Muffler Published Journal Assessment of...

  14. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO. Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ...

  15. Raman spectroscopic investigations of hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    There is still very little information about the stoichiometries, structures and stabilities of metal complexes at high temperatures and pressures. Raman spectroscopy is ideally suited to probe and study concentrated electrolyte solutions at the molecular level. This thesis includes the design and construction of a Raman cell operable up to 300C and 15MPa. In order to obtain quantitative thermodynamic information from Raman spectroscopic measurements, a chemically inert internal standard must be used. Perchlorate is commonly used for this purpose at low temperatures, but it may be unstable at high temperatures and its explosive properties make it undesirable. A new preferred internal standard; trifluoromethanesulfonic acid is introduced and its spectra p to 300C discussed. The use of this compound as a high temperature internal standard enabled stepwise stability constants of zinc-bromo complexes to be determined. Although bromide is not an important ligand in geologic systems, its chemical similarity to chloride can provide insights into the study of zinc-chloro species which do not have very informative Raman spectra. The importance of organic ligands in geologic settings such as the Mississippi-Valley Type Pb-Zn sulfide deposits is now being realized. Chapter four presents the first high temperature spectroscopic measurements of lead and zinc acetate aqueous solutions. Not only do these studies verify the stability of lead and zinc acetate complexes up to 250 C but they also show that the type of complex formed is a function of pH, metal-ligand ratio and temperature, thus having important implications for zoning of Pb-Zn sulfide deposits.

  16. Fractional Multistage Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Optimize byproduct streams for use as chemicalpetrochemical to increase co-product value. Financing Financing will be determined by projected cost of production, profitability, ...

  17. Hydrothermal Photo Library | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To extend the available heat extraction per well, the Office partnered with FORO Energy to design a high-power laser system with the potential to decrease hard-rock drilling costs. ...

  18. Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (weather, vegetation patterns, groundwater flow), and other relevant factors. Literature searches were conducted in each of these 21 regions for the application of field...

  19. Comparison Of Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    could invade carbonate rocks which were otherwise essentially impermeable. Alteration intensity (and correspondingly inferred paleopermeability) is only slightly higher in...

  20. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  1. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean-Energy Reserves New geothermal data could open up clean energy reserves nationwide. Scientific American reported that the National Geothermal Data System is helping to...

  2. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Program Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC ...

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis and thermoelectric properties of nanostructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bulletin; Journal Volume: 46; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: ... Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ANISOTROPY; ...

  4. Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on May 2008 a multidisciplinary study involving Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Self-Potential (SP), CO2 soil diffuse degassing and soil...

  5. Stratigraphy, Structure, Hydrothermal Alteration and Ore Mineralizatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scientific Drilling Program) Corehole VC-2A, Sulphur Springs Area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico- a Detailed Overview. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah University Research Institution....

  6. Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature anomaly has been mapped. A group of subtle temperature anomalies along Simpson Pass, south of the current production area, are interpreted as an upwelling zone with...

  7. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013 (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. ...

  8. Hanford Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. ); Yancey, E.F. )

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  9. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  10. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  11. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-11-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  12. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  13. Energy Development Assistance Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Development Assistance tool provides information for Tribes about federal grant, loan, and technical assistance programs to support energy development and deployment in Indian Country and Alaska Native villages.

  14. Economic Development Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economic Development Office Is your technology business looking for a door to the Laboratory? The Economic Development Office at PNNL is here to help you start, grow, or relocate...

  15. Developing Alaskan Sustainable Housing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Association of Alaska Housing Authorities is holding a 3-day training event for housing development professionals titled Developing Alaskan Sustainable Housing (DASH). This is a unique...

  16. Desilication of ZSM-5 zeolites for mesoporosity development using microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, Zubair; Jun, Jong Won; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: Microwaves have beneficial effects on desilication of zeolites. Produced mesopores with microwaves have narrow pore-size distribution. Advantages and disadvantages of various desilicating agents were also reported. - Abstract: Mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite was obtained by desilication in alkaline solutions with microwave (MW) and conventional electric (CE) heating under hydrothermal conditions. Both methods were effective in the production of mesoporous zeolites; however, MW was more efficient than CE as it led to well-defined mesopores with relatively small sizes and a narrow size distribution within a short treatment time. Moreover, the mesoporous ZSM-5 obtained through this method was effective in producing less bulky products from an acid-catalyzed reaction, specifically the butylation of phenol. Finally, various bases were found to have advantages and disadvantages in desilication. NaOH was the most reactive; however, macroporosity could develop easily under a severe condition. Ammonia water was weakly reactive; however, it could be used to precisely control the pore architecture, and no ion exchange is needed for acid catalysis. Organic amines such as ethylenediamine can also be used in desilication.

  17. PGE Renewable Development Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PGE is accepting applications for 2016 Renewable Development Fund awards through June 27 (5:00 PM PDT).

  18. PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM DEVELOPER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, F.G.

    1958-06-24

    S>An improved photographic developer is presented having very high energy development fine grain characteristics and a long shelf life. These characteristics are obtained by the use of aminoacetic acid in the developer, the other constituents of which are: sodium sulfite, hydroquinone, sodiunn borate, boric acid and potassium bromide, 1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidone.

  19. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hake, Sarah

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  20. The structure and stability of aqueous rare-earth elements in hydrothermal fluids: New results on neodymium(III) aqua and chloroaqua complexes in aqueous solutions to 500 °C and 520 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayanovic, R.A.; Anderson, A.J.; Bassett, W.A.; Chou, I.-M.

    2009-02-04

    that of heavy REE chloride complexes in low pH fluids at elevated temperatures consistent with REE analysis of fluids from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

  1. SES Executive Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development continues once an individual enters into the SES. Faced with constant challenges, changing technologies and a fluid environment, executives need to pursue ongoing professional executive development. It is crucial that executives continue to strengthen and reinforce their Executive Core Qualifications (ECQs), skills and knowledge. http://www.opm.gov/ses/executive_development/index.asp Federal agencies are required by law (Title 5, U.S. Code, Section 3396) to establish programs for the continuing development of senior executives. DOE’s Office of Learning & Workforce Development is available to assist you in determining a course of action your executive development. They have a guidebook that “contains descriptions of over 350 courses, offered by 56 colleges and universities throughout the continental United States as well as by the Office of Personnel Management.”

  2. WINDExchange: Wind Economic Development

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Development WINDExchange provides software applications and publications to help individuals, developers, local governments, and utilities make decisions about wind power. Projecting costs and benefits of new installations, including the economic development impacts created, is a key element in looking at potential wind applications. Communities, states, regions, job markets (i.e., construction, operations and maintenance), the tax base, tax revenues, and others can be positively affected. These

  3. Regional Economic Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Economic Development Regional Economic Development Supporting companies in every stage of development through access to technology, technical assistance or investment Questions Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation Regional Programs (505) 665-9090 New Mexico Small Business Assistance Email Venture Acceleration Fund Email DisrupTECH Email SBIR/STTR Email FCI facilitates commercialization in New Mexico to accelerate and enhance our efforts to convert federal and state research

  4. International petroleum development agreements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, E.E.

    1993-12-31

    There are recognizable legal elements in all of the international arrangements for petroleum development currently in use but no arrangements are exactly like the typical American oil and gas lease. This article discusses differences and approaches to the differences in legal aspects of international petroleum development agreements. Topics covered include the following: oil and national sovereignty; obtaining a development agreement; concession and production sharing agreements; participation; differences among agreements.

  5. Blind shaft development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-02-15

    The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

  6. Renewable energy project development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  7. TRANSIMS Interface Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transims TRANSIMS Interface Development TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling TRANSIMS Studio (Figure 1) has been developed by TRACC for the TRANSIMS community as part of the TRANSIMS Open Source project. It provides an integrated development environment (IDE) for TRANSIMS by combining a number of components that work seamlessly with each other. The visible part of the IDE is the graphical user interface (GUI) that allows

  8. Insights from a Developer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INSIGHTS FROM A DEVELOPER JENNIFER BREDT DEVELOPMENT MANAGER RES Americas Inc. OCTOBER 26, 2010 AGENDA * INTRODUCTION AND RES OVERVIEW * GROWTH OF THE WIND INDUSTRY IN THE US * CHALLENGES CURRENTLY FACING THE INDUSTRY * WHERE WE ARE HEADED ABOUT - RES Americas Inc. CURRENT CHALLENGES THE FUTURE GROWTH YEARS OVERVIEW * Leader in wind power development and construction  Established in US in 1997 in Tehachapi, CA; UK parent active in wind since 1982  3,946 MW of completed construction

  9. Wineagle Developers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developers Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wineagle Developers Place: Sacramento, California Zip: 95814 Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Geothermal developer in...

  10. Sandia Energy - Advanced Research & Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Research & Development Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Advanced Research & Development Advanced Research & DevelopmentCoryne...

  11. Fuel Fabrication Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Programs CONVERT Fuel Fabrication Development (CONVERT) The nation looks to our uranium-processing capabilities to optimize fabrication of a fuel, which will enable certain ...

  12. Bioenergy for Sustainable Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Deployment Markets Keynote Bioenergy for Sustainable Development Gerard Ostheimer, Global Lead, Sustainable Bioenergy High Impact Opportunity Of Sustainable Energy For All (SE4ALL)

  13. Bioenergy for Sustainable Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEVELOPMENT Overview * Energy poverty is widespread and prevents economic ... the bioeconomy across the globe Energy Poverty: Statistics * 1.2 Billion people lack ...

  14. Direct Research & Development Transactions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE direct research and development transactions include contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements, and technology investment agreements (TIA’s). For transactions other than TIA’s, the US...

  15. New Commercial Program Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture Beginning in spring of 2015, the BPA Commercial Team will be working with utilities...

  16. UNIRIB: Equipment Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intensities. Development of new beams is also needed to support experiments with proton-rich isotopes that are relevant to radiochemical detectors for stewardship science....

  17. Lighting Developments to 2030

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Frontier Research Centers: Solid-State Lighting Science Center for Frontiers of ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Lighting Developments to 2030 Home...

  18. Requirements for Wind Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2015 Oklahoma amended the Oklahoma Wind Energy Development Act. The amendments added new financial security requirements, setback requirements, and notification requirements for wind energy...

  19. Workforce Development Wind Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report covers the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office’s workforce development wind projects from fiscal years 2008 to 2014.

  20. SRNL LDRD - Developed Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developed Technologies Porous Wall Hollow Glass Microspheres Porous Wall Hollow Glass Microspheres Tiny Glass Spheres for Energy Storage, Medical Applications and Other Uses...

  1. Long Range Development Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientific missions. Science drives the Lab's development. LRDPs establish a framework of land-use principles and policies to guide future growth and change through 2025. The plan...

  2. SUSTAINABILITY NEWS NREL Develops ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    NREL Develops Web Portal to Compare Energy Performance of Building Products The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently launched a web-based tool for comparing the ...

  3. Diagenesis and porosity development associated with major sea level fluctuations, Upper Permian, Jameson land, east Greenland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. ); Stemmerik, L. )

    1990-05-01

    The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two major carbonate sequences, represented by the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The initial Karstryggen transgression led to the development of a shallow marine platform with structurally controlled evaporite basins (salinas) separated by stromatolitic, peloidal, or micritic carbonate depositional areas. The Wegener Havloe sequence reflects more rapid and extensive transgression with the deposition of three subcycles of fully marine, platform, or biohermal carbonates containing minor evaporites near the basin margins. Bioherms (bryozoan-brachiopod-marine cement mounds) show > 100 m of relief, indicating that large relative sea level changes were involved. Both the Karstryggen and Wgener Havloe cycles were terminated by major regressions, which led to karstic and/or fluvial incision of the underlying sequences. Not surprisingly, carbonate and evaporite diagenesis was greatly affected by these regional or eustatic sea level fluctuations. Evaporites dissolved or were replaced by calcite and celestite under the influence of meteoric waters. Limestones show collapse brecciation, grain leaching, soil development, and characteristic vadose and phreatic cements. Most significantly meteoric flushing led to massive dissolution of botryoidal marine cements (aragonite and probable high-Mg calcite) within biohermal facies on the Wegener Peninsula. This early porosity resurrection led to the preservation of porous bioherm core zones until hydrocarbon migration. Only late (posthydrocarbon), probably hydrothermal fluid flow led to cementation of the bioherm cores while expelling most of the reservoired hydrocarbons. If the sea level changes affecting the Greenlandic Permian are eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin.

  4. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  5. Technical Assistance to Developers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockward, Tommy; Borup, Rodney L.; Garzon, Fernando H.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Spernjak, Dusan

    2012-07-17

    This task supports the allowance of technical assistance to fuel-cell component and system developers as directed by the DOE. This task includes testing of novel materials and participation in the further development and validation of single cell test protocols. This task also covers technical assistance to DOE Working Groups, the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the USCAR/DOE Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability (U.S. Drive) Fuel Cell Technology Team. Assistance includes technical validation of new fuel cell materials and methods, single cell fuel cell testing to support the development of targets and test protocols, and regular advisory participation in other working groups and reviews. This assistance is made available to PEM fuel cell developers by request and DOE Approval. The objectives are to: (1) Support technically, as directed by DOE, fuel cell component and system developers; (2) Assess fuel cell materials and components and give feedback to developers; (3) Assist the DOE Durability Working Group with the development of various new material durability Testing protocols; and (4) Provide support to the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the USCAR/DOE Fuel Cell Technology Team. FY2012 specific technical objectives are: (1) Evaluate novel MPL materials; (2) Develop of startup/ shutdown protocol; (3) Test the impact of hydrophobic treatment on graphite bi-polar plates; (4) Perform complete diagnostics on metal bi-polar plates for corrosion; and (5) Participate and lead efforts in the DOE Working Groups.

  6. Wind Economic Development (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

  7. Aggressive development plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCandless, D.H.

    1993-11-01

    Hydropower developments are capital-intensive, are subject to uncertainty in water availability, and have a somewhat higher construction-cost risk than thermal projects. However, a developer who selects an attractive site, arranges a good financial package, and designs and constructs a well-conceived hydropower project can earn an attractive long-term return while providing a dependable, low-cost source of energy to consumers. In the Philippines, many attractive hydropower sites are now available. As demonstrated by the attendance at the US Trade and Development Agency-sponsored Symposium on Power Development and Investment Opportunities in the Philippines, in Washington, D.C., on Sept. 21 and 22, 1993, there is a growing interest in private hydropower. Following its successful record in implementing thermal private power developments, the Philippines now offers many attractive opportunities to exploit its tremendous potential in the hydropower sector.

  8. Liga developer apparatus system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boehme, Dale R.; Bankert, Michelle A.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2003-01-01

    A system to fabricate precise, high aspect ratio polymeric molds by photolithograpic process is described. The molds for producing micro-scale parts from engineering materials by the LIGA process. The invention is a developer system for developing a PMMA photoresist having exposed patterns comprising features having both very small sizes, and very high aspect ratios. The developer system of the present invention comprises a developer tank, an intermediate rinse tank and a final rinse tank, each tank having a source of high frequency sonic agitation, temperature control, and continuous filtration. It has been found that by moving a patterned wafer, through a specific sequence of developer/rinse solutions, where an intermediate rinse solution completes development of those portions of the exposed resist left undeveloped after the development solution, by agitating the solutions with a source of high frequency sonic vibration, and by adjusting and closely controlling the temperatures and continuously filtering and recirculating these solutions, it is possible to maintain the kinetic dissolution of the exposed PMMA polymer as the rate limiting step.

  9. Microsystem product development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

  10. Technikon Green Energy Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technikon Green Energy Development November 16, 2009 2 Technikon'sRenewable Energy Testing Center 60,000 sq. ft. Energy Application Validation and Development Laboratory  Formed in 2000 after the closure of McClellan Air Force Base  Operating four major DoD Programs for the US Army  Commercial work:  Energy Projects  Air Emission Studies  Hi-Tech Metals Projects RETC - Reutilization of Government Investment  Testing and Validation Model developed under the 1994-2006 Casting

  11. Advanced Interconnect Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Z.G.; Maupin, G.; Simner, S.; Singh, P.; Stevenson, J.; Xia, G.

    2005-01-27

    The objectives of this project are to develop cost-effective, optimized materials for intermediate temperature SOFC interconnect and interconnect/electrode interface applications and identify and understand degradation processes in interconnects and at their interfaces with electrodes.

  12. Acquisition Career Development Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-04-19

    This Order establishes training and certification requirements and career development programs under the Acquisition Career Development (ACD) Program for DOE and NNSA acquisition workforce. The acquisition workforce includes contracting, purchasing, personal property management, program management, Contracting Officers and Contracting Officer Representatives. The ACD Program implements the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) requirements, Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) requirements, Federal Acquisition Reform Act (FARA) requirements, and the objectives of Executive Order (E.O.) 129231, Federal Procurement Reform, dated 10-13-1994. This order cancels DOE O 361.1, Acquisition Career Development Program, dated 11-10-99, AND Acquisition Letter 2003-05, Personal Property Management Career Development, Training, and Certification Program, dated 9-10-03. Cancels DOE O 361.1 Chg 2. Canceled by DOE O 361.1B.

  13. SES CANDIDATE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Did the experience meet your expectation? Was this a good learning experience? 1 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE F 360.5 (11-03) SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE CANDIDATE DEVELOPMENT ...

  14. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-03-28

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Honduras; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Syria; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, Turkey.

  15. SSL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rapid advances in SSL technology make it easy to forget that this technology is still at a relatively early stage of development, and much of its potential remains untapped. The 10th annual DOE SSL...

  16. PTO-Sim: Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PTO-Sim: Development of a Power Take Off Modeling Tool for Ocean Wave Energy Conversion Ratanak So 1 , Student Member, IEEE, Sean Casey 2 , Sam Kanner 3 , Asher Simmons 1 , Student ...

  17. SSL Technology Development Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rapid advances make it easy to forget that SSL technology is still at a relatively early stage of development, and much of its potential remains untapped. The 10th annual DOE SSL Technology...

  18. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  19. developing-compute-efficient

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developing Compute-efficient, Quality Models with LS-PrePost 3 on the TRACC Cluster Oct. ... with an emphasis on applying these capabilities to build computationally efficient models. ...

  20. NETL: SOFC Cell Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cell Development Cell Development-Research is focused on the cell-related technologies critical to the commercialization of SOFC technology. The components of the SOFC - the anode, cathode and electrolyte - are the primary research emphasis of this key technology. The electrochemical performance, durability, and reliability of the solid oxide fuel cell are key determinants in establishing the technical and economic viability of SOFC Power Systems. Thus the SOFC Program maintains a diversified

  1. ORISE: Standards development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Standards development For 30 years, health physicists with the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) have actively participated in the development of industry standards that provide guidance and support to decontamination and decommissioning projects across the United States. Because of our extensive experience conducting radiological surveys and site characterization, our federal agency customers, such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of

  2. Acquisition Career Development Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-20

    To set forth requirements and responsibilities for the Department of Energy (DOE) Acquisition Career Development (ACD) Program, which implements Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) requirements, Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) requirements, Federal Acquisition Reform Act (FARA) requirements, and the career development objectives of Executive Order (E.O.) 12931. Change 1 approved 12-20-2001. Cancels DOE O 361.1. Canceled by DOE O 361.1 Chg 2.

  3. Acquisition Career Development Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-06-13

    To set forth requirements and responsibilities for the Department of Energy (DOE) Acquisition Career Development (ACD) Program, which implements Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) requirements, Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) requirements, Federal Acquisition Reform Act (FARA) requirements, and the career development objectives of Executive Order (E.O.) 12931. Change 1 approved 12-20-2001. Change 2 approved 06-13-03. Cancels DOE O 361.1 Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 361.1A.

  4. Economic Development - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economic Development As the designated Community Reuse Organization (CRO) for the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, the Savannah River Site Community Reuse Organization (SRSCRO) is charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing a comprehensive plan to diversify the economy of the SRSCRO region. During its 50 year history, the Savannah River Site has supported America's national defense mission, contributing significantly to the successful end of the Cold War at the

  5. Transmission Developers Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ' % ~ Transmission Developers Inc. July 7, 2011 Mr. Anthony J. Como Director, Permitting and Siting Office ofElectricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE-20) U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence A venue SW, Room 8G-024 Washington, D.C. 20585 Subject: Champlain Hudson Power Express Project U.S. Department of Energy Presidential Permit Application PP-362 Dear Mr. Como: On January 25, 2010, Transmission Developers, Inc. ("TDI'' or "Applicants") submitted on behalf of

  6. Business Development Corporation, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasek, S.

    1995-12-31

    Business Development Corporation, Inc., is a company specializing in opportunity seeking and business development activities in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} post communist Central and Eastern Europe, with particular emphasis on the Republics of Poland and Slovakia. The company currently focuses its expertise on strategic investing and business development between Central Europe and the United States of America. In Poland and Slovakia, the company specializes in developing large scale energy and environmental {open_quotes}infrastructure{close_quotes} development projects on the federal, state, and local level. In addition, the company assists large state owned industries in the transformation and privatization process. Business Development Corporation has assisted and continues to assist in projects of national importance. The staff of experts advise numerous large Polish and Slovak companies, most owned or in the process of privatization, on matters of restructuring, finance, capital structure, strategic parternships or investors, mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures with U.S. based firms. The company also assists and advises on a variety of environmental and energy matters in the public and private sector.

  7. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternative power sources for transportation and stationary applications. The degradation of commonly used electrode catalysts (e.g. Pt, Ag, and others) and corrosion of carbon substrates are making commercialization of fuel cells incorporating present day technologies economically problematic. Furthermore, due to the instability of the Pt catalyst, the performance of fuel cells declines on long-term operation. When methanol is used as the fuel, a voltage drop, as well as significant thermal management problems can be encountered, the later being due to chemical oxidation of methanol at the platinized carbon at the cathode. Though extensive work was conducted on platinized electrodes for both the oxidation and reduction reactions, due to the problems mentioned above, fuel cells have not been fully developed for widespread commercial use. Several investigators have previously evaluated metal macrocyclic complexes as alternative catalysts to Pt and Pt/Ru in fuel cells. Unfortunately, though they have demonstrated catalytic activity, these materials were found to be unstable on long term use in the fuel cell environment. In order to improve the long-term stability of metal macrocyclic complexes, we have chemically bonded these complexes to the carbon substrate, thereby enhancing their catalytic activity as well as their chemical stability in the fuel cell environment. We have designed, synthesized, and evaluated these catalysts for O{sub 2} reduction, H{sub 2} oxidation, and direct methanol oxidation in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) and aqueous carbonate fuel cells. These catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity and long-term stability. In this paper we confine our discussion to the initial performance results of some of these catalysts in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} PEM fuel cells, including their long-term performance characteristics as well as CO poisoning effects on these catalysts.

  8. Power Systems Development Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  9. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; M.Carroll

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. This development has resulted in graphite being established as a viable structural material for HTGRs. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical nuclear grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermomechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. This Technology Development Plan outlines the research and development (R&D) activities and associated rationale necessary to qualify nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor.

  10. The Solar Development Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, C.E.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a proposed stand alone company, the Solar Development Corporation (SDC), to be a business development and financing entity for photovoltaic operations with the potential to be commercially sustainable. SDC will have a fully integrated policy advocacy link to the World Bank. SDC will define target countries where the potential exists for significant early market expansion. In those countries it will provide: market and business development services that will accelerate the growth of private firms and deepen the penetration of Solar Home Systems (SHS) and other rural PV applications in the market; and access to pre-commercial and parallel financing for private firms to (1) expand their capability in PV distribution businesses, and (2) strengthen their ability to provide credit to end users. SDC itself will not engage in direct financing of the final consumer. It is intended that as far as possible SDC`s finance will be provided in parallel with financing from Financial Intermediaries.

  11. Bolivia renewable energy development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.

    1997-12-01

    The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

  12. Advanced CCD camera developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condor, A.

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  13. Guidebook on biogas development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This guidebook covers the practical aspects of small-scale biogas development suitable for use in rural areas in developing countries, especially those of the ESCAP region. It is intended that all aspects of biogas are covered so that someone with no knowledge of the subject can, with confidence, design, build, operate and maintain a biogas plant. Information on biogas technology in China is also included. Chapters cover: the biogas process; factors effecting gas-plant design and operation; the classification and design principles of plants; design, size and site selection; the construction of digesters; gas holders and pipes; household gas appliances and their use; starting and operating a biogas digester; servicing and safety; improving gas-plant performance; commercial uses of biogas; the effluent and its uses, biogas-plant development programmes; community plants; and economics. In the annexes, designs for biogas plants of the fixed-dome, bag and floating gas-holder type are presented. 9 references.

  14. Developer | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer Home > Developer > Posts by term > Developer Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: clean energy Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog...

  15. Developer | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer Home > Developer > Posts by term > Developer Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: citation Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  16. Developer | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer Home > Developer > Posts by term > Developer Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: citing Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  17. Developer | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer Home > Developer > Posts by term > Developer Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Energy Visions Prize Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  18. Developer | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer Home > Developer > Posts by term > Developer Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: cleanweb Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  19. Developer | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer Home > Developer > Posts by term > Developer Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Energy data Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog...

  20. Developer | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer Home > Developer > Posts by term > Developer Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: funding Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  1. Hydropower research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  2. Rural energy and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  3. Precision Pointing System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUGOS, ROBERT M.

    2003-03-01

    The development of precision pointing systems has been underway in Sandia's Electronic Systems Center for over thirty years. Important areas of emphasis are synthetic aperture radars and optical reconnaissance systems. Most applications are in the aerospace arena, with host vehicles including rockets, satellites, and manned and unmanned aircraft. Systems have been used on defense-related missions throughout the world. Presently in development are pointing systems with accuracy goals in the nanoradian regime. Future activity will include efforts to dramatically reduce system size and weight through measures such as the incorporation of advanced materials and MEMS inertial sensors.

  4. Exciting new PDSF developments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exciting new PDSF developments Exciting new PDSF developments February 25, 2014 I'm pleased to announce that PDSF successfully deployed new login nodes last week. Some of you may already have noticed that you are now landing on nodes named pdsf[6-8] when you ssh to pdsf.nersc.gov. Our new login nodes use the faster Mendel IB network and more modern hardware. We've gone from four nodes to three but, because each node has a higher core count, the processing power is staying the same. The old

  5. Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reno, Nevada The 2015 Geothermal Resources Council (GRC) Annual Meeting and the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) Geothermal Energy Expo will be held in Reno, Nevada, on September 20–23. As the world’s largest annual geothermal conference and expo, this year’s event will bring together leaders in the geothermal industry; showcase the latest in geothermal research, exploration, development, and utilization; and feature workshops on important industry topics and field trips to nearby geothermal sites. Register today to reserve your spot.

  6. ECH Technology Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temkin, Richard

    2014-12-24

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is needed for plasma heating, current drive, plasma stability control, and other applications in fusion energy sciences research. The program of fusion energy sciences supported by U. S. DOE, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences relies on the development of ECH technology to meet the needs of several plasma devices working at the frontier of fusion energy sciences research. The largest operating ECH system in the world is at DIII-D, consisting of six 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotrons capable of ten second pulsed operation, plus two newer gyrotrons. The ECH Technology Development research program investigated the options for upgrading the DIII-D 110 GHz ECH system. Options included extending present-day 1 MW technology to 1.3 – 1.5 MW power levels or developing an entirely new approach to achieve up to 2 MW of power per gyrotron. The research consisted of theoretical research and designs conducted by Communication and Power Industries of Palo Alto, CA working with MIT. Results of the study would be validated in a later phase by research on short pulse length gyrotrons at MIT and long pulse / cw gyrotrons in industry. This research follows a highly successful program of development that has led to the highly reliable, six megawatt ECH system at the DIII-D tokamak. Eventually, gyrotrons at the 1.5 megawatt to multi-megawatt power level will be needed for heating and current drive in large scale plasmas including ITER and DEMO.

  7. Sustainable Subsurface Energy Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sustainable Subsurface Energy Development - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management

  8. About Research & Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Next-generation manufacturing technologies will transform industry and open new markets in the United States and around the world. The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) supports Research and Development on technology projects that will help manufacturers become more robust, adaptable, profitable, and globally competitive.

  9. JAGUAR developer's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Ethan

    2011-06-01

    JAGUAR (JAva GUi for Applied Research) is a Java software tool providing an advanced text editor and graphical user interface (GUI) to manipulate DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) input specifications. This document focuses on the technical background necessary for a developer to understand JAGUAR.

  10. RELAP-7 Development Updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Zhao, Haihua; Gleicher, Frederick Nathan; DeHart, Mark David; Zou, Ling; Andrs, David; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2015-09-01

    RELAP-7 is a nuclear systems safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory, and is the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series. RELAP-7 development began in 2011 to support the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical methods, and physical models in order to provide capabilities needed for the RISMC methodology and to support nuclear power safety analysis. The code is being developed based on Idaho National Laboratory’s modern scientific software development framework – MOOSE (the Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). The initial development goal of the RELAP-7 approach focused primarily on the development of an implicit algorithm capable of strong (nonlinear) coupling of the dependent hydrodynamic variables contained in the 1-D/2-D flow models with the various 0-D system reactor components that compose various boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants (NPPs). During Fiscal Year (FY) 2015, the RELAP-7 code has been further improved with expanded capability to support boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor NPPs analysis. The accumulator model has been developed. The code has also been coupled with other MOOSE-based applications such as neutronics code RattleSnake and fuel performance code BISON to perform multiphysics analysis. A major design requirement for the implicit algorithm in RELAP-7 is that it is capable of second-order discretization accuracy in both space and time, which eliminates the traditional first-order approximation errors. The second-order temporal is achieved by a second-order backward temporal difference, and the one-dimensional second-order accurate spatial discretization

  11. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LiVecchi, Al; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2010-06-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power

  12. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1, 2001 through

  13. e+ e- Factory Developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    The impressive performance of current (KEKB) and recent (PEP-II) B-Factory colliders has increased interest in developing even higher luminosity B-factories. Two new designs are being developed (SuperKEKB and SuperB). Both designs plan to deliver a luminosity in the range of 1 x 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, nearly 100 times the present B-factory level. Achieving this high luminosity requires high-current beams and short bunch lengths and/or a new way of colliding the beams. The SuperB design employs a crabbed magnetic waist with a large crossing angle and the SuperKEKB design is looking at crab cavities with high-current beams and/or a travelling focus. I describe the designs being studied to achieve the high luminosity needed for the next generation of B-Factories.

  14. WINDExchange: Workforce Development

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Workforce Development A large white cylinder, a portion of a turbine tower, lays horizontally on the ground with three men in safety vests and hard hats standing on the right side and a blue crane on the left side. Several technicians prepare to erect a part of the Gamesa tower at the National Wind Technology Center. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 20853 The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. Vital industry positions include

  15. SES CANDIDATE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 (11-03) SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE CANDIDATE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (SESCDP) Evaluation of Formal Training DATE:_______________ CANDIDATE NAME: TITLE OF TRAINING PROGRAM: VENDOR/LOCATION: TRAINING DATES: Which Executive Core Qualification(s) was this assignment intended to meet? Leading Change Leading People Results Driven Business Acumen Building Coalitions/Communication Please check one for each of the following: Level of difficulty: Too Advanced ___ Appropriate ___ Too Elementary ___ Length of

  16. National Fertilizer Development Center

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    h-L National Fertilizer Development Center May 15, 1980 nww Hr. William Et Mott, Director Environmental Control Technology Division Office of Environment Dcpartiaent of Energy Washington, DC 20545 Dear Mr. Mott: This is in response to your letter of May 5 requesting ccmments on a report dated Xarct; 1930 which summarizes a preliminary radiological survey of facilities used in the early 1950's for studies of recovery of uranium from leached zone ore. I have made a few suggested changes to the

  17. Issue Development sheet Blank

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISSUE DEVELOPMENT SHEET INFORMATION ONLY The information provided below indicates that a potential concern for finding has been identified. Please provide any objective evidence you may have that could either alleviate the concern or eliminate the finding. If no objective evidence is available/can be provided by the end of this audit (at the scheduled end of field work), this information will be included in the audit report and reported as a concern or an audit finding as appropriate.

  18. Update on INSIGHTS Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed; Eric Burgett

    2011-09-01

    INSIGHTS is a transformational separate effects testing capability to perform in situ irradiation studies and characterization of the microscale behavior of nuclear fuel materials under a wide variety of in-pile conditions. Separate effects testing including growth, irradiation, and monitoring of these materials, and encompasses the full science based approach for fuels development from the nanoscale to the mesoscale behavior of the sample material and other defects driven by the modeling and simulation efforts of INL.

  19. ARM Raman Lidar Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  20. Fuel Cell Development Status

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development Status Michael Short Systems Engineering Manager United Technologies Corporation Research Center Hamilton Sundstrand UTC Power UTC Fire & Security Fortune 50 corporation $52.9B in annual sales in 2009 ~60% of Sales are in building technologies Transportation Stationary Fuel Cells Space & Defense * Fuel cell technology leader since 1958 * ~ 550 employees * 768+ Active U.S. patents, more than 300 additional U.S. patents pending * Global leader in efficient, reliable, and