Sample records for hydrophobic coating shc

  1. Method for making nanoporous hydrophobic coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple coating method is used to form nanoporous hydrophobic films that can be used as optical coatings. The method uses evaporation-induced self-assembly of materials. The coating method starts with a homogeneous solution comprising a hydrophobic polymer and a surfactant polymer in a selective solvent. The solution is coated onto a substrate. The surfactant polymer forms micelles with the hydrophobic polymer residing in the particle core when the coating is dried. The surfactant polymer can be dissolved and selectively removed from the separated phases by washing with a polar solvent to form the nanoporous hydrophobic film.

  2. SH Coatings LP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SH Coatings, based in Dallas, Texas, employs Super Hydrophobic Coating (SHC) technology that protects power systems by preventing ice accumulation on power lines in ice storm threatened areas and contamination of power lines from salt on the coasts. In order to successfully utilize and commercialize the SHC technology for this application, tools to apply the coating onto new and existing lines must be developed. SH Coatings is developing these tools with the help of technology from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. The evaluation of the corrosion resistance of metallic substrates protected by a hydrophobic coating 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Daniel G

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Consequently, one particular use for hydrophobic materials is in the area of corrosion protection. When applied as a coating material, hydrophobic polymers, theoretically, should provide excellent protection against corrosive environments. In order to ascertain...

  4. Tunable hydrophilicity on a hydrophobic fluorocarbon polymer coating on silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolari, K.; Hokkanen, A. [VTT Information Technology, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient, economic, reliable, and repeatable patterning procedure of hydrophobic surfaces was developed. A fluorocarbon polymer derived from the C{sub 4}F{sub 8} gas in an inductively coupled plasma etcher was used as the hydrophobic coating. For a subsequent patterning of hydrophilic apertures on the polymer, a short O{sub 2} plasma exposure through a silicon shadow mask was utilized. The overall hydrophilicity of the patterned surface can be tuned by the duration of the O{sub 2} plasma exposure, and also by the density and the size of the hydrophilic apertures. The laborious photolithography and tricky lift-off procedures are avoided. Optimization of the whole patterning process is explained thoroughly and supported with experimental data. The hydrophilic adhesion of the patterned polymer was evaluated with aqueous droplets, which were studied on matrices of the hydrophilic apertures of different sizes. The deposition parameters of the fluorocarbon polymer, the size of the droplet required to enable rolling on the patterned surface, and the duration of the O{sub 2} plasma exposure were considered as the main parameters. To determine the achievable resolution of the patterning procedure, the subsurface etching beneath the shadow mask was evaluated. The results show that a resolution of less than 10 {mu}m can be achieved. The simple hydrophilic patterning procedure described here can be used for the production of on-plane microfluidics, where a controlled adhesion or decohesion of 8-50 {mu}l droplets on the surface with a variable hydrophilicity from one location to another can be achieved.

  5. Hydrophobic Polycationic Coatings Disinfect Poliovirus and Rotavirus Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Alyssa Maxine

    Coating surfaces with N-alkylated polyethylenimines (PEIs), namely branched N,N-hexyl,methyl-PEI via covalent attachment to glass or linear N,N-dodecyl,methyl-PEI by physical deposition (“painting”) onto polyethylene, ...

  6. Salinity Effects on the Degree of Hydrophobicity and Longevity for Superhydrophobic Fibrous Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    Salinity Effects on the Degree of Hydrophobicity and Longevity for Superhydrophobic Fibrous, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 000: 000­000, 2011 Key words: biomimetic; superhydrophobic coatings; fibers are typically classified as superhydrophobic. Superhydrophobicity is exhibited in materials with a combination

  7. Super-Hydrophobic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Coatings for Stainless Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco De Nicola; Paola Castrucci; Manuela Scarselli; Francesca Nanni; Ilaria Cacciotti; Maurizio De Crescenzi

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have taken advantage of the native surface roughness and the iron content of AISI 316 stainless steel to direct grow multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) random networks by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at low-temperature ($steel sheets were obtained, exhibiting high contact angle values ($154^{\\circ}$) and high adhesion force (high contact angle hysteresis). Furthermore, the investigation of MWCNT films at scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals a two-fold hierarchical morphology of the MWCNT random networks made of hydrophilic carbonaceous nanostructures on the tip of hydrophobic MWCNTs. Owing to the Salvinia effect, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic composite surface of the MWCNT films supplies a stationary super-hydrophobic coating for conductive stainless steel. This biomimetical inspired surface not only may prevent corrosion and fouling but also could provide low-friction and drag-reduction.

  8. The evaluation of the corrosion resistance of metallic substrates protected by a hydrophobic coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Daniel G

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?2. . . . . 4 EIS Results for Conformal Coated 1100 Aluminum Sample ?1. 98 5 EIS Results for Conformal Coated 1100 Aluminum Sample ?2 99 6 EIS Results for Conformal Coated 1100 Aluminum Sample ?3. 7 EIS Results for Acrylic Coated 1100 Aluminum.... 101 00 Copper. 32 34 36 V EXPERIMENTAL OVERVIEW. 38 VI EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE Experimental Apparatus. Experimental Procedure. Specimen Preparation. 45 47 VII EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS EIS Results. SEM Results. 51 VIII DISCUSSION...

  9. Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contracts AC22-86PC91221 and AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. During the quarter, the Anutech Mark IV surface force apparatus was used to generate surface force-distance data for the mica/dodecylamine hydrochloride system (Task 2.1.1). Work to characterize the hydrophobicity of this system and the mica/DDOA[sup [minus

  10. Element One, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Super Hydrophobic Coating (SHC) technology that protects power systems by preventing ice accumulation on power lines in ice storm threatened areas and contamination of power...

  11. TGF-b activates Erk MAP kinase signalling through direct phosphorylation of ShcA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derynck, Rik

    TGF-b activates Erk MAP kinase signalling through direct phosphorylation of ShcA Matt K Lee1, *, Ce Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, CA, USA Erk1/Erk2 MAP kinases are key regulators, TGF-b stimulation also activates Erk MAP kinases through an undefined mechanism, albeit to a much

  12. IEA SHC TASK 44 and HPP Annex 38 Solar and heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;IEA SHC TASK 44 and HPP Annex 38 Solar and heat pump systems T44A38 Dr. Anja Loose Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW) Research and Testing Centre for Thermal Solar Systems (TZS) Dr.itw.uni-stuttgart.de Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering Research and Testing Centre for Thermal Solar Systems

  13. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental Performance Assessment of glazing and windows: context, overview, main concerns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental Performance Assessment of glazing and windows: context, overview, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products

  14. International Symposium on Daylighting Buildings (IEA SHC TASK 31) Integrating Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Symposium on Daylighting Buildings (IEA SHC TASK 31) Integrating Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight Controls Stephen Selkowitz Eleanor Lee Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords: daylighting, controls, smart glazing, shading, field testing, IEA31 1. INTRODUCTION Most

  15. Development of the selective hydrophobic coagulation process. Technical progress report for the ninth quarter, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, known as Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy since 1986 (Contracts DE-AC22-86PC91221 & DE-AC22- 9OPC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear flocculation, polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. Often, simple pH control is all that is required to (i) induce the coagulation of coal particles, and (ii) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. When the coal is superficially oxidized, a small dosage of reagents may be used to promote coagulation. During the past quarter, stability calculations were carried out to develop a better understanding of the selective coagulation of fine coal and associated mineral matter. The calculations were performed for interactions involving coal, silica and clay particles. The analyses suggest that the heterocoagulation of the edges of clay particles with coal particles controls the overall selectivity of the SHC process. In Subtask 3.3, froth flotation was explored as a possible technique for recovering hydrophobic coagula. Experimental test data obtained using this technique were analyzed using a statistical regression program. The analyses indicate that froth flotation can be used to successfully recover hydrophobic coagula provided that adequate precautions are taken to minimize coagula breakage due to turbulence. Recommendations include the use of low aeration rates and little or no additions of wash water.

  16. Coated foams, preparation, uses and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tension of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  17. Dehydration processes using membranes with hydrophobic coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for removing water from organic compounds, especially polar compounds such as alcohols. The processes include a membrane-based dehydration step, using a membrane that has a dioxole-based polymer selective layer or the like and a hydrophilic selective layer, and can operate even when the stream to be treated has a high water content, such as 10 wt % or more. The processes are particularly useful for dehydrating ethanol.

  18. Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1992--December 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contracts AC22-86PC91221 and AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. During the quarter, the Anutech Mark IV surface force apparatus was used to generate surface force-distance data for the mica/dodecylamine hydrochloride system (Task 2.1.1). Work to characterize the hydrophobicity of this system and the mica/DDOA{sup {minus}} system was also initiated (Task 2.1.2). In Task 3, the mixing/coagulation characteristics of a small Kenics static mixer/agitation system have been investigated (Task 3.2.1), a lamella thickener for the recovery of coagula has been built (Task 3.3.1), and the test program for the recovery of coagula by column flotation has been initiated (Task 3.3.4).

  19. Molecular Scale Hydrophobicity in Varying Degree of Planar Hydrophobic Nanoconfinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudip Nepal; Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the molecular scale hydrophobicity of an apolar solute, argon, confined between hydrophobic planar surfaces with different confinement widths. Specifically, we find that the hydrophobicity exhibits a non-monotonic behavior with confinement width. While hydrophobicity is usually large compared to bulk value, we find a narrow range of confinement width where the hydrophobicity displays similar values as in bulk water. Furthermore, we develop a simple model taking into account the entropic changes in nanoconfined geometry, which enables us to calculate potential of mean force between solutes as the conditions change from bulk to different degrees of planar nanoconfinement. Our results are important in understanding nanoconfinement induced stability of apolar polymers, solubility of gases, and may help design better systems for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

  20. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  1. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Coronado, P.R.

    1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  2. Direct Assembly of Hydrophobic Nanoparticles to Multifunctional Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zhenda [University of California, Riverside; Yin, Yadong [University of California, Riverside; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general process that allows convenient production of multifunctional composite particles by direct self-assembly of hydrophobic nanoparticles on host nanostructures containing high-density surface thiol groups. Hydrophobic nanoparticles of various compositions and combinations can be directly assembled onto the host surface through the strong coordination interactions between metal cations and thiol groups. The resulting structures can be further conveniently overcoated with a layer of normal silica to stabilize the assemblies and render them highly dispersible in water for biomedical applications. As the entire fabrication process does not involve complicated surface modification procedures, the hydrophobic ligands on the nanoparticles are not disturbed significantly so that they retain their original properties such as highly efficient luminescence. Many complex composite nanostructures with tailored functions can be efficiently produced by using this versatile approach. For example, multifunctional nonspherical nanostructures can be efficiently produced by using mercapto-silica coated nano-objects of arbitrary shapes as hosts for immobilizing functional nanoparticles. Multilayer structures can also be achieved by repeating the mercapto-silica coating and nanoparticle immobilization processes. Such assembly approach will provide the research community a highly versatile, configurable, scalable, and reproducible process for the preparation of various multifunctional structures.

  3. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  4. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, Theodore F. (Tracy, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  5. Aluminide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr; Charles, H [Kennewick, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are aluminide coatings. In one embodiment coatings are used as a barrier coating to protect a metal substrate, such as a steel or a superalloy, from various chemical environments, including oxidizing, reducing and/or sulfidizing conditions. In addition, the disclosed coatings can be used, for example, to prevent the substantial diffusion of various elements, such as chromium, at elevated service temperatures. Related methods for preparing protective coatings on metal substrates are also described.

  6. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic...

  7. Probing the Dynamics of a Protein Hydrophobic Core by Deutron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics of a Protein Hydrophobic Core by Deutron Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy . Probing the Dynamics of a Protein Hydrophobic Core by Deutron Solid-State...

  8. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111): Observation of a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Abstract: The...

  9. No Confinement Needed: Observation of a Metastable Hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Confinement Needed: Observation of a Metastable Hydrophobic Wetting Two-Layer Ice on Graphene. No Confinement Needed: Observation of a Metastable Hydrophobic Wetting Two-Layer Ice...

  10. Super-hydrophobic fluorine containing aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerogel material with surfaces containing fluorine atoms which exhibits exceptional hydrophobicity, or the ability to repel liquid water. Hydrophobic aerogels are efficient absorbers of solvents from water. Solvents miscible with water are separated from it because the solvents are more volatile than water and they enter the porous aerogel as a vapor across the liquid water/solid interface. Solvents that are immisicble with water are separated from it by selectively wetting the aerogel. The hydrophobic property is achieved by formulating the aerogel using fluorine containing molecules either directly by addition in the sol-gel process, or by treating a standard dried aerogel using the vapor of fluorine containing molecules.

  11. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T (Clinton, TN) [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  12. Fluoroalkyl and Alkyl Chains Have Similar Hydrophobicities in Binding to the “Hydrophobic Wall” of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Mecinovic; P Snyder; K Mirica; S Bai; E Mack; R Kwant; D Moustakas; A Heroux; G Whitesides

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrophobic effect, the free-energetically favorable association of nonpolar solutes in water, makes a dominant contribution to binding of many systems of ligands and proteins. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrophobic effect in biomolecular recognition using two chemically different but structurally similar hydrophobic groups, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic fluorocarbons, and to determine whether the hydrophobicity of the two groups could be distinguished by thermodynamic and biostructural analysis. This paper uses isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to examine the thermodynamics of binding of benzenesulfonamides substituted in the para position with alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains (H{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-CONHCH{sub 2}(CX{sub 2}){sub n}CX{sub 3}, n = 0-4, X = H, F) to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). Both alkyl and fluoroalkyl substituents contribute favorably to the enthalpy and the entropy of binding; these contributions increase as the length of chain of the hydrophobic substituent increases. Crystallography of the protein-ligand complexes indicates that the benzenesulfonamide groups of all ligands examined bind with similar geometry, that the tail groups associate with the hydrophobic wall of HCA II (which is made up of the side chains of residues Phe131, Val135, Pro202, and Leu204), and that the structure of the protein is indistinguishable for all but one of the complexes (the longest member of the fluoroalkyl series). Analysis of the thermodynamics of binding as a function of structure is compatible with the hypothesis that hydrophobic binding of both alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains to hydrophobic surface of carbonic anhydrase is due primarily to the release of nonoptimally hydrogen-bonded water molecules that hydrate the binding cavity (including the hydrophobic wall) of HCA II and to the release of water molecules that surround the hydrophobic chain of the ligands. This study defines the balance of enthalpic and entropic contributions to the hydrophobic effect in this representative system of protein and ligand: hydrophobic interactions, here, seem to comprise approximately equal contributions from enthalpy (plausibly from strengthening networks of hydrogen bonds among molecules of water) and entropy (from release of water from configurationally restricted positions).

  13. Curvature Dependence of Hydrophobic Hydration Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Gregor Weiß; Matthias Heyden; Joachim Dzubiella

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the curvature-dependence of water dynamics in the vicinity of hydrophobic spherical solutes using molecular dynamics simulations. For both, the lateral and perpendicular diffusivity as well as for H-bond kinetics of water in the first hydration shell, we find a non-monotonic solute-size dependence, exhibiting extrema close to the well-known structural crossover length scale for hydrophobic hydration. Additionally, we find an apparently anomalous diffusion for water moving parallel to the surface of small solutes, which, however, can be explained by topology effects. The intimate connection between solute curvature, water structure and dynamics has implications for our understanding of hydration dynamics at heterogeneous biomolecular surfaces.

  14. Evaluating the robustness of top coatings comprising plasma-deposited fluorocarbons in electrowetting systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitrios P. Papageorgiou; Elias P. Koumoulos; Costas A. Charitidis; Andreas G. Boudouvis; Athanasios G. Papathanasiou

    2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin dielectric stacks comprising a main insulating layer and a hydrophobic top coating are commonly used in low voltage electrowetting systems. However, in most cases, thin dielectrics fail to endure persistent electrowetting testing at high voltages, namely beyond the saturation onset, as electrolysis indicates dielectric failure. Careful sample inspection via optical microscopy revealed possible local delamination of the top coating under high electric fields. Thus, improvement of the adhesion strength of the hydrophobic top coating to the main dielectric is attempted through a plasma-deposited fluorocarbon interlayer. Interestingly enough the proposed dielectric stack exhibited a) resistance to dielectric breakdown, b) higher contact angle modulation range, and c) electrowetting cycle reversibility. Appearance of electrolysis in the saturation regime is inhibited, suggesting the use of this hydrophobic dielectric stack for the design of more efficient electrowetting systems. The possible causes of the improved performance are investigated by nanoscratch characterization.

  15. Protective Coatings for Turbomachinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCune, B.; Hilty, L.

    of these coatings has lead to the development of tailored coatings for different applications. In addition, coatings now offer multiple benefits. The most advanced compressor coatings restore surface finish, resist erosion, and provide protection from corrosion....

  16. Hydrophobic silica aerogel production at KEK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabata, Makoto; Kawai, Hideyuki; Sumiyoshi, Takayuki; Yokogawa, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present herein a characterization of a standard method used at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) to produce hydrophobic silica aerogels and expand this method to obtain a wide range of refractive index (n = 1.006-1.14). We describe in detail the entire production process and explain the methods used to measure the characteristic parameters of aerogels, namely the refractive index, transmittance, and density. We use a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique to relate the transparency to the fine structure of aerogels.

  17. Hydrophobic silica aerogel production at KEK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makoto Tabata; Ichiro Adachi; Hideyuki Kawai; Takayuki Sumiyoshi; Hiroshi Yokogawa

    2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present herein a characterization of a standard method used at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) to produce hydrophobic silica aerogels and expand this method to obtain a wide range of refractive index (n = 1.006-1.14). We describe in detail the entire production process and explain the methods used to measure the characteristic parameters of aerogels, namely the refractive index, transmittance, and density. We use a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique to relate the transparency to the fine structure of aerogels.

  18. Hydrophobic Interactions and Dewetting between Plates with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Lan Hua, Ronen Zangi,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berne, Bruce J.

    -5 The nature of the hydrophobic effect is length-scale dependent. While hydro- phobicity at small length scales wet until steric constraints at small separations eject the water molecules. Our results indicate is associated with small distortions of the hydrogen bond connectivity between the water molecules, large

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - actinomycetemcomitansarcb influences hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is presented in this paper. The tendency to create the hydrophobic center during protein folding Source: Skolnick, Jeff - Center for the Study of Systems Biology, Georgia...

  20. Combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through surface nanoengineering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Stagon, Stephen P.; Huang, Hanchen; Furrer, David U.; Burlatsky, Sergei F.; Filburn, Thomas P.

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through the nanoscale engineering of surfaces in the form of nanorod-polymer composites. Specifically, the hydrophobicity derives from nanoscale features of mechanically hard ZnO nanorods and the mechanical durability derives from the composite structure of a hard ZnO nanorod core and soft polymer shell. Experimental characterization correlates the morphology of the nanoengineered surfaces with the combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability, and reveals the responsible mechanisms. Such surfaces may find use in applications, such as boat hulls, that benefit from hydrophobicity and require mechanical durability.

  1. Self-assembled nanolaminate coatings (SV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, H.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) are collaborating to develop affordable, self-assembled, nanocomposite coatings and associated fabrication processes that will be tailored to Lockheed Martin product requirements. The purpose of this project is to develop a family of self-assembled coatings with properties tailored to specific performance requirements, such as antireflective (AR) optics, using Sandia-developed self-assembled techniques. The project met its objectives by development of a simple and economic self-assembly processes to fabricate multifunctional coatings. Specifically, materials, functionalization methods, and associated coating processes for single layer and multiple layers coatings have been developed to accomplish high reflective coatings, hydrophobic coatings, and anti-reflective coatings. Associated modeling and simulations have been developed to guide the coating designs for optimum optical performance. The accomplishments result in significant advantages of reduced costs, increased manufacturing freedom/producibility, improved logistics, and the incorporation of new technology solutions not possible with conventional technologies. These self-assembled coatings with tailored properties will significantly address LMC's needs and give LMC a significant competitive lead in new engineered materials. This work complements SNL's LDRD and BES programs aimed at developing multifunctional nanomaterials for microelectronics and optics as well as structure/property investigations of self-assembled nanomaterials. In addition, this project will provide SNL with new opportunities to develop and apply self-assembled nanocomposite optical coatings for use in the wavelength ranges of 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers, ranges of vital importance to military-based sensors and weapons. The SANC technologies will be applied to multiple programs within the LM Company including the F-35, F-22, ADP (Future Strike Bomber, UAV, UCAV, etc.). The SANC technologies will establish LMA and related US manufacturing capability for commercial and military applications therefore reducing reliance on off-shore development and production of related critical technologies. If these technologies are successfully licensed, production of these coatings in manufactory will create significant technical employment opportunities.

  2. Drop dynamics on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. M. Mognetti; H. Kusumaatmaja; J. M. Yeomans

    2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics of micron-scale drops pushed across a hydrophobic or superhydrophobic surface. The velocity profile across the drop varies from quadratic to linear with increasing height, indicating a crossover from a sliding to a rolling motion. We identify a mesoscopic slip capillary number which depends only on the motion of the contact line and the shape of the drop, and show that the angular velocity of the rolling increases with increasing viscosity. For drops on superhydrophobic surfaces we argue that a tank treading advance from post to post replaces the diffusive relaxation that allows the contact line to move on smooth surfaces. Hence drops move on superhydrophobic surfaces more quickly than on smooth geometries.

  3. Anti-stiction coating for microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hankins, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Mayer, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for depositing an anti-stiction coating on a MEMS device comprises reacting the vapor of an amino-functionalized silane precursor with a silicon surface of the MEMS device in a vacuum chamber. The method can further comprise cleaning the silicon surface of the MEMS device to form a clean hydroxylated silicon surface prior to reacting the precursor vapor with the silicon surface. The amino-functionalized silane precursor comprises at least one silicon atom, at least one reactive amino (or imine) pendant, and at least one hydrophobic pendant. The amino-functionalized silane precursor is highly reactive with the silicon surface, thereby eliminating the need for a post-process anneal step and enabling the reaction to occur at low pressure. Such vapor-phase deposition of the amino-functionalized silane coating provides a uniform surface morphology and strong adhesion to the silicon surface.

  4. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Thompson, Karen G. (Orlando, FL); Bryan, Coleman J. (Merritt Island, FL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  5. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Thompson, K.G.; Bryan, C.J.

    1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  6. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  7. Investigation of microbicidal activity of surface-immobilized hydrophobic polycations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bryan Boen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrophobic polycations have been shown to completely kill bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens, on-contact. Herein we describe advances with this technology on two fronts: (1) innovation of a polycationic-derivative ...

  8. Liquid Freezing Dynamics on Hydrophobic and Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    False color environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) images of water freezing on smooth (?e ? 120°) and nanostructured (l ~ 50 nm, ?e ? 170 - 180°) hydrophobic surfaces are presented. To obtain the freezing dynamics ...

  9. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors Re-direct Destination: An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective...

  10. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  11. EERE Desal using Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coating's surface; preventing salt creep, and thus virtually eliminates salt induced corrosion on any surface coated. 2. These coatings consist primarily of diatomaceous earth as...

  12. Evidence for Non-Random Hydrophobicity Structures in Protein Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders Irbäck; Carsten Peterson; Frank Potthast

    1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The question of whether proteins originate from random sequences of amino acids is addressed. A statistical analysis is performed in terms of blocked and random walk values formed by binary hydrophobic assignments of the amino acids along the protein chains. Theoretical expectations of these variables from random distributions of hydrophobicities are compared with those obtained from functional proteins. The results, which are based upon proteins in the SWISS-PROT data base, convincingly show that the amino acid sequences in proteins differ from what is expected from random sequences in a statistical significant way. By performing Fourier transforms on the random walks one obtains additional evidence for non-randomness of the distributions. We have also analyzed results from a synthetic model containing only two amino-acid types, hydrophobic and hydrophilic. With reasonable criteria on good folding properties in terms of thermodynamical and kinetic behavior, sequences that fold well are isolated. Performing the same statistical analysis on the sequences that fold well indicates similar deviations from randomness as for the functional proteins. The deviations from randomness can be interpreted as originating from anticorrelations in terms of an Ising spin model for the hydrophobicities. Our results, which differ from previous investigations using other methods, might have impact on how permissive with respect to sequence specificity the protein folding process is -- only sequences with non-random hydrophobicity distributions fold well. Other distributions give rise to energy landscapes with poor folding properties and hence did not survive the evolution.

  13. Spin coating of electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  14. Metallic coating of microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  15. Enhanced surface hydrophobicity by coupling of surface polarity and topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhanced surface hydrophobicity by coupling of surface polarity and topography Nicolas organization and contact angle. We show that when the topography and polarity of the surface act in concert- ciated that the topography of a surface is important in deter- mining the degree of surface

  16. Fluctuations in Water and their Relation to the Hydrophobic Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varilly, Patrick Stephen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cavities of radius R in SPC/E water. After Ref. [49].hydrophobic polymer, in explicit SPC/E water. The collectiveA 60 × 60 × 60 ? A 3 slab of SPC/E water is set up in a 60 ×

  17. How Water Meets a Very Hydrophobic Surface Sudeshna Chattopadhyay,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Pulak

    University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA 3 Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne- hydrophobic interfaces, qmax $ 0:9 #AÀ1 for x rays and inverting limited-range RðqÞ data is that features in ðzÞ are smeared by a resolution function [9] of width Áz

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - atypical hydrophobic late Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of this protein was applied to the hydrophobicity-driven process of late-stage protein folding... . and Roterman, I. (2006) Fuzzy-oil-drop hydrophobic force field - a model to...

  19. Measurement of the Hydrophobic Force in a Soft Matter System Supporting Information Supporting Information for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Measurement of the Hydrophobic Force in a Soft Matter System ­ Supporting Information 1 Supporting Information for "Measurement of the Hydrophobic Force in a Soft Matter System" Rico F. Tabor*1 , Chu Wu2.tabor@monash.edu and d.chan@unimelb.edu.au #12;Measurement of the Hydrophobic Force in a Soft Matter System ­ Supporting

  20. Protein Folding in the Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic (HP) Model is NP-Complete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istrail, Sorin

    Protein Folding in the Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic (HP) Model is NP-Complete Bonnie Berger* Tom Leightont Abstract One of the simplest and most popular biophysical mod- els of protein folding is the hydrophobic-hydrophilic (HP) model. The HP model abstracts the hydrophobic in- teraction in protein folding

  1. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  2. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  3. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  4. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  5. Superhard Coating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Applications," International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, CA, April 23-27, 2007. - A. Erdemir, O. L. Eryilmaz., M. Urgen, K....

  6. Origin of Entropy Convergence in Hydrophobic Hydration and Protein Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garde, S.; Hummer, G.; Garcia, A.E.; Paulaitis, M.E.; Pratt, L.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); [Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); [Department of Chemical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An information theory model of hydrophobic effects is used to construct a molecular explanation why hydrophobic solvation entropies of protein unfolding measured by high sensitivity calorimetry converge to zero at a common convergence temperature. The entropy convergence follows directly from the weak temperature dependence of occupancy fluctuations {l_angle}{delta}{ital n}{sup 2}{r_angle} for molecular-scale volumes in water. The macroscopic expression of the contrasting entropic behavior of water relative to common organic solvents is the {ital relative} temperature insensitivity of the water isothermal compressibility compared to hydrocarbon liquids. The information theory model used provides a quantitative description of small molecule hydration and, in addition, predicts that the value of the entropy at convergence is slightly {ital negative}. Interpretations of entropic contributions to protein folding should account for this result. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Superoleophilic particles and coatings and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T; D& #x27; Urso, Brian

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Superoleophilic particles and surfaces and methods of making the same are described. The superoleophilic particles can include porous particles having a hydrophobic coating layer deposited thereon. The coated porous particles are characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m and a plurality of nanopores. Some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity. The superoleophilic particles also include oil pinned within the nanopores of the porous particles The plurality of porous particles can include (i) particles including a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features comprising a contiguous, protrusive material, (ii) diatomaceous earth particles, or (iii) both. The surfaces can include the superoleophilic particles coupled to the surface.

  8. Electrowetting on plasma-deposited fluorocarbon hydrophobic films for biofluid transport in microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayiati, P.; Tserepi, A.; Petrou, P. S.; Kakabakos, S. E.; Misiakos, K.; Gogolides, E. [Institute of Microelectronics-NCSR 'Demokritos', POB 60228, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products-NCSR 'Demokritos', POB 60228, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Institute of Microelectronics-NCSR 'Demokritos', POB 60228, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work focuses on the plasma deposition of fluorocarbon (FC) films on surfaces and the electrostatic control of their wettability (electrowetting). Such films can be employed for actuation of fluid transport in microfluidic devices, when deposited over patterned electrodes. Here, the deposition was performed using C{sub 4}F{sub 8} and the plasma parameters that permit the creation of films with optimized properties desirable for electrowetting were established. The wettability of the plasma-deposited surfaces was characterized by means of contact angle measurements (in the static and dynamic mode). The thickness of the deposited films was probed in situ by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry, while the surface roughness was provided by atomic force microscopy. These plasma-deposited FC films in combination with silicon nitride, a material of high dielectric constant, were used to create a dielectric structure that requires reduced voltages for successful electrowetting. Electrowetting experiments using protein solutions were conducted on such optimized dielectric structures and were compared with similar structures bearing commercial spin-coated Teflon registered amorphous fluoropolymer (AF) film as the hydrophobic top layer. Our results show that plasma-deposited FC films have desirable electrowetting behavior and minimal protein adsorption, a requirement for successful transport of biological solutions in 'digital' microfluidics.

  9. Water transport through functionalized nanotubes with tunable hydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskowitz, Ian; Snyder, Mark A.; Mittal, Jeetain, E-mail: jeetain@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the occupancy and flow of water through nanotubes comprised of hydrophobic and hydrophilic atoms, which are arranged on a honeycomb lattice to mimic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We consider single-file motion of TIP3P water through narrow channels of (6,6) CNTs with varying fractions (f) of hydrophilic atoms. Various arrangements of hydrophilic atoms are used to create heterogeneous nanotubes with separate hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains along the tube as well as random mixtures of the two types of atoms. The water occupancy inside the nanotube channel is found to vary nonlinearly as a function of f, and a small fraction of hydrophilic atoms (f ? 0.4) are sufficient to induce spontaneous and continuous filling of the nanotube. Interestingly, the average number of water molecules inside the channel and water flux through the nanotube are less sensitive to the specific arrangement of hydrophilic atoms than to the fraction, f. Two different regimes are observed for the water flux dependence on f – an approximately linear increase in flux as a function of f for f < 0.4, and almost no change in flux for higher f values, similar to the change in water occupancy. We are able to define an effective interaction strength between nanotube atoms and water's oxygen, based on a linear combination of interaction strengths between hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanotube atoms and water, that can quantitatively capture the observed behavior.

  10. Water transport through functionalized nanotubes with tunable hydrophobicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian Moskowitz; Mark A. Snyder; Jeetain Mittal

    2015-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the occupancy and flow of water through nanotubes comprised of hydrophobic and hydrophilic atoms, which are arranged on a honeycomb lattice to mimic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We consider single-file motion of TIP3P water through narrow channels of (6,6) CNTs with varying fractions (f) of hydrophilic atoms. Various arrangements of hydrophilic atoms are used to create heterogeneous nanotubes with separate hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains along the tube as well as random mixtures of the two types of atoms. The water occupancy inside the nanotube channel is found to vary nonlinearly as a function of f, and a small fraction of hydrophilic atoms (f ~ 0.4) are sufficient to induce spontaneous and continuous filling of the nanotube. Interestingly, the average number of water molecules inside the channel and water flux through the nanotube are less sensitive to the specific arrangement of hydrophilic atoms than to the fraction, f. Two different regimes are observed for the water flux dependence on f - an approximately linear increase in flux as a function of f for f water occupancy. We are able to define an effective interaction strength between nanotube atoms and water's oxygen, based on a linear combination of interaction strengths between hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanotube atoms and water, that can quantitatively capture the observed behavior.

  11. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  12. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, Shiu-Wing (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Carl E. (Elk Grove, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  13. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  14. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  15. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  16. Aluminum phosphate coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sambasivan, Sankar (Chicago, IL); Steiner, Kimberly A. (Chicago, IL); Rangan, Krishnaswamy K. (Evanston, IL)

    2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  17. Spin coating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  18. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  19. Identification of Characteristic Protein Folding Channels in a Coarse-Grained Hydrophobic-Polar Peptide Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Schnabel; Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke

    2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Folding channels and free-energy landscapes of hydrophobic-polar heteropolymers are discussed on the basis of a minimalistic off-lattice coarse-grained model. We investigate how rearrangements of hydrophobic and polar monomers in a heteropolymer sequence lead to completely different folding behaviors. Studying three exemplified sequences with the same content of hydrophobic and polar residues, we can reproduce within this simple model two-state folding, folding through intermediates, as well as metastability.

  20. Temperature and length scale dependence of hydrophobic effects and their possible implications for protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, David M.; Chandler, David

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lum-Chandler-Weeks theory of hydrophobicity [J. Phys. Chem. 103, 4570 (1999)] is applied to treat the temperature dependence of hydrophobic solvation in water. The application illustrates how the temperature dependence for hydrophobic surfaces extending less than 1nm differs significantly from that for surfaces extending more than 1nm. The latter is the result of water depletion, a collective effect, that appears at length scales of 1nm and larger. Due to the contrasting behaviors at small and large length scales, hydrophobicity by itself can explain the variable behavior of protein folding.

  1. Metallic coatings: autocatalytic (electroless) nickel-phosphorus alloy coatings: specification and test methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic coatings: autocatalytic (electroless) nickel-phosphorus alloy coatings: specification and test methods

  2. Revêtements métalliques : Dépôts électrolytiques de nickel Metallic coatings : Electrodeposited coatings of nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Revêtements métalliques : Dépôts électrolytiques de nickel Metallic coatings : Electrodeposited coatings of nickel

  3. Hydrogen Permeation Resistant Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KORINKO, PAUL; ADAMS, THAD; CREECH, GREGGORY

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings may be applied to these ferrous alloys to retard hydrogen ingress. Hydrogen is known to be very mobile in materials of construction. In this study, the permeation resistance of bare stainless steel samples and coated stainless steel samples was tested. The permeation resistance was measured using a modular permeation rig using a pressure rise technique. The coating microstructure and permeation results will be discussed in this document as will some additional testing.

  4. Adding salt to an aqueous solution of t-butanol: Is hydrophobic association enhanced or reduced?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suter, Dieter

    Adding salt to an aqueous solution of t-butanol: Is hydrophobic association enhanced or reduced experiments on aqueous salt solutions of amphiphilic t-butanol by Bowron and Finney Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 in the presence of salt, as it would be expected for purely hydrophobic solutes. T. Ghosh et al., J. Phys. Chem. B

  5. Hydrophobic Aided Replica Exchange: an Efficient Algorithm for Protein Folding in Explicit Solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berne, Bruce J.

    Hydrophobic Aided Replica Exchange: an Efficient Algorithm for Protein Folding in Explicit Solvent protein folding in explicit solvent. This method is based on exaggerating the hydrophobic effect understanding of protein folding and misfolding is critical to many problems in computational biology.1 Many

  6. A Micellar Route to Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Hydrophobic Functional Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yue

    A Micellar Route to Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Hydrophobic Functional Polymers Qi Bo, Xia Tong, Yi, 2008 ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a general approach to introduce hydrophobic functional polymers-chain liquid crystalline polymer (SCLCP) were synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization, followed

  7. Exact sequence analysis for three-dimensional hydrophobic-polar lattice proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janke, Wolfhard

    Exact sequence analysis for three-dimensional hydrophobic-polar lattice proteins Reinhard Schiemann 17 March 2005 We have exactly enumerated all sequences and conformations of hydrophobic-polar HP sequences, i.e., sequences that have a nondegenerate ground state. Furthermore we were interested

  8. Tribology and coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  9. Fiber coating method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

  10. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  11. Large Area Vacuum Deposited Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It's easy to make the myriad of types of large area and decorative coatings for granted. We probably don't even think about most of them; the low-e and heat mirror coatings on our windows and car windows, the mirrors in displays, antireflection coatings on windows and displays, protective coatings on aircraft windows, heater coatings on windshields and aircraft windows, solar reflectors, thin film solar cells, telescope mirrors, Hubble mirrors, transparent conductive coatings, and the list goes on. All these products require large deposition systems and chambers. Also, don't forget that large batches of small substrates or parts are coated in large chambers. In order to be cost effective hundreds of ophthalmic lenses, automobile reflectors, display screens, lamp reflectors, cell phone windows, laser reflectors, DWDM filters, are coated in batches.

  12. Graphene Coating Coupled Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

  13. Low friction and galling resistant coatings and processes for coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Roger N. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes coating processes and the resultant coated articles for use in high temperature sodium environments, such as those found in liquid metal fast breeder reactors and their associated systems. The substrate to which the coating is applied may be either an iron base or nickel base alloy. The coating itself is applied to the substrate by electro-spark deposition techniques which result in metallurgical bonding between the coating and the substrate. One coating according to the present invention involves electro-spark depositing material from a cemented chromium carbide electrode and an aluminum electrode. Another coating according to the present invention involves electro-spark depositing material from a cemented chromium carbide electrode and a nickel-base hardfacing alloy electrode.

  14. Fast Protein Folding in the Hydrophobic-hydrophilic Model Within Three-eights of Optimal (Extended Abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istrail, Sorin

    Fast Protein Folding in the Hydrophobic-hydrophilic Model Within Three-eights of Optimal (Extended for the protein folding problem in the hydrophobic- hydrophilic model, Dill (1985). To our knowledge, our al for this model, Dill (1994). The hydrophobic-hydrophilic model abstracts the dominant force of protein folding

  15. Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

  16. Water-soluble hydrophobically associating polymers for improved oil recovery: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, K.C. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-soluble hydrophobically associating polymers are reviewed with particular emphasis on their application in improved oil recovery (IOR). These polymers are very similar to conventional water-soluble polymers used in IOR, except that they have a small number of hydrophobic groups incorporated into the polymer backbone. At levels of incorporation of less than 1 mol%, these hydrophobic groups can significantly change polymer performance. These polymers have potential for use in mobility control, drilling fluids and profile modification. This review includes synthesis, characterization, stability, rheology and flow in porous media of associating polymers in IOR are also examined. 100 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Bubble formation in water with addition of a hydrophobic solute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryuichi Okamoto; Akira Onuki

    2015-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that phase separation can occur in a one-component liquid outside its coexistence curve (CX) with addition of a small amount of a solute. The solute concentration at the transition decreases with increasing the difference of the solvation chemical potential between liquid and gas. As a typical bubble-forming solute, we consider ${\\rm O}_2$ in ambient liquid water, which exhibits mild hydrophobicity and its critical temperature is lower than that of water. Such a solute can be expelled from the liquid to form gaseous domains while the surrounding liquid pressure is higher than the saturated vapor pressure $p_{cx}$. This solute-induced bubble formation is a first-order transition in bulk and on a partially dried wall, while a gas film grows continuously on a completely dried wall. We set up a bubble free energy $\\Delta G$ for bulk and surface bubbles with a small volume fraction $\\phi$. It becomes a function of the bubble radius $R$ under the Laplace pressure balance. Then, for sufficiently large solute densities above a threshold, $\\Delta G$ exhibits a local maximum at a critical radius and a minimum at an equilibrium radius. We also examine solute-induced nucleation taking place outside CX, where bubbles larger than the critical radius grow until attainment of equilibrium.

  18. Thermodynamics, Structure, and Dynamics of Water Confined between Hydrophobic Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep Kumar; Sergey V. Buldyrev; Francis W. Starr; Nicolas Giovambattista; H. Eugene Stanley

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of 512 water-like molecules that interact via the TIP5P potential and are confined between two smooth hydrophobic plates that are separated by 1.10 nm. We find that the anomalous thermodynamic properties of water are shifted to lower temperatures relative to the bulk by $\\approx 40$ K. The dynamics and structure of the confined water resemble bulk water at higher temperatures, consistent with the shift of thermodynamic anomalies to lower temperature. Due to this $T$ shift, our confined water simulations (down to $T = 220$ K) do not reach sufficiently low temperature to observe a liquid-liquid phase transition found for bulk water at $T\\approx 215$ K using the TIP5P potential. We find that the different crystalline structures that can form for two different separations of the plates, 0.7 nm and 1.10 nm, have no counterparts in the bulk system, and discuss the relevance to experiments on confined water.

  19. Antithrombogenic Polymer Coating.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Zhi Heng (San Ramon, CA); McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Flint, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2003-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An article having a non-thrombogenic surface and a process for making the article are disclosed. The article is formed by (i) coating a polymeric substrate with a crosslinked chemical combination of a polymer having at least two amino substituted side chains, a crosslinking agent containing at least two crosslinking functional groups which react with amino groups on the polymer, and a linking agent containing a first functional group which reacts with a third functional group of the crosslinking agent, and (ii) contacting the coating on the substrate with an antithrombogenic agent which covalently bonds to a second functional group of the linking agent. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone, the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, the linking agent is a polyhydrazide and the antithrombogenic agent is heparin.

  20. Low-temperature dynamics of water confined in a hydrophobic mesoporous material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Xiang-qiang

    Quasielastic neutron scattering was used to study the dynamics of three-dimensional confined water in a hydrophobic mesoporous material designated as CMK-1 in the temperature range from 250 to 170 K. We observe a crossover ...

  1. The Amphiphilic Self-Assembling Peptide EAK16-I as a Potential Hydrophobic Drug Carrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jing

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is crucial for hydrophobic drugs to be dissolved and stabilized by carriers in aqueous systems and then to be delivered into target cells. An amphiphilic self-assembling peptide EAK16-I (Ac-AEAKAEAKAEAKAEAK-NH2) is ...

  2. Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein Hydrophobic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein Hydrophobic Core at Cryogenic Temperatures by Deuteron NMR Spectroscopy. Freezing of Dynamics of a Methyl Group in a Protein...

  3. Weathered Diesel oil as a sorptive phase for hydrophobic organic compounds in aquifer materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Rondall James

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorptive properties of weathered diesel oil were investigated by conducting miscible displacement experiments with three hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), acenapthene, fluorene, and dibenzothiophene, as tracers in columns containing aquifer...

  4. Condensation on Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, Nanostructured Superhydrophobic and Oil-Infused Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenad, Miljkovic

    Color images of steady state water vapor condensing on smooth and nanostructured hydrophobic surfaces are presented. Figure 1a shows a snapshot of classical filmwise condensation on hydrophilic copper. A thin liquid film ...

  5. alpha-helical hydrophobic polypeptides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are discussed. Paolo De Los Rios; Guido Caldarelli 1999-12-18 76 Hydrophobic silica aerogel production at KEK Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: We present herein a...

  6. Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sediment-Water Partition Coefficients of Hydrophobic Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments from five of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Marked differ- ences in freely dissolved PAH and PCB concentrations

  7. Revisiting Hydrophobic Mismatch with Free Energy Simulation Studies of Transmembrane Helix Tilt and Rotation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Taehoon; Im, Wonpil

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein-lipid interaction and bilayer regulation of membrane protein functions are largely controlled by the hydrophobic match between the transmembrane (TM) domain of membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer. To systematically...

  8. Weathered Diesel oil as a sorptive phase for hydrophobic organic compounds in aquifer materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Rondall James

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorptive properties of weathered diesel oil were investigated by conducting miscible displacement experiments with three hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), acenapthene, fluorene, and dibenzothiophene, as tracers in columns containing aquifer...

  9. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH); Swartz, Scott L. (Columbus, OH); Dawson, William J. (Dublin, OH); McCormick, Buddy E. (Dublin, OH)

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  10. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  11. Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaseous hydrogen, H2, has many physical properties that allow it to move rapidly into and through materials, which causes problems in keeping hydrogen from materials that are sensitive to hydrogen-induced degradation. Hydrogen molecules are the smallest diatomic molecules, with a molecular radius of about 37 x 10-12 m and the hydrogen atom is smaller still. Since it is small and light it is easily transported within materials by diffusion processes. The process of hydrogen entering and transporting through a materials is generally known as permeation and this section reviews the development of hydrogen permeation barriers and barrier coatings for the upcoming hydrogen economy.

  12. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, L.

    1988-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  13. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R A T O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunUC-1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunPaper Sol-gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

  14. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p. 1080. AES Second Coatings for Solar Collectors Symp. , 11coating concept is to use heavy starting stock which might be suitable for direct fabrication of solar collectorsolar collector panels. Here the major consideration is whether the coating

  15. Tests Conducted with Strippable Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. E. Archibald; R. L. Demmer

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the testing and evaluation of several strippable coatings and their use in decontamination. Pentek 604, Bartlett (TLC), and ALARA 1146 were products examined for their overall effectiveness and ease of use. Conclusions were reached about the effective use of these coatings, and field test examples, with radioactive contamination are incorporated.

  16. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  17. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  18. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials, Elsevier, .O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

  19. Coatings on reflective mask substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, William Man-Wai (Oakland, CA); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Hector, Scott D. (Oakland, CA); Mangat, Pawitter J. S. (Gilbert, AZ); Stivers, Alan R. (San Jose, CA); Kofron, Patrick G. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, Matthew A. (Austin, TX)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for creating a mask substrate involving depositing: 1) a coating on one or both sides of a low thermal expansion material EUVL mask substrate to improve defect inspection, surface finishing, and defect levels; and 2) a high dielectric coating, on the backside to facilitate electrostatic chucking and to correct for any bowing caused by the stress imbalance imparted by either other deposited coatings or the multilayer coating of the mask substrate. An film, such as TaSi, may be deposited on the front side and/or back of the low thermal expansion material before the material coating to balance the stress. The low thermal expansion material with a silicon overlayer and a silicon and/or other conductive underlayer enables improved defect inspection and stress balancing.

  20. Hydrophobic force field as molecular alternative to surface-area models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummer, G.

    1999-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An effective force field for hydrophobic interactions is developed based on a modified potential-of-mean-force (PMF) expansion of the effective many-body interactions between nonpolar molecules in water. For the simplest nonpolar solutes in water, hard particles, the modified PMF expansion is exact in both limiting cases of infinite separation and perfect overlap. The hydrophobic interactions are parametrized by using the information-theory model of hydrophobic hydration. The interactions between nonpolar solutes are short-ranged and can be evaluated efficiently on a computer. The force field is compared with simulation data for alkane conformational equilibria in water as well as a model for the formation of a hydrophobic core of a protein. The modified PMF expansion can be extended to solutes with attractive interactions. The observed accuracy, computational efficiency, and atomic detail of the model suggest that this simple hydrophobic force field can lead to a molecular alternative for phenomenological surface-area models with applications in ligand-binding and protein-folding studies.

  1. Ceramic composite coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching etal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  2. Ceramic composite coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching metal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  3. Molecular theory for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhari, M I; Asthagiri, D; Tan, L; Pratt, L R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the local molecular field (LMF) theory for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions. The principal result of LMF theory is outlined, then tested by obtaining radial distribution functions (rdfs) for Ar atoms in water, with and without attractive interactions distinguished by the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) separation. Change from purely repulsive atomic solute interactions to include realistic attractive interactions substantially \\emph{diminishes} the strength of hydrophobic bonds. Since attractions make a big contribution to hydrophobic interactions, Pratt-Chandler theory, which did not include attractions, should not be simply comparable to computer simulation results with general physical interactions, including attractions. The rdfs permit evaluation of osmotic second virial coefficients $B_2$. Those $B_2$ are consistent with the conclusion that incorporation of attractive interactions leads to more positive (repulsive) values. In all cases here, $B_2$ becomes mor...

  4. Adding Salt to an Aqueous Solution of t-Butanol: Is Hydrophobic Association Enhanced or Reduced?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietmar Paschek; Alfons Geiger; Momo Jeufack Herve; Dieter Suter

    2006-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent neutron scattering experiments on aqueous salt solutions of amphiphilic t-butanol by Bowron and Finney [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 89}, 215508 (2002); J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 118}, 8357 (2003)] suggest the formation of t-butanol pairs, bridged by a chloride ion via ${O}-{H}...{Cl}^-$ hydrogen-bonds, and leading to a reduced number of intermolecular hydrophobic butanol-butanol contacts. Here we present a joint experimental/theoretical study on the same system, using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements. Both theory and experiment clearly support the more intuitive scenario of an enhanced number of hydrophobic contacts in the presence of the salt, as it would be expected for purely hydrophobic solutes [J. Phys. Chem. B {\\bf 107}, 612 (2003)]. Although our conclusions arrive at a structurally completely distinct scenario, the molecular dynamics simulation results are within the experimental errorbars of the Bowron and Finney work.

  5. No Confinement Needed: Observation of a Metastable Hydrophobic Wetting Two-Layer Ice on Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmel, Gregory A.; Matthiesen, Jesper; Baer, Marcel; Mundy, Christopher J.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Smith, R. Scott; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of water at interfaces is crucial for processes ranging from photocatalysis to protein folding. Here, we investigate the structure and lattice dynamics of two-layer crystalline ice films grown on a hydrophobic substrate - graphene on Pt(111) - with low energy electron diffraction, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, rare-gas adsorption/desorption, and ab-initio molecular dynamics. Unlike hexagonal ice, which consists of stacks of puckered hexagonal "bilayers", this new ice polymorph consists of two flat hexagonal sheets of water molecules in which the hexagons in each sheet are stacked directly on top of each other. Such two-layer ices have been predicted for water confined between hydrophobic slits, but not previously observed. Our results show that the two-layer ice forms even at zero pressure at a single hydrophobic interface by maximizing the number of hydrogen bonds at the expense of adopting a non-tetrahedral geometry with weakened bonds.

  6. Surface tension of electrolytes: Hydrophilic and hydrophobic ions near an interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akira Onuki

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the ion distributions around an interface in fluid mixtures of highly polar and less polar fluids (water and oil) for two and three ion species. We take into account the solvation and image interactions between ions and solvent. We show that hydrophilic and hydrophobic ions tend to undergo a microphase separation at an interface, giving rise to an enlarged electric double layer. We also derive a general expression for the surface tension of electrolyte systems, which contains a negative electrostatic contribution proportional to the square root of the bulk salt density. The amplitude of this square-root term is small for hydrophilic ion pairs, but is much increased for hydrophilic and hydrophobic ion pairs. For three ion species including hydrophilic and hydrophobic ions, we calculate the ion distributions to explain those obtained by x-ray reflectivity measurements.

  7. Environmental Technology Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program (ETV CCEP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .2 Quality Assurance for the ETV CCEP.....................................................................1.................................................................11 2.2.12 Determination of Total Volatile Content of the UV-Curable Coating.......14 2.3 Schedule.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES.......................................

  8. Phase I Field Test Results of an Innovative DNAPL Remediation Technology: The Hydrophobic Lance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuck, D.M.

    1999-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative technology for recovery of pure phase DNAPL was deployed in the subsurface near the M-Area Settling Basin, continuing the support of the A/M Area Ground Water Corrective Action Program (per Part B requirements). This technology, the Hydrophobic Lance, operates by placing a neutral/hydrophobic surface (Teflon) in contact with the DNAPL. This changes the in situ conditions experienced by the DNAPL, allowing it to selectively drain into a sump from which it can be pumped. Collection of even small amounts of DNAPL can save years of pump-and-treat operation because of the generally low solubility of DNAPL components.

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Coated Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Lei L [ORNL; Pan, Yun-Long [Smart Papers, Hamilton, OH 45013; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Peterson, Robert C. [Miami University, Oxford, OH

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a method for measuring the thermal conductivity of paper using a hot disk system. To the best of our knowledge, few publications are found discussing the thermal conductivity of a coated paper although it is important to various forms of today s digital printing where heat is used for imaging as well as for toner fusing. This motivates us to investigate the thermal conductivity of paper coating. Our investigation demonstrates that thermal conductivity is affected by the coat weight and the changes in the thermal conductivity affect ink gloss and density. As the coat weight increases, the thermal conductivity increases. Both the ink gloss and density decrease as the thermal conductivity increases. The ink gloss appears to be more sensitive to the changes in the thermal conductivity.

  10. Prime coats materials and methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mantilla, Christian Augusto

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prime coat is the application of a suitable bituminous binder applied to a nonbituminous granular base as a preliminary treatment before the application of a bituminous surfacing. The purpose of this research is to establish practical applications...

  11. PHOTOCATALYSIS ON TITANIA-COATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    PHOTOCATALYSIS ON TITANIA-COATED ELECTRODELESS DISCHARGE LAMPS #12;#12;PHOTOCATALYSIS ON TITANIA/Vis-illuminated Titania 39 Chapter 5 Novel Microwave Photocatalytic Reactors 41 Chapter 6 Microwave Photocatalysis

  12. Findings in seal coat design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Palmer, Miguel Angel

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FINDINGS IN SEAL COAT DESIGN A Thesis by MIGUEL ANGEL GONZALEZ PALMER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject : Civil... Engineering FINDINGS IN SEAL COAT DESIGN A Thesis by MIGUEL ANGEL GONZALEZ PALMER Approved as to style and content by: Michael P. J. Olsen (Chairman of Committee) Dallas N. Little (Member) ne D. Tiner (Member) James T. P. Yao (Head of Departme...

  13. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  14. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  15. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  16. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  17. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan (El Cerrito, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Lee, Chuck K. (Hayward, CA); Walker, Jeffrey (Gaithersburg, MD); Russell, Paige (Las Vegas, NV); Kirkwood, Jon (Saint Leonard, MD); Yang, Nancy (Lafayette, CA); Champagne, Victor (Oxford, PA)

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  18. Dynamic Control of Protein Folding Pathway with a Polymer of Tunable Hydrophobicity Diannan Lu, Jianzhong Wu, and Zheng Liu*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Dynamic Control of Protein Folding Pathway with a Polymer of Tunable Hydrophobicity Diannan Lu ReceiVed: July 30, 2007 While the knowledge of protein folding in a dilute solution is now well of protein folding by using a thermally responsive polymer that varies its hydrophobicity concomitant

  19. On Coating Durability of Polymer Coated Sheet Metal under Plastic Deformation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer coated sheet metal components find diverse applications in many industries. The manufacturing of the components generally involves forming of sheet metal into the desired shape and coating of the formed part with organic coating...

  20. Collapse transition of a hydrophobic self avoiding random walk in a coarse-grained model solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinals, Jorge

    , Canada (Dated: May 10, 2009) Abstract In order to study solvation effects on protein folding we analyze, they are believed to be one of the dominant forces involved in protein folding and in the formation of protein that hydrophobic interactions are central to protein folding and protein-protein interactions, the development

  1. Adsorption of Proteins to Hydrophobic Sites on Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Adsorption of Proteins to Hydrophobic Sites on Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers Emanuele Ostuni adsorption of proteins at solid-liquid interfaces. Detailed results were obtained for -galactosidase is used to rationalize the adsorption; this model, although very approximate, helps to interpret

  2. Droplet impingement and vapor layer formation on hot hydrophobic surfaces Ji Yong Park1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, David G.

    diameter) water droplets that bounce from hydrophobic surfaces whose temperature exceeds the boiling point angle. The residence time determined by high-speed imaging is constant at 1 msec over the temperature-speed imaging is approximately independent of the temperature of the hot surface. Measurements of thermal

  3. DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.200700121 Co-Delivery of Hydrophobic and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liangfang

    ) as a model small molecule hydrophobic drug; doxorubicin (Dox) as a model intercalating hydrophilic drug- polymer as a model controlled release polymer system, we de- veloped targeted NPs that can co-deliver Dox stem region that is the preferred binding site of Dox.[16] Incubation of Dox with the A10 PSMA aptamer

  4. Removal of hydrophobic Volatile Organic Compounds1 in an integrated process coupling Absorption and2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is an interesting method, owing to the low pressure drop generated and68 the low maintenance needed, contrarily to membrane processes that require high working pressures to69 treat low gas flow rates (Fig. 1). An emerging of the process, hydrophobic VOC27 absorption in a gas-liquid contactor, and biodegradation in the TPPB. VOC

  5. Water skin anomalies: density, elasticity, hydrophobicity, thermal stability, interface repulsivity, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q. Sun

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular undercoordination induced O:H-O bond relaxation and dual polarization dictates the supersolid behavior of water skins interacting with other substances such as flowing in nanochannels, dancing of water droplets, floating of insects. The BOLS-NEP notion unifies the Wenzel-Cassie-Baxter models and explains controllable transition between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity.

  6. Identification of characteristic protein folding channels in a coarse-grained hydrophobic-polar peptide model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachmann, Michael

    Identification of characteristic protein folding channels in a coarse-grained hydrophobic of protein folding is one of the major challenges of modern interdisciplinary science. Proteins are linear simulations of protein folding are difficult, mainly for two reasons. Firstly, the folding process is so slow

  7. The acoustical flows of the hydrophobic and anticeptic liquids in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the acoustical flows in the porous or microcrum- bling media. Concrete and brick walls being porous media absorbThe acoustical flows of the hydrophobic and anticeptic liquids in porous media V. Tsaplev North effect. Just the same, if the protective covering of the concrete or brick wall is damaged, they begin

  8. Impact of polymer hydrophobicity on the properties and performance of DNA sequencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, Annelise E.

    Impact of polymer hydrophobicity on the properties and performance of DNA sequencing matrices a controlled set of different polymer formulations for this application. Homopoly- mers of acrylamide and N polymerization and puri- fied. Polymer molar mass distributions were characterized by tandem gel permeation

  9. Optimization and theoretical modeling of polymer microlens arrays fabricated with the hydrophobic effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esener, Sadik C.

    - fied that will allow lens arrays to be constructed at low cost. In addition, these arrays mustOptimization and theoretical modeling of polymer microlens arrays fabricated with the hydrophobic were fabricated by means of withdrawing substrates of patterned wettability from a monomer solution

  10. Surface tension of electrolytes: Hydrophilic and hydrophobic ions near an interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface tension of electrolytes: Hydrophilic and hydrophobic ions near an interface Akira Onukia layer. We also derive a general expression for the surface tension of electrolyte systems, which. DOI: 10.1063/1.2936992 I. INTRODUCTION It has long been known that the surface tension of a water

  11. Volume 145,number I CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 18March 1988 HYDROPHOBIC INTERACTION BETWEEN A METHANE MOLECULE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berne, Bruce J.

    of aqueous solutions of hydrocarbons [ l-51 are a reflection of the unique properties of liquid water. Liquid water a poor solvent for non-polar solutes like hydrocarbons. The insertion of a non-polar molecule. This gives rise to the conventional view that there is a hydrophobic driv- ing force towards contact

  12. Sputtering process and apparatus for coating powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

  13. Temperature effect on the small-to-large crossover length-scale of hydrophobic hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri S. Djikaev; Eli Ruckenstein

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermodynamics of hydration changes gradually from entropic for small solutes to enthalpic for large ones. The small-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration depends on the thermodynamic conditions of the solvent such as temperature, pressure, presence of additives, etc... We attempt to shed some light on the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale by using a probabilistic approach to water hydrogen bonding that allows one to obtain an analytic expression for the number of bonds per water molecule as a function of both its distance to a solute and solute radius. Incorporating that approach into the density functional theory, one can examine the solute size effects on its hydration over the entire small-to-large lengthscale range at different temperatures. Knowing the dependence of the hydration free energy on temperature and solute size, one can obtain its enthalpic and entropic contributions as functions of temperature and solute size. These function can provide interesting insight into the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration. The model was applied to the hydration of spherical particles of various radii in water in the temperature range from T=293.15 K to T=333.15 K. The model predictions for the temperature dependence of the hydration free energy of small hydrophobes are consistent with the experimental and simulational data. Three alternative definitions for the small-to-large crossover length-scale of hydrophobic hydration are proposed, and their temperature dependence is obtained. Depending on the definition and temperature, the small-to-large crossover in the hydration mechanism is predicted to occur for hydrophobes of radii from one to several nanometers. Independent of its definition, the crossover length-scale is predicted to decrease with increasing temperature.

  14. HVOF coatings of Diamalloy 2002 and Diamalloy 4010 onto steel: Tensile and bending response of coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Shehri, Y. A.; Hashmi, M. S. J. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Eng., DCU, Dublin (Ireland); Yilbas, B. S. [Mech. Eng. Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    HVOF coating of Diamalloy 2002 powders and Diamalloy 4010 powders as well as two-layered coatings consisting of these powders is carried out. In the two-layered structure, Diamalloy 4010 is sprayed at the substrate surface while Diamalloy 2002 is sprayed on the top of Diamalloy 4010 coating. The mechanical properties of the coatings are examined through tensile and three-point bending tests. The coating microstructure and morphology are examined using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the coating produced is free from defects including voids and cracks. The failure mechanism of coating during tensile and three-point bending tests is mainly crack formation and propagation in the coating. The elastic modulus of coating produced from Diamalloy 2002 is higher than that of Diamalloy 4010 coating, which is due to the presence of 12% WC in the coating.

  15. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  16. Laser-based coatings removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D & D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building.

  17. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  18. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian (Newton, MA); Chen, Jinghua (Chestnut Hill, MA); Huang, Zhongping (Belmont, MA); Wang, Dezhi (Wellesley, MA)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  19. High-Performance Nanostructured Coating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High-Performance Nanostructured Coating fact sheet details a SunShot project led by a University of California, San Diego research team working to develop a new high-temperature spectrally selective coating for receiver surfaces. These receiver surfaces, used in concentrating solar power systems, rely on high-temperature SSCs to effectively absorb solar energy without emitting much blackbody radiation.The optical properties of the SSC directly determine the efficiency and maximum attainable temperature of solar receivers, which in turn influence the power-conversion efficiency and overall system cost.

  20. POLYIMIDE COATINGS FOR ELECTRONICS ridyid KMeinfelcl-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    / POLYIMIDE COATINGS FOR ELECTRONICS ridyid KMeinfelcl- .Room 6H-.424 ' ' ATT Bell Laboratgri^;5i existing patent. ·Dn Pnnt Tpa«4o Print«riin tift & #12;POLYIMIDE COATINGS FOR ELECTRONICS \\ PRODUCT

  1. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. of 1977 Flat Plate Solar Collector Conference- USDOE,"Second Coatings for Solar Collectors Symp. , 11 Winter Park,COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert TWO-WEEK

  2. High Performance Nanostructured Spectrally Selective Coating

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    powders for SSC layer paste 'Multi-scale' particles clearly show much better light absorption Multi-scale vs. Mono-scale Structures Coating Process Development Coating of SSC...

  3. YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986, both (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO or 2223 with a critical temperature, Tc of 110 K) and YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO or 123 with a Tc of 91 K) have emerged as the leading candidate materials for the first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor wires or tapes that will carry high critical current density in liquid nitrogen temperatures [1-7]. The crystal structures and detailed fundamental properties of BSCCO and YBCO superconductors have been reviewed by Matsumoto in a separate chapter in this book. The U.S. Department of Energy s target price for the conductor is close to the current copper wire cost of $10-50/kA-meter, i.e. a meter of copper type conductor carrying 1000 A current costs ~ $ 50 [8]. The long-term goal for the DOE, Office of Electricity, Advanced Conductors and Cables program is to achieve HTS wire in 1000 meters long with current carrying capacity of 1000 A/cm [8]. Robust, high-performance HTS wire will certainly revolutionize the electric power grid and various other electric power equipments as well. Sumitomo Electric Power (Japan) has been widely recognized as the world leader in manufacturing the first-generation HTS wires based on BSCCO materials using the Oxide-Powder-In-Tube (OPIT) over-pressure process [9]. Typically, 1G HTS wires carry critical currents, Ic, of over 200 Amperes (A) in piece lengths of one kilometer lengths at the standard 4 mm width and ~ 200 m thickness. However, due to the higher cost of 1G wire, mainly because of the cost of Ag alloy sheath, the researchers shifted their effort towards the development of YBCO (second generation 2G) tapes in the last fifteen years [1-7]. One of the main obstacles to the ability to carry high critical currents in YBCO films has been the phenomenon of weak links, i.e., grain boundaries formed by the misalignment of neighboring YBCO grains are known to form obstacles to current flow [10]. By carefully aligning the grains in YBCO films, low angle boundaries between superconducting YBCO grains allow more current to flow. In fact below a critical misalignment angle of 4 , the critical current density approaches that of YBCO films grown on single crystal substrates [10]. Typically, 2G HTS wires have three components, flexible metal substrate, buffer layers, and REBa2Cu3O7- (REBCO: RE = Rare Earth) superconductor layers [1-7]. Several methods were developed to obtain biaxially textured templates suitable for fabricating high-performance YBCO coated conductors. They are Ion-Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD), Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) and Inclined-Substrate Deposition (ISD). Compared to 1G wire, for producing 2G wires using RABiTS or IBAD process, silver is replaced by a low cost nickel alloy, which allows for fabrication of less expensive HTS wires.

  4. Effects of silica nanoparticle addition to the secondary coating of dual-coated optical fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Effects of silica nanoparticle addition to the secondary coating of dual-coated optical fibers J Available online 30 March 2006 Abstract The mechanical and optical properties of dual-coated optical fibers of silica nanoparticles in the secondary coating is shown to enhance the resistance of optical fibers

  5. Friction- and wear-reducing coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Dong (Farmington Hills, MI); Milner, Robert (Warren, MI); Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim (Troy, MI)

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12. A method of coating a substrate includes cleaning the substrate, forming the first layer on the substrate, and depositing the second layer onto the first layer to thereby coat the substrate.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  7. CORROSION-RESISTANT COATING FOR CARBONATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CORROSION-RESISTANT COATING FOR CARBONATE FUEL CELL COMPONENTS Prepared For: California Energy ANALYSIS REPORT (FAR) CORROSION RESISTANT COATING FOR CARBONATE FUEL CELL COMPONENTS EISG AWARDEE Chemat://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Corrosion Resistant Coating for Carbonate Fuel Cell Components EISG Grant # 00-05 Awardee

  8. How the Liquid-Liquid Transition Affects Hydrophobic Hydration in Deeply Supercooled Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietmar Paschek

    2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the phase diagram of liquid supercooled water by extensive computer simulations using the TIP5P-E model [J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 120}, 6085 (2004)]. We find that the transformation of water into a low density liquid in the supercooled range strongly enhances the solubility of hydrophobic particles. The transformation of water into a tetrahedrally structured liquid is accompanied by a minimum in the hydration entropy and enthalpy. The corresponding change in sign of the solvation heat capacity indicates a loss of one characteristic signature of hydrophobic hydration. The observed behavior is found to be qualitatively in accordance with the predictions of the information theory model of Garde et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 77}, 4966 (1996)].

  9. Water Density Fluctuations Relevant to Hydrophobic Hydration are Unaltered by Attractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard C. Remsing; Amish J. Patel

    2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An understanding of density fluctuations in bulk water has made significant contributions to our understanding of the hydration and interactions of idealized, purely repulsive hydrophobic solutes. To similarly inform the hydration of realistic hydrophobic solutes that have dispersive interactions with water, here we characterize water density fluctuations in the presence of attractive fields that correspond to solute-water attractions. We find that when the attractive field acts only in the solute hydration shell, but not in the solute core, it does not significantly alter water density fluctuations in the solute core region. We further find that for a wide range of solute sizes and attraction strengths, the free energetics of turning on the attractive fields in bulk water are accurately captured by linear response theory. Our results also suggest strategies for more efficiently estimating hydration free energies of realistic solutes in bulk water and at interfaces.

  10. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Thornton, Joel A.; Madronich, Sasha; Ortega, John V.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Laskin, Alexander; Maughan, A. D.

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Semi-empirical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models typically assume a well-mixed organic aerosol phase even in the presence of hydrophobic primary organic aerosols (POA). This assumption significantly enhances the modeled SOA yields as additional organic mass is made available to absorb greater amounts of oxidized secondary organic gases than otherwise. We investigate the applicability of this critical assumption by measuring SOA yields from ozonolysis of ?-pinene (a major biogenic SOA precursor) in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA. The results show that these POA did not enhance the SOA yields. If these results are found to apply to other biogenic SOA precursors, then the semi-empirical models used in many global models would predict significantly less biogenic SOA mass and display reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic POA emissions than previously thought.

  11. Terahertz antireflection coatings using metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhou, Jiangfeng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate terahertz metamaterial antireflection coatings (ARCs) that significantly reduce the reflection and enhance the transmission at an interface of dielectric media. They are able to operate over a wide range of incidence angles for both TM and TE polarizations. Experiments and finite-element simulations will be presented and discussed.

  12. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.

  13. Hydrophobic VOC absorption in two-phase partitioning bioreactors; influence of silicone oil volume fraction on absorber diameter.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Hydrophobic VOC absorption in two-phase partitioning bioreactors; influence of silicone oil of a mixture of an aqueous phase and a NAPL, before being introduced into a two-phase partitioning bioreactor

  14. Thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrophobic organic compound sorption in natural sorbents and quantification of black carbon by electron microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuo, Dave Ta Fu, 1978-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorption behaviors of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediments were investigated using pyrene. Native pyrene desorbed slowly, taking from weeks to months to equilibrate. The end-point data suggested that, at ...

  15. Hydrophobic and ionic-interactions in bulk and confined water with implications for collapse and folding of proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaitheeswaran, S; Thirumalai, D

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water and water-mediated interactions determine thermodynamic and kinetics of protein folding, protein aggregation and self-assembly in confined spaces. To obtain insights into the role of water in the context of folding problems, we describe computer simulations of a few related model systems. The dynamics of collapse of eicosane shows that upon expulsion of water the linear hydrocarbon chain adopts an ordered helical hairpin structure with 1.5 turns. The structure of dimer of eicosane molecules has two well ordered helical hairpins that are stacked perpendicular to each other. As a prelude to studying folding in confined spaces we used simulations to understand changes in hydrophobic and ionic interactions in nano droplets. Solvation of hydrophobic and charged species change drastically in nano water droplets. Hydrophobic species are localized at the boundary. The tendency of ions to be at the boundary where water density is low increases as the charge density decreases. Interaction between hydrophobic, pol...

  16. Direct Laser Synthesis of Functional Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Schaaf; Michelle D. Shinn; E. Carpene; J. Kaspar

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct laser synthesis of functional coatings employs the irradiation of materials with short intensive laser pulses in a reactive atmosphere. The material is heated and plasma is ignited in the reactive atmosphere. This leads to an intensive interaction of the material with the reactive species and a coating is directly formed on the materials surface. By that functional coatings can be easily produced a fast way on steel, aluminium, and silicon by irradiation in nitrogen, methane, or even hydrogen. The influence of the processing parameters to the properties of the functional coatings will be presented for titanium nitride coating produced on titanium with the free electron laser.

  17. Dynamic density functional theory of protein adsorption on polymer-coated nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical model for the description of the adsorption kinetics of globular proteins onto charged core-shell microgel particles based on Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT). This model builds on a previous description of protein adsorption thermodynamics [Yigit \\textit{et al}, Langmuir 28 (2012)], shown to well interpret the available calorimetric experimental data of binding isotherms. In practice, a spatially-dependent free-energy functional including the same physical interactions is built, and used to study the kinetics via a generalised diffusion equation. To test this model, we apply it to the case study of Lysozyme adsorption on PNIPAM coated nanoparticles, and show that the dynamics obtained within DDFT is consistent with that extrapolated from experiments. We also perform a systematic study of the effect of various parameters in our model, and investigate the loading dynamics as a function of proteins' valence and hydrophobic adsorption energy, as well as their concentration and th...

  18. Electrical contact arrangement for a coating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; McCamy, James W; Boyd, Donald W

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective coating is applied to the electrically conductive surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by biasing a conductive member having a layer of a malleable electrically conductive material, e.g. a paste, against a portion of the conductive surface while moving an electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface. The moving of the electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface includes moving the solar mirror through a flow curtain of the electrodepositable coating composition and submerging the solar mirror in a pool of the electrodepositable coating composition. The use of the layer of a malleable electrically conductive material between the conductive member and the conductive surface compensates for irregularities in the conductive surface being contacted during the coating process thereby reducing the current density at the electrical contact area.

  19. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered periodic microstructures in the coating, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) modeling of particle transport in the PVD plume, functional graded layer development, the deposition of all layers to form a complete coating, and materials characterization including thermal testing. Ion beam-assisted deposition, beam sharing through advanced digital rastering, substrate pivoting, hearth calorimetry, infrared imaging, fiber optic-enabled optical emission spectroscopy and careful thermal management were used to achieve all the milestones outlined in the FY02 LDRD proposal.

  20. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kar, Srotoswini [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Dollahon, Norman R. [Department of Biology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Stoll, Sarah L., E-mail: sls55@georgetown.ed [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  1. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  2. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  3. Pedestal substrate for coated optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA); Malsbury, Terry N. (Tracy, CA); Patterson, Steven R. (Concord, NC)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  4. Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lionel Foret; Pierre Sens

    2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often rely on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles, and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the Endoplasmic Reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behaviour, also triggered by factors such as the presence of cargo and variation of the membrane mechanical tension, allows for efficient regulation of vesicle secretion. We propose a model, supported by different experimental observations, in which vesiculation of secretory membranes is impaired by the energy consuming desorption of coat proteins, until the presence of cargo or other factors triggers a dynamical switch into a vesicle producing state.

  5. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwala, R. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Batzoglou, S. [MIT Lab. for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dancik, V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long standing problem in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein, given its amino acid sequence. A variety of simplifying models have been proposed abstracting only the {open_quotes}essential physical properties{close_quotes} of real proteins. In these models, the three dimensional space is often represented by a lattice. Residues which are adjacent in the primary sequence (i.e. covalently linked) must be placed at adjacent points in the lattice. A conformation of a protein is simply a self-avoiding walk along the lattice. The protein folding problem STRING-FOLD is that of finding a conformation of the protein sequence on the lattice such that the overall energy is minimized, for some reasonable definition of energy. This formulation leaves open the choices of a lattice and an energy function. Once these choices are made, one may then address the algorithmic complexity of optimizing the energy function for the lattice. For a variety of such simple models, this minimization problem is in fact NP-hard. In this paper, we consider the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) Model introduced by Dill. The HP model abstracts the problem by grouping the 20 amino acids into two classes: hydrophobic (or non-polar) residues and hydrophilic (or polar) residues. For concreteness, we will take our input to be a string from (H,P){sup +}, where P represents polar residues, and H represents hydrophobic residues. Dill et.al. survey the literature analyzing this model. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Electrodeposited coatings for diamond turning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, A.; Bramlett, R.D.; Day, R.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Evans, C.J.; Polvani, R.S. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodeposited coatings are attractive for precision machining operations because thick coatings can be economically applied, with good adhesion, to a variety of substrates. Approximately 20 pure metals and a large number of alloys can be deposited from aqueous solutions. Fused salt and organic solvent electrolytes can be used to lengthen the list of metals that can be electrodeposited. However, both the choice of the metallic coating and the control of the plating process are critical for success in precision finishing of electrodeposited coatings. Some preliminary results at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory suggest that electrodeposited nickel-phosphorus alloys are excellent coatings for single point diamond turning from the standpoint of material properties and low tool wear. Electrodeposited aluminum and aluminum alloy coatings also merit consideration for precision finishing where weight is an important factor. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R. (Van Buren Township, IN); Eubank, Lowell D. (Wilmington, DE)

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  8. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  9. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.

    1980-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting, antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation.

  10. OVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. Krutenat, Gas Turbine Materials Conference Proceedings,Conference on Gas Turbine Materials in a Marine Environment,in developing new turbine materials, coatings and processes,

  11. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Technology available for licensing: New transparent conducting oxide (TCO)...

  12. Method of identifying defective particle coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Mark E. (San Diego, CA); Whiting, Carlton D. (San Diego, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for identifying coated particles having defective coatings desig to retain therewithin a build-up of gaseous materials including: (a) Pulling a vacuum on the particles; (b) Backfilling the particles at atmospheric pressure with a liquid capable of wetting the exterior surface of the coated particles, said liquid being a compound which includes an element having an atomic number higher than the highest atomic number of any element in the composition which forms the exterior surface of the particle coating; (c) Drying the particles; and (d) Radiographing the particles. By television monitoring, examination of the radiographs is substantially enhanced.

  13. Metallic Bipolar Plates with Composite Coatings

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sheet form For corrosion resistance, apply a coating that is a composite of two materials: - Filler to provide electrical conductivity * Candidate Materials: graphite, carbon...

  14. Residual Stress Measurements in Thin Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on steel Accomplishments Adhesion Energy Measurements Using Indentation (Kim et al., Thin Solid Films 441 (2003) 172-179) * Hard brittle coating on relatively ductile...

  15. Probabilistic approach to the length-scale dependence of the effect of water hydrogen bonding on hydrophobic hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri S. Djikaev; Eli Ruckenstein

    2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a probabilistic approach to water-water hydrogen bonding that allows one to obtain an analytic expression for the number of bonds per water molecule as a function of both its distance to a hydrophobic particle and hydrophobe radius. This approach can be used in the density functional theory (DFT) and computer simulations to examine particle size effects on the hydration of particles and on their solvent-mediated interaction. For example, it allows one to explicitly identify a water hydrogen bond contribution to the external potential whereto a water molecule is subjected near a hydrophobe. The DFT implementation of the model predicts the hydration free energy per unit area of a spherical hydrophobe to be sharply sensitive to the hydropobe radius for small radii and weakly sensitive thereto for large ones; this corroborates the vision of the hydration of small and large length-scale particles as occurring via different mechanisms. On the other hand, the model predicts that the hydration of even apolar particles of small enough radii may become thermodynamically favorable owing to the interplay of the energies of pairwise (dispersion) water-water and water-hydrophobe interactions. This sheds light on previous counterintuitive observations (both theoretical and simulational) that two inert gas molecules would prefer to form a solvent-separated pair rather than a contact one.

  16. On Coating Durability of Polymer Coated Sheet Metal under Plastic Deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    -off apparatus that measures the coating pull-off stress was used to indicate the coating adhesion strength. Several types of specimen were designed to obtain uniaxial tension, biaxial tension, and tension-compression deformation modes on pre-coated sheet...

  17. Structure of hydrophobic hydration of benzene and hexafluorobenzene from first principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allesch, M; Schwegler, E; Galli, G

    2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the aqueous hydration of benzene and hexafluorobenzene, as obtained by carrying out extensive (>100 ps) first principles molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that benzene and hexafluorobenzene do not behave as ordinary hydrophobic solutes, but rather present two distinct regions, one equatorial and the other axial, that exhibit different solvation properties. While in both cases the equatorial regions behave as typical hydrophobic solutes, the solvation properties of the axial regions depend strongly on the nature of the {pi}-water interaction. In particular, {pi}-hydrogen and {pi}-lone pair interactions are found to dominate in benzene and hexafluorobenzene, respectively, which leads to substantially different orientations of water near the two solutes. We present atomic and electronic structure results (in terms of Maximally Localized Wannier Functions) providing a microscopic description of benzene- and hexafluorobenzene-water interfaces, as well as a comparative study of the two solutes. Our results point at the importance of an accurate description of interfacial water in order to characterize hydration properties of apolar molecules, as these are strongly influenced by subtle charge rearrangements and dipole moment redistributions in interfacial regions.

  18. HYDROPHOBIC CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSITE INSULATORS IN SIMULATED INLAND ARID DESERT ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Yasin; Al-Arainy, Abdulrehman Ali; Malik, Nazar Hussain; Qureshi, Muhammad Iqbal [Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Presently along with traditional insulators i.e. glass and porcelain, etc., the polymeric insulators are also used world widely. These polymeric insulators are very sensitive to various environmental parameters e.g. UV radiations, heat, etc. The UV radiation level in the central region of Saudi Arabia is high as compared to the recommended IEC-61109 standard for the accelerated aging of the composite insulators. In this study, thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) insulators were subjected to accelerated aging stress as per IEC standard as well as modified IEC standard simulating the inland arid desert's atmospheric conditions. The hydrophobic characteristics were studied by measuring the contact angle along the insulator surface before and after the accelerated aging of the samples. It was found that TPE loses its hydrophobic properties more as compared to EPDM insulator. This loss was proportional to the intensity of UV irradiation. The rate of recovery is also low for both the tested materials as compared to Silicone Rubber insulators.

  19. Water jet rebounds on hydrophobic surfaces : a first step to jet micro-fluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Celestini; R. Kofman; Xavier Noblin; Mathieu Pellegrin

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    When a water jet impinges upon a solid surface it produces a so called hydraulic jump that everyone can observe in the sink of its kitchen. It is characterized by a thin liquid sheet bounded by a circular rise of the surface due to capillary and gravitational forces. In this phenomenon, the impact induces a geometrical transition, from the cylindrical one of the jet to the bi-dimensional one of the film. A true jet rebound on a solid surface, for which the cylindrical geometry is preserved, has never been yet observed. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a water jet can impact a solid surface without being destabilized. Depending on the incident angle of the impinging jet, its velocity and the degree of hydrophobicity of the substrate, the jet can i) bounce on the surface with a fixed reflected angle, ii) land on it and give rise to a supported jet or iii) be destabilized, emitting drops. Capillary forces are predominant at the sub-millimetric jet scale considered in this work, along with the hydrophobic nature of the substrate. The results presented in this letter raise the fundamental problem of knowing why such capillary hydraulic jump gives rise to this unexpected jet rebound phenomenon. This study furthermore offers new and promising possibilities to handle little quantity of water through "jet micro-fluidics"

  20. The hydrophobic effect and the influence of solute-solvent attractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, David M.; Chandler, David

    2001-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effect of weak solute-solvent attractions on the solvation of nonpolar molecules in water at ambient conditions using an extension and improved parameterization of the theory of solvation due to Lum, Chandler, and Weeks [J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 4570]. With a reasonable strength of alkane-water interactions, an accurate prediction of the alkane-water interfacial tension is obtained. As previously established for solutes with no attractive interactions with water, the free energy of solvation scales with volume for small solutes and with surface area for large solutes. The crossover to the latter regime occurs on a molecular length scale. It is associated with the formation of a liquid-vaporlike interface, a drying interface,between the large hydrophobic solute and liquid water. In the absence of attractions, this interface typically lies more than one solvent molecular diameter away from the hard sphere surface. With the addition of attractive interactions between water and the hard sphere, the average separation of the interface and solute surface is decreased. For attractive force strengths typical of alkane-water interactions, we show that the drying interface adjacent to a large hydrophobic solute remains largely intact, but is moved into contact with the solute surface. This effect results from the ''soft modes'' characterizing fluctuations of liquid-vapor interfaces. We show that attractive interactions are of almost no consequence to the temperature dependence of the solvation free energies relevant to protein folding.

  1. In situ thermal performance of APP modified bitumen roof membranes coated with reflective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.D.; Smith, T.L. (National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL (United States)); Christian, J.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted field research program regarding seven atactic polypropylene (APP) modified bitumen membrane roof systems and four reflective coatings began in 1991. This long-term project is evaluating the performance of various APP modified bitumen membranes (both coated and uncoated), the comparative performance of coating application soon after membrane installation versus preweathering, coating performance, and aspects of recoating. This paper is a progress report on the in situ thermal performance of the various types of coatings compared to the thermal performance of the exposed membrane. The thermal performance of an adjacent ballasted ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) roofing system is also described.

  2. In situ thermal performance of APP modified bitumen roof membranes coated with reflective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, J.D.; Smith, T.L. [National Roofing Contractors Association, Rosemont, IL (United States); Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-faceted field research program regarding seven atactic polypropylene (APP) modified bitumen membrane roof systems and four reflective coatings began in 1991. This long-term project is evaluating the performance of various APP modified bitumen membranes (both coated and uncoated), the comparative performance of coating application soon after membrane installation versus preweathering, coating performance, and aspects of recoating. This paper is a progress report on the in situ thermal performance of the various types of coatings compared to the thermal performance of the exposed membrane. The thermal performance of an adjacent ballasted ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) roofing system is also described.

  3. Tribological performance of hybrid filtered arc-magnetron coatings - Part I: Coating deposition process and basic coating properties characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorokhovsky, Vladimir; Bowman, C.; Gannon, Paul E.; VanVorous, D.; Voevodin, A. A.; Rutkowski, A.; Muratore, C.; Smith, Richard J.; Kayani, Asghar N.; Gelles, David S.; Shutthanandan, V.; Trusov, B. G.

    2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Aircraft propulsion applications require low-friction and wear resistant surfaces that operate under high contact loads in severe environments. Recent research on supertough and low friction nanocomposite coatings produced with hybrid plasma deposition processes was demonstrated to have a high potential for such demanding applications. However, industrially scalable hybrid plasma technologies are needed for their commercial realization. The Large area Filtered Arc Deposition (LAFAD) process provides atomically smooth coatings at high deposition rates over large surface areas. The LAFAD technology allows functionally graded, multilayer, super-lattice and nanocomposite architectures of multi-elemental coatings via electro-magnetic mixing of two plasma flows composed of different metal ion vapors. Further advancement can be realized through a combinatorial process using a hybrid filtered arc-magnetron deposition system. In the present study, multilayer and nanostructured TiCrCN/TiCr +TiBC composite cermet coatings were deposited by the hybrid filtered arc-magnetron process. Filtered plasma streams from arc evaporated Ti and Cr targets, and two unbalanced magnetron sputtered B4C targets, were directed to the substrates in the presence of reactive gases. A multiphase nanocomposite coating architecture was designed to provide the optimal combination of corrosion and wear resistance of advanced steels (Pyrowear 675) used in aerospace bearing and gear applications. Coatings were characterized using SEM/EDS, XPS and RBS for morphology and chemistry, XRD and TEM for structural analyses, wafer curvature and nanoindentation for stress and mechanical properties, and Rockwell and scratch indentions for adhesion. Coating properties were evaluated for a variety of coating architectures. Thermodynamic modeling was used for estimation of phase composition of the top TiBC coating segment. Correlations between coating chemistry, structure and mechanical properties are discussed.

  4. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  5. Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings J. L. Armstrong, M. J. Matthewson and C. R for measuring the diffusion coefficients of water vapor through optical fiber polymer coatings has been. Kurkjian #12;732 International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1998 Moisture Penetration Through Optical

  6. Metallic Bipolar Plates with Composite Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that is available in sheet form For corrosion resistance, apply a coating that is a composite of two materials: ­ Filler to provide electrical conductivity · Candidate Materials: graphite, carbon black, TiB2 and CaB6Metallic Bipolar Plates with Composite Coatings Jennifer Mawdsley Argonne National Laboratory Fuel

  7. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  8. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  9. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajendra Bordia

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and processing techniques for these coatings. In addition, we investigated the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and oxidation protection ability of the coatings. Coatings were developed to provide oxidation protection to both ferritic and austentic alloys and Ni-based alloys. The coatings that we developed are based on low viscosity pre-ceramic polymers. Thus they can be easily applied to any shape by using a variety of techniques including dip-coating, spray-coating and painting. The polymers are loaded with a variety of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have two primary roles: control of the final composition and phases (and hence the properties); and control of the shrinkage during thermal decomposition of the polymer. Thus the selection of the nanoparticles was the most critical aspect of this project. Based on the results of the processing studies, the performance of selected coatings in oxidizing conditions (both static and cyclic) was investigated.

  10. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel...

  11. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and...

  12. High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers High-Temperatuer Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers This presentation was...

  13. agent resistant coating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the polymer coating dramatically Matthewson, M. John 33 Protective Coatings for Turbomachinery Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: broad range of corrodents. 2) Resist...

  14. Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials That Can Be Regenerated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials That Can Be Regenerated In-Situ to Enable High-Performance Membranes Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials That Can Be Regenerated...

  15. antireflection coatings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. In particular, multi-layer dielectric coatings, capable of filtering out the large...

  16. antireflective coating effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. In particular, multi-layer dielectric coatings, capable of filtering out the large...

  17. Amorphous layer coating induced brittle to ductile transition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    layer coating induced brittle to ductile transition in single crystalline SiC nanowires: an atomistic simulation. Amorphous layer coating induced brittle to ductile transition in...

  18. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium...

  19. Characterization of Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles and their Atmospheric Impacts. Characterization of Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles and their Atmospheric Impacts....

  20. Method for smoothing the surface of a protective coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sangeeta, D. (Cincinnati, OH); Johnson, Curtis Alan (Schenectady, NY); Nelson, Warren Arthur (Clifton Park, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for smoothing the surface of a ceramic-based protective coating which exhibits roughness is disclosed. The method includes the steps of applying a ceramic-based slurry or gel coating to the protective coating surface; heating the slurry/gel coating to remove volatile material; and then further heating the slurry/gel coating to cure the coating and bond it to the underlying protective coating. The slurry/gel coating is often based on yttria-stabilized zirconia, and precursors of an oxide matrix. Related articles of manufacture are also described.

  1. advanced antifouling coating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technologies for tank linings, new technologies for pipeline coatings and linings, marine corrosion, pipeline integrity, surface tolerant coatings, thermal insulation and...

  2. Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein Digestion. Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein...

  3. Table I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Automotive Table I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Automotive Technical targets for fuel cell...

  4. Protein folding mediated by solvation: water expelling and formation of the hydrophobic core occurs after the structure collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margaret S. Cheung; Angel E. Garcia; Jose N. Onuchic

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The interplay between structure-search of the native structure and desolvation in protein folding has been explored using a minimalist model. These results support a folding mechanism where most of the structural formation of the protein is achieved before water is expelled from the hydrophobic core. This view integrates water expulsion effects into the funnel energy landscape theory of protein folding. Comparisons to experimental results are shown for the SH3 protein. After the folding transition, a near-native intermediate with partially solvated hydrophobic core is found. This transition is followed by a final step that cooperatively squeezes out water molecules from the partially hydrated protein core.

  5. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abney, Kent D. (30 San Juan St., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Kinkead, Scott A. (70 Canada Cir., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Mason, Caroline F. V. (148 Piedra Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Rais, Jiri (Fr. Krizka 11, 17000 Praha 7, CZ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  6. Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Reported here are the results of tests of the 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT).

  7. Water dynamics: Relation between hydrogen bond bifurcations, molecular jumps, local density & hydrophobicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Tatini Titantah; Mikko Karttunen

    2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Structure and dynamics of water remain a challenge. Resolving the properties of hydrogen bonding lies at the heart of this puzzle. Here we employ ab initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) simulations over a wide temperature range. The total simulation time was approx 2 ns. Both bulk water and water in the presence of a small hydrophobic molecule were simulated. We show that large-angle jumps and bond bifurcations are fundamental properties of water dynamics and that they are intimately coupled to both local density and hydrogen bond stretch oscillations in scales from about 60 to a few hundred femtoseconds: Local density differences are the driving force for bond bifurcations and the consequent large-angle jumps. The jumps are intimately connected to the recently predicted energy asymmetry. Our analysis also appears to confirm the existence of the so-called negativity track provided by the lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom to enable water rotation.

  8. Mapping of the rotavirus nonstructural protein-4-caveolin-1 binding site to three hydrophobic residues within the extended, c-terminal amphipathic alpha helix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Cecelia V.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    for binding to caveolin-1. Replacing six charged residues with alanine (FLNSP4Ala) disrupted the charged face, while the hydrophobic face was disrupted by replacing selected hydrophobic residues with charged amino acids (aa) (FLNSP4HydroMut). In yeast two...

  9. Uptake of hydrophobic xenobiotics by fish in water laden with sediments from the Fraser River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, P.; Farrell, A.P. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors examined the uptake of three hydrophobic chemicals, TCB (1,2,4-trichlorobenzene), PeCB (1,2,3,4,5-pentachlorobenzene), and HCBP (2,2{prime}, 4,4{prime},6,6{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl), by unfed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in test aquaria containing sediments from the Fraser River. The working hypothesis was that the low organic carbon content of the Fraser River sediments would increase the bioavailability of xenobiotics associated with these sediments. The test chemicals and sediments were introduced into aquaria 9 d before the fish were introduced.Measured concentrations of he chemicals in the bottom sediments, suspended sediments, and filtered (0.45 {micro}m) water suggested that the test system had reached a quasiequilibrium state by day 9. Subsequently, a 6-d exposure of fish in the test aquaria resulted in a significant accumulation of the test chemicals in the fish tissues and significant reductions in the chemical concentration of the bottom sediments, suspended sediments, and filtered water. Mass balance analysis suggests that the appearance of HCBP and PeCB in the fish after 6 d could not be accounted for solely by the amount of chemical dissolved in the water at the time when the fish were introduced. A large unaccounted-for fraction of TCB, possibly due to fish metabolism, precluded an accurate mass balance analysis for this chemical. Because chemical uptake in fish with the pharynx plugged (to eliminate the gut uptake route) was similar to that in control fish and because direct access to bottom sediments did not alter chemical uptake, the authors conclude that hydrophobic chemicals such as PeCB and HCBP associated with suspended sediments from the Fraser River can readily desorb and be taken up across the gill.

  10. The WaterHydrophobic Interface: Neutral and Charged Solute Adsorption at Fluorocarbon and Hydrocarbon Self-Assembled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    The Water­Hydrophobic Interface: Neutral and Charged Solute Adsorption at Fluorocarbon on hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayers by using vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy molecular-scale interactions of adsorbates with fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon surfaces is of great importance

  11. Swollen Micelles Plus Hydrophobically Modified Hydrosoluble Polymers in Aqueous Solutions: Decoration Versus Bridging. a Small Angle Neutron Scattering Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed Filali; Raymond Aznar; Mattias Svenson; Gregoire Porte; Jacqueline Appell

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we examine the effective interactions introduced between the droplets of an oil in water microemulsion upon progressive addition of hydrophobically modified water soluble poly(ethylene oxide)-PEO using essentially small angle neutron scattering. To discuss the relative importance of decoration and bridging of the droplets we compare analogous samples with addition of a PEO grafted at both extremities with hydrophobic C12H 25 chains (PEO-2m) or addition of a PEO grafted at one extremity only with a C12H 25 chain (PEO-m). PEO-m or PEO-2m adsorb onto the droplets via their hydrophobic extremities and the droplets are found to retain their form and size upon addition of up to 40 hydrophobic C12H 25 chains per droplet. When the volume fraction of droplets is less than about 10%, the effective interactions introduced by PEO-m or PEO-2m are found to be very different: PEO-m introduces a repulsive interaction while PEO-2m introduces an effective attractive interaction. This attractive interaction leads to an associative phase separation in the range of low volume fraction when a sufficient amount of PEO-2m is added.

  12. Functional analysis of the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and BRICHOS domain of GKN1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Jung Hwan; Choi, Yoo Jin; Choi, Won Suk; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Young; Park, Won Sang, E-mail: wonsang@catholic.ac.kr

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •NH{sub 2}-terminal and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 inhibited tumor cell growth. •NH{sub 2}-terminal and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 regulated cell cycle. •NH{sub 2}-terminal and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 inhibited epigenetic regulators. -- Abstract: Gastrokine 1 (GKN1) protects the gastric antral mucosa and promotes healing by facilitating restitution and proliferation after injury. GKN1 is down-regulated in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells and loss of GKN1 expression is tightly associated with gastric carcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms as a tumor suppressor are largely unknown. Presently, the hydrophobic region and BRICHOS domain of GKN1, pGKN1{sup D13N}, pGKN1{sup ?68–199}, and pGKN1{sup ?1–67,165–199} were shown to suppress gastric cancer cell growth and recapitulate GKN1 functions. As well, the hydrophobic region and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 had a synergistic anti-cancer effect with 5-FU on tumor cell growth, implying that the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 are sufficient for tumor suppression, thereby suggesting a therapeutic intervention for gastric cancer. Also, its domain inducing endogenous miR-185 directly targeted the epigenetic effectors DNMT1 and EZH2 in gastric cancer cells. Our results suggest that the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and BRICHOS domain of GKN1 are sufficient for its tumor suppressor activities.

  13. Received 28 Mar 2013 | Accepted 15 Sep 2013 | Published 15 Oct 2013 Tailoring the hydrophobicity of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    the hydrophobicity of graphene for its use as nanopores for DNA translocation Gre´gory F. Schneider1, Qiang Xu1 Graphene nanopores are potential successors to biological and silicon-based nanopores. For sensing between DNA and graphene. Here we demonstrate a novel scheme to prevent DNA­graphene interactions, based

  14. Lattice Boltzmann simulations in microfluidics: probing the no-slip boundary condition in hydrophobic, rough, and surface nanobubble laden microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Harting; Christian Kunert; Jari Hyväluoma

    2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution we review recent efforts on investigations of the effect of (apparent) boundary slip by utilizing lattice Boltzmann simulations. We demonstrate the applicability of the method to treat fundamental questions in microfluidics by investigating fluid flow in hydrophobic and rough microchannels as well as over surfaces covered by nano- or microscale gas bubbles.

  15. Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

  16. Advanced Fuels Campaign Cladding & Coatings Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) organized a Cladding and Coatings operational meeting February 12-13, 2013, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, industry, and universities attended the two-day meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss advanced cladding and cladding coating research and development (R&D); review experimental testing capabilities for assessing accident tolerant fuels; and review industry/university plans and experience in light water reactor (LWR) cladding and coating R&D.

  17. Void forming pyrolytic carbon coating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beatty, Ronald L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Cook, Jackie L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pyrolytic carbon coated nuclear fuel particle and method of making it. The fuel particle has a core composed of a refractory compound of an actinide metal. The pyrolytic carbon coating surrounds the core so as to provide a void volume therebetween. The coating has an initial density of no greater than 1.45 grams/cm.sup.3 and an anisotropy factor than 3.0 and a final density upon heat treatment above about 2000.degree. C. of greater than 1.7 grams/cm.sup.3 and an anisotropy factor greater than 5.

  18. Measure Guideline: Transitioning from Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco with EPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Davis, G.; Rapport, A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Measure Guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The three-coat system uses a base layer, a fill layer, and a finish layer. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking and delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.

  19. A Generic Approach to Coat Carbon Nanotubes With Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Junhong

    A Generic Approach to Coat Carbon Nanotubes With Nanoparticles for Potential Energy Applications coated with nanoparticles of multiple materials to realize the multicomponent coating. High resolution.1115/1.2787026 Keywords: carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles, electrostatic force directed assembly, coating, size selection

  20. Shape Memory Assisted Self-Healing Coating Xiaofan Luo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Shape Memory Assisted Self-Healing Coating Xiaofan Luo and Patrick T. Mather* Department and characterization of new shape memory assisted self- healing (SMASH) coatings. The coatings feature a phase in a shape memory epoxy matrix. Mechanical damage to the coating can be self-healed via heating, which

  1. Method for improving the oxidation-resistance of metal substrates coated with thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anthony Mark (Niskayuna, NY); Gray, Dennis Michael (Delanson, NY); Jackson, Melvin Robert (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

  2. Permeation Barrier Coatings for the Helical Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.S.

    1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A permeation barrier coating was specified for the Helical Heat Exchanger (HHE) to minimize contamination through emissions and/or permeation into the nitrogen system for ALARA reasons. Due to the geometry of the HHE, a special coating practice was needed since the conventional method of high temperature pack aluminization was intractable. A survey of many coating companies was undertaken; their coating capabilities and technologies were assessed and compared to WSRC needs. The processes and limitations to coating the HHE are described. Slurry coating appears to be the most technically sound approach for coating the HHE.

  3. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, C.S.; Reed, S.T.

    1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An antireflection film made from reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  4. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  5. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 1977 Flat Plate Solar Collector Conference- USDOE," Wash.Second Coatings for Solar Collectors Symp. , 11 Winter Park,assuming the finisher and the collector manufacturer are not

  6. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

    1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  7. UV Curable Coatings in Aluminum Can Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donhowe, E. T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based coatings. The Coors Brewing Company Can Manufacturing Plant has been utilizing this technology in full scale aluminum can production since 1975, and therefore has had the opportunity to evaluate practical operations of the UV technology...

  8. Performance of Polymer Coatings Under Forming Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purohit, Zalak

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Prepainted metal sheets being environment friendly and cost effective as compared to postpainted metal sheets, are widely used in construction, packaging, transportation and automotive industries. One of the key requirements for prepainted coatings...

  9. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  10. Degradation Mechanisms and Development of Protective Coatings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Development of Protective Coatings for TES and HTF Containment Materials - F13 Q1 Corrosion in Very High-Temperature Molten Salt for Next Generation CSP Systems Direct s-CO2...

  11. OVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Supperalloys for Gas Turbine Engines, 11 J. Metals, Q,OVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS Donald H. Boone1970, p. 545. R. Krutenat, Gas Turbine Materials Conference

  12. Conformal chemically resistant coatings for microflow devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A.; Zdeblick, Mark

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for coating the inside surfaces of silicon microflow devices, such as electrophoresis microchannels, with a low-stress, conformal (uniform) silicon nitride film which has the ability to uniformly coat deeply-recessed cavities with, for example, aspect ratios of up to 40:1 or higher. The silicon nitride coating allows extended exposure to caustic solutions. The coating enables a microflow device fabricated in silicon to be resistant to all classes of chemicals: acids, bases, and solvents. The process involves low-pressure (vacuum) chemical vapor deposition. The ultra-low-stress silicon nitride deposition process allows 1-2 .mu.m thick films without cracks, and so enables extended chemical protection of a silicon microflow device against caustics for up to 1 year. Tests have demonstrated the resistance of the films to caustic solutions at both ambient and elevated temperatures to 65.degree. C.

  13. Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pinhero, Patrick J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

  14. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p. 1080. AES Second Coatings for Solar Collectors Symp. , 11solar collector panels. Here the major consideration is whether the coatingcoating concept is to use heavy starting stock which might be suitable for direct fabrication of solar collector

  15. OVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Supperalloys for Gas Turbine Engines, 11 J. Metals, Q,FT4, JT9D and other gas turbines, and their use continues toOVERLAY COATINGS FOR GAS TURBINE AIRFOILS Donald H. Boone

  16. Downdrag on bitumen-coated piles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, Randall Keith

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOWNDRAG ON BITUMEN-COATED PILES A Thesis by RANDALL KEITH BUSH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering DOWNDRAG ON BITUMEN-COATED PILES A Thesis by RANDALL KEITH BUSH Approved as to style and content by: Jean-Louis Briaud (Chair of Committee) Har M. Coyle (Member) Alan Letton (Member) James . P. Yao (Head of artment...

  17. Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof Coating Procedures and their Productivity Gains John Bonaby and Dr. Diane Schaub, University of Florida As building envelope improvements are realized in organizations as ways to insulate businesses from high energy costs, the relative... benefit of the installation of different roof coating technologies and comparable application procedures of these technologies are ambiguous. The focal point of this research is to determine the effective correlation between various commercially...

  18. Thermal sensor with an improved coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaDelfe, Peter C. (Los Alamos, NM); Stotlar, Suzanne C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for detecting radiation having wavelengths from about 0.4 .mu.m to about 5.6 .mu.m. An optical coating is applied to a thermal sensor that is normally transparent to radiation with such wavelengths. The optical coating is thin and light and includes a modifier and an absorber. The thermal sensor can be a pyroelectric detector such as strontium barium niobate.

  19. Roof Coating Procedures and Their Productivity Gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonaby, J.; Schaub, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefit of the installation of different roof coating technologies and comparable application procedures of these technologies are ambiguous. The focal point of this research is to determine the effective correlation between various commercially... available roof coatings, and productivity gains associated with these energy saving strategies. This type of situation is evidenced in the justification of energy rebates distributed by Florida Power & Light in exchange for the application of Energy Star...

  20. Progress to Develop an Advanced Solar-Selective Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C. E.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress to develop a durable advanced solar-selective coating will be described. Experimental work has focused on modeling high-temperature, solar-selective coatings; depositing the individual layers and modeled coatings; measuring the optical, thermal, morphology, and compositional properties and using the data to validate the modeled and deposited properties; re-optimizing the coating; and testing the coating performance and durability.

  1. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  2. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  3. Microstructure, Processing, Performance Relationships for High Temperature Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas M. Lillo; Richard N. Wright; W. David Swank; D.C Haggard; Dennis C. Kunerth; Denis E. Clark

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HVOF coating have shown high resistance to corrosion in fossil energy applications and it is generally accepted that mechanical failure, e.g. cracking or spalling, ultimately will determine coating lifetime. The high velocity oxygen-fuel method (HVOF) of applying coatings is one of the most commercially viable and allows the control of various parameters including powder particle velocity and temperature which influence coating properties, such as residual stress, bond coat strength and microstructure. Methods of assessing the mechanical durability of coatings are being developed in order to explore the relationship between HVOF spraying parameters and the mechanical properties of the coating and coating bond strength. The room temperature mechanical strength, as well as the resistance of the coating to cracking/spalling during thermal transients, is of considerable importance. Eddy current, acoustic emission and thermal imaging methods are being developed to detect coating failure during thermal cycling tests and room temperature tensile tests. Preliminary results on coating failure of HVOF FeAl coatings on carbon steel, as detected by eddy current measurements during thermal cycling, are presented. The influence of HVOF coating parameters of iron aluminides - applied to more relevant structural steels, like 316 SS and Grade 91 steel, - on coating durability will be explored once reliable methods for identification of coating failure have been developed.

  4. Assessment of ceramic coatings for metal fuel melting crucible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to develop a coating method and material for crucibles to prevent material interactions with the U-Zr/U-TRU-Zr fuels during the manufacturing of SFR fuels. Refractory coatings were applied to niobium substrates by vacuum plasma-spray coating method. Melt dipping tests conducted were the coated rods lowered into the fuel melt at 1600 C. degrees, and withdrawn and cooled outside the crucible in the inert atmosphere of the induction furnace. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods indicated that plasma-sprayed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating doesn't form significant reaction layer between fuel melt and coating layer. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods showed that TiC, TaC, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings exhibited the promising performance among other ceramic coatings. These materials could be promising candidate materials for the reusable melt crucible of metal fuel for SFR. In addition, in order to develop the vacuum plasma-spray coating method for re-usable crucible of metal fuel slugs to be overcome the issue of thermal expansion mismatch between coating material and crucible, various combinations of coating conditions were investigated to find the bonding effect on the substrate in pursuit of more effective ways to withstand the thermal stresses. It is observed that most coating methods maintained sound coating state in U-Zr melt. (authors)

  5. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings". Proceedings of theSymposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, . Louis,'MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  6. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.Sputtering for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings".Symposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, . Louis,'MO,

  7. Dynamics of 2D Monolayer Confined Water in Hydrophobic and Charged Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep Kumar

    2010-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the dynamics of a water-like TIP5P model of water in hydrophilic and hydrophobic confinement. We find that in case of extreme nanocofinement such that there is only one molecular layer of water between the confinement surface, the dynamics of water remains Arrhenius with a very high activation energy up to high temperatures. In case of polar (hydrophilic) confinement, The intermediate time scale dynamics of water is drastically modified presumably due to the transient coupling of dipoles with the effective electric field due to the surface charges. Specifically, we find that in the presence of the polar surfaces, the dynamics of monolayer water shows anomalous region -- namely the lateral mean square displacement displays a distinct superdiffusive intermediate time scale behavior in addition to ballistic and diffusive regimes. We explain these finding by proposing a simple model. Furthermore, we find that confinement and the surface polarity changes the vibrational density of states specifically we see the enhancement of the low frequency collective modes in confinement compared to bulk water. Finally, we find that the length scale of translational-orientational coupling increases with the strength of the polarity of the surface.

  8. Similar rates of decrease of persistent, hydrophobic and particle-reactive contaminants in riverine systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metre, P.C. van; Wilson, J.T. [Geological Survey, Austin, TX (United States)] [Geological Survey, Austin, TX (United States); Callender, E. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)] [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Fuller, C.C. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it is well-known that concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides and organochlorine compounds in aquatic systems have decreased since their widespread release has stopped in the United States, the magnitude and variability of rates of decrease are not well-known. Paleolimnological studies of reservoirs provide a tool for evaluating these long-term trends in riverine systems. Rates of decrease from the 1960s to the 1990s of {sup 137}Cs, PCBs, and total DDT in dated sediment cores from 11 reservoirs in the eastern and central United States were modeled using first-order rate models. Mean half-times of 10.0 ({+-}2.5), 9.5 ({+-}2.2), and 13 ({+-}5.8) yr for decay-corrected {sup 137}Cs, PCBs, and total DDT, respectively, are surprisingly similar. Similar rates of decrease in a few reservoirs are also demonstrated for chlordane and lead. Conceptual and simple mathematical models relating two soil distributions of {sup 137}Cs to trends in the cores provide insight into differences in trends between watersheds with different land uses and suggest that trends are controlled by erosion, transport, mixing, and deposition of sediments. These results, supported by similar trends reported for other settings and environmental media, could provide an estimate of the decadal response time of riverine systems to changes in the regulation of other persistent hydrophobic or particle-reactive contaminants.

  9. The Structure and Transport of Water and Hydrated Ions Within Hydrophobic, Nanoscale Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, J K; Herberg, J L; Wu, Y; Schwegler, E; Mehta, A

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project includes an experimental and modeling investigation into water and hydrated ion structure and transport at nanomaterials interfaces. This is a topic relevant to understanding the function of many biological systems such as aquaporins that efficiently shuttle water and ion channels that permit selective transport of specific ions across cell membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are model nanoscale, hydrophobic channels that can be functionalized, making them artificial analogs for these biological channels. This project investigates the microscopic properties of water such as water density distributions and dynamics within CNTs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the structure of hydrated ions at CNT interfaces via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Another component of this work is molecular simulation, which can predict experimental measurables such as the proton relaxation times, chemical shifts, and can compute the electronic structure of CNTs. Some of the fundamental questions this work is addressing are: (1) what is the length scale below which nanoscale effects such as molecular ordering become important, (2) is there a relationship between molecular ordering and transport?, and (3) how do ions interact with CNT interfaces? These are questions of interest to the scientific community, but they also impact the future generation of sensors, filters, and other devices that operate on the nanometer length scale. To enable some of the proposed applications of CNTs as ion filtration media and electrolytic supercapacitors, a detailed knowledge of water and ion structure at CNT interfaces is critical.

  10. Deprotonation and oligomerization in photo-, radiolytically and electrochemically induced redox reactions in hydrophobic alkylalkylimidazolium ionic liquids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkrob, I . A.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Radical chemistry initiated by one-electron reduction of 1-methyl-3-alkylimidazolium cations in the corresponding ionic liquids (ILs) is examined. The reaction scheme is examined in light of the recent experimental data on photo-, radiation-, and electrochemically induced degradation of the practically important hydrophobic alkylimidazolium ILs. It is suggested that the primary species leading to the formation of the oligomers and acidification of the IL is a {sigma}{sigma}* dimer radical cation that loses a proton, yielding a neutral radical whose subsequent reactions produce C(2)-C(2) linked oligomers, both neutral and charged. The neutral oligomers (up to the tetramer) account for the features observed in the NMR spectra of cathodic liquid generated in electrolytic breakdown of the IL solvent. In photolysis and radiolysis, these neutral species and/or their radical precursors are oxidized by radical (ions) derived from the counteranions, and only charged dimers are observed. The dication dimers account for the features observed in the mass spectra of irradiated ILs. The products of these ion radical and radical reactions closely resemble those generated via carbene chemistry, without the formation of the carbene via the deprotonation of the parent cation. As the loss of 2-protons increases the proticity of the irradiated IL, it interferes with the extraction of metal ions by ionophore solutes, while the formation of the oligomers modifies solvent properties. Thus, the peculiarities of radical chemistry in the alkylimidazolium ILs have significant import for their practical applications.

  11. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (L-lactide) membranes obtained by CF4 microwave plasma treatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Mengyao; Wang, Jiajun; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; Qian, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhiwei; Teng, Kunyue; Zhao, Lihuan; Jiao, Yanan

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF? microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF? plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF? plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreasedmore »from 116 ± 3.0° to ~0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF? plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.« less

  12. Dynamics of microemulsions bridged with hydrophobically end-capped star polymers studied by neutron spin-echo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, I., E-mail: ingo.hoffmann@tu-berlin.de [Stranski-Laboratorium für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 124, Sekr. TC 7, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin (ILL), F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Malo de Molina, Paula; Gradzielski, M., E-mail: michael.gradzielski@tu-berlin.de [Stranski-Laboratorium für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 124, Sekr. TC 7, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Farago, B.; Falus, P. [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin (ILL), F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin (ILL), F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Herfurth, Christoph; Laschewsky, André [Fraunhofer Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP, Geiselbergstraße 69, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)] [Fraunhofer Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP, Geiselbergstraße 69, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The mesoscopic dynamical properties of oil-in-water microemulsions (MEs) bridged with telechelic polymers of different number of arms and with different lengths of hydrophobic stickers were studied with neutron spin-echo (NSE) probing the dynamics in the size range of individual ME droplets. These results then were compared to those of dynamicic light scattering (DLS) which allow to investigate the dynamics on a much larger length scale. Studies were performed as a function of the polymer concentration, number of polymer arms, and length of the hydrophobic end-group. In general it is observed that the polymer bridging has a rather small influence on the local dynamics, despite the fact that the polymer addition leads to an increase of viscosity by several orders of magnitude. In contrast to results from rheology and DLS, where the dynamics on much larger length and time scales are observed, NSE shows that the linear polymer is more efficient in arresting the motion of individual ME droplets. This finding can be explained by a simple simulation, merely by the fact that the interconnection of droplets becomes more efficient with a decreasing number of arms. This means that the dynamics observed on the short and on the longer length scale depend in an opposite way on the number of arms and hydrophobic stickers.

  13. Glass/ceramic coatings for implants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomsia, Antoni P. (Pinole, CA); Saiz, Eduardo (Berkeley, CA); Gomez-Vega, Jose M. (Nagoya, JP); Marshall, Sally J. (Larkspur, CA); Marshall, Grayson W. (Larkspur, CA)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

  14. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman; Henry N. (Livermore, CA), Taylor; John S. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  15. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition.

  16. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition. 3 figs.

  17. Passivation coating for flexible substrate mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors. Also, the silver or other reflective metal layer on mirrors comprising thin, lightweight, flexible substrates of metal or polymer sheets coated with glassy layers can be protected with silicon nitride according to this invention.

  18. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loehman, Ronald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Corral, Erica L. (Tucson, AZ)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  19. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  20. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Tae H. (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  1. The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Brandon DeWayne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to tests that utilized coated aluminum outdoor heat exchangers. The overall performance of each test was analyzed. These tests were carried out for cooling and heating mode conditions. The adhesion strength of water droplets to a bare aluminum...

  2. Production of porous coating on a prosthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sump, Kenneth R. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preselected surface areas of a prosthesis are covered by a blend of matching primary metallic particles and expendable particles. The particles are compressed and heated to assure that deformation and metallurgical bonding occurs between them and between the primary particles and the surface boundaries of the prosthesis. Porosity is achieved by removal of the expendable material. The result is a coating including discrete bonded particles separated by a network of interconnected voids presenting a homogeneous porous coating about the substrate. It has strength suitable for bone implant usage without intermediate adhesives, and adequate porosity to promote subsequent bone ingrowth.

  3. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  4. Monolayer coated aerogels and method of making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemanian, Thomas Samuel (Richland, WA); Fryxell, Glen (Kennwick, WA); Ustyugov, Oleksiy A. (Spokane, WA)

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogels having a monolayer coating are described. The aerogel and a monolayer forming precursor are provided in a supercritical fluid, whereupon the aerogel and the monolayer forming precursor are reacted in said supercritical fluid to form a covalent bond between the aerogel and the monolayer forming precursor. Suitable aerogels are ceramic oxides such as silica, alumina, aluminosilicate, and combinations thereof. Suitable monolayer forming precursors include alkyl silanes, chlorosilanes, boranes, chloroboranes, germanes, and combinations thereof. The method may also include providing a surface preparation agent such as water, or hydroetching an aerogel to enhance the coating of the monolayer.

  5. Iron-Based Amorphous Coatings Produced by HVOF Thermal Spray Processing-Coating Structure and Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beardsley, M B

    2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility to coat large SNF/HLW containers with a structurally amorphous material (SAM) was demonstrated on sub-scale models fabricated from Type 316L stainless steel. The sub-scale model were coated with SAM 1651 material using kerosene high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) torch to thicknesses ranging from 1 mm to 2 mm. The process parameters such as standoff distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow, were optimized in order to improve the corrosion properties of the coatings. Testing in an electrochemical cell and long-term exposure to a salt spray environment were used to guide the selection of process parameters.

  6. Dynamic density functional theory of protein adsorption on polymer-coated nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Angioletti-Uberti; Matthias Ballauff; Joachim Dzubiella

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical model for the description of the adsorption kinetics of globular proteins onto charged core-shell microgel particles based on Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT). This model builds on a previous description of protein adsorption thermodynamics [Yigit \\textit{et al}, Langmuir 28 (2012)], shown to well interpret the available calorimetric experimental data of binding isotherms. In practice, a spatially-dependent free-energy functional including the same physical interactions is built, and used to study the kinetics via a generalised diffusion equation. To test this model, we apply it to the case study of Lysozyme adsorption on PNIPAM coated nanoparticles, and show that the dynamics obtained within DDFT is consistent with that extrapolated from experiments. We also perform a systematic study of the effect of various parameters in our model, and investigate the loading dynamics as a function of proteins' valence and hydrophobic adsorption energy, as well as their concentration and that of the nanoparticles. Although we concentrated here on the case of adsorption for a single protein type, the model's generality allows to study multi-component system, providing a reliable instrument for future studies of competitive and cooperative adsorption effects often encountered in protein adsorption experiments.

  7. Special Coating Emission Control System At Goulds Pumps ITT Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caropolo, B.; Evans, T.

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required significant changes for users of industrial paints and coatings. New York State requires users of highly volatile coatings to meet additional regulations, and apply for special permits and variances...

  8. Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

    2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

  9. Special Coating Emission Control System At Goulds Pumps ITT Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caropolo, B.; Evans, T.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required significant changes for users of industrial paints and coatings. New York State requires users of highly volatile coatings to meet additional regulations, and apply for special permits and variances...

  10. The possibility of forming a sacrificial anode coating for Mg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mg is the most active engineering metal, and is often used as a sacrificial anode/coating to protect other engineering metals from corrosion attack. So far no sacrificial anode coating has been developed or considered for Mg. This study explores the possibility of forming a sacrificial coating for Mg. A lithiated carbon coating and a metaphosphated coating are applied on the Mg surface, respectively, and their open-circuit-potentials are measured in saturated Mg(OH)2 solution. They exhibit more negative potentials than bare Mg. SEM reveals that the metaphosphated coating offers more effective and uniform protection for Mg than the lithiated carbon coating. These preliminary results indicate that development of a sacrificial anode coating for Mg is indeed possible.

  11. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q1 High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q1...

  12. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q2 High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers - FY13 Q2...

  13. Value pricing of surface coatings for mitigating heat exchanger fouling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, D.I.; Gomes da Cruz, L.; Ishiyama, E.M.; Boxler, C.; Augustin, W.; Scholl, S.

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    crystallisation fouling; (b) fluorocarbon-based coatings which offer antifouling performance but can reduce heat transfer, for crystallisation fouling; and (c) fluorocarbon-based coatings in a dairy pasteuriser application. A novel strategy, of replacing stainless...

  14. area supplemental coatings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unknown authors 4 Continuous blade coating for multi-layer large-area organic light-emitting diode and solar cell Materials Science Websites Summary: Continuous blade coating for...

  15. The Addition of Graphene to Polymer Coatings for Improved Weathering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuraje, Nurxat

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene nanoflakes in different weight percentages were added to polyurethane top coatings, and the coatings were evaluated relative to exposure to two different experimental conditions: one a QUV accelerated weathering ...

  16. Systematic Evaluation of Jc Decrease in Thick Film Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex Ignatiev; Dr. Amit Goyal

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Address both thickness dependence of Jc, in thick film YBCO coated conductors through an application of a suite of new measurement techniques to thick film wire samples produced by commercially viable coated conductor technologies.

  17. Polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for medical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Suelin, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most versatile and safe materials used in medicine are polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. This dissertation describes several formulations for in vivo imaging applications. The paramagnetic polymer-coated ...

  18. Apparatus for coating and impregnating filament with resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, S.C.; Pollard, R.E.

    1986-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for evenly coating and impregnating a filament with binder material. Dimension control and repeatability of the coating and impregnating characteristics are obtained with the apparatus.

  19. In-situ formation of multiphase deposited thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiphase ceramic thermal barrier coating is provided. The coating is adapted for use in high temperature applications in excess of about 1200.degree. C., for coating superalloy components of a combustion turbine engine. The coating comprises a ceramic single or two oxide base layer disposed on the substrate surface; and a ceramic oxide reaction product material disposed on the base layer, the reaction product comprising the reaction product of the base layer with a ceramic single or two oxide overlay layer.

  20. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles W. Brullot a coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized to chemical treatments and biocompatible [12]. An impression of an iron oxide nanoparticle coated with a PEG

  1. Lithographically directed deposition of silica nanoparticles using spin coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    Lithographically directed deposition of silica nanoparticles using spin coating Deying Xia and S. R-assembly by spin coating to control particle placement. Three sizes of silica nanoparticles (mean diameters: 78, 50, and 15 nm) were employed for spin-coating processes. Single linear silica particle chain patterns

  2. A new method of coating oilfield core for laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.; Shadizadeh, R.S.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method has been developed for coating oilfield core for laboratory studies. It consists of applying a steel coating and aluminum wraps around the outer surface of a core. The strength of the coating, the short time needed to apply it, and its low cost are the major advantages of this new method.

  3. Gaseous modification of MCrAlY coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes methods for modifying MCrAlY coatings by using gaseous carburization, gaseous nitriding or gaseous carbonitriding. The modified MCrAlY coatings are useful in thermal barrier coating systems, which may be used in gas turbine engines.

  4. Molten silicate interactions with thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Molten silicate interactions with thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a, , Carlos G. Levi b is enhanced by incorporation of through-thickness pores within the coating. However, molten calcium­magnesium­alumino­silicate in dissolution of the coat- ing in the silicate melt, precipitation of new phases, and the elimination

  5. CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF EPOXY-COATED REINFORCEMENTMACROCELL TESTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF EPOXY-COATED REINFORCEMENT­MACROCELL TESTS by Khaled Z. Kahhaleh, Enrique corrosion experimental program was conducted to study the performance of bent epoxy- coated bars. The damage. The coated bars were embedded in concrete prisms and linked electrically to uncoated bars to set up macro-corrosion

  6. High temperature ceramic articles having corrosion resistant coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Woo Y. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic article which includes a porous body of SiC fibers, Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 fibers, SiC coated fibers or Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 coated fibers, having at least one surface, the article having a coating of AlN adherently disposed throughout at least a portion of the porous body.

  7. Coated powder for electrolyte matrix for carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Browall, Kenneth W. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plurality of electrolyte carbonate-coated ceramic particle which does not differ significantly in size from that of the ceramic particle and wherein no significant portion of the ceramic particle is exposed is fabricated into a porous tape comprised of said coated-ceramic particles bonded together by the coating for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  8. High Temperature coatings based on {beta}-NiAI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severs, Kevin

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature alloys are reviewed, focusing on current superalloys and their coatings. The synthesis, characerization, and oxidation performance of a NiAl–TiB{sub 2} composite are explained. A novel coating process for Mo–Ni–Al alloys for improved oxidation performance is examined. The cyclic oxidation performance of coated and uncoated Mo–Ni–Al alloys is discussed.

  9. Oxidation resistant nanocrystalline MCrAl(Y) coatings and methods of forming such coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheruvu, Narayana S.; Wei, Ronghua

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to an oxidation resistant nanocrystalline coating and a method of forming an oxidation resistant nanocrystalline coating. An oxidation resistant coating comprising an MCrAl(Y) alloy may be deposited on a substrate, wherein M, includes iron, nickel, cobalt, or combinations thereof present greater than 50 wt % of the MCrAl(Y) alloy, chromium is present in the range of 15 wt % to 30 wt % of the MCrAl(Y) alloy, aluminum is present in the range of 6 wt % to 12 wt % of the MCrAl(Y) alloy and yttrium, is optionally present in the range of 0.1 wt % to 0.5 wt % of the MCrAl(Y) alloy. In addition, the coating may exhibit a grain size of 200 nm or less as deposited.

  10. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  11. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

    1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors are described having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  12. Biosolvents for Coatings, Resins and Biobased Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta, Rathin [Vertec BioSolvents, Inc.] [Vertec BioSolvents, Inc.

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With close collaboration with several industrial coatings manufacturers several solvent blends were developed tested and optimized. These were then piloted in the commercial company’s reactors and systems. Three were successfully tested in commercial applications and two of these - Methotate replacement and a specialty ketone replacement were sold in commercial quantities in 2009. Further sales are anticipated in 2010 and the following years.

  13. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (P.O. Box 763, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Doughty, Daniel H. (11724 Woodmar La., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Bein, Thomas (1114 Princeton Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106); Moller, Karin (1114 Princeton Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  14. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (Bernalillo County, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Doughty, Daniel H. (Albuquerque, NM); Bein, Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Moller, Karin (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

  15. Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings and sensors are disclosed having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided. 7 figs.

  16. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  17. Urethane coatings rehabilitate large crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kresic, W. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. (IPL) provides a vital transportation link for moving liquid petroleum resources from oil-producing areas of western Canada to refining centers and markets in eastern canada and the midwestern US. Together with Lakehead Pipe Line Co., Inc., the pipeline system consists of about 7,600 miles of pipe. Approximately 1.6 million bpd of crude oil and liquid hydrocarbons are transported by the system. Along with high-resolution inspection data, an in-house engineering critical assessment process based on Battelle`s NG-18 surface flaw equation was developed to identify corrosion anomalies needing structural reinforcement sleeve repairs. A majority of ht non-critical anomalies remained unearthed and were exposed to possible future growth which could become critical. Several rehabilitation methods were considered including on-going sleeve repair, selective pipe replacement, and coating reconditioning. Economics and logistics of sleeving programs and selective pipe replacement were well known at IPL. However, aspects of replacing a coating system over a relatively long length of pipe were not completely known. Preliminary cost estimates favored replacement of the coating over a massive sleeving program or pipe replacement. To gain further insight, IPL began a two-year pilot program to research long length coating replacement feasibility. Two sections of Line 3 ultimately were rehabilitated in this manner. This paper reviews the project.

  18. Coated semiconductor devices for neutron detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klann, Raymond T. (Bolingbrook, IL); McGregor, Douglas S. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for detecting neutrons includes a semi-insulated bulk semiconductor substrate having opposed polished surfaces. A blocking Schottky contact comprised of a series of metals such as Ti, Pt, Au, Ge, Pd, and Ni is formed on a first polished surface of the semiconductor substrate, while a low resistivity ("ohmic") contact comprised of metals such as Au, Ge, and Ni is formed on a second, opposed polished surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, n-type low resistivity pinout contacts comprised of an Au/Ge based eutectic alloy or multi-layered Pd/Ge/Ti/Au are also formed on the opposed polished surfaces and in contact with the Schottky and ohmic contacts. Disposed on the Schottky contact is a neutron reactive film, or coating, for detecting neutrons. The coating is comprised of a hydrogen rich polymer, such as a polyolefin or paraffin; lithium or lithium fluoride; or a heavy metal fissionable material. By varying the coating thickness and electrical settings, neutrons at specific energies can be detected. The coated neutron detector is capable of performing real-time neutron radiography in high gamma fields, digital fast neutron radiography, fissile material identification, and basic neutron detection particularly in high radiation fields.

  19. Shirley Coates Brostmeyer: Changing the (Engineering) Game

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In honor of Women’s History Month, we’ve brought you the stories of several women in the energy and science industries -- past, present and future. This week we spoke with Shirley Coates Brostmeyer, co-founder, CEO and owner of Florida Turbine Technologies, to find out what it takes to run a large engineering company.

  20. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  1. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation.

  2. Polyorganometallosiloxane-2- or -4-pyridine coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new family of polyorganometallosiloxane-2- or -4-pyridine compounds are provided for corrosion resistant coatings on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their allows. The novel compounds contain backbones modified by metal alkoxides, metallocenes and metallophthalocyanates where the metal is Zr, Ti, Mo, V, Hf, Nb, Si, B and combinations thereof. Methods of making the new compounds are also provided.

  3. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  4. Natural and synthetic rubber coatings for steel: Properties and compositions. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of compositions containing natural and synthetic rubbers to steel. Polyurethane elastomers, chlorinated rubber coatings, and rubber containing acrylic adhesives are among the coatings discussed. Studies of the degradation of rubber coatings applied to steel are included. Bonding properties, adhesion strength, weathering, and anticorrosive properties are discussed. Additional information on anticorrosive coatings may be found in other bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 180 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Natural and synthetic rubber coatings for steel: Properties and compositions. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of compositions containing natural and synthetic rubbers to steel. Polyurethane elastomers, chlorinated rubber coatings, and rubber containing acrylic adhesives are among the coatings discussed. Studies of the degradation of rubber coatings applied to steel are included. Bonding properties, adhesion strength, weathering, and anticorrosive properties are discussed. Additional information on anticorrosive coatings may be found in other bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 147 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Method For Improving The Oxidation Resistance Of Metal Substrates Coated With Thermal Barrier Coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anthony Mark (Niskayuna, NY); Gray, Dennis Michael (Delanson, NY); Jackson, Melvin Robert (Niskayuna, NY)

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described. A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

  7. ALARA{trademark} 1146 strippable coating. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of strippable coatings is an innovative technology for decontamination, which effectively reduces hazard residuals at low cost. The process applies a plastic membrane or polymer on the contaminated surface. The strippable coating is allowed to cure for up to 24 hours, after which it can be easily peeled or stripped off the surface. The coating traps the contaminants in the polymer matrix. Strippable coatings are non-toxic and do not contain volatile compounds or heavy metals. Since the coating constitutes a solid waste, disposal is easier than treating contaminated liquid wastes.

  8. Selective emission multilayer coatings for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cockeram, Brian Vern

    2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Multilayer coating designs have been developed to provide selective emission for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator surface. These coatings increase the surface emissivity of a molybdenum TPV radiator substrate in the wavelength range that matches the bandgap of the TPV cells to increase the power density of the TPV system. Radiator emission at wavelengths greater than the bandgap energy of the TPV cells is greatly reduced through the use of these coatings, which significantly increases the efficiency of the TPV system. The use of this coating greatly improves the performance of a TPV system, and the coating can be tailored to match the bandgap of any practical TPV system.

  9. Front surface thermal property measurements of air plasma spray coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Ted; Kakuda, Tyler [University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5070 (United States); Kulkarni, Anand [Siemens Energy, Orlando, Florida 32826-2399 (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A front-surface measurement for determining the thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings has been applied to air plasma spray coatings. The measurement is used to determine all independent thermal properties of the coating simultaneously. Furthermore, with minimal requirements placed on the sample and zero sample preparation, measurements can be made under previously impossible conditions, such as on serviceable engine parts. Previous application of this technique was limited to relatively thin coatings, where a one-dimensional heat transfer model is applied. In this paper, the influence of heat spreading on the measurement of thicker coatings is investigated with the development of a two-dimensional heat transfer model.

  10. Self-Assembly of Charged Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers with Insoluble Blocks of Decreasing Hydrophobicity: From Kinetically Frozen Colloids to Macrosurfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Jacquin; P Muller; H Cottet; O Theodoly

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the self-assembly properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic diblock copolymers with insoluble blocks of different hydrophobicity and demonstrated that the condition to obtain dynamic micelles is to design samples with insoluble blocks of low enough hydrophobicity. We focus here on results with new water-soluble amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly(diethyleneglycol ethylether acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), or PDEGA-b-PAA. The physical characteristics of PDEGA-b-PAA micelles at high ionization have been determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). We show that PDEGA-b-PAA samples form micelles at thermodynamic equilibrium. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) decrease strongly with ionic strength and temperature due to a solvent quality decrease for, respectively, the corona and the core. This behavior of reversible aggregation is remarkable as compared to the behavior of kinetically frozen aggregation that has been widely observed with samples of similar architecture and different hydrophobic blocks, for example, poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PS-b-PAA, and poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA. We have measured the interfacial tension between water and the homopolymers PDEGA and PBA at, respectively, 3 and 20 mN/m at room temperature, which permits one to estimate the energy cost to extract a unimer from a micelle. The results are consistent with a micelle association that is fast for PDEGA-b-PAA and kinetically frozen PBA-b-PAA. Hence, PDEGA-b-PAA samples form a new system of synthetic charged macrosurfactant with unique properties of fast dynamic association, tunable charge, and water solubility even at temperatures and NaCl concentrations as high as 65 C and 1 M.

  11. Temperature Dependence of the Hydrophobic Hydration and Interaction of Simple Solutes: An Examination of Five Popular Water Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietmar Paschek

    2004-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine five different popular rigid water models (SPC, SPCE, TIP3P, TIP4P and TIP5P) using MD simulations in order to investigate the hydrophobic hydration and interaction of apolar Lennard-Jones solutes as a function of temperature in the range between $275 {K}$ and $375 {K}$. For all investigated models and state points we calculate the excess chemical potential for the noble gases and Methane.All water models exhibit too small hydration entropies, but show a clear hierarchy. TIP3P shows poorest agreement with experiment whereas TIP5P is closest to the experimental data at lower temperatures and SPCE is closest at higher temperatures. A rescaling procedure inspired by information theory model of Hummer et al. ({\\em Chem.Phys.}258, 349-370 (2000)) suggests that the differences between the different models and real water can be explained on the basis of the density curves at constant pressure. In addition, the models that give a good representation of the water structure at ambient conditions (TIP5P, SPCE and TIP4P) show considerably better agreement with the experimental data than SPC and TIP3P. We calculate the hydrophobic interaction between Xenon particles directly from a series of 60 ns simulation runs.We find that the temperature dependence of the association is related to the strength of the solvation entropy. Nevertheless, differences between the models seem to require a more detailed molecular picture.The TIP5P model shows by far the strongest temperature dependence.The suggested density-rescaling is also applied to the Xenon-Xenon contact-pair configuration, indicating the presence of a temperature where the hydrophobic interaction turns into purely repulsive.The predicted association for Xenon in real water suggest the presence a strong variation with temperature.

  12. Microstructure, Processing, Performance Relationships for High Temperature Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas M. Lillo

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work evaluates the suitability of iron aluminide coatings for use in high temperature fossil fuel combustion environments, such as boiler applications. The coatings are applied using High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray techniques. Iron aluminide coatings, with the nominal composition of Fe3Al, were applied to various high temperature structural materials (316 Stainless Steel, 9Cr-1Mo steel and Inconel 600) that typically lack inherent resistance to environmental degradation found in fossil fuel combustion atmospheres. Coating/substrate combinations were subjected to thermal cycling to evaluate the effect of HVOF parameters, coating thickness, substrate material and substrate surface roughness on the resistance to coating delamination and cracking. It was found that substrate surface roughness had a profound influence on the performance of a given substrate/coating system and that surface preparation techniques will need to be tailored to the specific substrate material. Also, higher particle velocity during HVOF thermal spray deposition of the iron aluminide coatings tended to result in better-performing coating/substrate systems with less delamination at the coating/substrate interface. Some combinations of HVOF parameters, coating thickness and substrate materials were found to perform extremely well even at temperatures up to 900oC. However, in some cases, substantial reactions at the interface were observed.

  13. Structure of gas-liquid interface and hydrophobic interface for urea aqueous solution: a computer simulation study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Meng

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . Sci. U. S. A. 2006, 103, 18417- 18420 (57) Courtenay, E. S.; Capp, M. W.; Record, M. T. Protein Sci. 2001, 10, 2485-2497. (58) Soper, A. K.; Bruni, F.; Ricci, M. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1997, 106, 247. 34 VITA Name: Meng Yu Address... STRUCTURE OF GAS-LIQUID INTERFACE AND HYDROPHOBIC INTERFACE FOR UREA AQUEOUS SOLUTION SYSTEMS: A COMPUTER SIMULATION STUDY A Thesis by MENG YU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  14. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

  15. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

  16. X-ray structures of checkpoint kinase 2 in complex with inhibitors that target its gatekeeper-dependent hydrophobic pocket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lountos, George T.; Jobson, Andrew G.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Self, Christopher R.; Zhang, Guangtao; Pommier, Yves; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Waugh, David S. (Provid); (NIH); (SAIC); (NCI)

    2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The serine/threonine checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) is an attractive molecular target for the development of small molecule inhibitors to treat cancer. Here, we report the rational design of Chk2 inhibitors that target the gatekeeper-dependent hydrophobic pocket located behind the adenine-binding region of the ATP-binding site. These compounds exhibit IC{sub 50} values in the low nanomolar range and are highly selective for Chk2 over Chk1. X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structures of the inhibitors in complex with the catalytic kinase domain of Chk2 to verify their modes of binding.

  17. Job Title: Chemist (Entry Level) Job Description: Work to help improve existing coatings and develop new coating products, and test coating properties.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Job Title: Chemist (Entry Level) Job Description: Work to help improve existing coatings communication skills are required. Background in formulation preferred. 1. Chemist Job Description A

  18. Method of applying a bond coating and a thermal barrier coating on a metal substrate, and related articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Borom, Marcus Preston (Tucson, AZ)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for applying at least one bond coating on a surface of a metal-based substrate is described. A foil of the bond coating material is first attached to the substrate surface and then fused thereto, e.g., by brazing. The foil is often initially prepared by thermally spraying the bond coating material onto a removable support sheet, and then detaching the support sheet. Optionally, the foil may also include a thermal barrier coating applied over the bond coating. The substrate can be a turbine engine component.

  19. Balloon Coating with Rapamycin Using an On-site Coating Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmehl, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.schmehl@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Ruhr, Juergen von der [Institute of Anatomy, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Dobratz, Markus; Kehlbach, Rainer [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Braun, Isabelle [Translumina GmbH (Germany); Greiner, Tim-Oliver [Clinic of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Claussen, Claus D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Behnisch, Boris [Translumina GmbH (Germany)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose. The efficacy of drug-eluting balloons has been demonstrated in clinical trials. The drug predominantly used is paclitaxel because of its lipophilic properties and the rapid onset of action. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of an alternative balloon coating with rapamycin that can be applied on site.MethodsThe balloon coating (3.0/18 and 3.0/12 mm, Cathy No. 4, Translumina GmbH) with rapamycin was conducted with a coating machine (Translumina GmbH). Concentrations were 2, 2 Multiplication-Sign 2, 3, and 4 %. Measurements regarding the amount of substance released to the vessel wall were carried out on explanted porcine coronaries by means of ultraviolet and visible-light spectroscopy. Inflation time varied between 30 and 120 s. The biological effect of the coating was evaluated in a porcine peripheral overstretch and stent implantation model. Results. The amount of rapamycin on the balloon surface ranged from 558 {+-} 108 {mu}g for the 2 % solution to 1,441 {+-} 228 {mu}g in the 4 % solution. An amount of 95 {+-} 63-193 {+-} 113 {mu}g was released into the vessel wall. The quantitative measurements of the angiographic examinations 4 weeks after treatment revealed a reduction of diameter stenosis from 20.6 {+-} 17.4 % in the control group to 11.6 {+-} 5.5 % in the drug-eluting balloon group. Conclusion. A balloon coating with rapamycin omitting an excipient is possible with a dose-adjustable coating machine. However, the biological effects are moderate, which make further optimization of the coating process and evaluation of appropriate excipients necessary.

  20. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

  1. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Siekhaus, Wigbert J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

  2. Sol-gel coatings for optoelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avellaneda, C.O.; Macedo, M.A.; Florentino, A.O.; Aegerter, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} prepared by a sol-gel process in form of coatings and aerogels are new materials which present interesting properties: (a) The coatings present electrochromic properties and exhibit a blue coloration under Li{sup +} insertion with 100% reversible variation of the optical transmission in the visible and near infrared range between 80% and 200% and have a high chemical stability (tested up to 2,000 cycles). (b) They are semiconductor and present a photoelectric effect when illuminating in the UV region ({lambda} < 360 nm). These films are therefore very promising to be used in electrochromic devices, as electrodes for photoelectrochemical purpose and the development of nanocrystalline solar cell. (c) When prepared in aerogel form, the high BET surface area of the powders is a promising asset to use these new materials for catalytic purposes for air pollution control.

  3. Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmon, John P; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Modified surfaces on metal anodes for batteries can help resist formation of malfunction-inducing surface defects. The modification can include application of a protective nanocomposite coating that can inhibit formation of surface defects. such as dendrites, on the anode during charge/discharge cycles. For example, for anodes having a metal (M'), the protective coating can be characterized by products of chemical or electrochemical dissociation of a nanocomposite containing a polymer and an exfoliated compound (M.sub.a'M.sub.b''X.sub.c). The metal, M', comprises Li, Na, or Zn. The exfoliated compound comprises M' among lamella of M.sub.b''X.sub.c, wherein M'' is Fe, Mo, Ta, W, or V, and X is S, O, or Se.

  4. Coating considerations for mirrors of CPV devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmauder, Torsten; Sauer, Peter; Ickes, Gerd [Leybold Optics GmbH, Siemensstr. 88, D-63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the different optical concepts for concentrator devices is to place a focussing primary mirror behind a transparent front plate. In addition (also in case of Fresnel-diffractive main optics), further 'secondary' reflectors may be used further along the beam path. Such mirrors are usually implemented as coating stacks of a highly reflective metal - usually silver - and protective layers. The protective layers are preferably designed as reflection enhancing interference stack. The design of such protective layer stacks yields two difficulties, which are addressed in this paper: (a) vacuum coating of three-dimensional parts will result in a thickness distribution and the optical design of the stack should thus be tolerant to layer thickness variations, and (b) different places of the mirror will have different angle-of-incidence of the sunlight under operating conditions. As result, the layer stack has a different design at different places of the mirror.

  5. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  6. Method of producing thermally sprayed metallic coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrnes, Larry Edward (Rochester Hills, MI); Kramer, Martin Stephen (Clarkston, MI); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The cylinder walls of light metal engine blocks are thermally spray coated with a ferrous-based coating using an HVOF device. A ferrous-based wire is fed to the HVOF device to locate a tip end of the wire in a high temperature zone of the device. Jet flows of oxygen and gaseous fuel are fed to the high temperature zone and are combusted to generate heat to melt the tip end. The oxygen is oversupplied in relation to the gaseous fuel. The excess oxygen reacts with and burns a fraction of the ferrous-based feed wire in an exothermic reaction to generate substantial supplemental heat to the HVOF device. The molten/combusted metal is sprayed by the device onto the walls of the cylinder by the jet flow of gases.

  7. Corrosion Resistant Coatings for High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besman, T.M.; Cooley, K.M.; Haynes, J.A.; Lee, W.Y.; Vaubert, V.M.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to increase efficiency of energy conversion devices have required their operation at ever higher temperatures. This will force the substitution of higher-temperature structural ceramics for lower temperature materials, largely metals. Yet, many of these ceramics will require protection from high temperature corrosion caused by combustion gases, atmospheric contaminants, or the operating medium. This paper discusses examples of the initial development of such coatings and materials for potential application in combustion, aluminum smelting, and other harsh environments.

  8. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation. 17 figs.

  9. Polyorganometallosiloxane-2- or -4-pyridine coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new family of polyorganometallosiloxane-2- or -4-pyridine compounds are provided for corrosion resistant coatings on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. The novel compounds contain backbones modified by metal alkoxides, metallocenes and metallophthalocyanates where the metal is Zr, Ti, Mo, V, Hf, Nb, Si, B and combinations thereof. Methods of making the new compounds are also provided. 13 figs.

  10. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brij B.

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process.

  11. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holinga IV, G.H.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

  12. Method of coating the interior surface of hollow objects with a diffusion coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knowles, Shawn D.; Senor, David J.; Forbes, Steven V.; Johnson, Roger N.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a diffusion coating on the interior of surface of a hollow object wherein a filament, extending through a hollow object and adjacent to the interior surface of the object, is provided, with a coating material, in a vacuum. An electrical current is then applied to the filament to resistively heat the filament to a temperature sufficient to transfer the coating material from the filament to the interior surface of the object. The filament is electrically isolated from the object while the filament is being resistively heated. Preferably, the filament is provided as a tungsten filament or molybdenum filament. Preferably, the coating materials are selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni P, Pb, Pd, Pr, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Te, Tl, Y, Yb, Zn, and combinations thereof. The invention additionally allows for the formation of nitrides, hydrides, or carbides of all the possible coating materials, where such compounds exist, by providing a partial pressure of nitrogen, hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or combination thereof, within the vacuum.

  13. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA); Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA); Kanouff, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  14. Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

  15. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al2O3-0-3 wt % La2O3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al2O3-3-40% TiO2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al2O3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  16. ALARA{trademark} 1146 strippable coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Strippable or temporary coatings are innovative technologies for decontamination that effectively reduce loose contamination at low cost. These coatings have become a viable option during the deactivation and decommissioning of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. The ALARA{trademark} 1146 strippable coating was demonstrated as part of the Savannah River Site LSDDP and successfully removed transferable (surface) contamination from multiple surfaces (metal and concrete) with an average decontamination factor for alpha contamination of 6.68 and an average percentage of alpha contamination removed of 85.0%. Beta contamination removed was an average DF of 5.55 and an average percentage removed of 82.0%. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. This Innovative Technology offers a 35% cost savings over the Baseline Technology.

  17. Interfacial Coatings for Inorganic Composite Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, M. W.; Fabian, P. E.; Stewart, M. W.; Grandlienard, S. D.; Kano, K. S. [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO, 80026 (United States)

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic (ceramic) insulation materials are known to have good radiation resistance and desirable electrical and mechanical properties at cryogenic and elevated temperatures. In addition, ceramic materials can withstand the high-temperature reaction cycle used with Nb3Sn superconductor materials, allowing the insulation to be co-processed with the superconductor in a wind-and-react fabrication process. A critical aspect in the manufacture of ceramic-based insulation systems is the deposition of suitable fiber-coating materials that prevent chemical reaction of the fiber and matrix materials, and thus provide a compliant interface between the fiber and matrix, which minimizes the impact of brittle failure of the ceramic matrix. Ceramic insulation produced with CTD-FI-202 fiber interfaces have been found to exhibit very high shear and compressive strengths. However, this material is costly to produce. Thus, the goal of the present work is to evaluate alternative, lower-cost materials and processes. A variety of oxide and polyimide coatings were evaluated, and one commercially available polyimide coating has been shown to provide some improvement as compared to uncoated and de-sized S2 glass.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF STRIPPABLE COATINGS FOR DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strippable coatings are polymer mixtures, such as water-based organic polymers, that are applied to a surface by paintbrush, roller, or spray applicator. As the polymer reacts, it attracts, absorbs, and chemically binds the contaminants; then, during the curing process, it mechanically locks the contaminants into the polymer matrix. Incorporating fiber reinforcement (such as a cotton scrim) into the coating may enhance the strength of these coatings. Once the coating dries, it can be stripped manually from the surface, In the case of auto-release coatings, the mixture cracks, flakes, and is collected by vacuuming. The surface properties of these coatings may be modified by applying a thin top coat (e.g., polyvinyl alcohol), which may provide a smoother, less permeable surface that would become less severely contaminated. In such a duplex, the thicker basis layer provides the required mechanical properties (e.g., strength and abrasion resistance), while the top layer provides protection from contamination. Once the strippable coating is removed, the loose surface contamination is removed with the coating, producing a dry, hard, non-airborne waste product. The use of strippable coatings during D&D operations has proved a viable option. These coatings can be used in the following three functions: As a protective coating, when applied to an uncontaminated surface in an area where contamination is present, so that on its removal the surface remains uncontaminated; As a decontamination agent, when applied to a contaminated surface, so that on its removal a significant decontamination of loose particulate activity is achieved; and As a fixative or tie-down coating, when applied to a contaminated surface, so that any loose contamination is tied down, thus preventing the spread of contamination during subsequent handling.

  19. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatkowski, P.J.; Landis, D.A.

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT patterning and alignment, advances in commercial and research materials and field effect schemes. In addition, Eikos continued to develop improved efficiency coating materials and transfer methods suitable for batch and continuous roll-to-roll fabrication requirements. Finally, Eikos collaborated with NREL and the PV-community at large in fabricating and characterizing Invisicon���® enabled solar cells.

  20. Film Coating Process Research and Characterization of TiN Coated Racetrack-type Ceramic Pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Wei; Fan, Le; Pei, Xiangtao; Hong, Yuanzhi; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TiN film was coated on the internal face of racetrack-type ceramic pipe by three different methods: radio-frequency sputtering, DC sputtering and DC magnetron sputtering. The deposition rates of TiN film under different coating methods were compared. According to the AFM, SEM, XPS test results,these properties were analyzed, such as TiN film roughness and surface morphology. At the same time, the deposition rates were studied under two types' cathode, Ti wires and Ti plate. According to the SEM test results, Ti plate cathode can improve the TiN/Ti film deposition rate obviously.

  1. Mechanical Loss in Tantala/Silica Dielectric Mirror Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven D. Penn; Peter H. Sneddon; Helena Armandula; Joseph C. Betzwieser; Gianpietro Cagnoli; Jordan Camp; D. R. M. Crooks; Martin M. Fejer; Andri M. Gretarsson; Gregory M. Harry; Jim Hough; Scott E. Kittelberger; Michael J. Mortonson; Roger Route; Sheila Rowan; Christophoros C. Vassiliou

    2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors use test masses with mirror coatings formed from multiple layers of dielectric materials, most commonly alternating layers of SiO2 (silica) and Ta2O5 (tantala). However, mechanical loss in the Ta2O5/SiO2 coatings may limit the design sensitivity for advanced detectors. We have investigated sources of mechanical loss in the Ta2O5/SiO2 coatings, including loss associated with the coating-substrate interface, with the coating-layer interfaces, and with the bulk material. Our results indicate that the loss is associated with the bulk coating materials and that the loss of Ta2O5 is substantially larger than that of SiO2.

  2. Optically transparent, scratch-resistant, diamond-like carbon coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xiao-Ming; Lee, Deok-Hyung; Nastasi, Michael A.; Walter, Kevin C.; Tuszewski, Michel G.

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma-based method for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is described. The process uses a radio-frequency inductively coupled discharge to generate a plasma at relatively low gas pressures. The deposition process is environmentally friendly and scaleable to large areas, and components that have geometrically complicated surfaces can be processed. The method has been used to deposit adherent 100-400 nm thick DLC coatings on metals, glass, and polymers. These coatings are between three and four times harder than steel and are therefore scratch resistant, and transparent to visible light. Boron and silicon doping of the DLC coatings have produced coatings having improved optical properties and lower coating stress levels, but with slightly lower hardness.

  3. Composite neutron absorbing coatings for nuclear criticality control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Richard N.; Swank, W. David; Mizia, Ronald E.

    2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal neutron absorbing composite coating materials and methods of applying such coating materials to spent nuclear fuel storage systems are provided. A composite neutron absorbing coating applied to a substrate surface includes a neutron absorbing layer overlying at least a portion of the substrate surface, and a corrosion resistant top coat layer overlying at least a portion of the neutron absorbing layer. An optional bond coat layer can be formed on the substrate surface prior to forming the neutron absorbing layer. The neutron absorbing layer can include a neutron absorbing material, such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium phosphate, dispersed in a metal alloy matrix. The coating layers may be formed by a plasma spray process or a high velocity oxygen fuel process.

  4. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  5. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Weite (Tainan, TW); Chu, Cha Y. (Garnerville, NY); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Routbort, Jules L. (Darien, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

  6. Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chan, Kwai S. (San Antonio, TX); Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry (San Antonio, TX); Liang, Wuwei (Austin, TX)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

  7. The role of electroplated coatings in metal joining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroplated and electroless coatings often play an important role in soldering, brazing, and welding operations. Thin deposits applied to critical surfaces before the joining operations can provide the difference between success and failure. Diffusion welding applications sometimes require coatings to help promote joining. For some applications, electroplating by itself can be used to join metals that cannot be welded or brazed because of metallurgical incompatibility. The use of electroplated coatings for these various joining applications is reviewed here.

  8. Low gloss UV-cured coatings for aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Mark; Muschar, Harry

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of applying a low gloss coating to a substrate such as the exterior surface of an aircraft is disclosed. The coating composition comprising a polyene, a polythiol, a flatting agent and a coloring pigment is applied to the substrate and given a first dosage of UV radiation followed by a second dosage in which the second dosage is greater than the first resulting in an ultralow gloss coating.

  9. aluminum coatings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Philadelphia 2011-01-01 24 QUASI-STATIC AND DYNAMIC TORSION TESTING OF CERAMIC MICRO AND NANO-STRUCTURED COATINGS USING SPECKLE PHOTOGRAPHY Engineering Websites Summary:...

  10. PROTECTIVE SURFACE COATINGS ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS W. L. Hansen,COATINGS ON SEMICONDUCTOR NUCLEAR RADIATION DETECTORS* W. L.the use of germanium nuclear radiation detec­ tors, a new

  11. Preparation of Polymer-Coated Functionalized Ferrimagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Shi

    A simple chemical method to synthesize PMAA coated maghemite nanoparticles is described. Monomer methacrylic acid molecules were absorbed onto the synthesized ferrimagnetic nanoparticles followed by polymerization. The ...

  12. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Min [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Shen, Zhigang, E-mail: shenzhg@buaa.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhao, Xiaohu [Plasma Laboratory, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Liang, Shuaishuai [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Lei [Beijing Key Laboratory for Powder Technology Research and Development, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

  13. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Jose Nainaparampil

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL'Â?s feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  14. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Coating...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Coating Defect Analysis and Processing NDE for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review...

  16. Optimal design of antireflection coatings with different metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    experiments on several types of coatings, using the average and maximal values of the ... solar energy, and many other fields of applied optics. ... cell panels.

  17. aluminium based coatings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XI, Universit de 5 Machining of nickel based superalloys using coated PCBN tooling. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Following a comprehensive literature...

  18. antireflection coatings based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gupta, S Dutta 2013-01-01 26 Machining of nickel based superalloys using coated PCBN tooling. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Following a comprehensive literature...

  19. Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials That Can Be Regenerated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials That Can Be Regenerated In-Situ to Enable High-Performance Membranes Membrane Technology Provides Energy-Efficient Method to Concentrate...

  20. Tribological performance of hybrid filtered arc-magnetron coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B4C targets, were directed to the substrates in the presence of reactive gases. A multiphase nanocomposite coating architecture was designed to provide the optimal combination...

  1. Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); McDonald, Jimmie M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutz, Thomas J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallis, Michail A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

  2. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herman, Herbert (Port Jefferson, NY); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1600.degree.C. which transforms the coating to silicon carbide.

  3. advanced coated particle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Janus particles,4 non-spherical shaped acorn'' particles5,6 and unsymmetrical 3D macromoleculesFabrication of asymmetrically coated colloid particles by microcontact...

  4. Final Project Report G-Plus Windshield Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matson, Dean W.; Koram, Kwaku

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of Sungate windshield material provided by PPG were analyzed to ascertain failure mechanisms observed at the interface between a copper busbar and the electrically conductive coating in use. Samples of “failed” windshield material were characterized using optical and electron microscopy, as well as surface analysis methods. These were compared to corresponding samples of “good” coatings. The primary failure mechanism of the coated windshield appears to be related to electrical discharges that originate where air-filled gaps are present between the copper busbar and the conductive coating. Gaps are produced by irregularities or wrinkles in the copper busbar that may result from the installation process.

  5. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.

    1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

  6. Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

  7. Apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tow, David M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Walter, John B (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating adhered to a substrate. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer is used to induce surface waves into the coating. The surface waves have a selected frequency and a fixed wavelength. Interpolation is used to determine the frequency of surface waves that propagate through the coating with the least attenuation. The phase velocity of the surface waves having this frequency is then calculated. The phase velocity is compared to known phase velocity/thickness tables to determine the thickness of the coating.

  8. anticorrosion coatings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PERFORMANCE TESTS Alex A. Volinsky Email: volinsky ABSTRACT Protective coating corrosion failure is a complicated process that involves various phenomena long time without...

  9. anticorrosive crc coatings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PERFORMANCE TESTS Alex A. Volinsky Email: volinsky ABSTRACT Protective coating corrosion failure is a complicated process that involves various phenomena long time without...

  10. Corrosion protection mechanism of polyaniline blended organic coating on steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathiyanarayanan, S.; Jeyaram, R.; Muthukrishnan, S.; Venkatachari, G. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikkudi (India)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epoxy-coal tar coatings are widely used to protect steel structures exposed to marine atmosphere due to their good barrier property. However, the presence of micropores and microcracks formed during the coating formation leads to failure of the coating due to permeation of corrosive ions. In recent years, it has been established that the coatings containing polyaniline (PANI) is able to protect pinholes and defects due to its passivating ability. Hence, a study has been made on the effect of polyaniline content (1 and 3%) in epoxy-coal tar coating on the corrosion protection of steel in 3% NaCl solution by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. Both phosphate- and chloride-doped polyanilines were prepared by a chemical oxidative polymerization method. From EIS studies, it has been found that the resistance value of the coatings containing 1 and 3% phosphate-doped polyaniline and 3% chloride-doped polyaniline pigmented coatings are similar to 10{sup 9} {Omega} cm{sup 2} even after 90 days exposure to NaCl solution, which are two orders high in comparison to that of conventional coal tar epoxy coatings. Besides, the conducting state of polyaniline has been found to be decreased after exposure to NaCl solution due to redox property of PANI. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have shown that polyaniline forms a complex layer with iron beneath the coating along with iron oxide.

  11. Project Profile: High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selective Coating Development for Power Tower Receivers Sandia National Laboratories logo Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), under the National Laboratory R&D competitive...

  12. Structurally Integrated Coatings for Wear and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beardsley, M. Brad; Sebright, Jason L.

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Wear and corrosion of structures cuts across industries and continues to challenge materials scientists and engineers to develop cost effective solutions. Industries typically seek mature technologies that can be implemented for production with rapid or minimal development and have little appetite for the longer-term materials research and development required to solve complex problems. The collaborative work performed in this project addressed the complexity of this problem in a multi-year program that industries would be reluctant to undertake without government partnership. This effort built upon the prior development of Advanced Abrasion Resistant Materials conduct by Caterpillar Inc. under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41054. In this referenced work, coatings were developed that exhibited significant wear life improvements over standard carburized heat treated steel in abrasive wear applications. The technology used in this referenced work, arc lamp fusing of thermal spray coatings, was one of the primary technical paths in this work effort. In addition to extending the capability of the coating technology to address corrosion issues, additional competitive coating technologies were evaluated to insure that the best technology was developed to meet the goals of the program. From this, plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding was selected as the second primary technology that was investigated. Specifically, this project developed improved, cost effective surfacing materials and processes for wear and corrosion resistance in both sliding and abrasive wear applications. Materials with wear and corrosion performance improvements that are 4 to 5 times greater than heat treated steels were developed. The materials developed were based on low cost material systems utilizing ferrous substrates and stainless steel type matrix with hard particulates formed from borides and carbides. Affordability was assessed against other competing hard surfacing or coating techniques, balanced with overall materials performance. State-of-the-art design and simulation capabilities were used to guide materials and process refinement. Caterpillar was the lead of the multi-partner collaborative project. Specific tasks were performed by the partners base on their unique capabilities. The project team was selected to include leaders in the field of material development, processing, modeling, and material characterization. Specifically, industrial members include the suppliers Deloro Stellite and Powder Alloy Corporation., who provided the experimental alloys and who aided in the development of the costs for the alloys, the Missouri University of Science and Technology and Iowa State University, who provided help in the alloy development and material characterization, QuesTek Innovations, a small company specializing the microstructural modeling of materials, and the DOE laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and National Energy Technology Laboratory (Albany), who provided unique coating process capability and wear characterization testing. The technologies developed in this program are expected to yield energy savings of about 50% over existing technologies, or 110 trillion BTUs per year by 2020 when fully implemented. Primary applications by Caterpillar are to replace the surface of machine components which are currently carburized and heat treated with new cladding materials with double the wear life. The new cladding technologies will consume less energy than carburizing. Thus, nearly 50% energy savings can be expected as a result from elimination of the heat treat process and the reduce wear of the materials. Additionally, when technologies from this project are applied on titanium or other non-ferrous substrates to make lighter weight, more wear resistant, and more efficient structures, significant fuel savings can be realized. With the anticipated drastic reduction in cost for refining titanium-containing ores, the usage of titanium alloys in earthmoving and related machinery is expected to increase multiple folds in the next d

  13. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Orlando, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

  14. Coated Particle Fuel Development Lab (CPFDL) | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t zManufacturing:DOECoach ComplianceCoated Particle Fuel

  15. Coated Conductors Cylinder Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationin UrbanCityCoated Conductors Cylinder Ltd Jump to: navigation,

  16. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C oCNMSStaffCerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation

  17. Effect of coating time on corrosion behavior of electroless nickel-phosphorus coated powder metallurgy iron specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, D.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Dube, R.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powder metallurgy iron specimens with porosities in the range 0% to 2% were electroless coated with nickel-phosphorus alloy from baths containing sodium hypophosphite (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O). The effect of coating time on thickness and phosphorus content of the deposit was analyzed. The free corrosion potentials and corrosion rates of the coated specimens were obtained by the Tafel extrapolation method in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Corrosion rates of the coated specimens after heat treatment also were studied. The observed corrosion characteristics were explained by the mixed-potential theory.

  18. Integrated superhard and metallic coatings for MEMS : LDRD 57300 final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Maboudian, Roya (University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two major research areas pertinent to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials and material surfaces were explored and developed in this 5-year PECASE LDRD project carried out by Professor Roya Maboudian and her collaborators at the University of California at Berkeley. In the first research area, polycrystalline silicon carbide (poly-SiC) was developed as a structural material for MEMS. This material is potentially interesting for MEMS because compared to polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon), the structural material in Sandia National Laboratories' SUMMiTV process, it may exhibit high wear resistance, high temperature operation and a high Young's modulus to density ratio. Each of these characteristics may extend the usefulness of MEMS in Sandia National Laboratories' applications. For example, using polycrystalline silicon, wear is an important issue in microengines, temperature degradation is of concern in thermal actuators and the characteristics of resonators can be extended with the same lithography technology. Two methods of depositing poly-SiC from a 1,3-disilabutane source at 650 C to 800 C by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) were demonstrated. These include a blanket method in which the material is made entirely out of poly-SiC and a method to coat previously released and fabricated polysilicon MEMS. This deposition method is much simpler to use than previous methods such as high temperature LPCVD and atmospheric CVD. Other major processing issues that were surmounted in this LDRD with the poly-SiC film include etching, doping, and residual strain control. SiC is inert and as such is notoriously difficult to etch. Here, an HBr-based chemistry was demonstrated for the first time to make highly selective etching of SiC at high etch rates. Nitrogen was incorporated from an NH3 gas source, resulting in high conductivity films. Residual strain and strain gradient were shown to depend on deposition parameters, and can be made negative or positive. The tribology of poly-SiC was also investigated. Much improved release stiction and in-use stiction performance relative to polysilicon MEMS was found. Furthermore, wear of poly-SiC-coated MEMS was much reduced relative to uncoated polysilicon MEMS. A prototype baseline process flow now exists to produce poly-SiC in the Berkeley Sensor and Actuator (BSAC) facility. In the second project, galvanic deposition of metals onto polysilicon surfaces has been developed. The possible applications include reflective and optical coatings for optical MEMS, microswitches and microrelays for radio frequency MEMS and catalytic surfaces for microchemical reactors. In contrast to electroless deposition, galvanic displacement deposition requires no prior activation of the surface and is truly selective to silicon surfaces. This approach was used to deposit copper, gold and rhodium onto polysilicon MEMS. A method to study the adhesion of these metals to polysilicon was developed. It was also shown that the surfaces could be rendered hydrophobic by applying thiol-based self-assembled monolayers. This procedure also lowered their surface energy to {approx}3 {micro}J/m{sup 2}, consistent with monolayer-coated polysilicon MEMS.

  19. Self Healing Coatings | Polymer Coatings | Automotive Paints | Hea... http://living.oneindia.in/automobiles/auto-news/2008/polymer-coati... 1 of 2 2/6/09 10:29 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Self Healing Coatings | Polymer Coatings | Automotive Paints | Hea... http Ring #12;Self Healing Coatings | Polymer Coatings | Automotive Paints | Hea... http.gtglass.com Automotive Paints Guaranteed Color Match. Brush or Spray. In Stock Now. Order Today! www.Automotive

  20. Controlled, Rapid Deposition of Structured Coatings from Micro-and Nanoparticle Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Controlled, Rapid Deposition of Structured Coatings from Micro- and Nanoparticle Suspensions Brian Thin nanoparticle coatings can also impart decorative functions to surfaces, modify their wetting of micro- and nanoparticle coatings require the development of rapid, inexpensive, and easily controlled

  1. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

  2. Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design Superhard and low-friction coatings and surface...

  3. Silver/polystyrene-coated hollow glass waveguides for the transmission of terahertz radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    earlier work in- volved the deposition of Ag or Cu coatings inside polycarbonate tubing to form THz-coated hol- low polycarbonate waveguide. To reduce the loss, it is necessary to deposit a dielectric coating

  4. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings i i • Proceedings ofSymposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, St. Louis, MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  5. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.Symposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, St. Louis, MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  6. A study of density of states and ground states in hydrophobic-hydrophilic protein folding models by equi-energy sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, Samuel

    A study of density of states and ground states in hydrophobic-hydrophilic protein folding models June 2006 We propose an equi-energy EE sampling approach to study protein folding in the two a detailed study of the thermodynamics of HP protein folding, in particular, on the temperature dependence

  7. Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating comprises a first thermal barrier layer (40), and a second thermal barrier layer (30) with a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof, where B is selected from the group of elements consisting of Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof, where n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

  8. Thermal barrier coating having high phase stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) comprising a substrate (22) having a deposited ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (20) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (28) where the thermal barrier coating (20) consists essentially of a pyrochlore crystal structure having a chemical formula consisting essentially of A.sup.n+.sub.2-x B.sup.m+.sub.2+x O.sub.7-y, where A is selected from the group of elements selected from La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and mixtures thereof; where B is selected from the group of elements selected from Zr, Hf, Ti and mixtures thereof; n and m are the valence of A and B respectively, and for -0.5.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5, ##EQU1## and excluding the following combinations for x=0, y=0: A=La and B=Zr; A=La and B=Hf; A=Gd and B=Hf; and A=Yb and B=Ti.

  9. Full Scale Coated Fiber Neutron Detector Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. Reported here are the results of tests of the full-scale 6Li/ZnS(Ag)-coated non-scintillating plastic fibers option. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Innovative American Technology (IAT) and Saint Gobain, and is a follow-up report to an earlier one on a smaller prototype system.

  10. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  11. Composite ceria-coated aerogels and methods of making the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eyring, Edward M; Ernst, Richard D; Turpin, Gregory C; Dunn, Brian C

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceria-coated aerogels can include an aerogel support material having a stabilized ceria coating thereon. The ceria coating can be formed by solution or vapor deposition of alcogels or aerogels. Additional catalytic metal species can also be incorporated into the coating to form multi-metallic compounds having improved catalytic activity. Further, the ceria coated aerogels retain high surface areas at elevated temperatures. Thus, improvements in catalytic activity and thermal stability can be achieved using these ceria-coated composite aerogels.

  12. Edible Coating Development for Fresh-cut Cantaloupe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinon Gaspar, Mauricio

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    healthy diet. One of the latest alternatives to reduce the decay of quality brought by minimal processing of fruits is the development of edible coatings. Acting as a barrier to moisture and gases, the coatings are expected to extend the shelf...

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Polyelectrolyte-Coated Gold Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Christopher

    Preparation and Characterization of Polyelectrolyte-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Annie Dorris, Simona, Canada H3A 2K6 ReceiVed September 28, 2007. In Final Form: NoVember 15, 2007 Gold nanoparticles of 5 nm diameter, stabilized by 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP), were coated with poly- (sodium 4-styrene

  14. Nanoparticle-Coated Chemiresistors with CMOS Baseline Tracking and Cancellation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    Nanoparticle-Coated Chemiresistors with CMOS Baseline Tracking and Cancellation D. Rairigh, G Abstract-- Chemiresistors (CR) with thiolate-monolayer- protected gold nanoparticle (MPN) interfacial for multi-VOC monitoring. This paper presents a new baseline cancellation and tracking system for MPN-coated

  15. Compositional Variations in Vapor Deposited Samarium Zirconate Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    section of the engine (the combustor and high pressure turbine). The blades at the inlet of the high temperatures instead have relied on the development of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The thermal coat applied to the superalloy surface, (ii) a thermally grown oxide layer (TGO) that forms on the bond

  16. ALUMINOSILICATE-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    ALUMINOSILICATE-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS By JORGE ANTONIO JEREZ transport experiments; Dr. Barbara Williams and Jason Shira from University of Idaho for providing access-COATED SILICA SAND FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS Abstract by Jorge Antonio Jerez Briones, Ph.D. Washington

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF MAGNETRON SPUTTERED COATINGS BY PULSED EDDY CURRENT TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    CHARACTERIZATION OF MAGNETRON SPUTTERED COATINGS BY PULSED EDDY CURRENT TECHNIQUES Chris Mulligan1, Troy, NY 12180 ABSTRACT. A method that uses induced pulsed eddy currents for characterization of thick the correlation between coating properties, such as density and purity, and eddy current measured resistivity

  18. Edible Coating Development for Fresh-cut Cantaloupe 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinon Gaspar, Mauricio

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    healthy diet. One of the latest alternatives to reduce the decay of quality brought by minimal processing of fruits is the development of edible coatings. Acting as a barrier to moisture and gases, the coatings are expected to extend the shelf...

  19. Gold-coated nanoparticles for use in biotechnology applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berning, Douglas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Kraus, Jr., Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Atcher, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Schmidt, Jurgen G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles is disclosed and includes forming a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles within a suitable liquid, adding an amount of a reducible gold compound and a reducing agent to the suspension, and, maintaining the suspension for time sufficient to form gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

  20. Nondestructive optical characterization of chemical conversion coatings on aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schram, T.; De Laet, J.; Terryn, H. [Vrije Univ. Brussel, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy, Electrochemistry, and Materials Science

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromium phosphate conversion coatings on aluminum have been characterized with nondestructive optical techniques. Complementary vibrational spectroscopy techniques, i.e., Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, prove the presence of chromium phosphate as principal component in the coating. Additionally, aluminum oxide and indications for the presence of chromium oxide and aluminum fluoride are found. Reflection/absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) allows analysis of coatings as thin as 40 nm, while confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is limited to thicknesses above about 150 nm. Compared to RAIRS spectra, the interpretation of Raman spectra is easier due to the morphological characteristics of the conversion coatings, e.g., the coating thickness, using a simulation and regression procedure based on a two-layer optical model. The optical constants of the upper layer, which in a first approximation can be attributed to the chromium phosphate part of the conversion coating, can explain the greenish appearance of the thickest conversion coatings. A linear relationship exists between the coating thickness and the conversion time. An analogous linear relation exists between the conversion time and the peak areas of most of the absorption peaks in the RAIRS spectra.

  1. Visual and energy performance of switchable windows with antireflection coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project was to investigate how the visual appearance and energy performance of switchable or smart windows can be improved by using antireflective coatings. For this study clear float glass, low-e glass and electrochromic glass were treated with antireflection (AR) coatings. Such a coating considerably increases the transmittance of solar radiation in general and the visible transmittance in particular. For switchable glazing based on absorptive electrochromic layers in their dark state it is necessary to use a low-emissivity coating on the inner pane of a double glazed window in order to reject the absorbed heat. In principle all surfaces can be coated with AR coatings, and it was shown that a thin AR coating on the low-e surface neither influences the thermal emissivity nor the U-value of the glazing. The study showed that the use of AR coatings in switchable glazing significantly increases the light transmittance in the transparent state. It is believed that this is important for a high level of user acceptance of such windows. (author)

  2. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  3. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel.

  4. Effect of SOFC Interconnect-Coating Interactions on Coating Properties and Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey W. Fergus

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) provides good fuel flexibility which expands potential applications, but also creates materials challenges. One such challenge is the interconnect material, which was the focus of this project. In particular, the objective of the project was to understand the interaction between the interconnect alloy and ceramic coatings which are needed to minimize chromium volatilization and the associated chromium poisoning of the SOFC cathode. This project focused on coatings based on manganese cobalt oxide spinel phases (Mn,Co)3O4, which have been shown to be effective as coatings for ferritic stainless steel alloys. Analysis of diffusion couples was used to develop a model to describe the interaction between (Mn,Co)3O4 and Cr2O3 in which a two-layer reaction zone is formed. Both layers form the spinel structure, but the concentration gradients at the interface appear like a two-phase boundary suggesting that a miscibility gap is present in the spinel solid solution. A high-chromium spinel layer forms in contact with Cr2O3 and grows by diffusion of manganese and cobalt from the coating material to the Cr2O3. The effect of coating composition, including the addition of dopants, was evaluated and indicated that the reaction rate could be decreased with additions of iron, titanium, nickel and copper. Diffusion couples using stainless steel alloys (which form a chromia scale) had some similarities and some differences as compared to those with Cr2O3. The most notable difference was that the high-chromium spinel layer did not form in the diffusion couples with stainless steel alloys. This difference can be explained using the reaction model developed in this project. In particular, the chromia scale grows at the expense of the alloy, the high-chromia layer grows at the expense of chromia scale and the high-chromia layer is consumed by diffusion of chromium into the coating material. If the last process (dissolution of high-chromium spinel phase) is faster than the second process (formation of high-chromium spinel phase), the high-chromium layer may be consumed. The other important result of this mechanism is that it could result in a constant scale thickness if the scale forms at the same rate as it is consumed. This helps to explain the unexpected observation that the area specific resistance (ASR) of a SOFC with a (Mn,Co)3O4-coated ferritic stainless steel cathode becomes constant after long exposures. The project also evaluated the possibility of reducing the chromium content in a stainless steel alloy using experimental alloys. The conclusion of this evaluation is that at least 17-18% chromium is needed for good oxidation resistance is needed even if the alloy is coated with a spinel coating. Additional details on these findings are provided in a later section of this report and in the publications listed below.

  5. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sputtering for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings".AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta. Ga.Surfaces on Flat Plate Solar Collectors". Proceedings of 2nd

  6. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces on Flat Plate Solar Collectors". Proceedings of 2ndfor Depositing Solar Collector Coatings i i • Proceedings ofAES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta. Ga.

  7. Tribological degradation of fluorocarbon coated silicon microdevice surfaces in normal and sliding contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krim, Jacqueline

    Tribological degradation of fluorocarbon coated silicon microdevice surfaces in normal and sliding degradation of the contact interface of a fluorocarbon monolayer-coated polycrystalline silicon microdevice

  8. antireflection coated s-fap: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. In particular, multi-layer dielectric coatings, capable of filtering out the large...

  9. ADVANCED ELECTRON BEAM TECHNIQUES FOR METALLIC AND CERAMIC PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W. Fairbanks, "Advanced Gas Turbine Coatings for MinimallyResistance Coatings for Gas Turbine Airfoils, 11 Finaltion of Super alloys for Gas Turbine Engines, 11 J, Metals,

  10. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sputtering for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings".of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.Neutral Surfaces in Solar Collectors." Proceedings of ISES

  11. amorphous-metal thermal-spray coatings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal and Ceramic Coatings University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: corrosion- resistance deck coatings for some naval vessels. The hardness values for type 316L...

  12. Influence of insulating coating on aluminum wire explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Jian, E-mail: jxjawj@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Sheng, Liang; Zhao, Jizhen; Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Bodong [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Li, Xingwen [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single wire explosions are widely used in understanding the early stages of z-pinch experiments. This paper presents a serial of experiments conducted on the pulse power generator with ?1?kA peak current and ?10?ns rising time in Xi'an Jiao Tong University. Polyimide coated aluminum wires and uncoated ones were tested under three different voltages to analyze the effect of insulating coating. Experimental results showed that insulating coating can increase the energy deposition 10%?30% in aluminum wires by delaying the voltage collapse and raising the maximum load resistance. The substantial energy deposition resulted in about 20% faster expansion rates for coated wires. Experimental evidence that plasma channel shunts the current from the wire core was observed by streak camera and schlieren graphs. This paper also briefly discussed the influence of nonuniform coating on the morphology of wire expansion.

  13. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings, a composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kissel, David J; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  14. New capabilities and applications for electrophoretically deposited coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, D.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our primary purpose in this test is to provide a brief general description of a few applications of various electrophoretic systems which have been investigated and have found use in various coating applications at Sandia National Laboratories. Both organic and inorganic suspensions in aqueous and non-aqueous media have been considered in these studies. Applications include high voltage insulating dielectrics, thermally conductive/electrically insulating films, adherent lubricating films, uniform photoresist films, glass coatings, and fissile uranium oxide/carbon composite films for studies of nuclear powered lasers. More recently, we have become interested in the beneficial environmental aspects of being able to provide protective polymer coatings which reduce or minimize the use of organic solvents required by traditional spray coat processes. Important practical factors which relate to film uniformity, adhesion, and composition are related to unique coating or plating capabilities and applications. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. UV-Shifted Durable Silver Coating for Astronomical Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, N.L.; Wolfe, J.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silver has the highest reflectance of all of the metals, but it tarnishes in the presence of sulfides, chlorides, and oxides in the atmosphere. Also, the silver reflectance is very low at wavelengths below 400 nm making aluminum more desirable mirror coating for the UV region. They have found a way to prevent silver tarnishing by sandwiching the silver layer between two thin layers of NiCrN{sub x}, and to extend the metal's high reflectance down to 200 nm by depositing the (thin) Ag layer on top of Al. Thus, the uv is transmitted through the thin Ag layer below 400 nm wavelength, and is reflected from the Al layer underneath. This UV-shifted durable coating provides a valuable alternative to the aluminum coating for telescope mirror coatings where high throughput and durability are important considerations. The throughput for a telescope with, say, six reflections from silver coatings is (0.97){sup 6} = 83% compared to (0.92){sup 6} = 60% for aluminum coatings, or 28% less. The use of silver coatings allows more photons to be collected by primary mirror. Aluminum also has a reflectance dip at 850 nm caused by inter-band transitions which is eliminated by placing the thin Ag layer on top. This paper describes a non-tarnishing silver coating having high reflectance down into the UV region. The average specular reflectance is 70%-97% in the near-UV, 95%-99% in the visible region, and {ge} 99% in the infrared region covering the total wavelength range 200 nm to 10,000 nm. Figure 1 compares the reflectance of the UVHR-LLNL silver coating to bare silver and aluminum over-coated with magnesium fluoride over the wavelength range 300 nm to 2000 nm.

  16. Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic fatigue characteristics of silica fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA c Laboratory of Optical Fiber Technology, UMCS, Lublin, 20031, Poland, ABSTRACT Specialty optical fibers operating in harsh aerospace environments

  17. Title: Improving Jet Engine Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings via Reactive Element Addition to the Bond Coat Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Emily A.

    Title: Improving Jet Engine Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings via Reactive Element Addition engine turbine blades can shield the temperature to which the underlying superalloy is exposed modifications that should inhibit the failure of these jet engine turbine thermal barrier coatings. Research

  18. Correlation between AlPO4 nanoparticle coating thickness on LiCoO2 cathode and thermal stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Correlation between AlPO4 nanoparticle coating thickness on LiCoO2 cathode and thermal stability cathode. They coated the cathode with AlPO4 nanoparticles prepared from water [13]. The AlPO4 coating solÁ/gel coating method, this nanoparticle coating led to the easy control of the coating thickness

  19. High temperature coatings for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zheng, Xiaoci Maggie

    2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Coating for high temperature gas turbine components that include a MCrAlX phase, and an aluminum-rich phase, significantly increase oxidation and cracking resistance of the components, thereby increasing their useful life and reducing operating costs. The aluminum-rich phase includes aluminum at a higher concentration than aluminum concentration in the MCrAlX alloy, and an aluminum diffusion-retarding composition, which may include cobalt, nickel, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, rhodium, cadmium, indium, cerium, iron, chromium, tantalum, silicon, boron, carbon, titanium, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, and combinations thereof, and particularly nickel and/or rhenium. The aluminum-rich phase may be derived from a particulate aluminum composite that has a core comprising aluminum and a shell comprising the aluminum diffusion-retarding composition.

  20. Thermal barrier coatings for turbine components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Bethesda, MD); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine component, such as a turbine blade having a metal substrate (22) is coated with a metal MCrAlY alloy layer (24) and then a thermal barrier layer (20) selected from LaAlO.sub.3, NdAlO.sub.3, La.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7, Dy.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12, HO.sub.3 Al.sub.3 O.sub.12, ErAlO.sub.3, GdAlO.sub.3, Yb.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 O.sub.7, LaYbO.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7 or Y.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12.

  1. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

    2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

  2. Conformal coating of highly structured surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S.; Perkins, John; Berry, Joseph; Gennett, Thomas

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of applying a conformal coating to a highly structured substrate and devices made by the disclosed methods are disclosed. An example method includes the deposition of a substantially contiguous layer of a material upon a highly structured surface within a deposition process chamber. The highly structured surface may be associated with a substrate or another layer deposited on a substrate. The method includes depositing a material having an amorphous structure on the highly structured surface at a deposition pressure of equal to or less than about 3 mTorr. The method may also include removing a portion of the amorphous material deposited on selected surfaces and depositing additional amorphous material on the highly structured surface.

  3. Ceramic coating system or water oxidation environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for water oxidation of combustible materials in which during at least a part of the oxidation corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises titanium dioxide coated onto a titanium metal substrate. Such ceramic composites have been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of supercritical water oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases, and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 700.degree. C. The ceramic composites are also resistant to degradation mechanisms caused by thermal stresses.

  4. Wear Resistant Amorphous and Nanocomposite Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racek, O

    2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass forming materials (critical cooling rate <10{sup 4}K.s{sup -1}) are promising for their high corrosion and wear resistance. During rapid cooling, the materials form an amorphous structure that transforms to nanocrystalline during a process of devitrification. High hardness (HV 1690) can be achieved through a controlled crystallization. Thermal spray process has been used to apply coatings, which preserves the amorphous/nanocomposite structure due to a high cooling rate of the feedstock particles during the impact on a substrate. Wear properties have been studied with respect to process conditions and feedstock material properties. Application specific properties such as sliding wear resistance have been correlated with laboratory tests based on instrumented indentation and scratch tests.

  5. Adhesion hysteresis of silane coated microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

    2000-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed a new experimental approach for measuring hysteresis in the adhesion between micromachined surfaces. By accurately modeling the deformations in cantilever beams that are subject to combined interfacial adhesion and applied electrostatic forces, they determine adhesion energies for advancing and receding contacts. They draw on this new method to examine adhesion hysteresis for silane coated micromachined structures and found significant hysteresis for surfaces that were exposed to high relative humidity (RH) conditions. Atomic force microscopy studies of these surfaces showed spontaneous formation of agglomerates that they interpreted as silages that have irreversibly transformed from uniform surface layers at low RH to isolated vesicles at high RH. They used contact deformation models to show that the compliance of these vesicles could reasonably account for the adhesion hysteresis that develops at high RH as the surfaces are forced into contact by an externally applied load.

  6. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost, Kristy [Drexel University; Perez, Carlos O [ORNL; Mcdonough, John [Drexel University; Presser, Volker [ORNL; Heon, Min [Drexel University; Dion, Genevieve [Drexel University; Gogotsi, Yury [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at 0.25 A$g1 achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F$g1 on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to 0.43 F$cm2.

  7. Assessment of strippable coatings for decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strippable or temporary coatings were developed to assist in the decontamination of the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor. These coatings have become a viable option during the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. A variety of strippable coatings are available to D and D professionals. However, these products exhibit a wide range of performance criteria and uses. The Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) was commissioned to perform a 2-year investigation into strippable coatings. This investigation was divided into four parts: (1) identification of commercially available strippable coating products; (2) survey of D and D professionals to determine current uses of these coatings and performance criteria; (3) design and implementation of a non-radiological testing program to evaluate the physical properties of these coatings; and (4) design and implementation of a radiological testing program to determine decontamination factors and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Activities during fiscal year 1997 are described.

  8. Strippable coating used for the TMI-2 reactor building decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.W.; Dougherty, D.R.; Barletta, R.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strippable coating material used in the TMI-2 reactor building decontamination has been tested for Sr, Cs, and Co leachability, for radiation stability, thermal stability, and for resistance to biodegradation. It was also immersion tested in water, a water solution saturated with toluene and xylene, toluene, xylene, and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) cocktail. Leach testing resulted in all of the Cs and Co activity and most of the Sr activity being released from the coating in just a few days. Immersion resulted in swelling of the coating in all of the liquids tested. Gamma irradiation and heating of the coating did not produce any apparent physical changes in the coating to 1 x 10/sup 8/ rad and 100/sup 0/C; however, gas generation of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/ was observed in both cases. Biodegradation of the coating occurred readily in soils as indicated by monitoring CO/sub 2/ produced from microbial respiration. These test results indicate that strippable coating radwaste would have to be stabilized to meet the requirements for Class B waste outlined in 10 CFR Part 61 and the NRC Draft Technical Position on Waste Form.

  9. Initial Assessment of Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Prometheus Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Frederick

    2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Depending upon final design and materials selections, a variety of engineering solutions may need to be considered to avoid chemical degradation of components in a notional space nuclear power plant (SNPP). Coatings are one engineered approach that was considered. A comprehensive review of protective coating technology for various space-reactor structural materials is presented, including refractory metal alloys [molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), tantalum (Ta), and niobium (Nb)], nickel (Ni)-base superalloys, and silicon carbide (Sic). A summary description of some common deposition techniques is included. A literature survey identified coatings based on silicides or iridium/rhenium as the primary methods for environmental protection of refractory metal alloys. Modified aluminide coatings have been identified for superalloys and multilayer ceramic coatings for protection of Sic. All reviewed research focused on protecting structural materials from extreme temperatures in highly oxidizing conditions. Thermodynamic analyses indicate that some of these coatings may not be protective in the high-temperature, impure-He environment expected in a Prometheus reactor system. Further research is proposed to determine extensibility of these coating materials to less-oxidizing or neutral environments.

  10. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

  11. CHF Enhancement by Vessel Coating for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan-Bill Cheung; Joy L. Rempe

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-vessel retention (IVR) is a key severe accident management (SAM) strategy that has been adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). One viable means for IVR is the method of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) by flooding of the reactor cavity during a severe accident. As part of a joint Korean – United States International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (K-INERI), an experimental study has been conducted to investigate the viability of using an appropriate vessel coating to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) limits during ERVC. Toward this end, transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB (Subscale Boundary Layer Boiling) facility at Penn State using test vessels with micro-porous aluminum coatings. Local boiling curves and CHF limits were obtained in these experiments. When compared to the corresponding data without coatings, substantial enhancement in the local CHF limits for the case with surface coatings was observed. Results of the steady state boiling experiments showed that micro-porous aluminum coatings were very durable. Even after many cycles of steady state boiling, the vessel coatings remained rather intact, with no apparent changes in color or structure. Moreover, the heat transfer performance of the coatings was found to be highly desirable with an appreciable CHF enhancement in all locations on the vessel outer surface but with very little effect of aging.

  12. Proceedings of the 1987 coatings for advanced heat engines workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Workshop was conducted to enhance communication among those involved in coating development for improved heat engine performance and durability. We were fortunate to have Bill Goward review the steady progress and problems encountered along the way in the use of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in aircraft gas turbine engines. Navy contractors discussed their work toward the elusive goal of qualifying TBC for turbine airfoil applications. In the diesel community, Caterpillar and Cummins are developing TBC for combustion chamber components as part of the low heat rejection diesel engine concept. The diesel engine TBC work is based on gas turbine technology with a goal of more than twice the thickness used on gas turbine engine components. Adoption of TBC in production for diesel engines could justify a new generation of plasma spray coating equipment. Increasing interests in tribology were evident in this Workshop. Coatings have a significant role in reducing friction and wear under greater mechanical loadings at higher temperatures. The emergence of a high temperature synthetic lubricant could have an enormous impact on diesel engine design and operating conditions. The proven coating processes such as plasma spray, electron-beam physical vapor deposition, sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition have shown enhanced capabilities, particularly with microprocessor controls. Also, the newer coating schemes such as ion implantation and cathodic arc are demonstrating intriguing potential for engine applications. Coatings will play an expanding role in higher efficiency, more durable heat engines.

  13. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  14. Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Energy Efficient Heat Engines Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katherine Faber

    2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This program aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of the microstructural, mechanical, and chemical properties of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based coatings for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (AS800) substrates and optimize such coatings for environmental barriers. The program consisted of three tasks: processing of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings, phase and microstructural development, and life-limiting phenomena. Northwestern University formed a cross-functional team with Lehigh University, Honeywell Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major accomplishments are: (1) Conditions for the plasma spray of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and its alloys were optimized to provide maximum density and thickness. (2) Adherent small particle plasma spray coatings of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be routinely prepared. (3) Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be stabilized against its disruptive phase transformation to 1400 C by the addition of one or more oxides of Al, La, and/or Nb. (4) Residual stresses in the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} coatings were measured using X-rays and changed with thermal exposure. (5) Properly doped coatings are more resistant against thermal cycling than undoped coatings, and can be cycled many thousand times without spallation. (6) Water vapor testing in the ORNL Keiser Rig of adherent coatings showed that undoped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} is not an effective barrier at preventing chemical changes to the AS800. (7) Limited water vapor testing of doped and adherent coatings, which had successfully survived many thermal cycles, showed that in the water vapor environment, de-cohesion may occur.

  15. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, W.; Chu, C.Y.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor is disclosed. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor. 8 figs.

  16. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 1: Pre-coating monitoring and fresh coating results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. The partnership of these interests is secured through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), in this case between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, the manager of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and ThermShield International, Ltd., the manufacturer of the technology. This is the first volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. This volume describes the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. By including results from roofs at Tyndall AFB and from an outdoor test facility at the BTC, the data cover the range from poorly insulated to well-insulated roofs and two kinds of radiation control coatings on various roof membranes.

  17. Simulations of HIV capsid protein dimerization reveal the effect of chemistry and topography on the mechanism of hydrophobic protein association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Naiyin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work has shown that the hydrophobic protein surfaces in aqueous solution sit near a drying transition. The tendency for these surfaces to expel water from their vicinity leads to self assembly of macromolecular complexes. In this article we show with a realistic model for a biologically pertinent system how this phenomenon appears at the molecular level. We focus on the association of the C-terminal domain (CA-C) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) capsid protein. By combining all-atom simulations with specialized sampling techniques we measure the water density distribution during the approach of two CA-C proteins as a function of separation and amino acid sequence in the interfacial region. The simulations demonstrate that CA-C protein-protein interactions sit at the edge of a dewetting transition and that this mesoscopic manifestation of the underlying liquid-vapor phase transition can be readily manipulated by biology or protein engineering to significantly affect association behavior. While ...

  18. The role of material flexibility on the drying transition of water between hydrophobic objects: A thermodynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altabet, Y. Elia; Debenedetti, Pablo G., E-mail: pdebene@princeton.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid water confined between hydrophobic objects of sufficient size becomes metastable with respect to its vapor at separations smaller than a critical drying distance. Macroscopic thermodynamic arguments predicting this distance have been restricted to the limit of perfectly rigid confining materials. However, no material is perfectly rigid and it is of interest to account for this fact in the thermodynamic analysis. We present a theory that combines the current macroscopic theory with the thermodynamics of elasticity to derive an expression for the critical drying distance for liquids confined between flexible materials. The resulting expression is the sum of the well-known drying distance for perfectly rigid confining materials and a new term that accounts for flexibility. Thermodynamic arguments show that this new term is necessarily positive, meaning that flexibility increases the critical drying distance. To study the expected magnitude and scaling behavior of the flexible term, we consider the specific case of water and present an example of drying between thin square elastic plates that are simply supported along two opposite edges and free at the remaining two. We find that the flexible term can be the same order of magnitude or greater than the rigid solution for materials of biological interest at ambient conditions. In addition, we find that when the rigid solution scales with the characteristic size of the immersed objects, the flexible term is independent of size and vice versa. Thus, the scaling behavior of the overall drying distance will depend on the relative weights of the rigid and flexible contributions.

  19. Development of a Nanotracer Method to Characterize Nanoparticle Coatings Jeffrey A. Geuther, Michael Z. Podowski*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Development of a Nanotracer Method to Characterize Nanoparticle Coatings Jeffrey A. Geuther with the count rate from the coated slides, we were able to determine the mass of nanoparticles in the coating nanoparticle mass by 100 cm2 , the approximate coated area used for detection.) This lower limit of surface

  20. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600877 Nanoparticle Coating for Advanced Optical, Mechanical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven M.

    DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200600877 Nanoparticle Coating for Advanced Optical, Mechanical and Rheological such particles are coated with ultrathin inor- ganic films. The system composed by titania nanoparticles coat- ed are not affected. Nanoparticle coating could also be used to improve the mi- crostructure and mechanical properties

  1. Graphene coating makes carbon nanotube aerogels superelastic and resistant to fatigue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    Graphene coating makes carbon nanotube aerogels superelastic and resistant to fatigue Kyu Hun Kim one and five layers of graphene nanoplates. The graphene-coated aerogel exhibits no change , but collapse under stress15 . We fabricated graphene-coated single-walled carbon nanotube aerogels by coating

  2. Failure Modes of Vacuum Plasma Spray Tungsten Coating Created on Carbon Fibre Composites under Thermal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Failure Modes of Vacuum Plasma Spray Tungsten Coating Created on Carbon Fibre Composites under Thermal Loads

  3. TiN-Coating Effects on Stainless Steel Tribological Behavior Under Dry and Lubricated Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    properties of magnetron sputtered titanium nitride coating on 316L steel, sliding against Si3N4 ceramic ball microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. TiN coatings and 316L stainless steel had better tribological, titanium nitride coating 1. Introduction Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings deposited by physical vapor

  4. Preparation of high-strength nanometer scale twinned coating and foil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xinghang (Los Alamos, NM); Misra, Amit (Los Alamos, NM); Nastasi, Michael A. (Santa Fe, NM); Hoagland, Richard G. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Very high strength single phase stainless steel coating has been prepared by magnetron sputtering onto a substrate. The coating has a unique microstructure of nanometer spaced twins that are parallel to each other and to the substrate surface. For cases where the coating and substrate do not bind strongly, the coating can be peeled off to provide foil.

  5. Preparation of high temperature superconducting coated wires by dipping and post annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provenzano, V.; Singh, A.K.; Imam, M.A.; Tritt, T.M.

    1992-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for coating a film on a wire substrate, it comprises: melting a superconducting metal oxide mixture in a crucible to form a melt; coating the substrate with a diffusion barrier; dipping the coated wire substrate into the melt; cooling the coated wire substrate at a rate sufficiently slow to avoid thermal shock and hot cracking; and post-annealing the cooled, coated wire substrate to relieve thermal stresses in the coating, whereupon the superconducting metal-oxide mixture forms a perovskite coating upon the wire substrate.

  6. Coated graphite articles useful in metallurgical processes and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Bird, Eugene L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphite articles including crucibles and molds used in metallurgical processes involving the melting and the handling of molten metals and alloys that are reactive with carbon when in a molten state and at process temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are provided with a multiple-layer coating for inhibiting carbon diffusion from the graphite into the molten metal or alloys. The coating is provided by a first coating increment of a carbide-forming metal on selected surfaces of the graphite, a second coating increment of a carbide forming metal and a refractory metal oxide, and a third coating increment of a refractory metal oxide. The second coating increment provides thermal shock absorbing characteristics to prevent delamination of the coating during temperature cycling. A wash coat of unstabilized zirconia or titanium nitride can be applied onto the third coating increment to facilitate release of melts from the coating.

  7. Efficient "on-the-fly" calculation of Raman spectra from \\textit{ab-initio} molecular dynamics: Application to hydrophobic/hydrophilic solutes in bulk water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partovi-Azar, Pouya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a computational method to accurately calculate Raman spectra from first principles with an at least one order of magnitude higher efficiency. This scheme thus allows to routinely calculate finite-temperature Raman spectra "on-the-fly" by means of \\textit{ab-initio} molecular dynamics simulations. To demonstrate the predictive power of this approach we investigate the effect of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in water solution on the infrared and Raman spectra.

  8. Photodegradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene coatings for liquid argon detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James Poyner

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have ...

  9. MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MOF); the structure was determined at Beamline 11.3.1. Coating a blue light-emitting diode (LED) with this compound readily generates white light with high luminous...

  10. Oxidation-resistant interfacial coatings for continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugham, S.; Liaw, P.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Stinton, D.P.; Bleier, A.; Besmann, T.M.; Lara-Curzio, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rebillat, F. [LCTS, Pessac (France)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing an oxidation-resistant interfacial coating for continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) continues to be a major challenge. CFCCs` mechanical behavior are influenced by the interfacial bonding characteristics between the fiber and the matrix. Finite element modeling studies suggest that a low-modulus interfacial coating material will be effective in reducing the residual thermal stresses that are generated upon cooling from processing temperatures. Nicalon/SiC composites with carbon, alumina and mullite interfacial coatings were fabricated with the SiC matrix deposited using a forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration process. Composites with mullite interfacial coatings exhibited considerable fiber pull-out even after oxidation and have potential as a composite system.

  11. Oxidation resistant coatings for ceramic matrix composite components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaubert, V.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hirschfeld, D.A. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion resistant Ca{sub 0.6}Mg{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} (CMZP) and Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} (CS-50) coatings for fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite heat exchanger tubes have been developed. Aqueous slurries of both oxides were prepared with high solids loading. One coating process consisted of dipping the samples in a slip. A tape casting process has also been created that produced relatively thin and dense coatings covering a large area. A processing technique was developed, utilizing a pre-sintering step, which produced coatings with minimal cracking.

  12. Impact of graphene coating on the atom-plate interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the recently proposed quantum electrodynamical formalism, we calculate the Casimir-Polder free energies and forces between the ground state atoms of Rb, Na, Cs and He${}^{\\ast}$ and the plates made of Au, Si, sapphire and fused silica coated with a graphene sheet. It is shown that the graphene coating has no effect on the Casimir-Polder interaction for metallic plates, but influences significantly for plates made of dielectric materials. The influence of graphene coating increases with decreasing static dielectric permittivity of the plate material and the characteristic frequency of an atomic dynamic polarizability. Simple analytic expressions for the classical limit of the Casimir-Polder free energy and force between an atom and a graphene-coated plate are obtained. From the comparison with the results of numerical computations, the application region of these expressions is determined.

  13. Protective coating for alumina-silicon carbide whisker composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic composites formed of an alumina matrix reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers homogenously dispersed therein are provided with a protective coating for preventing fracture strength degradation of the composite by oxidation during exposure to high temperatures in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coating prevents oxidation of the silicon carbide whiskers within the matrix by sealing off the exterior of the matrix so as to prevent oxygen transport into the interior of the matrix. The coating is formed of mullite or mullite plus silicon oxide and alumina and is formed in place by heating the composite in air to a temperature greater than 1200.degree. C. This coating is less than about 100 microns thick and adequately protects the underlying composite from fracture strength degradation due to oxidation.

  14. A method of fabricating coated splices for oilfield applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Killian, Lauren A. (Lauren Ashley), 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is needed to make a critical splice for a downhole tool in the petroleum industry. The goal is to connect two wires, cover the connection with a protective coating, and then assess the integrity of the finished ...

  15. al coated a2: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 AlTiN layer effect on mechanical properties of Ti-doped diamond-like carbon composite coatings Engineering Websites Summary: AlTiN layer effect on mechanical properties...

  16. adhesive protein coatings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings Materials Science Websites Summary: to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation...

  17. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance.

  18. Strategies for incorporating functional block copolymers into polyelectrolyte multilayer coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Wui Siew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the creation of thin film responsive hydrogel coatings via Layer-by Layer assembly (LbL) of temperature (T) responsive block copolymer - polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs). First, the LbL conditions ...

  19. Project Profile: Cleanable and Hardcoat Coatings for Increased...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymeric Mirrors 3M logo 3M, under the CSP R&D FOA, is developing optical coatings for solar mirrors that are durable, easily maintained, and more cost-effective. Approach Diagram...

  20. amorphous carbon coatings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    G; Hopf, C; Schwarz-Selinger, T; Jacob, W 2013-01-01 54 J Mater Sci (2006) 41:72327239 7232 Squeeze Infiltration Processing of Nickel Coated Carbon Fiber Reinforced...

  1. High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development for Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    task (e.g., sputtered multilayer, sel 0.916). Milestone (Task 1.3) Sandia: Complete SAND report documenting the system-level metric for candidate selective surface coating and...

  2. Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugel, H W; Bell, M G; Bush, C; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaita, R; Leblanc, B; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Mansfield, D; Mueller, D; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Sabbagh, S; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Zakharov, L

    2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium coatings on the graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) in NSTX are being investigated as a tool for density profile control and reducing the recycling of hydrogen isotopes. Repeated lithium pellet injection into Center Stack Limited and Lower Single Null Ohmic Helium Discharges were used to coat graphite surfaces that had been pre-conditioned with Ohmic Helium Discharges of the same shape to reduce their contribution to hydrogen isotope recycling. The following deuterium NBI reference discharges exhibited a reduction in density by a factor of about 3 for limited and 2 for diverted plasmas respectively, and peaked density profiles. Recently, a lithium evaporator has been used to apply thin coatings on conditioned and unconditioned PFCs. Effects on the plasma density and the impurities were obtained by pre-conditioning the PFCs with ohmic helium discharges, and performing the first deuterium NBI discharge as soon as possible after applying the lithium coating.

  3. A novel approach to antireflection coating using planar metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhou, Jiangfeng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel antireflection coating using planar metamaterials. It dramatically reduces the reflectance and enhances the transmittance over a wide range of incidence angles for both polarizations near the designed wavelength.

  4. Global optimization of silicon photovoltaic cell front coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghebrebrhan, Michael

    The front-coating (FC) of a solar cell controls its efficiency, determining admission of light into the absorbing material and potentially trapping light to enhance thin absorbers. Single-layer FC designs are well known, ...

  5. Theoretical analysis and experiments on antireflection coatings for laser diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Kai Jian

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEIEORETICAL 'NAI. YSIS AND EXPERIMENTS ON ANTIBEFLECTION COATINGS FOR LASER DIODES A Thesis by KAI 3IAN CHIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement, for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 19SI Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THEORETICAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTS ON ANTIREFLECTION COATINGS FOR. LASER DIODES A Thesis KAI JIAN CHIN Approved as to style and content by: Henry . Taylor (Chairman of Committee...

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  7. Theoretical analysis and experiments on antireflection coatings for laser diodes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Kai Jian

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEIEORETICAL 'NAI. YSIS AND EXPERIMENTS ON ANTIBEFLECTION COATINGS FOR LASER DIODES A Thesis by KAI 3IAN CHIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement, for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 19SI Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THEORETICAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTS ON ANTIREFLECTION COATINGS FOR. LASER DIODES A Thesis KAI JIAN CHIN Approved as to style and content by: Henry . Taylor (Chairman of Committee...

  8. Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL] [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL] [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings.

  9. Porous coatings from wire mesh for bone implants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sump, Kenneth R. (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of coating areas of bone implant elements and the resulting implant having a porous coating are described. Preselected surface areas are covered by a preform made from continuous woven lengths of wire. The preform is compressed and heated to assure that diffusion bonding occurs between the wire surfaces and between the surface boundaries of the implant element and the wire surfaces in contact with it. Porosity is achieved by control of the resulting voids between the bonded wire portions.

  10. Abrasion resistant coating and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sordelet, Daniel J. (Ames, IA); Besser, Matthew F. (Urbandale, IA)

    2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An abrasion resistant coating is created by adding a ductile phase to a brittle matrix phase during spray coating where an Al--Cu--Fe quasicrystalline phase (brittle matrix) and an FeAl intermetallic (ductile phase) are combined. This composite coating produces a coating mostly of quasicrystal phase and an inter-splat layer of the FeAl phase to help reduce porosity and cracking within the coating. Coatings are prepared by plasma spraying unblended and blended quasicrystal and intermetallic powders. The blended powders contain 1, 5, 10 and 20 volume percent of the intermetallic powders. The unblended powders are either 100 volume percent quasicrystalline or 100 volume percent intermetallic; these unblended powders were studied for comparison to the others. Sufficient ductile phase should be added to the brittle matrix to transform abrasive wear mode from brittle fracture to plastic deformation, while at the same time the hardness of the composite should not be reduced below that of the original brittle phase material.

  11. POLYETHERSULFONE COATING FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF STEEL IN GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA, T.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emphasis was directed toward evaluating the usefulness of a polyethersulfone (PES)-dissolved N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent precursor as a low-temperature film-forming anti-corrosion coating for carbon steel in simulated geothermal environments at brine temperatures up to 300 C. A {approx} 75 {micro}m thick PES coating performed well in protecting the steel against corrosion in brine at 200 C. However, at {>=} 250 C, the PES underwent severe hydrothermal oxidation that caused the cleavage of sulfone- and ether-linkages, and the opening of phenyl rings. These, in turn, led to sulfone {yields} benzosulfonic acid and ether {yields} benzophenol-type oxidation derivative transformations, and the formation of carbonyl-attached open rings, thereby resulting in the incorporation of the functional groups, hydroxyl and carbonyl, into the coating. The presence of these functional groups raised concerns about the diminutions in water-shedding and water-repellent properties that are important properties of the anti-corrosion coatings; such changes were reflected in an enhancement of the magnitude of susceptibility of the coatings surfaces to moisture. Consequently, the disintegration of the PES structure by hydrothermal oxidation was detrimental to the maximum efficacy of the coating in protecting the steel against corrosion, allowing the corrosive electrolytes to infiltrate easily through it.

  12. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

  13. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L. (5139 Fox Park Dr., Fairview, PA 16415); Giammarise, Anthony W. (527 Lincoln Ave., Erie, PA 16505)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  14. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

  15. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  16. Coating system to permit direct brazing of ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a ceramic component that enables direct brazing using a non-active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a ceramic component to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by using this brazing method. The ceramic can be high purity alumina. The method comprises applying a first coating of a silicon-bearing oxide material (e.g. silicon dioxide or mullite (3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.2SiO.sub.2) to the ceramic. Next, a thin coating of active metal (e.g. Ti or V) is applied. Finally, a thicker coating of a non-active metal (e.g. Au or Cu) is applied. The coatings can be applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Alternatively, the active and non-active metals can be co-deposited (e.g. by sputtering a target made of mullite). After all of the coatings have been applied, the ceramic can be fired at a high temperature in a non-oxidizing environment to promote diffusion, and to enhance bonding of the coatings to the substrate. After firing, the metallized ceramic component can be brazed to other components using a conventional non-active braze alloy. Alternatively, the firing and brazing steps can be combined into a single step. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF COATINGS FOR FUTURE POWER GENERATION TURBINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin, Maryanne; Klotz, K.; McMordie, B.; Gleeson, B.; Zhu, D.; Warnes, B.; Kang, B.; Tannenbaum, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NETL-Regional University Alliance (RUA) continues to advance technology development critical to turbine manufacturer efforts for achieving DOE Fossil Energy (FE's) Advanced Turbine Program Goals. In conjunction with NETL, Coatings for Industry (CFI), the University of Pittsburgh, NASA GRC, and Corrosion Control Inc., efforts have been focused on development of composite thermal barrier coating (TBC) architectures that consist of an extreme temperature coating, a commercially applied 7-8 YSZ TBC, a reduced cost bond coat, and a diffusion barrier coating that are applied to nickel-based superalloys or single crystal airfoil substrate materials for use at temperatures >1450 C (> 2640 F). Additionally, construction of a unique, high temperature ({approx}1100 C; {approx}2010 F), bench-scale, micro-indentation, nondestructive (NDE) test facility at West Virginia University (WVU) was completed to experimentally address in-situ changes in TBC stiffness during extended cyclic oxidation exposure of coated single crystal coupons in air or steam containing environments. The efforts and technical accomplishments in these areas are presented in the following sections of this paper.

  18. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  19. The rheology of aqueous solutions of ethyl hydroxy-ethyl cellulose (EHEC) and its hydrophobically modified analogue (hmEHEC): extensional flow response in capillary break-up, jetting (ROJER) and in a cross-slot extensional rheometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Vivek

    Cellulose derivatives containing associating hydrophobic groups along their hydrophilic backbone are used as rheology modifiers in the formulation of water-based spray paints, medicinal sprays, cosmetics and printable inks. ...

  20. Polyethylene passive samplers for measuring hydrophobic organic chemical concentrations in sediment porewaters and their use in predicting bioaccumulation in soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) from sites near Boston, MA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Loretta A. (Loretta Ana)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine the hazards posed by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in sediment beds, the following areas of research were explored: (1) the use of polyethylene (PE) sheets as passive sampling devices in ...