Sample records for hydrological resistivity influenced

  1. Weather Radar and Hydrology 1 Influence of rainfall spatial variability on hydrological modelling: a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Weather Radar and Hydrology 1 Influence of rainfall spatial variability on hydrological modelling variability as well as characteristics and hydrological behavior of catchments, we have proceeded simulator and a distributed hydrological model (with four production functions and a distributed transfer

  2. Representing the influence of subgrid topography on hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, L.R.; Ghan, S.J.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of the impact of global climate change on land surface hydrology require climate information on scales far smaller than those explicitly resolved by global climate models of today and the foreseeable future. To bridge the gap between what is required and what is resolved, we propose a subgrid-scale parameterization of the influence of topography on clouds, precipitation, and land surface hydrology. The parameterization represents subgrid variations in surface elevation in terms of discrete elevation classes. Separate cloud and surface processes are calculated for each elevation class. The simulated surface temperature, precipitation, snowpack, and soil moisture for each elevation class can then be distributed according to the spatial distribution of surface elevation within each grid cell. The scheme is being applied to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s climate version of the Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model. Validation is being addressed by driving the model with observed lateral boundary conditions for the Pacific Northwest and comparing with surface observations. Preliminary results from the simulation will be presented.

  3. Hydrology: The Influence of Climate Change and/or Land Cover/Use Change Steven R. Fassnacht, Colorado State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrology: The Influence of Climate Change and/or Land Cover/Use Change Steven R. Fassnacht. Precipitation and temperature are the main drivers of hydrological systems, which influence water availability in those temperatures has decreased. Hydrologic changes are occurring due to a changing climate. For snow

  4. The influence of subglacial hydrology on the flow of West Antarctic ice streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Narelle Paula Marie

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Subglacial hydrology is known to influence the flow of ice. However, difficulty in accessing the base of large ice sheets has made determining the interaction between ice streams, basal sediment and water difficult to discern. The aim of this thesis...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF MAJOR DAMS ON HYDROLOGY THROUGH THE DRAINAGE NETWORK OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER BASIN, CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Michael

    THE INFLUENCE OF MAJOR DAMS ON HYDROLOGY THROUGH THE DRAINAGE NETWORK OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER BASIN downstream of major dams and confluences in the Sacramento River basin in California, USA. Streamflow data from 10 gauging stations downstream of major dams were divided into hydrologic series corresponding

  6. Influence of hydrological seasonality on sandbank benthos: algal biomass and shrimp abundance in a large neotropical river

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montoya Ceballos, Jose Vicente

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, I examined the influence of hydrological seasonality on spatiotemporal variation of algal biomass and shrimp abundance on sandbanks of the Cinaruco River in southwestern Venezuela. Seasonal variations of abiotic and biotic variables...

  7. Validation study of a multidimensional hydrologic model of rainfall, and the simulation of orographic influences, using data from Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Hiraldo, Roberto

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Meteorology VALIDATION STUDY OF A MULTIDIMENSIONAL HYDROLOGIC MODEL OF RAINFALL, AND THE SIMULATION OF OROGRAPHIC INFLUENCES, USING... University of P. R. Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Dennis M. Driscoll Dr. Juan B. Valdes The main purpose of this research was validate an existing multidimensional stochastic hydrologic model of precipitation, which attempts to characterize...

  8. Influence of woody dominated rangelands on site hydrology and herbaceous production, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hester, Justin Wayne

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Station at Sonora, Texas. The objective was to characterize interception by juniper canopy and litter, and to determine the redistributive effects of throughfall and stemflow on site hydrology. Based on a 10-year distribution pattern of rainfall, 66...

  9. Influence of soil physicochemical properties on hydrology and restoration response in Carolina Bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, C. D.; Andrews, D.M.; Kolka, R.K.

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carolina Bays are shallow depression wetlands found in the southeast US that have been severely altered by human activity. The need to restore these complex and diverse systems is well established, but our understanding of basic wetland hydrological processes is limited, hence our ability to predict the need for and/or assess the effectiveness of bay restorations is hindered. Differing physicochemical properties of soils within bay interiors may control bay hydrology. However, previous efforts to establish relationships between soil characteristics and bay hydrology have been inconclusive and the question still remains as to why some bays are ponded throughout the year while others, within a similar landscape unit, are predominantly dry. An assessment of soil and hydrologic characteristics was initiated in restored and unrestored control bays to determine if a relationship exists. Soil morphology was described and permanent monitoring wells were installed at each site. Soil samples were collected by horizon to a depth of 2 meters at the topographic center of each site, and then analyzed. After three years, multiple regression analysis (stepwise backward and forward) was used to establish relationships between the soil physicochemical characteristics and bay hydroperiod in the undisturbed sites. Results from surface soils indicated that exchangeable acidity (EA) was the best single predictor of hydrology. The best double predictor was EA and total N and EA, total N and total C as the best triple predictor. A significant relationship (r2 = 0.96) between hydroperiod and clay content in the argillic horizon (Bt) was also observed. Subsequently, this relationship was utilized to predict hydrologic response using pre-restoration hydroperiod data. The model accurately identified sites that did not need hydrologic restoration (too wet), and effectively showed sites that responded well to restoration activities.

  10. Influence of deterministic geologic trends on spatial variability of hydrologic properties in volcanic tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States); Chornack, M.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Istok, J.D. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Fling, L.E. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrologic properties have been measured on outcrop samples taken from a detailed, two-dimension grid covering a 1.4 km outcrop exposure of the 10-m thick non-welded-to-welded, shardy base microstratigraphic unit of the Tiva Canyon Member of the Miocene Paintbrush Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These data allow quantification of spatial trends in rock matrix properties that exist in this important hydrologic unit. Geologic investigation, combined with statistical and geostatistical analyses of the numerical data, indicates that spatial variability of matrix properties is related to deterministic geologic processes that operated throughout the region. Linear vertical trends in hydrologic properties are strongly developed in the shardy base microstratigraphic unit, and they are more accurately modeled using the concept of a thickness-normalized stratigraphic elevation within the unit, rather than absolute elevation. Hydrologic properties appear to be correlated over distances of 0.25 to 0.3 of the unit thickness after removing the deterministic vertical trend. The use of stratigraphic elevation allows scaling of identified trends by unit thickness which may be of particular importance in a basal, topography-blanketing unit such as this one. Horizontal changes in hydrologic properties do not appear to form obvious trends within the limited lateral geographic extent of the ash-flow environment that was examined. Matrix properties appear to be correlated horizontally over distances between 100 and 400 m. The existence and quantitative description of these trends and patterns of vertical spatial continuity should increase confidence in models of hydrologic properties and groundwater flow in this area that may be constructed to support the design of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  11. Influence of samaria doping on the resistance of ceria thin films...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doping on the resistance of ceria thin films and its implications to the planar oxygen sensing devices. Influence of samaria doping on the resistance of ceria thin films and...

  12. Influence of surface roughness and waviness upon thermal contact resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yovanovich, M. Michael

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work deals with the phenomenon of thermal resistance between contacting solids. Attention is directed towards contiguous solids possessing both surface roughness and waviness. When two such surfaces are brought together ...

  13. Influence of transient flow and solder bump resistance on underfill process , W.J. Zhangb,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, WJ "Chris"

    . In the study for a capillary flow within a tube reported by Newman [12], for a horizontal capillary flowU N C O R R EC TED PR O O F Influence of transient flow and solder bump resistance on underfill The underfill flow process is one of the important steps in Microsystems technology. One of the best known

  14. Influence of parasitic resistances on the mismatch relative power loss of solar cell modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    689 Influence of parasitic resistances on the mismatch relative power loss of solar cell modules P, which originate from the manufacturing process. In order to enhance the array output power, the cells, to a limited extent, for mmRPL of a parallel-connected module. 1. Introduction. Loss of output power from

  15. The influence of Reynolds numbers on resistance properties of jet pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, G. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); State Key laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (China)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Jet pumps are widely used in thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines and pulse tube cryocoolers to eliminate the effect of Gedeon streaming. The resistance properties of jet pumps are principally influenced by their structures and flow regimes which are always characterized by Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the jet pump of which cross section contracts abruptly is selected as our research subject. Based on linear thermoacoustic theory, a CFD model is built and the oscillating flow of the working gas is simulated and analyzed with different Reynolds numbers in the jet pump. According to the calculations, the influence of different structures and Reynolds numbers on the resistance properties of the jet pump are analyzed and presented. The results show that Reynolds numbers have a great influence on the resistance properties of jet pumps and some empirical formulas which are widely used are unsuitable for oscillating flow with small Reynolds numbers. This paper provides a more comprehensive understanding on resistance properties of jet pumps with oscillating flow and is significant for the design of jet pumps in practical thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.

  16. A quantitative evaluation of effective shale content and its influence on electrical resistivity and permeability of reservoir rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Parayath Eravi Bhaskara

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE SHALE CONTENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND PERMEABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCKS A Thesis By PARAYATH E. B. MENON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial... fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, f965 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE SHALE CONTENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND PERMEABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCKS...

  17. Influence of nitrogen in the shielding gas on corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, R.B.; Kamat, H.S.; Ghosal, S.K.; De, P.K.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of nitrogen in shielding gas on the corrosion resistance of welds of a duplex stainless steel (grade U-50), obtained by gas tungsten arc (GTA) with filler wire, autogenous GTA (bead-on-plate), electron beam welding (EBW), and microplasma techniques, has been evaluated in chloride solutions at 30 C. Pitting attack has been observed in GTA, electron beam welding, and microplasma welds when welding has been carried out using pure argon as the shielding gas. Gas tungsten arc welding with 5 to 10% nitrogen and 90 to 95% argon, as the shielding gas, has been found to result in an improved pitting corrosion resistance of the weldments of this steel. However, the resistance of pitting of autogenous welds (bead-on-plate) obtained in pure argon as the shielding gas has been observed to remain unaffected. Microscopic examination, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and x-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the presence of nitrogen in the shielding gas in the GTA welds not only modifies the microstructure and the austenite to ferrite ratio but also results in a nearly uniform distribution of the various alloying elements, for example, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum among the constituent phases, which are responsible for improved resistance to pitting corrosion.

  18. Office of Hydrologic Development Hydrology Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    April 2010 Office of Hydrologic Development Hydrology Laboratory Strategic Science Plan #12;OHD This Strategic Science Plan (Plan) establishes the directions for research in hy- drology at the Hydrology Laboratory of the Office of Hydrologic Development. It first establishes a cross-reference between the Plan

  19. Hydrologically Sensitive Areas: Variable Source Area Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Hydrologically Sensitive Areas: Variable Source Area Hydrology Implications for Water Quality Risk hydrology was developed and applied to the New York City (NYC) water supply watersheds. According and are therefore hydrologically sensitive with respect to their potential to transport contaminants to perennial

  20. Influence of climate model biases and daily-scale temperature and precipitation events on hydrological impacts assessment: A case study of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL; Bowling, Laura C. [Purdue University; Cherkauer, Keith [Purdue University; Pal, Jeremy [Loyola University; Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report concludes that climate change is now unequivocal, and associated increases in evaporation and atmospheric water content could intensify the hydrological cycle. However, the biases and coarse spatial resolution of global climate models limit their usefulness in hydrological impact assessment. In order to reduce these limitations, we use a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM3) to drive a hydrological model (variable infiltration capacity) for the full contiguous United States. The simulations cover 1961-1990 in the historic period and 2071-2100 in the future (A2) period. A quantile-based bias correction technique is applied to the times series of RegCM3-simulated precipitation and temperature. Our results show that biases in the RegCM3 fields not only affect the magnitude of hydrometeorological variables in the baseline hydrological simulation, but they also affect the response of hydrological variables to projected future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. Further, we find that changes in the intensity and occurrence of severe wet and hot events are critical in determining the sign of hydrologic change. These results have important implications for the assessment of potential future hydrologic changes, as well as for developing approaches for quantitative impacts assessment.

  1. Influence of salts and temperature on the transfer of mercury resistance from a marine pseudomonad to Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauthier, M.J.; Cauvin, F.; Breittmayer, J.P.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirty-one strains of marine bacteria were examined for their ability to transfer mercury resistance to Escherichia coli in complex media; eight strains were able to transfer their resistance marker, with frequencies ranging from 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -8/. Frequencies generally increased with the increase of the mating period. Additional mating experiments were carried out with one strain, belonging to the pseudomonads, to estimate the influence of temperature, salinity, and time on the conjugal transfer frequency of mercury resistance markers. The higher frequencies occurred at 30/sup 0/C, in a salt medium (3.7%), after 24 h of mating.

  2. Influence of recycled fine aggregates on the resistance of mortars to magnesium sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung-Tae [Department of Civil Engineering, Kunsan National University, 68 Miryong-dong, Kunsan, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: stlee@kunsan.ac.kr

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of recycled fine aggregates, which had been reclaimed from field-demolished concretes, on the resistance of mortar specimens to magnesium sulfate attack was investigated. Mortar specimens were prepared with recycled fine aggregates at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of natural fine aggregate by mass). The mortar specimens were exposed to 4.24% magnesium sulfate solution for about 1 year at ambient temperature, and regularly monitored for visual appearance, compressive strength loss and expansion. Additionally, in order to identify products of magnesium sulfate attack, mortar samples incorporating 0%, 25% and 100% replacement levels of the recycled fine aggregates were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Experimental results confirmed that the use of recycled fine aggregates up to a maximum 50% replacement level is effective under severe magnesium sulfate environment, irrespective of type of recycled fine aggregates. However, the worse performance was observed in mortar specimens incorporating 100% replacement level. It was found that the water absorption of recycled fine aggregates affected deterioration of mortar specimens, especially at a higher replacement level. XRD results indicated that the main cause of deterioration of the mortar specimens was primarily due to the formation of gypsum and thaumasite by magnesium sulfate attack. In addition, it appeared that the conversion of C-S-H into M-S-H by the attack probably influenced mechanical deterioration of mortar specimens with recycled fine aggregates.

  3. Influence of genetic background, races of the pathogen and plant parts on evaluation of resistance to bacterial blight of cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pool, William Larry

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on evaluation of resistance to bacterial blight. Parents with the B4, BlBp, and BpB3 genes and three susceptible parents were used in the experiment. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW In 1935 Simpson and Weindling (34) selected Stoneville 20 from Stoneville 2A... were homogenous within the (BpB3 x T) population. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CDNCL USION Conclusions concerning genetirs of resistance to bacterial blight were influenced by the genetic backgrounds used in thi's study. The BSm m&nor gene complex...

  4. Nitrate and sulphate dynamics in peat subjected to different hydrological conditions: Batch experiments and field comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Nitrate and sulphate dynamics in peat subjected to different hydrological conditions: Batch concentrations were investigated in bioreactors, using peat samples from field sites influenced by different hydrologic regimes. In this experiment, peat samples were subjected to similar conditions to address

  5. The influence of changes in water content on the electrical resistivity of a natural unsaturated loess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    relationship between the water content and the electrical resistivity of soils. In this work, a new electrical The measurement of water content in soils has been performed through different non- destructive techniques authors also determined the water content from the measurement of the soil's electrical resistivity

  6. INFLUENCE OF GERMANIUM CONCENTRATION AND HOMOGENEOUS BORON DOPING ON MICROSTRUCTURE, KINETICS, AND SHEET RESISTANCE OF NICKEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    , AND SHEET RESISTANCE OF NICKEL GERMANOSILICIDE THIN FILMS By JOHN SAMUEL MOORE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED...................................................................................18 1.3 Nickel as a Silicidation Metal........................................................................25 2.1.2 Nickel-Silicon Binary System........................................................

  7. Influence of Insulin Resistance on Contractile Activity-Induced Anabolic Response of Skeletal Muscle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsson, Mats I.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the long-term therapeutic benefits of exercise are indisputable, contractile activity may induce divergent adaptations in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to ...

  8. 2, 605637, 2005 Influence of solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    HESSD 2, 605637, 2005 Influence of solar activity on hydrological processes J. Perez-Peraza et al Sciences Discussions Influence of solar activity on hydrological processes J. Perez-Peraza 1 , A. Leyva;HESSD 2, 605637, 2005 Influence of solar activity on hydrological processes J. Perez-Peraza et al

  9. ON THE INFLUENCE OF COLD WORK ON RESISTIVITY VARIATIONS WITH THERMAL EXPOSURE IN IN-718 NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhi, Elhoucine; Nagy, Peter B. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In nickel-base superalloys, irreversible electrical conductivity changes occur above a transition temperature where thermally-activated microstructural evolution initiates. The electrical conductivity first decreases above about 450 deg. C then increases above 600 deg. C. However, the presence of plastic deformation results in accelerated microstructure evolution at an earlier transition temperature. It was recently suggested that this well-known phenomenon might explain the notable conductivity difference between the peened near-surface part and the intact part at sufficiently large depth in surface-treated specimens. The influence of cold work on the electrical conductivity change with thermal exposure offers a probable answer to one of the main remaining questions in eddy current residual stress assessment, namely unusually fast and occasionally even non-monotonic decay of the apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) change that was observed at temperatures as low as 400 deg. C. To validate this explanation, the present study investigates the influence of cold work on low-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) resistivity variations with thermal exposure. In-situ resistivity monitoring was conducted throughout various heating cycles using the ACPD technique. IN-718 nickel-base superalloy specimens with different levels of cold work were exposed to gradually increasing peak temperatures from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. The results indicate that the initial irreversible rise in resistivity is approximately one order of magnitude higher and occurs at about 50 deg. C lower temperature in cold-worked samples of 30% plastic strain than in the intact material.

  10. Hydrologic Modeling Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Management Programs has both experience and technical knowledge to use and develop Earth systems models. Hydrological Modeling Models are simplified representations of...

  11. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Hsu, Julia [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C were found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.

  12. Hydrology of a land-terminating Greenlandic outlet glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowton, Thomas Ralph

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrology is recognised as an important component of the glacial system in alpine environments. In particular, the subglacial drainage of surface meltwaters is known to exert a strong influence on the motion of glaciers ...

  13. Status report: A hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, D.K.; Toran, L.E.; Dreier, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moore, G.K.; McMaster, W.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This first status report on the Hydrologic Studies Task of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) revises earlier concepts of subsurface hydrology and hydrogeochemistry of the ORR. A new classification of hydrogeologic units is given, as well as new interpretations of the gydrogeologic properties and processes that influence contaminant migration. The conceptual hydrologic framework introduced in this report is based primarily on reinterpretations of data acquired during earlier hydrologic investigations of waste areas at and near the three US Department of Energy Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) plant facilities. In addition to describing and interpreting the properties and processes of the groundwater systems as they are presently understood, this report describes surface water-subsurface water relations, influences on contaminant migration,and implications to environmental restoration, environmental monitoring, and waste management.

  14. Quasi-three dimensional ground-water modeling of the hydrologic influence of paleozoic rocks on the ground-water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Si-Yong

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    north of the repository site. This study investigates the cause of the steep gradient, based on the possible influence by Paleozoic rocks under the Yucca Mountain area. A quasi-three dimensional, steady-state, finite-difference model of the groundwater...

  15. Resistance of biofilm-covered mortars to microbiologically influenced deterioration simulated by sulfuric acid exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soleimani, Sahar, E-mail: ssoleima@connect.carleton.ca; Isgor, O. Burkan, E-mail: burkan_isgor@carleton.ca; Ormeci, Banu, E-mail: banu_ormeci@carleton.ca

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the reported success of biofilm applications on metal surfaces to inhibit microbiologically influenced corrosion, effectiveness and sustainability of E. coli DH5? biofilm on mortar surface to prevent microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD) are investigated. Experiments simulating microbial attack were carried out by exposing incrementally biofilm-covered mortar specimens to sulfuric acid solutions with pH ranging from 3 to 6. Results showed that calcium concentration in control reactors without biofilm was 2347% higher than the reactors with biofilm-covered mortar. Formation of amorphous silica gel as an indication of early stages of acid attack was observed only on the control mortar specimens without biofilm. During acidification, the biofilm continued to grow and its thickness almost doubled from ? 30 ?m before acidification to ? 60 ?m after acidification. These results demonstrated that E. coli DH5? biofilm was able to provide a protective and sustainable barrier on mortar surfaces against medium to strong sulfuric acid attack. -- Highlights: Effectiveness of E.coli DH5? biofilm to prevent MICD was studied. Conditions that lead to MICD were simulated by chemical acidification. Biofilm-covered mortar specimens were exposed to sulfuric acid solutions. The presence of biofilm helped reduce the chemically-induced mortar deterioration. Biofilm remained alive and continued to grow during the acidification process.

  16. Quantifying and Generalizing Hydrologic Responses to Dam Regulation using a Statistical Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the ubiquitous existence of dams within riverscapes, much of our knowledge about dams and their environmental effects remains context-specific. Hydrology, more than any other environmental variable, has been studied in great detail with regard to dam regulation. While much progress has been made in generalizing the hydrologic effects of regulation by large dams, many aspects of hydrology show site-specific fidelity to dam operations, small dams (including diversions), and regional hydrologic regimes. A statistical modeling framework is presented to quantify and generalize hydrologic responses to varying degrees of dam regulation. Specifically, the objectives were to 1) compare the effects of local versus cumulative dam regulation, 2) determine the importance of different regional hydrologic regimes in influencing hydrologic responses to dams, and 3) evaluate how different regulation contexts lead to error in predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Overall, model performance was poor in quantifying the magnitude of hydrologic responses, but performance was sufficient in classifying hydrologic responses as negative or positive. Responses of some hydrologic indices to dam regulation were highly dependent upon hydrologic class membership and the purpose of the dam. The opposing coefficients between local and cumulative-dam predictors suggested that hydrologic responses to cumulative dam regulation are complex, and predicting the hydrology downstream of individual dams, as opposed to multiple dams, may be more easy accomplished using statistical approaches. Results also suggested that particular contexts, including multipurpose dams, high cumulative regulation by multiple dams, diversions, close proximity to dams, and certain hydrologic classes are all sources of increased error when predicting hydrologic responses to dams. Statistical models, such as the ones presented herein, show promise in their ability to model the effects of dam regulation effects at large spatial scales as to generalize the directionality of hydrologic responses.

  17. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 139155, 2005 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/9/139/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 139­155, 2005 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/9/139/ SRef-ID: 1607-7938/hess/2005-9-139 European Geosciences Union Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Using stable isotope tracers to assess hydrological flow paths, residence times and landscape influences in a nested

  18. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrological and Biogeochemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrological and Biogeochemical Transformations Associated with Cr explored the use of geophysical approaches for monitoring the spatiotemporal distribution of hydrological first integrated hydrological wellbore and geophysical tomographic data sets to estimate hydrological

  19. Influence of dosing sequence and film thickness on structure and resistivity of Al-ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Evan B., E-mail: ebpollock@gmail.com; Lad, Robert J. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, University of Maine, 5708 ESRB-Barrows Hall, Orono, Maine 04469 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were deposited onto amorphous silica substrates using an atomic layer deposition process with diethyl zinc (DEZ), trimethyl aluminum (TMA), and deionized water at 200?C. Three different Al doping sequences were used at a ZnO:Al ratio of 11:1 within the films. A minimum film resistivity of 1.6??10{sup ?3}?? cm was produced using sequential dosing of DEZ, TMA, DEZ, followed by H{sub 2}O for the Al doping step. This ZAZW sequence yielded an AZO film resistivity that is independent of film thickness, crystallographic texture, and grain size, as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD). A pseudo-Voigt analysis method yields values for grain sizes that are smaller than those calculated using other XRD methods. Anisotropic grain sizes or variations in crystallographic texture have minimal influence on film resistivity, which suggests that factors other than film texture, such as intragrain scattering, may be important in influencing film resistivity.

  20. Water Resources: Hydraulics and Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Water Resources: Hydraulics and Hydrology Interview with Margaret S. Petersen #12;This manuscript RESOURCES: HYDRAULICS AND HYDROLOGY #12;Approved for public release distribution IS unlimited. #12;Preface The United States Army Corps of Engineers significantly contributed to hydraulic and hydrologic engineering

  1. 1, 497531, 2004 Regional hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 1, 497­531, 2004 Regional hydrology controls stream microbial biofilms T. J. Battin et al hydrology controls stream microbial biofilms: evidence from a glacial catchment T. J. Battin1, , A. Wille2@pflaphy.pph.univie.ac.at) 497 #12;BGD 1, 497­531, 2004 Regional hydrology controls stream microbial biofilms T. J. Battin et al

  2. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES INVITED COMMENTARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    , kinematic waves, transmissivity feedback, exchange between matrix and macropores, and so forth (Beven, 1989 these observations in the following way may prove useful. Paradox 1: Rapid Mobilization of Old Water The hydrology of old water' paradox, exemplified by Figure 1. In many small catchments, streamflow responds promptly

  3. The dynamic influence of the DRB1*1101 allele on the resistance of sheep to experimental Teladorsagia circumcincta infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan, Musa A.

    Suffolk sheep carrying the DRB1*1101 (previously referred to as-DRB1*0203 or G2) allele have been reported to show increased resistance to natural Teladorsagia circumcincta infection compared to non-carriers. The objective ...

  4. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume II. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: regional structure, surface structure, surface fractures, hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume comprises appendices giving regional structure data, surface structure data, surface fracture data, and hydrology data. The fracture data covers oriented Devonian shale cores from West Virginia, Ohio, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky. The subsurface structure of the Eastern Kentucky gas field is also covered. (DLC)

  5. Figure 1. Hydrologic Information System Overarching Vision. Data Interoperability in the Hydrologic Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    Sciences The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System David G Tarboton1 , David Maidment2 , Ilya Zaslavsky3 Sciences. Hydrologic Information Systems (HIS) are part of this infrastructure. Hydrologic information--Hydrologic Information System; Web services; Data Model; Hydrology I. INTRODUCTION The advancement of hydrologic science

  6. Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations Ph. D. Student: Christopher captures the hydrology is important for determining the effectiveness of a terrain simplification technique also present a novel ter- rain simplification algorithm based on the compression of hydrology features

  7. Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations Jonathan Muckella , Marcus network. A quan- titative measurement of how accurately a drainage network captures the hydrology to preserve the important hydrology features. This method and other simplification schemes are then evaluated

  8. Teaching Estuarine Hydrology with Online Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Watershed . Coastal ocean . Hydrology . Education . SanSchoellhamer, D.H. 2007a. Hydrology of San Francisco Bay andSchoellhamer, D.H. 2007b. Hydrology of San Francisco Bay and

  9. Desiccation resistance and root growth rate of St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze 'Floratam') as influenced by potassium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiPaola, J. M

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and turfgrass quality of Floratam St. Augustinegrass were investigated in both field and greenhouse experiments. Both studies evaluated the influence of potassium on root growth and turfgrass quality from the establishment of sod, through an imposed water... in the fall field experiment, while no improvement was noted in the spring greenhouse study. The daily root growth rates were not influenced by potassium in the field study, while increased potassium fertilization rates resulted in greater daily root...

  10. Thermal-Hydrological Sensitivity Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, T A; Hao, Y; Morris, J P; Burton, E A

    2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents recent work from an ongoing project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a set of predictive tools for cavity/combustion-zone growth and to gain quantitative understanding of the processes and conditions (natural and engineered) affecting underground coal gasification (UCG). We discuss the application of coupled thermal-hydrologic simulation capabilities required for predicting UCG cavity growth, as well as for predicting potential environmental consequences of UCG operations. Simulation of UCG cavity evolution involves coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes in the host coal and adjoining rockmass (cap and bedrock). To represent these processes, the NUFT (Nonisothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) code is being customized to address the influence of coal combustion on the heating of the host coal and adjoining rock mass, and the resulting thermal-hydrological response in the host coal/rock. As described in a companion paper (Morris et al. 2009), the ability to model the influence of mechanical processes (spallation and cavity collapse) on UCG cavity evolution is being developed at LLNL with the use of the LDEC (Livermore Distinct Element Code) code. A methodology is also being developed (Morris et al. 2009) to interface the results of the NUFT and LDEC codes to simulate the interaction of mechanical and thermal-hydrological behavior in the host coal/rock, which influences UCG cavity growth. Conditions in the UCG cavity and combustion zone are strongly influenced by water influx, which is controlled by permeability of the host coal/rock and the difference between hydrostatic and cavity pressure. In this paper, we focus on thermal-hydrological processes, examining the relationship between combustion-driven heat generation, convective and conductive heat flow, and water influx, and examine how the thermal and hydrologic properties of the host coal/rock influence those relationships. Specifically, we conducted a parameter sensitivity analysis of the influence of thermal and hydrological properties of the host coal, caprock, and bedrock on cavity temperature and steam production.

  11. On the structurization of coal dust precipitations and their influence on aerodynamic resistance by granulated mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in granulated filtering mediums, formed by the monolithic glass spherical granules with the diameters of 2mm and 3mm, are re-searched. The distinctions between the distributions of filtered coal dust masses in the air filters with cylindrical granules and the air filters with spherical granules, are found. The influences by the filtered dust masses on the air resistance of both the air filters with the cylindrical granules and the air filters with the spherical granules are described. The conclusions on a possibility of the use of various chemical adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions to improve the filtering properties of granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

  12. On the structurization of coal dust precipitations and their influence on aerodynamic resistance by granulated mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in granulated filtering mediums, formed by the monolithic glass spherical granules with the diameters of 2mm and 3mm, are re-searched. The distinctions between the distributions of filtered coal dust masses in the air filters with cylindrical granules and the air filters with spherical granules, are found. The influences by the filtered dust masses on the air resistance of both the air filters with the cylindrical granules and the air filters with the spherical granules are described. The conclusions on a possibility of the use of various chemical adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions to improve the filtering properties of granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

  13. Proceedings of Hydrology Days 2002, Pages 56 63, April 1 4, 2002 Hydrology Days 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deinert, Mark

    Proceedings of Hydrology Days 2002, Pages 56 ­ 63, April 1 ­ 4, 2002 Hydrology Days 2002 Real radiography can be used for quantitative imaging of hydrologic phenomena at video frame rates, with great

  14. AN APPROACH TO THE FRACTURE HYDROLOGY AT STRIPA: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gale, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geochemistry and Isotope Hydrology of Groundwaters in theAN APPROACH TO THE FRACTURE HYDROLOGY AT STRIPA: PRELIMINARYGeochemistry and Isotope Hydrology of Groundwaters in the

  15. Development of Characterization Technology for Fault Zone Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karasaki, Kenzi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TECHNOLOGY FOR FAULT ZONE HYDROLOGY Kenzi Karasaki Lawrencefor characterizing the hydrology of fault zones, recognizingstructure of faults to hydrology, that it still may be

  16. Electrical Resistivity At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of this study was to obtain a more complete model of the geologic structure and hydrology of Kilauea's east rift zone Notes An electrical resistivity survey was conducted in...

  17. TR-032 Hydrology March 2007 An operational method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TR-032 Hydrology March 2007 An operational method of assessing hydrologic recovery for Vancouver ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife #12;Citation: Hudson, R., and G. Horel. 2007. An operational method of assessing hydrologic recovery for Vancouver Island and south

  18. Early Mars hydrology: 2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Early Mars hydrology: 2. Hydrological evolution in the Noachian and Hesperian epochs Jeffrey C, before a hydrologic and climatic transition in the late Noachian led to a decrease in erosion rates the temporal evolution of Martian groundwater hydrology during the Noachian and early Hesperian epochs using

  19. Rangeland Hydrology:Rangeland Hydrology: Research Issues andResearch Issues and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Rangeland Hydrology:Rangeland Hydrology: Research Issues andResearch Issues and QuestionsQuestions Steven Fassnacht Watershed Science Colorado State University Hydrologic Model Schematic state variables e.g. snow, soil moisture Hydrologic Models streamflow Meteorological Data ( )station, gridded Land Cover

  20. BEE 3710: Syllabus Spring 2013 Physical Hydrology for Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    BEE 3710: Syllabus Spring 2013 01/21/13 Physical Hydrology for Ecosystems BEE 3710 www.hydrology: Physical Hydrology, second edition. S. Lawrence Dingman. 2002. Prentice Hall. pp. 600. Meeting: TR 9 to fundamental hydrology emphasizing physical hydrological processes and the interactions among hydrology

  1. RREC -October 2014 Use of Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    RREC - October 2014 Use of Hydrology and Hydraulics to Support Environmental Response Hydrology ­ the study of the movement of water. Usage for this application is to mean the quantification at the site was Broad scale steps: ­ Prepare hydrologic model to estimate river flow at points of interest

  2. Watershed Science/Hydrology Graduate Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watershed Science/Hydrology Graduate Schools University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 95721://www.ag.arizona.edu/srnr/academicprograms/watershedresources/graduatestudies.html University of California, Davis Davis, California 95616 Program: Hydrologic Sciences http://www.warnercnr.colostate.edu/frws/watershed/graduate/index.html University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 326118140 Programs: Hydrologic Science http

  3. 5, 547577, 2008 Isotope hydrology of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    HESSD 5, 547­577, 2008 Isotope hydrology of cave dripwaters L. Fuller et al. Title Page Abstract.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/5/547/2008/ © Author(s) 2008. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions Papers published in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions

  4. Feedbacks between hydrological heterogeneity and bioremediation induced biogeochemical transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Englert, A.; Hubbard, S.S.; Williams, K.H.; Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For guiding optimal design and interpretation of in-situ treatments that strongly perturb subsurface systems, knowledge about the spatial and temporal patterns of mass transport and reaction intensities are important. Here, a procedure was developed and applied to time-lapse concentrations of a conservative tracer (bromide), an injected amendment (acetate) and reactive species (iron(II), uranium(VI) and sulfate) associated with two field scale biostimulation experiments, which were conducted successively at the same field location over two years. The procedure is based on a temporal moment analysis approach that relies on a streamtube approximation. The study shows that biostimulated reactions can be considerably influenced by subsurface hydrological and geochemical heterogeneities: the delivery of bromide and acetate and the intensity of the sulfate reduction is interpreted to be predominantly driven by the hydrological heterogeneity, while the intensity of the iron reduction is interpreted to be primarily controlled by the geochemical heterogeneity. The intensity of the uranium(VI) reduction appears to be impacted by both the hydrological and geochemical heterogeneity. Finally, the study documents the existence of feedbacks between hydrological heterogeneity and remediation-induced biogeochemical transformations at the field scale, particularly the development of precipitates that may cause clogging and flow rerouting.

  5. Curso 7-Modelos Digitais de Elevao na Hidrologia: Extrao de Atributos Hidrolgicos da Topografia (Digital Elevation Models in Hydrology: Extraction of Hydrologic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Topografia (Digital Elevation Models in Hydrology: Extraction of Hydrologic Attributes from Topography Data

  6. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  7. Feedbacks Between Hydrological Heterogeneity and Bioremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    Feedbacks Between Hydrological Heterogeneity and Bioremediation Induced Biogeochemical, intensively studied over the last 20 years (4), has potential to further impact bioremediation efforts

  8. A remote sensing observatory for hydrologic sciences: A genesis for scaling to continental hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    A remote sensing observatory for hydrologic sciences: A genesis for scaling to continental hydrology Witold F. Krajewski,1 Martha C. Anderson,2 William E. Eichinger,1 Dara Entekhabi,3 Brian K arise primarily from an inadequate understanding of the hydrological cycle: on land, in oceans

  9. Estimating GRACE monthly water storage change consistent with hydrology by assimilating hydrological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuttgart, Universität

    Estimating GRACE monthly water storage change consistent with hydrology by assimilating hydrological information B. Devaraju, N. Sneeuw Institute of Geodesy, Universit¨at Stuttgart, Germany estimates of mass changes with observed hydrological data, which is available for 20% of the land area

  10. FRACTURE AND HYDROLOGY DATA FROM FIELD STUDIES AT STRIPA, SWEDEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gale, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Approach to the Fracture Hydrology at Stripa, PreliminaryRocks. On Recent Trends in Hydrology, Special PublicationsDE86 013586 W FRACTURE AND HYDROLOGY DATA FROM FIELD STUDIES

  11. TR-010 Hydrology March 2001 Comparative Analysis of Sediment Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TR-010 Hydrology March 2001 Comparative Analysis of Sediment Production in Two Partially Harvested Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Forest ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife CONTENTS ABSTRACT

  12. TR-019 Hydrology March 2002 Roberts Creek Study Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TR-019 Hydrology March 2002 Roberts Creek Study Forest: effects of partial retention harvesting, 250-751-7001 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Abstract

  13. Influence on Grain Yields and Yield Components of Leaf Rust of Wheat and Crown Rust of Oats as Measured by Isogenic Resistant and Susceptible Lines.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, I. M.; Alcala de Stephano, Maximino; Merkle, O. G.; Kilpatrick, R. A.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ., and Allard, R. W. 1965. Genetic variability in highly inbred isogenic lines of the lima bean. Crop Sci. 5 1203-206. Hilu, H. M. 1965. Host-pathogen relationship of Pllrccinia ~orghi in nearly isogenic resistant and susceptible seedling corn...IIVFLUENm ON GRAIN Y_LEI;DS AND YZZXD COMPONENTS OF LEAF RUST OF l+%?EAT AND CROWN RUST OF OATS m fl2kmured by ISOGENIC RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE LINES Contents SUMMARY...

  14. Civil and Environmental Engineering CSU Center for Contaminant Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Civil and Environmental Engineering CSU ­ Center for Contaminant Hydrology Coordinator The Center for Contaminant Hydrology (CCH) ( HYPERLINK "http://www.engr.colostate.edu/CCH/" www

  15. Hydrology, environment Four remarks on the growth of channel networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    Hydrology, environment Four remarks on the growth of channel networks Quatre remarques sur la online xxx Presented by Ghislain de Marsily Keywords: Geomorphology Hydrology River network Mots cle

  16. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for Optimization of Enhanced Geothermal System Development and Production Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechan...

  17. BEE 371, Physical Hydrology for Ecosystems Spring 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    BEE 371, Physical Hydrology for Ecosystems Spring 2007 Credit: 3 hours Catalogue description: This is an introduction to fundamental hydrology emphasizing physical hydrological processes and the roles interactions among hydrology, ecology, biogeochemistry, and human activities. This course focuses on surface and near

  18. Model Discrepancy in the Saturated Path Hydrology Model: Initial Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakley, Jeremy

    Model Discrepancy in the Saturated Path Hydrology Model: Initial Analysis Tom Fricker University discrepancy in the Saturated Path Hydrology Model (logSPM, Kuczera et al., 2006). The purpose). 1 #12;3 The Saturated Path Hydrology Model We consider the Saturated Path Hydrology Model (log

  19. 1.72 Groundwater Hydrology, Fall 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, Charles

    Fundamentals of subsurface flow and transport, emphasizing the role of groundwater in the hydrologic cycle, the relation of groundwater flow to geologic structure, and the management of contaminated groundwater. Topics ...

  20. NEW COURSE: WETLAND HYDROLOGY AND BIOGEOCHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    wetland delineation, wetland restoration, and constructed wetlands for water treatment. Course contentNEW COURSE: WETLAND HYDROLOGY AND BIOGEOCHEMISTRY EXPLORING THE PROCESSES THAT CONTROL WETLAND (FOR 5984; CRN 19997) Course Overview and Objectives: Wetland ecosystems provide myriad functions from

  1. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Pan

    2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis report describes the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The technical scope, content, and management of this analysis report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 2, 4, and 8). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), the Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB) Cross-Drift, and/or boreholes; air-injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in the ESF; and data from laboratory testing of core samples. In addition, the report ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]) also serves as a source report by providing the geological framework model of the site. This report is a revision of the model report under the same title (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161773]), which in turn superceded the analysis report under the same title. The principal purpose of this work is to provide representative uncalibrated estimates of fracture and matrix properties for use in the model report Calibrated Properties Model. The term ''uncalibrated'' is used to distinguish the properties or parameters estimated in this report from those obtained from the inversion modeling used in ''Calibrated Properties Model''. The present work also provides fracture geometry properties for generating dual-permeability grids as documented in the scientific analyses report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling''.

  2. Mid-21st Century Changes to Surface Hydrology Over the Los Angeles Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Marla Ann

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    regional climate and hydrology modeling. Earth Interactions,Brutsaert, W. , 2005. Hydrology: An Introduction. New York:advanced land-surface/hydrology model with the Penn State/

  3. Morphology, hydrology, and water quality of two vernal pools in Madera County, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renz, Wendy; Higgins, Tanya

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    regime on vernal pool hydrology. Freshwater Biology 50:and L. Stromberg. (1998). Hydrology of vernal pools on non-Morphology, hydrology, and water quality of two vernal pools

  4. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SUBSURFACE HYDROLOGY USING A MIXED EXPLICIT-IMPLICIT SCHEME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METHOD FOR SUBSURFACE HYDROLOGY USING A MIXED EXPLICIT-arising in subsurface hydrology. These problems includeFinite Element Method in Hydrology," Int. Jour. Num. Meth.

  5. Research connects soil hydrology and stream water chemistry in California oak woodlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Geen, Anthony T; Dahlgren, Randy A; Swarowsky, Alexandre; Tate, Kenneth W; Lewis, David J; Singer, Michael J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dahlgren RA, Tate KW. 2000. Hydrology in a California oakResearch connects soil hydrology and stream water chemistrybetween nitrogen cycling and soil hydrology in a manner that

  6. Potential impacts of global climate change on Tijuana River Watershed hydrology - An initial analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Tapash; Dettinger, Michael D; Cayan, Daniel R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Tijuana River Watershed hydrology - An initial analysis Achanges may impact the hydrology of the Tijuana Riverclimate changes might impact hydrology in the Tijuana River

  7. Journal of Hydrology (NZ) 47 (2): 67-83 2008 New Zealand Hydrological Society (2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kienzle, Stefan W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of intensified irrigation practices on catchment #12;68 hydrology. The report `Growing for good the economic value of irrigation with environmental costs and sustainable agricultural practices (Poff etal) Hydrological impacts of irrigated agriculture in the Manuherikia catchment, Otago, New Zealand S. W. Kienzle1

  8. Effects of alien and intraspecies cytoplasms on manifestation of nuclear genes for wheat resistance to brown rust: II. Specificity of cytoplasm influence on different Lr genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voluevich, E.A.; Buloichik, A.A.; Palilova, A.N. [Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Minsk (Belarus)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specificity of expression of the major nuclear genes Lr to two brown rust clones in hybrids with the same maternal cytoplasm was analyzed. It was evaluated by a resistant: susceptible ratio in the F{sub 2}. Reciprocal hybrids were obtained from the cross between the progeny of homozygous susceptible plants of the cultivar Penjamo 62 and its alloplasmatic lines carrying cytoplasms of Triticum dicoccoides var. fulvovillosum, Aegilops squarrosa var. typical, Agropyron trichophorum, and isogenic lines of the cultivar Thatcher (Th) with the Lr1, Lr9, Lr15, and Lr19 genes. It was shown that the effect of the Lr1 gene in the cytoplasm of cultivar Thatcher and in eu-, and alloplasmatic forms of Penjamo 62 was less expressed than that of other Lr genes. Cytoplasm of the alloplasmatic line (dicoccoides)-Penjamo 62 was the only exception: in the F{sub 2}, hybrids with Th (Lr1) had a higher yield of resistant forms than those with Th (Lr15). In the hybrid combinations studied, expression and/or transmission of the Lr19 gene was more significant than that of other genes. This gene had no advantages over Lr15 and Lr19 only in cytoplasm of the alloplasmatic line (squarrosa)-Penjamo 62. In certain hybrid cytoplasms, the display of the Lr1, Lr15, and Lr19 genes, in contrast to Lr9, varied with the virulence of the pathogen clones. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology and imple- #12;Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture

  10. Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Using Combined Snowpack and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture, BCMOF 1 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture

  11. Technical Report Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technical Report Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife CONTENTS SUMMARY

  12. Technical Report Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technical Report Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

  13. Technical Report Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technical Report Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife CONTENTS

  14. Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Biology, Ecology, and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife CONTENTS ABSTRACT

  15. Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Extension Note EN-007

  16. Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Extension Note

  17. Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Assessing Habitat Quality of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife CONTENTS

  18. Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Silvicultural Treatments for Enhancing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  19. Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Relationships between Elevation and Slope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

  20. Dalton Lecture: How far can we go in distributed hydrological modelling?Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(1), 1-12 (2001) EGS How far can we go in distributed hydrological modelling?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Dalton Lecture: How far can we go in distributed hydrological modelling?Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(1), 1-12 (2001) © EGS How far can we go in distributed hydrological modelling? Keith hydrological models in hydrology as an expression of a pragmatic realism. Some of the problems of distributed

  1. Hydrology-Aware Constrained Triangulation of Terrain Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Hydrology-Aware Constrained Triangulation of Terrain Data Jonathan Muckella , Marcus Andradeb , W present a new data structure for simplifing terrain that captures hydrology significant features using. This allows better compression ratios the standard Triangu- lated Irregular Networks with highier hydrology

  2. Basic Ground-Water Hydrology By RALPH C. HEATH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    #12;Basic Ground-Water Hydrology By RALPH C. HEATH Prepared in cooperation with the North Carolina., 1983, Basic ground-water hydrology: U .S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220, 86 p. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publications Data Heath, Ralph C . Basic ground-water hydrology (Geological Survey

  3. Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology Hudson and Axel Anderson KEYWORDS: Water management, Coastal watersheds, hydrological modeling CITATIONPractice. ResearchSection,Coast ForestRegion, BCMOF,Nanaimo, BC. Extension Note EN-022. EN-022 Hydrology March 2006

  4. Recent Developments in Bayesian Inference with Applications in Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Jim

    : Recent Developments in Bayesian Inference with Applications in Hydrology . James O. Berger potential use in hydrology. These tools include Bayesian model selection, new computational techniques be applied to problems in hy­ drology. Keywords: Bayesian Inference, Hydrology, Model Selection, Bayes

  5. Assistant Professor of Wildland Watershed Hydrology University of California, Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    Assistant Professor of Wildland Watershed Hydrology University of California, Berkeley The faculty invites applications for a tenure-track, academic year appointment in Wildland Watershed Hydrology recognized research program in landscape-scale watershed hydrology related to the fields of climatology

  6. CONTINUOUSTIME FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW IN GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTINUOUS­TIME FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF MULTIPHASE FLOW IN GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY Zhangxin Chen­water system in groundwater hydrology is given. The system is written in a fractional flow formulation, i for an air­water system in groundwater hydrology, ff = a; w [1], [11], [26]: @(OEae ff s ff ) @t +r \\Delta

  7. Hydrology and Geostatistics of a Vermont, USA Kettlehole Peatland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Hydrology and Geostatistics of a Vermont, USA Kettlehole Peatland Paula J. Mousera,*, W. Cully to hydrologic changes is imperative for successful conservation and remediation efforts. We studied a 1.25-ha Vermont kettlehole bog for one year (September 2001­October 2002) to identify hydrologic controls

  8. Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology,Tsitika Watershed.Research Section,CoastForest Region,BCMOF, Nanaimo, BC. Extension Note EN-021. EN-021 Hydrology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Extension Note EN-021 March 2006 Forest Research

  9. 2004 HYDROLOGY SECTION AWARD CITATION OF YORAM RUBIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    2004 HYDROLOGY SECTION AWARD CITATION OF YORAM RUBIN Yoram Rubin, Professor of Civil hydrology. Starting from 1987, Yoram has published a considerable body of important articles, primarily works have always addressed central problems of hydrologic modeling, on both fundamental and applied

  10. Institute of Hydraulic Engineering Department of Hydrology and Geohydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Institute of Hydraulic Engineering Department of Hydrology and Geohydrology Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dr Measurements with Hydrologic Data H. Kindt 1, J. Riegger 1, A. Bárdossy 1, B. Devaraju 2 and N. Sneeuw 2 henry pattern for which storage changes can be constrained within the limits of hydrological data uncertainty. 2

  11. Hydrology in Practice Elizabeth M. Shaw -Former Lecturer and Hydrologist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, Nick A

    Hydrology in Practice 4th Edition Elizabeth M. Shaw - Former Lecturer and Hydrologist Keith J Environment Centre, University of Lancaster, UK Rob Lamb - Consultant, JBA Consulting About the book Hydrology in Practice is an excellent and very successful introductory text for engineering hydrology students who go

  12. Weighted Parametric Operational Hydrology Forecasting Thomas E. Croley II1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Weighted Parametric Operational Hydrology Forecasting Thomas E. Croley II1 1 Great Lakes forecasts in operational hydrology builds a sample of possibilities for the future, of climate series from-parametric method can be extended into a new weighted parametric hydrological forecasting technique to allow

  13. Snowcloud: A Complete Data Gathering System for Snow Hydrology Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skalka, Christian

    Snowcloud: A Complete Data Gathering System for Snow Hydrology Research Christian Skalka gathering system for snow hydrology field re- search campaigns conducted in harsh climates and remote areas for understanding hydrological and ecological processes and incorporating those pro- cesses in agricultural

  14. Spatiotemporal variability of hydrologic response : an entropy-based approach using a distributed hydrologic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo, Aldrich Edra

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basin hydrologic response pertains to the partitioning of precipitation into stream-flow, evapotranspiration, and change in storage. The ability to explain or predict the response has many applications e.g. flood forecasting, ...

  15. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 23, 29022914 (2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kienzle, Stefan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    modelling effort indicate that hyporheic and dead zone heat fluxes are important, whereas solar radiationHYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 23, 29022914 (2009) Published online 24 July 2009 in Wiley the significance of individual heat fluxes within streams with an emphasis on testing (i.e. identification

  16. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 23, 20952101 (2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troch, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ., 2006; Lis et al., 2008). The capital cost is much lower, as well as the operation costs per analysed, Stockholm, Sweden 2 University of Arizona, Hydrology and Water Resources, Tucson, AZ, USA *Correspondence to), Pearce (1990), Burns (2002), Buttle and McDonnell (2004)] stream water comes. Such estimates can help

  17. bor is an e g hydrologic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Jon Harb managin North Am environm Atmosph Research founding served a Denver a Harbor i extensive has co-a papers in sciences geograph from the American Society, New Zea Science Physical and the G bor is an e g hydrologic merica, Eur mental scien heric Science h, Interim D co-director as Dean

  18. Ch.10 Connections Why is hydrology important?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    , irrigation engineers have designed drainage systems to carry unwanted salts away from the agricultural areas in transporting dissolved and suspended materials through phases of biogeochemical cycles. #12;Irrigation Impacts The main purpose of irrigation is to modify the hydrological cycle in a way that allow crops to flourish

  19. Puna Geothermal Venture Hydrologic Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the basis for the Hydrologic Monitoring Program (HMP) for the Puna Geothermal Venture. The HMP is complementary to two additional environmental compliance monitoring programs also being submitted by Puma Geothermal Venture (PGV) for their proposed activities at the site. The other two programs are the Meteorology and Air Quality Monitoring Program (MAQMP) and the Noise Monitoring Program (NMP), being submitted concurrently.

  20. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 21, 24472457 (2007)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitsma, Femke E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 21, 24472457 (2007) Published online 18 May 2007 in Wiley for simulating watershed runoff. This data model, called nen, allows users to visualize and analyse the processes, such as raster, that do not give direct insight into the spatial dynamics and distribution of the processes

  1. Hydrology of the Texas Blackland Prairie: Riesel Watershed Data and Published Hydrologic Relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service

    , OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS OF THE MATERIAL FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR THAT THE USE OF THE MATERIAL WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, OR ANY OTHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES. Hydrology of the Texas..., OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS OF THE MATERIAL FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR THAT THE USE OF THE MATERIAL WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, OR ANY OTHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES. Hydrology of the Texas...

  2. Estimation of hydrologic properties of an unsaturated, fractured rock mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klavetter, E.A.; Peters, R.R.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this document, two distinctly different approaches are used to develop continuum models to evaluate water movement in a fractured rock mass. Both models provide methods for estimating rock-mass hydrologic properties. Comparisons made over a range of different tuff properties show good qualitative and quantitative agreement between estimates of rock-mass hydrologic properties made by the two models. This document presents a general discussion of: (1) the hydrology of Yucca Mountain, and the conceptual hydrological model currently being used for the Yucca Mountain site, (2) the development of two models that may be used to estimate the hydrologic properties of a fractured, porous rock mass, and (3) a comparison of the hydrologic properties estimated by these two models. Although the models were developed in response to hydrologic characterization requirements at Yucca Mountain, they can be applied to water movement in any fractured rock mass that satisfies the given assumptions.

  3. Occurrence, Prevalence, and Disinfection Potential of Tetracycline Resistance Genes and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in a Subtropical Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Bailey Ann

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    . The objective of this dissertation research was to gain a better understanding of anthropogenic influences on occurrence of tetracycline resistance and use of traditional disinfection methods for the reduction of tetracycline resistant bacteria and genes...

  4. Resistivity analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruce, Michael R. (Austin, TX); Bruce, Victoria J. (Austin, TX); Ring, Rosalinda M. (Austin, TX); Cole, Edward Jr. I. (Albuquerque, NM); Hawkins, Charles F. (Albuquerque, NM); Tangyungong, Paiboon (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    According to an example embodiment of the present invention a semiconductor die having a resistive electrical connection is analyzed. Heat is directed to the die as the die is undergoing a state-changing operation to cause a failure due to suspect circuitry. The die is monitored, and a circuit path that electrically changes in response to the heat is detected and used to detect that a particular portion therein of the circuit is resistive. In this manner, the detection and localization of a semiconductor die defect that includes a resistive portion of a circuit path is enhanced.

  5. Variation and correlation of hydrologic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.S.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrological properties vary within a given geological formation and even more so among different soil and rock media. The variance of the saturated permeability is shown to be related to the variance of the pore-size distribution index of a given medium by a simple equation. This relationship is deduced by comparison of the data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada (Peters et al., 1984), Las Cruces, New Mexico (Wierenga et al., 1989), and Apache Leap, Arizona (Rasmussen et al., 1990). These and other studies in different soils and rocks also support the Poiseuille-Carmen relationship between the mean value of saturated permeability and the mean value of capillary radius. Correlations of the mean values and variances between permeability and pore-geometry parameters can lead us to better quantification of heterogeneous flow fields and better understanding of the scaling laws of hydrological properties.

  6. A Conceptual Restoration Plan and Tidal Hydrology Assessment for Reconnecting Spring Branch Creek to Suisun Marsh, Solano County, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Jessica J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marsh. UC Berkeley LA 222 Hydrology Term Paper. Orr, M. , S.Restoration Plan and Tidal Hydrology Assessment forthree consists of a tidal hydrology analysis before and

  7. California climate change, hydrologic response, and flood forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Norman L.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Geological Survey, Water Res. Investigations Rep. 95-United States. J. Amer. Water Resources Assoc, 35, 1525-hydrology. J. American Water Resources Association, 39, 771-

  8. assessing hydrological alteration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Society (SFHS) is a non-profit, professional society, established to provide Sukop, Mike 217 South Florida Hydrologic Society Dr Joseph D Hughes Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  9. Regional hydrology of the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrology of the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada- Preliminary interpretations of chemical and isotopic data Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  10. Development of Advanced Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. yushuwuthmcmodelingpeer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Me...

  11. Stress and fault rock controls on fault zone hydrology, Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rock controls on fault zone hydrology, Coso geothermal field, CA Abstract In crystalline rock of the Coso Geothermal Field, CA, fractures are the primary source of permeability....

  12. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model And Experiments For Optimization Of Enhanced Geothermal System Development And Production: Evaluation of Stimulation at the...

  13. Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical Model and Experiments for Optimization of Enhanced Geothermal System Development and Production Eric Sonnenthal (PI) Jonny...

  14. Hydrological processes and their seasonal controls in a small Mediterranean mountain catchment in the Pyrenees Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(3), 527537 (2002) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrological processes and their seasonal controls in a small Mediterranean mountain catchment in the Pyrenees 527 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(3), 527­537 (2002) © EGS Hydrological processes in the catchments, playing a relevant hydrological and geomorphic role. Annual precipitation is 924 mm and potential

  15. The role of a dambo in the hydrology of a catchment and the river network downstream Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(3), 339357 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The role of a dambo in the hydrology of a catchment and the river network downstream 339 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(3), 339357 (2003) © EGU The role of a dambo in the hydrology of a catchment and Southern Africa. Owing to their importance in local agriculture and as a water resource, the hydrology

  16. Recession-based hydrological models for estimating low flows in ungauged catchments in the Himalayas Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(5), 891902 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Recession-based hydrological models for estimating low flows in ungauged catchments in the Himalayas 891 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(5), 891902 (2004) © EGU Recession-based hydrological.R. Young1 and S.R. Kansakar2 1 Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB, UK 2

  17. The Pipe vs. The Shed: Waste Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lather, Alaska; Wozniak, Monika

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting Bypaper was to compare the hydrology of the East Bay Municipala stream and watershed hydrology. Using stream flow data for

  18. GEOCHEMISTRY AND ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY OF GROUNDWATERS IN THE STRIPA GRANITE RESULTS AND PRELIMINARY INTERPRETATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fritz, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. Italy). In Isotope Hydrology, IAEA Symposium. Sm-129/53,isotopic variations in hydrology. At. Energy Rev. 14: 621-70 GEOCHEMISTRY AND ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY OF GROUNDWATERS IN THE

  19. Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology-748-1331. mdeact@shaw.ca #12;Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology

  20. Technical Report Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technical Report Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology.for.gov.bc.ca/vancouvr/research/research_index.htm #12;Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture

  1. Technical Report Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technical Report Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology.for.gov.bc.ca/vancouvr/research/research_index.htm #12;Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture

  2. Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology, BC, V9J 1G4 #12;Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology

  3. Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology Rd., Black Creek, BC, V9J 1G4 #12;Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology

  4. Integrated Network of Scientific Information and GeoHydrologic Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIGHT: Integrated Network of Scientific Information and GeoHydrologic Tools Laura Paeglis, IWM and GeoHydrologic Tools #12;What is INSIGHT? · Interactive, web-based maps. · Evaluations of basins and their status as fully or overappropriated. · Educational tool for water managers and the public. · One

  5. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley.

  6. Pre-resistance-welding resistance check

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Destefan, Dennis E. (Broomfield, CO); Stompro, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preweld resistance check for resistance welding machines uses an open circuited measurement to determine the welding machine resistance, a closed circuit measurement to determine the parallel resistance of a workpiece set and the machine, and a calculation to determine the resistance of the workpiece set. Any variation in workpiece set or machine resistance is an indication that the weld may be different from a control weld.

  7. Yoram Rubin notes made at the Hydrology Section Award Ceremony, December 2005, San Francisco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Yoram

    Yoram Rubin notes made at the Hydrology Section Award Ceremony, December 2005, San Francisco Dear Hydrology Section president Rafael Bras and President-elect George Hornberger, members of the hydrology of the breadth of possibilities that hydrology represents overall. Hence, I was grateful to be reminded, during

  8. Course offer (1/2) Hydrology II (1st Sem. MSc)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    1 Course offer (1/2) · Hydrology II (1st Sem. MSc) · advanced engineering hydrology course focused on hydrological monitoring, processunderstanding and new analysis and modelling techniques · Fluvial Systems (1st management and riverine ecosystem sustainability · Hydrology of Glaciers (2nd Sem. MSc) · study of ice

  9. Position: Urban Natural Resource Specialist Forest Hydrology Closing Date: January 9th, 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Position: Urban Natural Resource Specialist ­ Forest Hydrology Closing Date: January 9th, 2015 runoff. This position requires applied, working knowledge of forest hydrology, hydrology modelling to support the use of i-Tree-related hydrologic models and tools. Develop framework for i-Tree Hydro

  10. Applications of Climatology and Meteorology to Hydrologic Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, R. A.; O'Connor, G. E.

    TR-38 1971 Applications of Climatology and Meteorology to Hydrologic Simulation R.A. Clark G.E. O?Connor Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  11. active layer hydrology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SFHS) is a non information, contact: - Neil JohnsonMWH - Jayantha ObeysekeraSFWMD - Mike SukopFIU - Chris PetersCH2M HILL Sukop, Mike 199 Eco-hydrological controls on...

  12. Transcending the Hydro-Illogical Building a Texas Hydrologic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Transcending the Hydro-Illogical Cycle Building a Texas Hydrologic Information System TX-HIS #12;Q to couple streamflow models to GCMs · We need to break the hydro-illogical cycle and plan for the delivery

  13. Hydrology and Glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Winston

    Examines the state of the science associated with the snow and ice hydrology in the Upper Indus Basin (IUB), reviewing the literature and data available on the present and projected role of glaciers, snow fields, and stream ...

  14. Review of soil water models with respect to savanna hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Julian F; Russell, Graham; Liedloff, Adam C

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective management leading towards sustainable rangeland production in arid and semi-arid regions will stem from effective soil water management and comprehension of the hydrological properties of the soil in relation to pastoralism. However...

  15. Hydrological and Oceanographic Considerations for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sustainable economic development. This study aims to support environmental management at the scaleHydrological and Oceanographic Considerations for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Southern reduce soil fertility in the uplands and nega- tively affect mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef

  16. Modelling the hydrology of the Greenland ice sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karatay, Mehmet Rahmi

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis aims to better understand the relationships between basal water pressure, friction, and sliding mechanisms at ice sheet scales. In particular, it develops a new subglacial hydrology model (Hydro) to explicitly ...

  17. CE 372 Engineering Hydrology and Hydraulics Learning objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehmann, Chris

    time of concentration in two ways. Compute time of concentration using the kinematic-wave, Kerby for exams. 1. Identify and explain processes in the hydrologic cycle. Carry out a water balance. 2. Define

  18. Streamflow forecasting for large-scale hydrologic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awwad, Haitham Munir

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STREAMFLOW FORECASTING FOR LARGE-SCALE HYDROLOGIC SYSTEMS A Thesis by HAITHAM MUNIR AWWAD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1991 Major Subject: Civil Engineering STREAMFLOW FORECASTING FOR LARGE-SCALE HYDROLOGIC SYSTEMS A Thesis by HAITHAM MUNIR AWWAD Approved as to style and content by: uan B. Valdes (Chair of Committee) alph A. Wurbs (Member) Marshall J. Mc...

  19. Multi-scale Characterization and Prediction of Coupled Subsurface Biogeochemical-Hydrological Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan; Williams, Ken; Steefel, Carl; Banfield, Jill; Long, Phil; Slater, Lee; Pride, Steve; Jinsong Chen

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To advance solutions needed for remediation of DOE contaminated sites, approaches are needed that can elucidate and predict reactions associated with coupled biological, geochemical, and hydrological processes over a variety of spatial scales and in heterogeneous environments. Our previous laboratory experimental experiments, which were conducted under controlled and homogeneous conditions, suggest that geophysical methods have the potential for elucidating system transformations that often occur during remediation. Examples include tracking the onset and aggregation of precipitates associated with sulfate reduction using seismic and complex resistivity methods (Williams et al., 2005; Ntarlagiannis et al., 2005) as well as estimating the volume of evolved gas associated with denitrification using radar velocity. These exciting studies illustrated that geophysical responses correlated with biogeochemical changes, but also that multiple factors could impact the geophysical signature and thus a better understanding as well as integration tools were needed to advance the techniques to the point where they can be used to provide quantitative estimates of system transformations.

  20. Influence of topographic stress on rock fracture : a two-dimensional numerical model for arbitrary surface topography and comparisons with borehole observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slim, Mirna I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical calculations indicate that topographic stresses in some landscapes may be large enough to fracture rocks, which in turn could influence slope stability, erosion rates, and bedrock hydrologic properties. These ...

  1. The relation of physical attributes of the Plynlimon catchments to variations in hydrology and water status Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(3), 345354 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The relation of physical attributes of the Plynlimon catchments to variations in hydrology and water status 345 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(3), 345354 (2004) © EGU Anatomy of a catchment: the relation of physical attributes of the Plynlimon catchments to variations in hydrology and water status C

  2. Scale effects on the hydrological impact of upland afforestation and drainage using indices of flow variability Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(3), 325338 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Scale effects on the hydrological impact of upland afforestation and drainage using indices of flow variability 325 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(3), 325338 (2003) © EGU Scale effects on the hydrological impact of upland afforestation and drainage using indices of flow variability: the River Irthing

  3. Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 629644 (2001) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution 629 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 629­644 (2001) © EGS Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution M.T. van Wijk and W

  4. Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 615627 (2001) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology 615 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 615­627 (2001) © EGS Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivity­rain rate relationships for radar hydrology* Remko Uijlenhoet1 Sub-department Water Resources

  5. Over-parameterisation,a major obstacle to the use of artificial neural networks in hydrology ? Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(5), 693706 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over-parameterisation,a major obstacle to the use of artificial neural networks in hydrology ? 693 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(5), 693706 (2003) EGU Over-parameterisation, a major obstacle to the use of artificial neural networks in hydrology ? Eric Gaume and Raphael Gosset Ecole Nationale des

  6. Technical Report TR-011 March 2000 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife TR-011 Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife #12;Technical ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Page Summary

  7. A Tidal Hydrology Assessment for Reconnecting Spring Branch Creek to Suisun Marsh, Solano County CA: Predicting the Impact to the Federally Listed Plant Soft Bird's Beak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Jessica J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this study. Changes in hydrology are not the only potentialA Tidal Hydrology Assessment for Reconnecting Spring Branchmay change the tidal hydrology and impact the area occupied

  8. Lithogenic and cosmogenic tracers in catchment hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimz, G.J.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of physical processes affect solute concentrations within catchment waters. The isotopic compositions of the solutes can indicate which processes have determined the observed concentrations. These processes together constitute the physical history of the water, which is one of the primary concerns in hydrology. Many groundwater solutes are derived as a result of interaction between the water and the rock and/or soil within the system. These are termed {open_quotes}lithogenic{close_quotes} solutes. The isotopic compositions of these solutes provide information regarding rock-water interactions. Many other solutes have their isotopic compositions determined both internally and externally to the catchment system. Important members of this group include solutes that have isotopic compositions produced by atomic particle interactions with other nuclides. The source of the atomic particles can be cosmic radiation (producing {open_quotes}cosmogenic{close_quotes} nuclides in the atmosphere and land surface), anthropogenic nuclear reactions (producing {open_quotes}thermonuclear{close_quotes} nuclides), or radioactive and fission decay of naturally-occurring elements, such as U and Th (producing {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} lithogenic nuclides in the deep subsurface). Current language usage often combines all of the atomic particle-produced nuclides under the heading {open_quotes}cosmogenic nuclides{close_quotes}, and for simplicity we will often follow that usage, although always clearly indicating which variety is being discussed. This paper addresses the processes that affect the lithogenic and cosmogenic solute compositions in groundwater, and how these compositions can therefore be used in integrative ways to understand the physical history of groundwater within a catchment system.

  9. Light-absorbing Particles in Snow and Ice: Measurement and Modeling of Climatic and Hydrological Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Flanner, M. G.; Lau, William K.; Ming, J.; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Mo; Warren, Stephen G.; Zhang, Rudong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light absorbing particles (LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust) influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance (a.k.a., surface darkening), which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice (LAPSI) has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g. in the fourth and fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high. In this review paper, we document various technical methods of measuring LAPSI and review the progress made in measuring the LAPSI in Arctic, Tibetan Plateau and other mid-latitude regions. We also report the progress in modeling the mass concentrations, albedo reduction, radiative forcing, andclimatic and hydrological impact of LAPSI at global and regional scales. Finally we identify some research needs for reducing the uncertainties in the impact of LAPSI on global and regional climate and the hydrological cycle.

  10. Water resources development in Santa Clara Valley, California: insights into the human-hydrologic relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jesse L.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater irrigation is critical to food production and, in turn, to humankind's relationship with its environment. The development of groundwater in Santa Clara Valley, California during the early twentieth century is instructive because (1) responses to unsustainable resource use were largely successful; (2) the proposals for the physical management of the water, although not entirely novel, incorporated new approaches which reveal an evolving relationship between humans and the hydrologic cycle; and (3) the valley serves as a natural laboratory where natural (groundwater basin, surface watershed) and human (county, water district) boundaries generally coincide. Here, I investigate how water resources development and management in Santa Clara Valley was influenced by, and reflective of, a broad understanding of water as a natural resource, including scientific and technological innovations, new management approaches, and changing perceptions of the hydrologic cycle. Market demands and technological advances engendered reliance on groundwater. This, coupled with a series of dry years and laissez faire government policies, led to overdraft. Faith in centralized management and objective engineering offered a solution to concerns over resource depletion, and a group dominated by orchardists soon organized, fought for a water conservation district, and funded an investigation to halt the decline of well levels. Engineer Fred Tibbetts authored an elaborate water salvage and recharge plan that optimized the local water resources by integrating multiple components of the hydrologic cycle. Informed by government investigations, groundwater development in Southern California, and local water law cases, it recognized the limited surface storage possibilities, the spatial and temporal variability, the relatively closed local hydrology, the interconnection of surface and subsurface waters, and the value of the groundwater basin for its storage, transportation, and treatment abilities. The proposal was typically described as complementing an already generous nature, not simply subduing it. Its implementation was limited by political tensions, and fifteen years later, a scaled-down version was constructed. Well levels recovered, but within a decade were declining due to increasing withdrawals. I assert that the approach in Santa Clara Valley was a forerunner to more recent innovations in natural resource management in California and beyond.

  11. Improving land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer model better than a deeper soil profile?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer modelAL. : LAND-SURFACE MODEL HYDROLOGY Changnon, S. , et al. (land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer model

  12. Updating the US Hydrologic Classification: An Approach to Clustering and Stratifying Ecohydrologic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrologic classifications unveil the structure of relationships among groups of streams with differing stream flow and provide a foundation for drawing inferences about the principles that govern those relationships. Hydrologic classes provide a template to describe ecological patterns, generalize hydrologic responses to disturbance, and stratify research and management needs applicable to ecohydrology. We developed two updated hydrologic classifications for the continental US using two streamflow datasets of varying reference standards. Using only reference-quality gages, we classified 1715 stream gages into 12 classes across the US. By including more streamflow gages (n=2618) in a separate classification, we increased the dimensionality (i.e. classes) and hydrologic distinctiveness within regions at the expense of decreasing the natural flow standards (i.e. reference quality). Greater numbers of classes and higher regional affiliation within our hydrologic classifications compared to that of the previous US hydrologic classification (Poff, 1996) suggested that the level of hydrologic variation and resolution was not completely represented in smaller sample sizes. Part of the utility of classification systems rests in their ability classify new objects and stratify analyses. We constructed separate random forests to predict hydrologic class membership based on hydrologic indices or landscape variables. In addition, we provide an approach to assessing potential outliers due to hydrologic alteration based on class assignment. Departures from class membership due to disturbance take into account multiple hydrologic indices simultaneously; thus, classes can be used to determine if disturbed streams are functioning within the realm of natural hydrology.

  13. Electrical resistivity mechanism in magnetorheological elastomer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    polymer. Once the polymer is cured, this anisotropic structure is kept, giving to the composite new the conduction mechanism in such composite, the influence of pressure on the electrical resistivity of metal of the insulating polymer layer strongly adsorbed on the surface of particles. 1. Introduction Conductive polymer

  14. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF DENTAL ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belma Muhamedagi?; Bosna I Hercegovina; Lejla Muhamedagi?; Bosna I Hercegovina

    Metals and metallic alloys are unavoidable materials in everyday dental use for the making of fillings, cast cores and post systems, individual crowns, implantants suprastructures, dentures and orthodontic devices. They still belong to the vital materials in dentistry. Applied alloys in a mouth are exposed to the influence of chemical, biological, mechanical, thermal and electrical forces which can have a negative impact on a very therapeutic work or surrounding tissue. Electrochemical corrosion is the most important damaging factor of dental works. The corrosive resistance of metal is its important characteristic during implantation into a mouth. Therefore precious alloys are the most suitable for dental use. However, due to economic reasons, nonprecious alloys are frequently used, while corrosive resistant precious metals have been used less frequently. Based on studying different literature, the purpose of this work was to give and overview of the existing dental metals and alloys in contexts with their anticorrosive characteristics.

  15. Dynamic Inversion for Hydrological Process Monitoring with Electrical Resistance Tomography Under Model Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehikoinen, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Engineering, in press. Linde, H. , S. Finsterle, and S.10.1029/2004WR003806. Linde, N. , A. Binley, A. Tryggvason,water content estimates [Linde et al. , 2006b]. The value of

  16. Technical Report TR-014 May 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife just like Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology

  17. The hydrology of malaria : field observations and mechanistic modeling of the malaria transmission response to environmental climatic variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bomblies, Arne

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coupled HYDrology, Entomology and MAlaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS) has been developed. The model simulates the hydrological and climatological determinants of malaria transmission mechanistically and at high ...

  18. Simulation of hydrology and population dynamics of Anopheles mosquitoes around the Koka Reservoir in Ethiopia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endo, Noriko S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis applies the HYDRology, Entomology and MAlaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS) to the environment around a water resources reservoir in Ethiopia. HYDREMATS was modified to simulate the local hydrology and the ...

  19. MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE STREAMS Review Paper Maintaining and restoring hydrologic habitat connectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merenlender, Adina

    MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE STREAMS Review Paper Maintaining and restoring hydrologic habitat connectivity in mediterranean streams: an integrated modeling framework Adina M. Merenlender · Mary K. Matella of hydrologic habitat connectivity and benefits of habitat restoration alternatives we provide: (1) a review

  20. Probing the Influence of Stereoelectronic Effects on the Biophysical Properties of Oligonucleotides: Comprehensive Analysis of the RNA Affinity, Nuclease Resistance, and Crystal Structure of Ten 2'-O-Ribonucleic Acid Modifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egli, Martin; Minasov, George; Tereshko, Valentina; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Teplova, Marianna; Inamati, Gopal B.; Lesnik, Elena A.; Owens, Steve R.; Ross, Bruce S.; Prakash, Thazha P.; Manoharan, Muthiah (Isis); (Sloan-Kettering); (Vanderbilt); (Alnylam); (NWU)

    2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The syntheses of 10 new RNA 2'-O-modifications, their incorporation into oligonucleotides, and an evaluation of their properties such as RNA affinity and nuclease resistance relevant to antisense activity are presented. All modifications combined with the natural phosphate backbone lead to significant gains in terms of the stability of hybridization to RNA relative to the first-generation DNA phosphorothioates (PS-DNA). The nuclease resistance afforded in particular by the 2'-O-modifications carrying a positive charge surpasses that of PS-DNA. However, small electronegative 2'-O-substituents, while enhancing the RNA affinity, do not sufficiently protect against degradation by nucleases. Similarly, oligonucleotides containing 3'-terminal residues modified with the relatively large 2'-O-[2-(benzyloxy)ethyl] substituent are rapidly degraded by exonucleases, proving wrong the assumption that steric bulk will generally improve protection against nuclease digestion. To analyze the factors that contribute to the enhanced RNA affinity and nuclease resistance we determined crystal structures of self-complementary A-form DNA decamer duplexes containing single 2'-O-modified thymidines per strand. Conformational preorganization of substituents, favorable electrostatic interactions between substituent and sugar-phosphate backbone, and a stable water structure in the vicinity of the 2'-O-modification all appear to contribute to the improved RNA affinity. Close association of positively charged substituents and phosphate groups was observed in the structures with modifications that protect most effectively against nucleases. The promising properties exhibited by some of the analyzed 2'-O-modifications may warrant a more detailed evaluation of their potential for in vivo antisense applications. Chemical modification of RNA can also be expected to significantly improve the efficacy of small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Therefore, the 2'-O-modifications introduced here may benefit the development of RNAi therapeutics.

  1. 2 Executive Summary Figure 1 Location of White Salmon subbasin, topography, vegetation, demographics, and hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , demographics, and hydrology #12;xii 2.1 Purpose and Scope The White Salmon subbasin management plan

  2. A cyber-infrastructure for the measurement and estimation of large-scale hydrologic processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerkez, Branko

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential Changes in hydropower production from globalirrigation, recreation, hydropower generation, and otheris also generated via hydropower. The major hydrologic

  3. CHEMICAL AND HYDROLOGIC DATA FROM THE CEMENT CREEK AND UPPER ANIMAS RIVER CONFLUENCE AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHEMICAL AND HYDROLOGIC DATA FROM THE CEMENT CREEK AND UPPER ANIMAS RIVER CONFLUENCE AND MIXING.S. Geological Survey #12;CHEMICAL AND HYDROLOGIC DATA FROM THE CEMENT CREEK AND UPPER ANIMAS RIVER CONFLUENCE.H., Schemel, L.E., 2007, Chemical and hydrologic data form the Cement Creek and upper Animas River confluence

  4. A multicomponent coupled model of glacier hydrology 1. Theory and synthetic examples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flowers, Gwenn

    A multicomponent coupled model of glacier hydrology 1. Theory and synthetic examples Gwenn E; published 12 November 2002. [1] Basal hydrology is acknowledged as a fundamental control on glacier dynamics of existing basal hydrology models is the treatment of the glacier bed as an isolated system. We present

  5. Developing a TeraGrid Based Land Surface Hydrology and Weather Modeling Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Wen

    Developing a TeraGrid Based Land Surface Hydrology and Weather Modeling Interface Hsin-I Chang1 iclimate@purdue.edu -------------------- -------------------- 1 INTRODUCTION Real world hydrologic cyberinfrastructure (CI) has been articulated in many workshops and meetings of the environmental and hydrologic

  6. GEOG4750 (GEOG5750) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    GEOG4750 (GEOG5750) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas Department of Geography-11:50 AM or by appointment. Email: fpan@unt.edu Required Text: Elements of Physical Hydrology by Hornberger, G.M., Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. References: Physical Hydrology by Dingman, Prentice

  7. Environmental Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering Degree Requirements for 1year MS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minsker, Barbara S.

    Environmental Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering Degree Requirements for 1year MS To obtain (choose 4 hours) Core Courses [Requireda ] CEE 450: Surface Hydrology CEE 451: Env. Fluid Mech. CEE 457: Groundwater Hydrology CEE 434: Environmental Systems I CEE 595W: Seminar CEE 595W: Seminar Choose at least

  8. Ellen Marie Douglas, PE, PG, PhD Assistant Professor, Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Ellen M.

    Ellen Marie Douglas, PE, PG, PhD Assistant Professor, Hydrology Environmental, Earth and Ocean. 9758 1998 M.S. CIVIL ENGINEERING, University of New Hampshire 1994 B.S. in HYDROLOGY, University of New Hampshire, GPA 3.94/4.00 1991 Summa Cum Laude , University Honors in Hydrology AWARDS EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING

  9. Andy Bullock and Mike Acreman Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(3), 358389 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Andy Bullock and Mike Acreman 358 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(3), 358389 (2003) © EGU The role of wetlands in the hydrological cycle Andy Bullock1 and Mike Acreman2 1 Independent Consultant, Ledbury, Herefordshire, HR8 2DX, UK 2 Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BB, UK

  10. Franois Anctil and Nicolas Lauzon Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(5), 940958 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    François Anctil and Nicolas Lauzon 940 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(5), 940958 (2004.lauzon@golder.com Abstract Since the 1990s, neural networks have been applied to many studies in hydrology and water and stacking having been applied regularly in hydrology and water resources for some years, while Bayesian

  11. HYDROLOGY, HYDROCHEMISTRY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER SUPPLY OF A CLOUD FOREST IN CENTRAL AMERICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    HYDROLOGY, HYDROCHEMISTRY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER SUPPLY OF A CLOUD FOREST IN CENTRAL AMERICA Alonso Caballero #12;HYDROLOGY, HYDROCHEMISTRY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER SUPPLY OF A CLOUD FOREST and dry periods. Consequently, the tropical hydrology of cloud-forest watersheds is not well studied

  12. Bettina Ott and Stefan Uhlenbrook Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(1), 6278 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Bettina Ott and Stefan Uhlenbrook 62 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(1), 6278 (2004) © EGU, Wasserwirtschaftsamt Bamberg, Kasernstra?e 4, 96047 Bamberg, Germany 2 University of Freiburg, Institute of Hydrology, Fahnenbergplatz, D-79098 Freiburg, Germany E-mail for corresponding author: stefan.uhlenbro@hydrology

  13. GEOG4750 (GEOG5960.02) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    GEOG4750 (GEOG5960.02) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas Department of Geography-12:00PM or by appointment. Email: fpan@unt.edu Required Text: Elements of Physical Hydrology by Hornberger, G.M., Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. References: Physical Hydrology by Dingman, Prentice

  14. Simulated Global Atmospheric Dust Distribution: Sensitivity to Regional Topography, Geomorphology, and Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    , and Hydrology Charles S. Zender, Earth System Science Dept., UC Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (zender@uci.edu) David for predicting future trends in dust production. We identify three related geomorphologic and hydrologic hydrologically disturbed/renewed sed- iments. Dust models which attempt to account for sediment-rich source

  15. GEOG4750 (GEOG5750) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    GEOG4750 (GEOG5750) Surface Water Hydrology University of North Texas Department of Geography:50 AM or by appointment. Email: feifei.pan@unt.edu Required Text: Elements of Physical Hydrology by Hornberger, G.M., Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. References: Physical Hydrology by Dingman, Prentice

  16. Z .Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 36 1999 7389 Transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z .Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 36 1999 73­89 Transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain P17?ironmental Engineering, Uni?ersity of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA d Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, Uni-7722 98 00143-0 #12;( )D.G. Jewett et al.rJournal of Contaminant Hydrology 36 1999 73­8974 the interface

  17. Mountain hydrology of the western United States Roger C. Bales,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Mountain hydrology of the western United States Roger C. Bales,1 Noah P. Molotch,2,3 Thomas H, population growth, and land use change drive the need for new hydrologic knowledge and understanding. In the mountainous West and other similar areas worldwide, three pressing hydrologic needs stand out: first

  18. Hydrology as a driver of biodiversity: Controls on carrying capacity, niche formation, and dispersal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konar, Megan

    Hydrology as a driver of biodiversity: Controls on carrying capacity, niche formation Centre for Hydrology, ``Dino Tonini'', Padua, Italy a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Available online 3 March 2012 Keywords: Hydrology Biodiversity Dispersal Carrying capacity Niches Climate change

  19. Mira Kobold and Kay Suelj Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(4), 322332 (2005) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mira Kobold and Kay Suelj 322 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(4), 322332 (2005) © EGU Precipitation forecasts and their uncertainty as input into hydrological models Mira Kobold and Kay Suelj the weather forecasts with the information on catchment conditions and a hydrological forecasting model can

  20. Earth'sFuture Socio-hydrology: Use-inspired water sustainability science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konar, Megan

    Earth'sFuture Socio-hydrology: Use-inspired water sustainability science for the Anthropocene M socio-hydrology as a use-inspired scientific discipline to focus on understanding, interpretation scales. A key aspect of socio-hydrology is explicit inclusion of two-way feedbacks between human

  1. Journal of Hydrology 161 (1994)91-108 Variably saturated modeling of transient drainage: sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Journal of Hydrology ELSEVIER [1] Journal of Hydrology 161 (1994)91-108 Variably saturated modeling-1694(94)02509-A #12;92 W.R. Wise et al. / Journal of Hydrology 161 (1994) 91-108 transient unconfined flow through

  2. Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Note Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology.Understanding how the hydrologic cycle is affected by climate, trees and plants, soils, geology, topography, springs, or any Figure 1. The hydrologic cycle, or water cycle (courtesy of the US Geological Survey

  3. artesian borehole, Singhida (central Tanzania) Hydrology, weather and groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Paul

    -WATCH Ensemble: WaterGAP contemporaneous hindcast of subsurface runoff using the Global Hydrological Model WaterGAP does not linear relationship plot prepared by Roz Price and Prof Martin Todd (USussex model (WaterGAP) is problematic Dll and Florke (2005) cited in AR4 a further stumbling block

  4. Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment Hydrology, Earth Science and Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    · GRACE and Geophysics ­ 2004 Sumatra Earthquake · GRACE and Climate Change ­ East Greenland Melting ­ Observe changes with unprecidented accuracy GRACE can not discriminate between sources/causes Water: Atmosphere (Transport of water, pressure) Climate (Glaciers, Ice mass melting -> Run off) Hydrology

  5. Urban Hydrology: theory and new approaches for stormwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    management practices and strategies. "water is a precious resource, keep it here, clean it, save it for laterUrban Hydrology: theory and new approaches for stormwater management Jack Ahern, Professor Dept source(s), and infiltrating as much as possible into the soil through the implementation of best

  6. A method to hydrologically isolate water soluble wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rooney, Daniel James

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A natural cover system with gravel used as a capillary barrier was designed and evaluated as a method to hydrologically isolate buried water soluble oil and gas wastes. Simulated cover systems were installed in 200 liter barrels and tested in a...

  7. DIVISION S-3-NOTES HYDROLOGIC TRACER EFFECTS ON SOIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Art

    ,* ARTHUR J. GOLD, AND GALEN HOWARD Abstract While muchresearch has shown thatthecommonly used hydrologic such P.M. Groffman, Inst. of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB, Millbrook, NY 12545; A.J. Gold and G. Howard, Dep. Methods The soil used for these experiments is a Rainbow silt loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic

  8. High-resolution, multi-scale modeling of watershed hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vivoni, Enrique R.

    Enrique R. Vivoni An Opportunity to Integrate Remote Sensing Observations, Field Data Collection distribution of topography, rainfall, soils, vegetation, meteorology, soil moisture. Field Data and Remote's Hydrologic and Energetic System: Water and Heat Storages and Transports over Many Time and Space Scales P ET

  9. Soil property database: Southern Great Plains 1997 Hydrology Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    measurement campaigns have been carried out concurrently with large-scale remote sensing hydrologic campaigns surface and the subsurface and the highly nonlinear nature of local-scale water and heat transport head, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity) and the soil thermal properties (heat capacity, heat

  10. ERDC TN-EMRRP-EBA-8 Hydrologic Analyses for Stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ERDC TN-EMRRP-EBA-8 March 2011 Hydrologic Analyses for Stream Restoration Design by J. Craig quantified element in stream restoration, working across and governing multiple disciplines and system, and management decisions to be made (Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (FISRWG) 1998). Figure

  11. Observational evidence of an intensifying hydrological cycle in northern Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dery, Stephen

    Observational evidence of an intensifying hydrological cycle in northern Canada Stephen J. De´ry,1 for 45 rivers spanning 5.2 ? 106 km2 of northern Canada are investigated. Discharge averages 1153 km3 yr of northern Canada, excluding some rivers with outlets to the Labrador Sea and eastern James Bay

  12. Economic and Hydrologic Implications of Proposed Edwards Aquifer Management Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, Carl R.; Jones, Lonnie L.; Williams, R. Lynn; Jordan, Wayne R.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    on water elevation in a reference well located in San Antonio. Four variants of the plans were analyzed using an annual economic/hydrologic simulation model of the aquifer. The model simulates water use by the agricultural, industrial and municipal sectors...

  13. Remote Sensing Data and Information for Hydrological Monitoring and Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakauer, Nir Y.

    1 Remote Sensing Data and Information for Hydrological Monitoring and Modeling Reza Khanbilvardi Springs, MD, USA 1 Introduction Remote sensing data and information are shown great potential in supplying measurements, remote sensing based measurements are spatially averages over the pixels can appropriate

  14. CRWR Online Report 1006 Hydrologic Analysis Before and After

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    as an integral part of the water management. As a result, the environmental condition in this reach has beenCRWR Online Report 1006 Hydrologic Analysis Before and After Reservoir Alteration Reservoir. Important habitats such as the Big Ben national and state park in the U.S. and Maderas del

  15. Groundwater and global hydrological change current challenges and new insight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Groundwater and global hydrological change current challenges and new insight R. TAYLOR1 , L Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands 11 Federal Institute for Geosciences, groundwater plays a critical role in enabling communities to adapt to freshwater shortages derived from low

  16. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

    2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

  17. Hydrological application of the INCA model with varying spatial resolution and nitrogen dynamics in a northern river basin Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(3), 339350 (2002) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Hydrological application of the INCA model with varying spatial resolution and nitrogen dynamics in a northern river basin 339 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(3), 339­350 (2002) © EGS Hydrological ), this paper focuses on calibration of the hydrological part of the model and nitrogen (N) dynamics

  18. Sensitivity of Global Terrestrial Gross Primary Production to Hydrologic States Simulated by the Community Land Model Using Two Runoff Parameterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Huimin; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Dawen; Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Hayes, Daniel J.; Schwalm, C.; Wei, Yaxing; Liu, Shishi

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The terrestrial water and carbon cycles interact strongly at various spatio-temporal scales. To elucidate how hydrologic processes may influence carbon cycle processes, differences in terrestrial carbon cycle simulations induced by structural differences in two runoff generation schemes were investigated using the Community Land Model 4 (CLM4). Simulations were performed with runoff generation using the default TOPMODEL-based and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model approaches under the same experimental protocol. The comparisons showed that differences in the simulated gross primary production (GPP) are mainly attributed to differences in the simulated leaf area index (LAI) rather than soil moisture availability. More specifically, differences in runoff simulations can influence LAI through changes in soil moisture, soil temperature, and their seasonality that affect the onset of the growing season and the subsequent dynamic feedbacks between terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles. As a result of a relative difference of 36% in global mean total runoff between the two models and subsequent changes in soil moisture, soil temperature, and LAI, the simulated global mean GPP differs by 20.4%. However, the relative difference in the global mean net ecosystem exchange between the two models is small (2.1%) due to competing effects on total mean ecosystem respiration and other fluxes, although large regional differences can still be found. Our study highlights the significant interactions among the water, energy, and carbon cycles and the need for reducing uncertainty in the hydrologic parameterization of land surface models to better constrain carbon cycle modeling.

  19. ELSEVIER Journal of Hydrology 199 (1997) 88-120 Linking the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    -stream saturated zones, centering on stream environments of the northern, teml~rate-forested zone. N retention and hydrodynamic scenarios relating N biogeochemistry and its response to hydrologic events (of both varying-state in terms of biological aggradation and N demand (Sullivan, 1993). The environmental consequences

  20. Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory Prospectus Submitted to CUAHSI for consideration as a CUAHSI Hydrologic Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    1 Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory Prospectus Submitted to CUAHSI for consideration.S., the Great Salt Lake Basin provides the opportunity to observe climate and human-induced land-surface changes relationship between people and water across the globe and make the Great Salt Lake Basin a microcosm

  1. Improved extraction of hydrologic information from geophysical data through coupled hydrogeophysical inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinnell, A.C.; Ferre, T.P.A.; Vrugt, J.A.; Huisman, J.A.; Moysey, S.; Rings, J.; Kowalsky, M.B.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is increasing interest in the use of multiple measurement types, including indirect (geophysical) methods, to constrain hydrologic interpretations. To date, most examples integrating geophysical measurements in hydrology have followed a three-step, uncoupled inverse approach. This approach begins with independent geophysical inversion to infer the spatial and/or temporal distribution of a geophysical property (e.g. electrical conductivity). The geophysical property is then converted to a hydrologic property (e.g. water content) through a petrophysical relation. The inferred hydrologic property is then used either independently or together with direct hydrologic observations to constrain a hydrologic inversion. We present an alternative approach, coupled inversion, which relies on direct coupling of hydrologic models and geophysical models during inversion. We compare the abilities of coupled and uncoupled inversion using a synthetic example where surface-based electrical conductivity surveys are used to monitor one-dimensional infiltration and redistribution.

  2. Getting the right answers for the right reasons: linking measurements, analyses, and models to advance the science of hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    to advance the science of hydrology James W. Kirchner, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 U.S.A. The day-to-day business of hydrology has largely been shaped the science of hydrology, as opposed to the operational practice of hydrology -- that is, to improve our

  3. Analysis of the Hydrologic Response Associated With Shutdown and Restart of the 200-ZP-1 WMA T Tank Farm Pump-and-Treat System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, Frank A.

    2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines possible hydrologic effects of pump-and-treat remediation actions and provides a detailed analysis of water-level measurements for selected 200-ZP-1 T Tank Farm pump-and-treat system monitor wells during a recent shutdown (May 1, 2008) and restart activity (June 4, 2008) involving extraction well 299-W11-46. Specifically, this report 1) applies to recently developed methods for removing barometric pressure fluctuations from well water-level measurements to enhance the detection of pump-and-treat system effects at selected monitor wells, 2) analyzes the barometric-corrected well water-level responses to determine large-scale hydraulic properties, and 3) assesses characteristics and conditions that influence hydrologic responses (both laterally and vertically) associated with pump-and-treat systems. The general findings presented in this report have universal application for unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  4. Use of Normalized Radial Basis Function in Hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotar, Anton; Brilly, Mitja [Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Jamova 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we will present a use of normalized radial basis function in hydrology for prediction of missing river Reka runoff data. The method is based on multidimensional normal distribution, where standard deviation is first optimized and later the whole prediction process is learned on existing data [5]. We can conclude, that the method works very well for middle ranges of data, but not so well for extremes because of its interpolating nature.

  5. General soil hydrology files for GOSSYM/COMAX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akins, Dennis C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    soil hydrology files. Bulk density and hydraulic conductivity values corresponding to the final soil groups. Yield predictions on Westwood silt loam when bubbling pressure snd sir dry water content are varied. Deviation from average yield... predictions on Westwood silt loam when bubbling pressure and air dry water content are varied. Sensitivity of GOSSYM yield predictions to changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity. Sensitivity of GOSSYM yield predictions to changes in beta (P...

  6. Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) River System Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, R.

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    monthly evaporation less precipitation depths. The primary HYD output is SIM input FLO and EVA files of IN and EV records or these SIM hydrology input data as a data storage system DSS file. HYD also includes options for reading and writing stream flow... reservoir surface net evaporation less precipitation depths which are input to SIM as a file with filename extension EVA or DSS Chapter 1 Introduction 3 The monthly stream flow volumes and net evaporation-precipitation depths cover a specified...

  7. Pore-scale study of dissolution-induced changes in hydrologic properties of rocks with binary minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li; Viswanathan, Hari S; Tao, Wenquan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pore-scale numerical model for reactive transport processes based on the Lattice Boltzmann method is used to study the dissolution-induced changes in hydrologic properties of a fractured medium and a porous medium. The solid phase of both media consists of two minerals, and a structure reconstruction method called quartet structure generation set is employed to generate the distributions of both minerals. Emphasis is put on the effects of undissolved minerals on the changes of permeability and porosity under different Peclet and Damkohler numbers. The simulation results show porous layers formed by the undissolved mineral remain behind the dissolution reaction front. Due to the large flow resistance in these porous layers, the permeability increases very slowly or even remains at a small value although the porosity increases by a large amount. Besides, due to the heterogeneous characteristic of the dissolution, the chemical, mechanical and hydraulic apertures are very different from each other. Further, sim...

  8. Factors influencing algal biomass in hydrologically dynamic salt ponds in a subtropical salt marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Carrie J.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    by channels and shallow ponds that are subject to flooding by winds, tides, and storm surges. Coastal salt marshes are widely regarded as zones of high macrophyte productivity. However, microalgae may contribute more to salt marsh productivity than previously...

  9. Land conversion in Amazonia and Northern South America : influences on regional hydrology and ecosystem response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knox, Ryan Gary

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model of the terrestrial biosphere (Ecosystem Demography Model) is compbined with an atmospheric model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) to investigate how land conversion in the Amazon and ...

  10. The simulation of natural soil pipes and their influence on catchment hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barcelo, Mark David

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    layer were assumed to be hydrostatic so that a two-dimensional flow analysis could be used. The depth of soil was allowed to vary in a realistic fashion. The governing equation used to describe the saturated/unsaturated flow problem was the two... dimensional form of the Richards equation for flow through porous media. In order to simulate the three dimensional problem using a two dimensional analysis, the Richards equation was rederived to incorporate the variable soil depth term (Beven, 1977a...

  11. Combined influence of atmospheric physics and soil hydrology on the simulated meteorology at the SIRTA atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hourdin, Chez Frdric

    for This paper is a contribution to the special issue on the IPSL and CNRM global climate and Earth System Models it to evaluate the standard and new parametrizations of boundary layer/convection/clouds in the Earth System Model (ESM) of Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), which differentiate the IPSL-CM5A and IPSL- CM5B

  12. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone isthe one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the proposed approach and to examine the flow direction and magnitude on both sides of a suspected fault. We describe a strategy for effective characterization of fault zone hydrology. We recommend conducting a long term pump test followed by a long term buildup test. We do not recommend isolating the borehole into too many intervals. We do recommend ensuring durability and redundancy for long term monitoring.

  13. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1980-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  14. From Consumer Resistance to Stakeholder Resistance The case of nanotechnology*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 From Consumer Resistance to Stakeholder Resistance The case of nanotechnology* Caroline Gauthier proposes to study the resistance of stakeholders, by exploring the nanotech field. Nanotechnology is today in the resistance context. Keywords. Nanotechnology; Resistance Bio. Caroline Gauthier is currently Professor

  15. Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Using Airphotos to Interpret

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture March 2004 Research Section, Coast Forest Region, BCMOF 1 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology

  16. Graduate Opportunities in Earth Systems Modeling and Climate Impacts on Hydrology and Water Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graduate Opportunities in Earth Systems Modeling and Climate Impacts on Hydrology and Water research assistantships available in the general area of earth systems modeling and climate impacts

  17. Correspondences DDT resistance in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckling, Angus

    Magazine R587 Correspondences DDT resistance in flies carries no cost Caroline McCart1, Angus to carry a cost in the absence of pesticide and consequently not to spread to fixation [1,2]. However, DDT resistance in Drosophila melanogaster (DDT-R) is approaching fixation globally, long after withdrawl of DDT

  18. Technical Report TR-014 May 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife TR-014 Tools9T 6E9, 250-751-7001 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

  19. Technical Report TR-012 March 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife TR-012: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife #12;Technical Report TR ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife Page Summary 2 Keywords 2

  20. Technical Report TR-013 March 2001 Research Section, Vancouver Forest Region, BCMOF Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife TR-013 Hydrology March 2001 Roberts Creek Study Forest: Pre-harvest chemical characteristics of three S6 creeks-751-7001 Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture ~ Wildlife

  1. Extraction of Hydrological Proximity Measures from DEMs using Parallel Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Tarboton, David G.; Watson, Daniel W.; Schreuders, Kimberly A.; Baker, Matthew M.; Wallace, Robert M.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Land surface topography is one of the most important terrain properties which impact hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological processes active on a landscape. In our previous efforts to develop a soil depth model based upon topographic and land cover variables, we extracted a set of hydrological proximity measures (HPMs) from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as potential explanatory variables for soil depth. These HPMs may also have other, more general modeling applicability in hydrology, geomorphology and ecology, and so are described here from a general perspective. The HPMs we derived are variations of the distance up to ridge points (cells with no incoming flow) and variations of the distance down to stream points (cells with a contributing area greater than a threshold), following the flow path. These HPMs were computed using the D-infinity flow model that apportions flow between adjacent neighbors based on the direction of steepest downward slope on the eight triangular facets constructed in a 3 x 3 grid cell window using the center cell and each pair of adjacent neighboring grid cells in turn. The D-infinity model typically results in multiple flow paths between 2 points on the topography, with the result that distances may be computed as the minimum, maximum or average of the individual flow paths. In addition, each of the HPMs, are calculated vertically, horizontally, and along the land surface. Previously, these HPMs were calculated using recursive serial algorithms which suffered from stack overflow problems when used to process large datasets, limiting the size of DEMs that could be analyzed using that method to approximately 7000 x 7000 cells. To overcome this limitation, we developed a message passing interface (MPI) parallel approach for calculating these HPMs. The parallel algorithms of the HPMs spatially partition the input grid into stripes which are each assigned to separate processes for computation. Each of those processes then uses a queue data structure to order the processing of cells so that each cell is visited only once and the cross-process communications that are a standard part of MPI are handled in an efficient manner. This parallel approach allows analysis of much larger DEMs as compared to the serial recursive algorithms. In this paper, we present the definitions of the HPMs, the serial and parallel algorithms used in their extraction and their potential applications in hydrology, geomorphology and ecology.

  2. Hydrologic studies in wells open through large intervals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes and summarizes activities, data, and preliminary data interpretation from the INEL Oversight Program R D-1 project titled Hydrologic Studies In Wells Open Through Large Intervals.'' The project is designed to use a straddle-packer system to isolate, hydraulically test, and sample specific intervals of monitoring wells that are open (uncased, unscreened) over large intervals of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The objectives of the project are to determine and compare vertical variations in water quality and aquifer properties that have previously only been determined in an integrated fashion over the entire thickness of the open interval of the observation wells.

  3. Hydrologic resources management program, FY 1998 progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedict, F.C.; Criss, R.E.; Davisson, M.L.; Eaton, G.F.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.M.; Rose, T.P.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results from FY 1998 technical studies conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. The HRMP is sponsored by Defense Programs (DP) of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), and supports DP operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) through studies of radiochemistry and resource management related to the defense programs mission. Other participating organizations include the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Bechtel-Nevada (BN). The UGTA project is an Environmental Management (EM) activity of DOE/NV that supports a Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order between the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. UGTA's primary function is to address the legacy release of hazardous constituents at the Nevada Test Site, the Tonopah Test Range, and off-Nevada Test Site underground nuclear testing areas. Participating contractors include LLNL (Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate, Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division), LANL, DRI, USGS, BN, HSI-GeoTrans, and IT Corporation. The FY 1998 HRMP and UGTA annual progress report follows the organization and contents of our FY 1997 report (Smith et al., 1998), and includes our results from CY 1997-1998 technical studies of radionuclide migration and isotope hydrology at the Nevada Test Site. During FY 1998, LLNL continued its efforts under the HRMP to pursue a technical agenda relevant to the science-based stockpile stewardship program at DOE/NV. Support to UGTA in FY 1998 included efforts to quantitatively define the radionuclide source term residual from underground nuclear weapons testing and the derivative solution, or hydrologic source term, from radionuclides dissolved in or transported by groundwater. The hydrologic source term is a component of a predicted dose assessment for the five principal NTS testing areas.

  4. Hydrologic Monitoring Summary Long Valley Caldera, California | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California:ProjectPrograms |Information Hydrologic

  5. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hof, Peter J. (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  6. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  7. Persistence of Hydrologic Variables and Reactive Stream Solute Concentrations in an East Tennessee Watershed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koirala, Shesh R [ORNL; Gentry, Randall W [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL; Schwartz, John S [ORNL; Sayler, Gary Steven [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time and frequency domain analyses were conducted on weekly time series of water chemistry (nitrate, sulfate and calcium concentrations) collected from November 1995 to December 2005 at the West Fork of Walker Branch in Oak Ridge, Tennessee to evaluate the extent of their persistence and the relationship of this persistence to discharge and rainfall. In this study, spectral and wavelet analyses provided a theoretical basis for insights into long-term water chemistry behavior. All water chemistry parameters showed some level of persistence that was influenced by rainfall and/or discharge. Short-term persistence (less than a year) was related to the persistence of rainfall and discharge, whereas long-term persistence (more than a year) was related to the persistence of discharge. The Walker Branch conceptual hydrology model is augmented by these results that relate characteristic periodicities with flowpaths through different zones: the vadose zone (< 20 week period), saturated zone (20-50 week period) and bedrock zone (> 50 week period) with implications for reactive chemistries within the watershed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of snow and glacier melt in controlling river hydrology in Liddar watershed (western Himalaya) under current and future climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeelani, G.; Feddema, Johannes J.; van der Veen, Cornelis J.; Stearns, Leigh

    2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    [1] Snowmelt and icemelt are believed to be important regulators of seasonal discharge of Himalayan rivers. To analyze the long term contribution of snowmelt and glacier/icemelt to river hydrology we apply a water budget model to simulate hydrology...

  9. Towards Better Utilization of NEXRAD Data in Hydrology: an Overview of Hydro-NEXRAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Ramon

    Towards Better Utilization of NEXRAD Data in Hydrology: an Overview of Hydro-NEXRAD Witold F metadata extraction and management techniques are required. The authors describe and discuss the Hydro of the Hydro-NEXRAD project is to increase the use of NEXRAD data in hydrologic research. The project

  10. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) of GRACE, hydrological and hydro-meteorological signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuttgart, Universität

    1 Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) of GRACE, hydrological and hydro-meteorological signals M. J and Hydro-meteorology Hydrology GRACE Hydro-meteorology RQ dt dS dt dMdS RETP . dt AH a #12;3 GRACE, times based signals #12;12 CCA on catchments based ­ GRACE and hydro-meteorology T GDGDGD T VUQ dt d

  11. Reconstructing the duty of water: a study of emergent norms in socio-hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wescoat, James

    This paper assesses the changing norms of water use known as the duty of water. It is a case study in historical socio-hydrology, or more precisely the history of socio-hydrologic ideas, a line of research that is useful ...

  12. Development of Characterization Technology for Fault Zone Hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Gasperikova, Erika; Goto, Junichi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Tadashi; Ueta, Keiichi; Kiho, Kenzo; MIyakawa, Kimio

    2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Several deep trenches were cut, and a number of geophysical surveys were conducted across the Wildcat Fault in the hills east of Berkeley, California. The Wildcat Fault is believed to be a strike-slip fault and a member of the Hayward Fault System, with over 10 km of displacement. So far, three boreholes of ~;; 150m deep have been core-drilled and borehole geophysical logs were conducted. The rocks are extensively sheared and fractured; gouges were observed at several depths and a thick cataclasitic zone was also observed. While confirming some earlier, published conclusions from shallow observations about Wildcat, some unexpected findings were encountered. Preliminary analysis indicates that Wildcat near the field site consists of multiple faults. The hydraulic test data suggest the dual properties of the hydrologic structure of the fault zone. A fourth borehole is planned to penetrate the main fault believed to lie in-between the holes. The main philosophy behind our approach for the hydrologic characterization of such a complex fractured system is to let the system take its own average and monitor a long term behavior instead of collecting a multitude of data at small length and time scales, or at a discrete fracture scale and to ?up-scale,? which is extremely tenuous.

  13. Modelling floods in theAmmer catchment:limitations and challenges with a coupled meteo-hydrological model approach Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 833847 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling floods in theAmmer catchment:limitations and challenges with a coupled meteo-hydrological model approach 833 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 833847 (2003) © EGU Modelling floods in the Ammer catchment: limitations and challenges with a coupled meteo-hydrological model approach R. Ludwig1

  14. Freeze resistant buoy system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, David E [Knoxville, TN; Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A freeze resistant buoy system includes a tail-tube buoy having a thermally insulated section disposed predominantly above a waterline, and a thermo-siphon disposed predominantly below the waterline.

  15. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 3148, 2006 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/10/31/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 31­48, 2006 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/10/31/ SRef-ID: 1607-7938/hess/2006-10-31 European Geosciences Union Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Transport International Centre for Hydrology "Dino Tonini" and Dipartimento IMAGE, Universit`a di Padova, via Loredan 20

  16. Nordic Hydrology, 33 (5),2002,331-346 No part may be reproducedby any process without complete reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Nordic Hydrology, 33 (5),2002,331-346 No part may be reproducedby any process without complete models. Considerable time and effort has been directed to model this process, and many hydrologic models models. Considerable time and effort has been devoted to model these processes, and many hydrologic

  17. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 111126, 2005 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/9/111/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 111­126, 2005 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/9/111/ SRef-ID: 1607-7938/hess/2005-9-111 European Geosciences Union Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Constraints of artificial neural networks for rainfall-runoff modelling: trade-offs in hydrological state representation

  18. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 1929, 2006 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/10/19/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 19­29, 2006 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/10/19/ SRef-ID: 1607-7938/hess/2006-10-19 European Geosciences Union Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Transport. Marani International Centre for Hydrology "Dino Tonini" and Dipartimento IMAGE, Universit`a di Padova

  19. Inferring catchment precipitation by doing hydrology backward: A test in 24 small and mesoscale catchments in Luxembourg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Inferring catchment precipitation by doing hydrology backward: A test in 24 small and mesoscale September 2012; published 10 October 2012. [1] The complexity of hydrological systems and the necessary simplification of models describing these systems remain major challenges in hydrological modeling. Kirchner

  20. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 127137, 2006 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/10/127/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 127­137, 2006 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/10/127/ SRef-ID: 1607-7938/hess/2006-10-127 European Geosciences Union Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Centre, Maun, Botswana Received: 11 August 2005 ­ Published in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences

  1. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 314, 2005 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/9/3/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 3­14, 2005 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/9/3/ SRef-ID: 1607-7938/hess/2005-9-3 European Geosciences Union Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Bringing it all, Dublin, Ireland Received: 6 December 2004 ­ Published in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions

  2. Journal of Hydrology 161 (1994) 71-90 A physically based, two-dimensional, finite-difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Journal of Hydrology ELSEVIER [1] Journal of Hydrology 161 (1994) 71-90 A physically based, two SSDI 0022-1694(94)02512-A #12;72 T.P. Clement et al. / Journal of Hydrology 161 (1994) 71-90 present

  3. DanielViviroli and RolfWeingartner Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(6), 10161029 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DanielViviroli and RolfWeingartner 1016 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(6), 10161029 (2004) © EGU The hydrological significance of mountains: from regional to global scale Daniel Viviroli and Rolf share of the worlds population with fresh water. Quantification of the hydrological significance

  4. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 95109, 2005 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/9/95/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 95­109, 2005 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/9/95/ SRef-ID: 1607-7938/hess/2005-9-95 European Geosciences Union Hydrology and Earth System Sciences A conceptual glacio-hydrological model for high mountainous catchments B. Schaefli, B. Hingray, M. Niggli, and A. Musy

  5. Atul H. Haria and Paul Shand Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(3), 334344 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Atul H. Haria and Paul Shand 334 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(3), 334344 (2004) © EGU and stream flow generation Atul H. Haria1 and Paul Shand2 1 Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean, groundwater, Hafren, hillslope hydrology, Plynlimon, recharge, soil water, streamflow generation Introduction

  6. Soon Thiam Khu and Micha G.F.Werner Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(5), 680692 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Soon Thiam Khu and Micha G.F.Werner 680 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(5), 680692 (2003) © EGU Reduction of Monte-Carlo simulation runs for uncertainty estimation in hydrological modelling Soon applied for the estimation of uncertainties in hydrological models due to uncertain parameters. One

  7. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 7991, 2006 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/10/79/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10, 79­91, 2006 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/10/79/ SRef-ID: 1607-7938/hess/2006-10-79 European Geosciences Union Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Scale, USA Received: 1 August 2005 ­ Published in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions: 30 August

  8. Fracture toughness of the molten zone of resistance spot welds Florent Krajcarz1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ). In these tests, the load vs. load line displacement curve is recorded to derive the weld strength (i.e. maximal of the base metal still significantly influences the load vs. displacement curve, yet to a lesser extent than and the crack extension resistance of the molten zone of resistance spot welds under Mode I loading has been

  9. Characterization of Coupled Hydrologic-Biogeochemical Processes Using Geophysical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes are naturally coupled and variable over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Many remediation approaches also induce dynamic transformations in natural systems, such as the generation of gases, precipitates and biofilms. These dynamic transformations are often coupled and can reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic materials, making it difficult to introduce amendments or to perform targeted remediation. Because it is difficult to predict these transformations, our ability to develop effective and sustainable remediation conditions at contaminated sites is often limited. Further complicating the problem is the inability to collect the necessary measurements at a high enough spatial resolution yet over a large enough volume for understanding field-scale transformations.

  10. Satellite remote sensing for hydrology and water management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, E.C.; Power, C.H. (Univ. of Bristol (GB)); Micallef, A. (Univ. of Malta, Valletta (IT)); Voute, C. (International Inst. for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences, Enschede (NL))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in satellite remote sensing is fast moving away from pure science and individual case studies towards truly operational applications. At the same time the micro-computer revolution is ensuring that data reception and processing facilities need no longer be the preserve of a small number of global centers, but can be common-place installations in smaller countries and even local regional agency offices or laboratories. As remote sensing matures, and its applications proliferate, a new type of treatment is required to ensure both that decision makers, managers and engineers with problems to solve are informed of today's opportunities and that scientists are provided with integrated overviews of the ever-growing need for their services. This book addresses these needs uniquely focusing on the area bounded by satellite remote sensing, pure and applied hydrological sciences, and a specific world region, namely the Mediterranean basin.

  11. Techniques to Access Databases and Integrate Data for Hydrologic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, Gene; Tenney, Nathan D.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Droppo, James G.; Meyer, Philip D.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This document addresses techniques to access and integrate data for defining site-specific conditions and behaviors associated with ground-water and surface-water radionuclide transport applicable to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews. Environmental models typically require input data from multiple internal and external sources that may include, but are not limited to, stream and rainfall gage data, meteorological data, hydrogeological data, habitat data, and biological data. These data may be retrieved from a variety of organizations (e.g., federal, state, and regional) and source types (e.g., HTTP, FTP, and databases). Available data sources relevant to hydrologic analyses for reactor licensing are identified and reviewed. The data sources described can be useful to define model inputs and parameters, including site features (e.g., watershed boundaries, stream locations, reservoirs, site topography), site properties (e.g., surface conditions, subsurface hydraulic properties, water quality), and site boundary conditions, input forcings, and extreme events (e.g., stream discharge, lake levels, precipitation, recharge, flood and drought characteristics). Available software tools for accessing established databases, retrieving the data, and integrating it with models were identified and reviewed. The emphasis in this review was on existing software products with minimal required modifications to enable their use with the FRAMES modeling framework. The ability of four of these tools to access and retrieve the identified data sources was reviewed. These four software tools were the Hydrologic Data Acquisition and Processing System (HDAPS), Integrated Water Resources Modeling System (IWRMS) External Data Harvester, Data for Environmental Modeling Environmental Data Download Tool (D4EM EDDT), and the FRAMES Internet Database Tools. The IWRMS External Data Harvester and the D4EM EDDT were identified as the most promising tools based on their ability to access and retrieve the required data, and their ability to integrate the data into environmental models using the FRAMES environment.

  12. Hydrogen Permeation Resistant Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KORINKO, PAUL; ADAMS, THAD; CREECH, GREGGORY

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings may be applied to these ferrous alloys to retard hydrogen ingress. Hydrogen is known to be very mobile in materials of construction. In this study, the permeation resistance of bare stainless steel samples and coated stainless steel samples was tested. The permeation resistance was measured using a modular permeation rig using a pressure rise technique. The coating microstructure and permeation results will be discussed in this document as will some additional testing.

  13. Vital Stats SPLIT RESISTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    6 TONS) That's as much as one female African elephant! 25 T SPLITAN ENGINEERING MARVEL W hile the Magnet Lab has developed 14 previous world- record resistive magnets over the years, the new 25 T Split magnet is not simply the next in line. This world-unique magnet system required a complete rethinking

  14. Variable nonlinear resistances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, James Edgar

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VARIETAL". NONLINEAR RESIS'IANCES A Thes1s JA'. 4ES EDGAR HOWARD as to style and content by Head Department January 1955 LIBRARY A 4 IS COLLEGE PF TEXAS VARIABLE NONLINEAR RESISTANCES A Thesis By JAMES EDGAR HOWARD Submitted...

  15. Bark Beetles and Watersheds Workshop: Impacts to the Hydrologic Cycle and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    --Research Approaches and Results: Water Quantity/Hydrologic Impacts Water and energy balance in a forested stand University Union, Parlor A (3rd Floor) University of Utah Salt Lake City, December 1, 2011 Video Conference

  16. Z .Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 52 2001 85108 www.elsevier.comrlocaterjconhyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    Z .Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 52 2001 85108 www.elsevier.comrlocaterjconhyd Multi components, and precipitationdissolution of six minerals. Transport simulation was performed rights reserved. Keywords: Geochemical modeling; Contaminant; Transport; Coupled processes 1

  17. Hydrology and channel form of an urban creek : Rheem Creek in the context of restoration efforts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balazs, Carolina; Lang, Micah

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Reach 3 Hydrology and Channel Form of an Urban Creek:Rheem Creek in the Context of Restoration Efforts CarolinaChannel Form of an Urban Creek: Rheem Creek in the Context

  18. Hydrology and dynamics of a land-terminating Greenland outlet glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartholomew, Ian David

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the hydrology and dynamics of a land-terminating outlet glacier on the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The investigations are motivated by uncertainty about ...

  19. Impact of water resource development on the hydrology and sedimentology of the Brazos River system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minter, Larry Lane

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACT OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ON THE HYDROLOGY AND SEDIMENTOLOGY OF THE BRAZOS RIVER SYSTEM A Thesis by Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Geology IMPACT OF WATER RESOURCE DEVFLOPMENT ON THE HYDROLOGY AND SEDIMENTOLOGY OF THE BRAZOS RIVER SYSTEM A Thesis by LARRY LANE MINTER Approved as to style snd. content by: (Chairman of Committee) n (Head...

  20. Hydrologic, diel and lunar factors affecting fishes on artificial reefs off Panama City, Florida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Richard Morgan

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYDROLOGIC, DIEL AND LUNAR FACTORS AFFECTING FISHES ON ARTIFICIAL REEFS OFF PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA A Thesis RICHARD MORGAN SANDERS, Jr. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences HYDROLOGIC, DIEL AND LUNAR FACTORS AFFECTING FISHES ON ARTIFICIAL REEFS OFF PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA A Thesis RICHARD MORGAN SANDERS, Jr. Approved as to style...

  1. California climate change, hydrologic response, and flood forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    There is strong evidence that the lower atmosphere has been warming at an unprecedented rate during the last 50 years, and it is expected to further increase at least for the next 100 years. Warmer air mass implies a higher capacity to hold water vapor and an increased likelihood of an acceleration of the global water cycle. This acceleration is not validated and considerable new research has gone into understanding aspects of the water cycle (e.g. Miller et al. 2003). Several significant findings on the hydrologic response to climate change can be reported. It is well understood that the observed and expected warming is related to sea level rise. In a recent seminar at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, James Hansen (Director of the Institute for Space Studies, National Aeronautics and Space Administration) stressed that a 1.25 Wm{sup -2} increase in radiative forcing will lead to an increase in the near surface air temperature by 1 C. This small increase in temperature from 2000 levels is enough to cause very significant impacts to coasts. Maury Roos (Chief Hydrologist, California Department of Water Resources) has shown that a 0.3 m rise in sea level shifts the San Francisco Bay 100-year storm surge flood event to a 10-year event. Related coastal protection costs for California based on sea level rise are shown. In addition to rising sea level, snowmelt-related streamflow represents a particular problem in California. Model studies have indicated that there will be approximately a 50% decrease in snow pack by 2100. This potential deficit must be fully recognized and plans need to be put in place well in advance. In addition, the warmer atmosphere can hold more water vapor and result in more intense warm winter-time precipitation events that result in flooding. During anticipated high flow, reservoirs need to release water to maintain their structural integrity. California is at risk of water shortages, floods, and related ecosystem stresses. More research needs to be done to further improve our ability to forecast weather events at longer time scales. Seasonal predictions have been statistical and only recently have studies begun to use ensemble simulations and historical observations to constrain such predictions. Understanding the mechanisms of large-scale atmospheric dynamics and its local impacts remain topics of intensive research. The ability to predict extreme events and provide policy makers with this information, along with climate change and hydrologic response information, will help to guide planning to form a more resilient infrastructure in the future.

  2. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  3. Degenerate resistive switching and ultrahigh density storage in resistive memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohn, Andrew J., E-mail: drewlohn@gmail.com; Mickel, Patrick R., E-mail: prmicke@sandia.gov; James, Conrad D.; Marinella, Matthew J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that in tantalum oxide resistive memories, activation power provides a multi-level variable for information storage that can be set and read separately from the resistance. These two state variables (resistance and activation power) can be precisely controlled in two steps: (1) the possible activation power states are selected by partially reducing resistance, then (2) a subsequent partial increase in resistance specifies the resistance state and the final activation power state. We show that these states can be precisely written and read electrically, making this approach potentially amenable for ultra-high density memories. We provide a theoretical explanation for information storage and retrieval from activation power and experimentally demonstrate information storage in a third dimension related to the change in activation power with resistance.

  4. Inversion of Hydrological Tracer Test Data Using TomogrpahicConstraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linde, Niklas; Finsterle, Stefan; Hubbard, Susan

    2004-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A reasonable description of the hydraulic conductivity structure is a prerequisite for modeling contaminant transport. However, formulations of hydrogeological inverse problems utilizing hydrogeological data only often fail to reliably resolve features at a resolution required for accurately predicting transport. Incorporation of geophysical data into the inverse problem offers the potential to increase this resolution. In this study, we invert hydrological tracer test data using the shape and relative magnitude variations derived from geophysical tomographic data to regionalize a hydrogeological inverse problem in order to estimate the hydraulic conductivity structure. Our approach does not require that the petrophysical relationship be known a-priori, but that it is linear and stationary within each geophysical anomaly. However, tomograms are imperfect models of geophysical properties and geophysical properties are not necessarily strongly linked to hydraulic conductivity. Therefore, we focus on synthetic examples where the correlation between radar velocity and hydraulic conductivity, as well as the geophysical data acquisition errors, are varied in order to assess what aspects of the hydraulic conductivity structure we can expect to resolve under different conditions. The results indicate that regularization of the tracer inversion procedure using geophysical data improves estimates of hydraulic conductivity. We find that even under conditions of corrupted geophysical data, we can accurately estimate the effective hydraulic conductivity and areas of high and low hydraulic conductivity. However, given imperfect geophysical data, our results suggest that we cannot expect accurate estimates of the variability of the hydraulic conductivity structure.

  5. Role of modern climate and hydrology in world oil preservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szatmari, P. (Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accumulation of oil requires a favorable source, a reservoir, good seal-rock quality, and suitably timed thermal history and structuring. The accumulated oil, especially its light fractions, may be subsequently removed by hydrologically controlled processes such as water washing, biodegradation, and tilting of the oil-water contact. These processes are dependent on the climate. In regions that have become increasingly cold or dry during late Cenozoic time, low rainfall, low ground-water flow rates, and low input of nutrients and microorganisms have protected the oil; in warm or temperate rainy climates, high flow rates and high input of nutrients and microorganisms have led to partial or total removal of oil. Thus, most of the rich (>500,000 barrels/day) oil provinces on land are in cold or dry regions, where water is recharged in highlands that receive little rain (<500 mm/yr), such as Texas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Alaska's North Slope, California, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, the Middle East, the Volga-Ural basin, and western Siberia. Where upland recharge areas are warm or temperate and rainy, as in the eastern United States, western Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, Brazil, India, and most of China, rich oil provinces on land (outside young deltas) are rare, and biodegradation is widespread. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  7. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  8. Earworm resistance in maize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ming-Hung

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'ths effectiveness of the systemic insecticide/ Thimet, as a control for cora earworm. (2) To evaluate the effects of husk extension and tightness of husk on damage caused by earwors4 (3) To evaluate the field corn hybrids for earworm resistance snd.... Some cultural methods were able to reduce the in)ury caused by Che corn earworm to some degree. Damage wss lessened if sna smpgoyed good agronomic practices such as fall plowiug, fertilizing, rotation of crops, and planted adapted hybrids. Barber...

  9. 4.10 Earthquake Hydrology M. Manga and C.-Y. Wang, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manga, Michael

    4.10 Earthquake Hydrology M. Manga and C.-Y. Wang, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA ª 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 4.10.1 Introduction 293 4.10.2 Hydrologic Response.10.3.3 Mud Volcanoes 310 4.10.3.4 Geysers 311 4.10.4 Feedback between Earthquakes and Hydrology 312 4

  10. Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models for precipitation forecasting Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 799811 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models for precipitation forecasting 799 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 799811 (2003) EGU Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models

  11. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofoegbu, G.I.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Philip, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d`Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass.

  12. Hydrology and Hydraulic Properties of a Bedded Evaporite Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEAUHEIM,RICHARD L.; ROBERTS,RANDALL M.

    2000-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Permian Salado Formation in the Delaware Basin of New Mexico is an extensively studied evaporite deposit because it is the host formation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a repository for transuranic wastes. Geologic and hydrologic studies of the Salado conducted since the mid-1970's have led to the development of a conceptual model of the hydrogeology of the formation that involves far-field permeability in anhydrite layers and at least some impure halite layers. Pure halite layers and some impure halite layers may not possess an interconnected pore network adequate to provide permeability. Pore pressures are probably very close to lithostatic pressure. In the near field around an excavation, dilation, creep, and shear have created and/or enhanced permeability and decreased pore pressure. Whether flow occurs in the far field under natural gradients or only after some threshold gradient is reached is unknown. If far-field flow does occur, mean pore velocities are probably on the order of a meter per hundreds of thousands to tens of millions of years. Flow dimensions inferred from most hydraulic-test responses are subradial, which is believed to reflect channeling of flow through fracture networks, or portions of fractures, that occupy a diminishing proportion of the radially available space, or through percolation networks that are not ''saturated'' (fully interconnected). This is probably related to the directional nature of the permeability created or enhanced by excavation effects. Inferred values of permeability cannot be separated from their associated flow dimensions. Therefore, numerical models of flow and transport should include heterogeneity that is structured to provide the same flow dimensions as are observed in hydraulic tests. Modeling of the Salado Formation around the WIPP repository should also include coupling between hydraulic properties and the evolving stress field because hydraulic properties change as the stress field changes.

  13. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  14. Abrasion resistant composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Keith D; Barnes, Christopher A; Henderson, Stephen L

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface covering composition of abrasion resistant character adapted for disposition in overlying bonded relation to a metal substrate. The surface covering composition includes metal carbide particles within a metal matrix at a packing factor of not less than about 0.6. Not less than about 40 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter in the range of +14-32 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix. Not less than about 3 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter of +60 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix.

  15. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  16. Corrosion and wear resistance of tungsten carbide-cobalt and tungsten carbide-cobalt-chromium thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quets, J.; Alford, J.R.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten carbide thermal spray coatings provide wear surfaces to new and overhauled components for various industries. Their wear resistance is obtained by incorporating small tungsten carbide particles into a metal matrix. This presentation will show what parameters influence their corrosion resistance in the ASTM B-117 Salt Spray Corrosion Test,

  17. Resistive hydrogen sensing element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

  18. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  19. Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chan, Kwai S. (San Antonio, TX); Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry (San Antonio, TX); Liang, Wuwei (Austin, TX)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

  20. PLANT RESISTANCE Variation in Tolerance and Resistance to the Leafhopper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    PLANT RESISTANCE Variation in Tolerance and Resistance to the Leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an emerging pest of potato and insecticide applications to control this insect, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a sap-feeding insect that attacks a variety of plants

  1. A Modeling Study Evaluating the Thermal-Hydrological Conditions In and Near Waste Emplacement Tunnels At Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.T. Birkholzer; N. Halecky; S.W> Webb; P.F. Peterson; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In heated tunnels such as those designated for emplacement of radioactive waste at the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, temperature gradients cause natural convection processes that may significantly influence the moisture conditions in the tunnels and in the surrounding fractured rock. Large-scale convection cells in the heated tunnels would provide an effective mechanism for turbulent mixing and axial transport of vapor generated from evaporation of pore water in the nearby formation. As a result, vapor would be transported from the elevated-temperature sections of the tunnels into cool end sections (where no waste is emplaced), would condense there, and subsequently drain into underlying rock units. To study these processes, we have developed a new simulation method that couples existing tools for simulating thermal-hydrological (TH) conditions in the fractured formation with a module that approximates turbulent natural convection in heated emplacement drifts. The new method simultaneously handles (1) the flow and energy transport processes in the fractured rock, (2) the flow and energy transport processes in the cavity, and (3) the heat and mass exchange at the rock-cavity interface. An application is presented studying the future TH conditions within and near a representative waste emplacement tunnel at Yucca Mountain. Particular focus is on the potential for condensation along the emplacement section, a possible result of heat output differences between individual waste packages.

  2. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the Western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada using CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4) global model with a 0.23 0.31 resolution for simulations over 6 years. In 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation [3-D ? PP (plane-parallel)] adjustment to ensure that energy balance at the surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization.moreWe show that deviations of the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains, but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while decreases for higher elevations with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases in higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.less

  3. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 173183, 2005 www.copernicus.org/EGU/hess/hess/9/173/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    - fortunately, useful in-situ observations are rarely available as area representative measurements and scatterometers is of- ten considered to impede hydrological applications. Nev- ertheless, even if most hydrologic moisture products are compared to measured runoff of the Zambezi River in south-eastern Africa for several

  4. DISTRIBUTION OF HYDRATED SULFATES ACROSS ARABIA TERRA USING CRISM DATA: IMPLICATIONS FOR MARTIAN HYDROLOGY. S. M. Wiseman1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University, Saint Louis, MO. Introduction: Hydrologic modeling relevant to late Noachian through Hesperian conditions on Mars predicts that Arabia Terra was a region of enhanced groundwater upwelling that resulted topography (Fig. 1). The most well preserved deposit explained by the Andrews-Hanna hydrologic model

  5. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  6. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. (North Chili, NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  7. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Native Predators Do Not Influence Invasion Success of Pacific Lionfish on Caribbean Reefs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Thomas E.

    Native Predators Do Not Influence Invasion Success of Pacific Lionfish on Caribbean Reefs Serena whether biotic resistance by native predators on Caribbean coral reefs has influenced the invasion success of the Caribbean. We recorded protection status of the reefs, and abiotic variables including depth, habitat type

  9. ERB and Northern European FRIEND Project 5 Conference, Demnovsk dolina, Slovakia, 2002 Evaluation of a distributed hydrology model to support restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    of a distributed hydrology model to support restoration efforts in small watersheds with limited data: from to assist in decision making. Distributed hydrologic modeling in geographic information systems (GIS) has scale, or they require excessive calibration, or they are not based on the dominant hydrologic processes

  10. Revisiting Experimental Catchment Studies in Forest Hydrology (Proceedings of a Workshop held during the XXV IUGG General Assembly in Melbourne, JuneJuly 2011) (IAHS Publ. 353, 2012).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Revisiting Experimental Catchment Studies in Forest Hydrology (Proceedings of a Workshop held, 50080 Zaragoza, Spain Abstract The hydrological response of two neighbouring catchments in the central for this switching behaviour could be an increase in the hydrological connectivity within the slopes of the forested

  11. Multivariate synthetic streamflow generation using a hybrid model based on artificial neural networks Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(4), 641654 (2002) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    networks 641 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(4), 641­654 (2002) © EGS Multivariate synthetic associated with hydrological processes, making it valuable as a practical tool for synthetic generation backpropagation, hydrological scenario generation, multivariate time-series. Introduction It has been almost four

  12. H.Bach,M.Braun,G.Lampart andW.Mauser Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 862876 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    H.Bach,M.Braun,G.Lampart andW.Mauser 862 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 862876 (2003) © EGU Use of remote sensing for hydrological parameterisation of Alpine catchments H. Bach1 , M. Braun2, which makes the hydrological parameterisation of Alpine catchments difficult. Within a few kilometres

  13. Simulation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration in a soil profile during the 1999 MAP-Riviera Campaign Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 903919 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Riviera Campaign 903 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 903919 (2003) © EGU Simulation of soil moisture and evapotranspiration scheme in hydrological models. This study presents the validation of soil moisture soil plot at the edge of a corn field. The hydrological model PREVAH was driven using three

  14. Modelling water flow and seasonal soil moisture dynamics in an alluvial groundwater-fed wetland Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 5766 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 57­66 (2003) © EGU Modelling water flow and seasonal soil between groundwater, surface water and climatic conditions. Knowledge of the hydrology of these systems tool to capture their hydrological complexity. In this study, a 2D-model describing saturated

  15. Chapter 4 Regional Hydrology [Draft August 2007] 2007 FORREX Forest Research Extension Society and B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eaton, Brett

    Chapter 4 ­ Regional Hydrology [Draft August 2007] © 2007 FORREX Forest Research Extension Society and B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range Eaton B., and R.D. Moore. 2007. Chapter 4 ­ Regional Hydrology [Draft]. In Compendium of Forest Hydrology and Geomorphology in British Columbia [In Prep.] R.G. Pike et

  16. Current capabilities in soil thermal representations within a large scale hydrology model Laura C. Bowling (bowling@purdue.edu) and Keith A. Cherkauer, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkauer, Keith

    Current capabilities in soil thermal representations within a large scale hydrology model Laura C. Adam, now at Washington State University, Pullman, WA · Observations of dramatic hydrologic change hydrology under a changing climate (e.g. Smith et al. 2005; Adam & Lettenmaier 2008). Although mathematical

  17. Applying MODFLOW to wet grassland in-field habitats: a case study from the Pevensey Levels, UK Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 4355 (2003) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(1), 43­55 (2003) © EGU Applying MODFLOW to wet grassland in and Hydrology, Wallingford, OX10 8BB, UK Email for corresponding author: rbb@ceh.ac.uk Abstract Historical drainage improvements have created complex hydrological regimes in many low-lying, wet coastal grassland

  18. 129 Iodine: A New Hydrologic Tracer for Aquifer Recharge Conditions Influenced by River Flow Rate and Evapotranspiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwehr, K. A.; Santschi, P. H.; Moran, J. E.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    County using boron isotopes and general geochemistry, In Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory UCRL-ID-133529 (pp. 44). ? Davisson, M.L., Hudson, G.B., Herndon, R., & Woodside, G. (1999b). Report on isotope tracer investigations in the Forebay... of the Orange County Groundwater Basin: Fiscal years 1996 and 1997, In Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory UCRL-ID- 133531 (pp. 44). ? Dissanayake, C.B. & Chandrajith, R. (1999). Medical geochemistry of tropical environments. Earth-Science Reviews 47, 219...

  19. April 11, 2001 Presentation at BRC, Temple, TX. Hydrological Applications of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    April 11, 2001 Presentation at BRC, Temple, TX. Hydrological Applications of LST Derived from AVHRR;April 11, 2001 Presentation at BRC, Temple, TX. Outline Introduction All about LST Model Modeling Drought Indices (KBDI, PDSI) Conclusion #12;April 11, 2001 Presentation at BRC, Temple, TX

  20. Hydrologic responses to earthquakes and a general metric CHI-YUEN WANG AND MICHAEL MANGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manga, Michael

    to earthquakes, including liquefaction, changes in stream and spring discharge, changes in the properties to relate and compare the various hydrologic responses. We show that liquefaction, eruption of mud volcanoes seismicity may respond to seismic energy density as small as 10)3 and 10)4 J m)3 , respectively. Com- paring

  1. Statistics of extremes in hydrology Richard W. Katz a,*, Marc B. Parlange b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    Statistics of extremes in hydrology Richard W. Katz a,*, Marc B. Parlange b , Philippe Naveau c Abstract The statistics of extremes have played an important role in engineering practice for water resources design and management. How recent developments in the statistical theory of extreme values can

  2. Comparison of three downscaling methods in simulating the impact of climate change on the hydrology of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparison of three downscaling methods in simulating the impact of climate change on the hydrology change on water resources usually fol- low a top to bottom approach: a scenario of emissions is used a demand in assessments on the impact of climate change hy- drological systems. The purpose of the study

  3. FOG AND DEW COLLECTION PROJECTS IN CROATIA Metorological and Hydrological lnstitiute of Croatia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FOG AND DEW COLLECTION PROJECTS IN CROATIA M. Mileta* Metorological and Hydrological lnstitiute of Croatia Zagreb, Croatia D. Beysens*, V. Nikolayev* CEA-Grenoble, and ESPCI, Paris, France) I. Milimouk and dew water collection in Croatia. Zavizan, the highest meteorological station in Croatia( 1594m

  4. Mountain Precipitation and Hydrology in the Middle East Ronald. B. Smith*, Jason Evans*, Robert Oglesby**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Mountain Precipitation and Hydrology in the Middle East Ronald. B. Smith*, Jason Evans*, Robert shadow effect. Recent studies have tried to quantify this effect on Alpine terrain [Smith et al. 2003a model of this is the response to heating in a steady stratified stream [Smith and Lin, 1982

  5. Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems John S. Selker,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selker, John

    Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems John S. Selker,1,2 Luc The; accepted 27 October 2006; published 6 December 2006. [1] Instruments for distributed fiber-optic m with temporal resolution of fractions of a minute along standard fiber-optic cables used

  6. Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Ming

    Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies and feedback of land surface and atmospheric processes over large space and time scales. Remote sensing-based variables including soil moisture (from AMSR-E), surface heat fluxes (from MODIS) and precipitation rates

  7. Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in areas with limited hydrological data using a mixed-effects model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in areas with limited hydrological data using a mixed-effects. In this study, we used a mixed-effects linear model to estimate an average SSCQ relation for different periods the performance of the mixed-effects model against the standard rating curve, represented by a generalized least

  8. Estimation of freshwater availability in the West African sub-continent using the SWAT hydrologic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimation of freshwater availability in the West African sub-continent using the SWAT hydrologic availability is indispensable for water resources management at regional or national level. This information processes. The currently available estimates of freshwater availability by a few large international

  9. A simplified approach to quantifying predictive and parametric uncertainty in artificial neural network hydrologic models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaubey, Indrajeet

    considerable interest in developing methods for uncertainty analysis of artificial neural network (ANN) models and parametric uncertainty in artificial neural network hydrologic models, Water Resour. Res., 43, W10407, doi:10A simplified approach to quantifying predictive and parametric uncertainty in artificial neural

  10. Downstream hydrologic and geomorphic effects of large dams on American rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downstream hydrologic and geomorphic effects of large dams on American rivers William L. Graf including more than 75,000 dams. One hundred thirty-seven of the very large dams, each storing 1.2 km3 (106 effects of these very large dams emerge from an analysis of the stream gage records of 72 river reaches

  11. The fate of Earth's ocean Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 569575 (2001) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The fate of Earth's ocean 569 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 569­575 (2001) © EGS The fate of Earth's ocean Christine Bounama, Siegfried Franck and Werner von Bloh Potsdam Institute@pik-potsdam.de Abstract Questions of how water arrived on the Earth's surface, how much water is contained in the Earth

  12. Using X-ray computed tomography in hydrology: systems, resolutions, and limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    Using X-ray computed tomography in hydrology: systems, resolutions, and limitations D to characterize phase distribution and pore geometry in porous media using non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT). We present qualitative and quantitative CT results for partially saturated media, obtained

  13. Scaling of hydrologic flows in polygonal ground within an Arctic ecosystem Gautam Bisht

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the atmosphere as CO2 and CH4 as high-latitude temperatures warm. Polygonal ground, with a characteristic length Moderate Old D Low center High Moderately wet High Young BOUNDARY CONDITIONS & SOIL PROPERTIES Boundary structures, with high or low centers, dominate the local hydrologic environment, thereby impacting the energy

  14. RELATING GEOPHYSICAL AND HYDROLOGIC PROPERTIES USING FIELD-SCALE ROCK PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Rosemary

    CMWRXVI 1 RELATING GEOPHYSICAL AND HYDROLOGIC PROPERTIES USING FIELD-SCALE ROCK PHYSICS STEPHEN has been made by rock physics investigations that define how pore-scale variations in properties like in pore-scale rock properties with an understanding of geophysical sampling at the field

  15. Category: Subsurface Hydrology Theoretical prediction of poroelastic properties of argillaceous rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    have to be measured with accuracy. Index terms: Physical properties of rocks: 5199 GeneralCategory: Subsurface Hydrology Theoretical prediction of poroelastic properties of argillaceous rocks from in situ specific storage coefficient Ph. Cosenza1 '2 , M. Ghoreychi3 , G. de Marsily \\ G

  16. Hydrologic Modeling of a Canal-Irrigated Agricultural Watershed with Irrigation Best Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a hydrologic perspective. In this study, an approach is developed to model canal irrigation systems understanding of irrigation systems and a proper represen- tation of them in watershed models are required it for modeling purposes. Therefore, the next alternative is to use a model to simulate irrigation systems

  17. Sensitivity of Vatnajokull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flowers, Gwenn

    and is the largest nonpolar ice cap in Europe. Because it is temperate (isothermal at the melting point) and storesSensitivity of Vatnajokull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next 2] The sensitivity of Vatnajokull ice cap to future climate change is examined using spatially distributed coupled

  18. Z .Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 42 2000 113140 www.elsevier.comrlocaterjconhyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Z .Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 42 2000 113140 www.elsevier.comrlocaterjconhyd Natural Published by Elsevier Science B.V. Z .PII: S0169-7722 99 00098-4 #12;( )T.P. Clement et al.rJournal

  19. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 6, 369-395 (1992) STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modelling Groundwater flow Solute transport INTRODUCTION Predicting any natural process is a very difficultHYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, VOL. 6, 369-395 (1992) STOCHASTIC MODELLING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW AND SOLUTE MODELLING Scales of heterogeneity, REV, dispersion and measurement scale groundwater flow and convection

  20. BEE 6740 2012 http://www.hydrology.bee.cornell.edu/BEE6740Index.htm (coming)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    the Cornell Soil & Water Lab Content & Objective: This course is an introduction to simulation modeling ecohydrology Modeling Session: Introduction to R Soil Water Budget: The keystone to hydrological modeling Soil, groundwater recharge, and some simplifications Modeling Session: the Thornthwaite-Mather model

  1. Identifying hydrologically sensitive areas: Bridging the gap between science and application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    nutrient management plans, lack a sound hydrological underpinning for pollutant transport processes S. Steenhuisa , M. Todd Waltera, * a Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-5701, USA b Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

  2. Evaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Accepted 13 March 2013 Available online 26 March 2013 Keywords: Snow Energy-balance Temperature intercepts snow- fall, alters the snow/atmosphere energy exchange and reduces wind speed. Dense canopies tendEvaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models

  3. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Resistance Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sets federal efficiency...

  4. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  5. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, William G. (Philomath, OR); Lindbo, John A. (Kent, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection.

  6. Corrosion resistance of concrete reinforcement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward-Waller, Elizabeth, 1982-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the mechanism of corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete and epoxy coated reinforcing bars as corrosion resistant alternatives. Several case studies explore the durability ...

  7. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  8. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan (El Cerrito, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Lee, Chuck K. (Hayward, CA); Walker, Jeffrey (Gaithersburg, MD); Russell, Paige (Las Vegas, NV); Kirkwood, Jon (Saint Leonard, MD); Yang, Nancy (Lafayette, CA); Champagne, Victor (Oxford, PA)

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  9. Sulphide stress cracking resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel for OCTG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scoppio, L.; Barteri, M. [Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A., Rome (Italy); Cumino, G. [Dalmine Tubi Industriali S.r.l., Bergamo (Italy)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supermartensitic stainless steels, recently made available as oil country tubular goods (OCTG), have been developed as a valuable cost effective alternative to duplex stainless steel for high CO{sub 2}, medium/high chlorides, and very low H{sub 2}S environments. Experimental tests were carried out to determine the localized corrosion and the sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance of supermartensitic steel UNS S41425 to be used as OCTG in slightly sour oil and gas wells and to compare its performance with standard L80 API grade UNS S42000 13% Cr steel, considered as a reference. Supermartensitic steels with yield range as per L80, C95, P110, API5CT, were developed and corrosion and mechanical properties were determined. The influence of different chloride contents (NaCl 10 {divided_by} 50 g/l), hydrogen sulfide partial pressure (0.1 {divided_by} 100 kPa) and pH (2.7 {divided_by} 4.5) has been investigated in order to simulate production service conditions. Modified NACE constant load test and slow strain rate (SSR) test were performed. SSR gave the most severe evaluation for the SSC resistance. In the SSR test supermartensitic steel is deeply influenced by the chloride concentration. Supermartensitic steel corrosion resistance is by far superior to that of 13% Cr.

  10. aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitansarcb influences: Topics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was compared with that of control Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 393 INFLUENCE OF CARBON AEROGEL TEXTURE ON PEMFC PERFORMANCES Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  11. Investigating impacts of natural and human-induced environmental changes on hydrological processes and flood hazards using a GIS-based hydrological/hydraulic model and remote sensing data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lei

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    a GISbased hydrological and hydraulic modeling system, which incorporates state-of-the-art remote sensing data to simulate flood under various scenarios. The conceptual framework and technical issues of incorporating multi-scale remote sensing data...

  12. A global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, W.-L.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Leung, L. R.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (Community Climate System Model version 4; Community Atmosphere Model/Community Land Model CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23 0.31 resolution for simulations over 6 years. In a 3-D radiative transfer parameterization, we have updated surface topography data from a resolution of 1 km to 90 m to improve parameterization accuracy. In addition, we have also modified the upward-flux deviation (3-DPP (plane-parallel)) adjustment to ensure that the energy balance atmorethe surface is conserved in global climate simulations based on 3-D radiation parameterization. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations. Deviations in sensible heat and surface temperature generally follow the patterns of net surface solar flux. The monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) deviations show an increase in lower elevations due to reduced snowmelt, leading to a reduction in cumulative runoff. Over higher-elevation areas, negative SWE deviations are found because of increased solar radiation available at the surface. Simulated precipitation increases for lower elevations, while it decreases for higher elevations, with a minimum in April. Liquid runoff significantly decreases at higher elevations after April due to reduced SWE and precipitation.less

  13. HYDROLOGY AND EROSION IMPACTS OF MINING DERIVED COASTAL SAND DUNES, C H ~ A R A LBAY, CHILE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYDROLOGY AND EROSION IMPACTS OF MINING DERIVED COASTAL SAND DUNES, C H ~ A R A LBAY, CHILE Daniel, nitrates, iodine, and lithium. Some of the gold and silverandallofthemolybdenumareproducedasby- products

  14. The use of a distributed hydrologic model to predict dynamic landslide susceptibility for a humid basin in Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the use of a distributed hydrology model in conjunction with a Factor of Safety (FS) algorithm to predict dynamic landslide susceptibility for a humid basin in Puerto Rico. The Mameyes basin, located ...

  15. Results from an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in hydrological rock properties caused by the thermallyEuropean countries. The initial rock properties for the twoTABLE II. Some basic rock properties defined for Phase 1 (

  16. Low-impact development in the Assabet River Watershed : site hydrologic design and watershed-scal implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedlich, Brian J. (Brian Joseph), 1982-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-Impact Development (LID) is a relatively new approach to stormwater management. It aims to mimic natural hydrology through increased recharge and decreased runoff. LID technologies focus on distributed treatment of ...

  17. Preprint 24th EU PVSEC, 2009, Hamburg FITTING OF LATERAL RESISTANCES IN SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junk, Michael

    Preprint 24th EU PVSEC, 2009, Hamburg FITTING OF LATERAL RESISTANCES IN SILICON SOLAR CELLS cell from electroluminescence (EL) is introduced. A two-dimensional model of the solar cell screen printed monocrystalline silicon solar cell are shown and the influence of lateral diffusion

  18. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

    2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

  19. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  20. Uncertainties associated with the definition of a hydrologic source term for the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.K.; Esser, B.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Thompson, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Environmental Restoration Division is seeking to evaluate groundwater contamination resulting from 30 years of underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This evaluation requires knowledge about what radioactive materials are in the groundwater and how they are transported through the underground environment. This information coupled with models of groundwater flow (flow paths and flow rates) will enable predictions of the arrival of each radionuclide at a selected receptor site. Risk assessment models will then be used to calculate the expected environmental and human doses. The accuracy of our predictions depends on the validity of our hydrologic and risk assessment models and on the quality of the data for radionuclide concentrations in ground water at each underground nuclear test site. This paper summarizes what we currently know about radioactive material in NTS groundwater and suggests how we can best use our limited knowledge to proceed with initial modeling efforts. The amount of a radionuclide available for transport in groundwater at the site of an underground nuclear test is called the hydrologic source term. The radiologic source term is the total amount of residual radionuclides remaining after an underground nuclear test. The hydrologic source term is smaller than the radiologic source term because some or most of the radionuclide residual cannot be transported by groundwater. The radiologic source term has been determined for each of the underground nuclear tests fired at the NTS; however, the hydrologic source term has been estimated from measurements at only a few sites.

  1. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF PAVER SYSTEMS ON URBAN DEVELOPMENT USING A DISTRIBUTED HYDROLOGICAL MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politte, Alyssa

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    the characteristics of the natural flow regime and in stream ecosystem health (Poff et al. 1997). Engineers typically use Best Management Practices (BMPs) to control increased volumes of stormwater. BMPs, such as detention ponds, have been able to control some... stormwater runoff, but it has been found that the natural hydrology of the watershed is still negatively affected and can degrade ecosystem health (USEPA 2000). Alternatively, Low Impact Development (LID) is a newer type of stormwater management that has...

  2. Evaluating and developing parameter optimization and uncertainty analysis methods for a computationally intensive distributed hydrological model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xuesong

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ? weights for river stage prediction (Chau, 2006). Other evolutionary algorithms, such as Differential Evaluation (DE) (Storn and Price, 1997) and Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) (de Castro and Von Zuben, 2002a; de Castro and Von Zuben, 2002b), although... is to structure the hydrologic model as a probability model, then the confidence interval of model output can be computed (Montanari et al., 1997). Representative methods of this category include Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and a Generalized Likelihood...

  3. Structure and Origins of Trends in Hydrological Measures over the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, T; Hidalgo, H G; Dettinger, M D; Cayan, D R; Pierce, D W; Bonfils, C; Barnett, T P; Bala, G; Mirin, A

    2008-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines, at 1/8 degree spatial resolution, the geographic structure of observed trends in key hydrologically relevant variables across the western United States (U.S.) over the period 1950-1999, and investigates whether these trends are statistically significantly different from trends associated with natural climate variations. A number of variables were analyzed, including late winter and spring temperature, winter-total snowy days as a fraction of winter-total wet days, 1st April Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) as a fraction of October through March precipitation total (P{sub ONDJFM}), and seasonal (January-February-March; JFM) accumulated runoff as a fraction of water year accumulated runoff. The observed changes were compared to natural internal climate variability simulated by an 850-year control run of the CCSM3-FV climate model, statistically downscaled to a 1/8 degree grid using the method of Constructed Analogues. Both observed and downscaled temperature and precipitation data were then used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model to obtain the hydrological variables analyzed in this study. Large trends (magnitudes found less than 5% of the time in the long control run) are common in the observations, and occupy substantial part of the area (37-42%) over the mountainous western U.S. These trends are strongly related to the large scale warming that appears over 89% of the domain. The strongest changes in the hydrologic variables, unlikely to be associated with natural variability alone, have occurred at medium elevations (750 m to 2500 m for JFM runoff fractions and 500 m-3000 m for SWE/PONDJFM) where warming has pushed temperatures from slightly below to slightly above freezing. Further analysis using the data on selected catchments across the simulation domain indicated that hydroclimatic variables must have changed significantly (at 95% confidence level) over at least 45% of the total catchment area to achieve a detectable trend in measures accumulated to the catchment scale.

  4. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as Whiteoak'' Creek).

  5. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as ``Whiteoak`` Creek).

  6. Modeling the effect of glacier recession on streamflow response using a coupled glacio-hydrological model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naz, Bibi S [ORNL] [ORNL; Frans, Chris [University of Washington, Seattle] [University of Washington, Seattle; Clarke, Garry [University of British Columbia, Vancouver] [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Burns, [Watershed Sciences Inc. (WSI), Portland] [Watershed Sciences Inc. (WSI), Portland; Lettenmaier, Dennis [University of Washington, Seattle] [University of Washington, Seattle

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an integrated spatially distributed hydrologic and glacier dynamic model, and use it to investigate the effect of glacier recession on streamflow variations for the Upper Bow River basin, a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River. Several recent studies have suggested that observed decreases in summer flows in the South Saskatchewan River are partly due to the retreat of glaciers in the river's headwaters. Modeling the effect of glacier changes on streamflow response in river basins such as the South Saskatchewan is complicated due to the inability of most existing physically-based distributed hydrologic models to represent glacier dynamics. We compare predicted variations in glacier extent, snow water equivalent and streamflow discharge made with the integrated model with satellite estimates of glacier area and terminus position, observed streamflow and snow water equivalent measurements over the period of 1980 2007. Simulations with the coupled hydrology-glacier model reduce the uncertainty in streamflow predictions. Our results suggested that on average, the glacier melt contribution to the Bow River flow upstream of Lake Louise is about 30% in summer. For warm and dry years, however, the glacier melt contribution can be as large as 50% in August, whereas for cold years, it can be as small as 20% and the timing of glacier melt signature can be delayed by a month.

  7. Equifinality of formal (DREAM) and informal (GLUE) bayesian approaches in hydrologic modeling?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robinson, Bruce A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ter Braak, Cajo J F [NON LANL; Gupta, Hoshin V [NON LANL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, a strong debate has emerged in the hydrologic literature regarding what constitutes an appropriate framework for uncertainty estimation. Particularly, there is strong disagreement whether an uncertainty framework should have its roots within a proper statistical (Bayesian) context, or whether such a framework should be based on a different philosophy and implement informal measures and weaker inference to summarize parameter and predictive distributions. In this paper, we compare a formal Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) for assessing uncertainty in conceptual watershed modeling. Our formal Bayesian approach is implemented using the recently developed differential evolution adaptive metropolis (DREAM) MCMC scheme with a likelihood function that explicitly considers model structural, input and parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that DREAM and GLUE can generate very similar estimates of total streamflow uncertainty. This suggests that formal and informal Bayesian approaches have more common ground than the hydrologic literature and ongoing debate might suggest. The main advantage of formal approaches is, however, that they attempt to disentangle the effect of forcing, parameter and model structural error on total predictive uncertainty. This is key to improving hydrologic theory and to better understand and predict the flow of water through catchments.

  8. Technology demonstration: geostatistical and hydrologic analysis of salt areas. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doctor, P.G.; Oberlander, P.L.; Rice, W.A.; Devary, J.L.; Nelson, R.W.; Tucker, P.E.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to: (1) use geostatistical analyses to evaluate the adequacy of hydrologic data from three salt regions, each of which contains a potential nuclear waste repository site; and (2) demonstrate a methodology that allows quantification of the value of additional data collection. The three regions examined are the Paradox Basin in Utah, the Permian Basin in Texas, and the Mississippi Study Area. Additional and new data became available to ONWI during and following these analyses; therefore, this report must be considered a methodology demonstration here would apply as illustrated had the complete data sets been available. A combination of geostatistical and hydrologic analyses was used for this demonstration. Geostatistical analyses provided an optimal estimate of the potentiometric surface from the available data, a measure of the uncertainty of that estimate, and a means for selecting and evaluating the location of future data. The hydrologic analyses included the calculation of transmissivities, flow paths, travel times, and ground-water flow rates from hypothetical repository sites. Simulation techniques were used to evaluate the effect of optimally located future data on the potentiometric surface, flow lines, travel times, and flow rates. Data availability, quality, quantity, and conformance with model assumptions differed in each of the salt areas. Report highlights for the three locations are given.

  9. Radiation resistance of electro-optic polymer-based modulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Nichter, James E.; Nash, Fazio D.; Haas, Franz; Szep, Attila A.; Michalak, Richard J.; Flusche, Brian M.; Cook, Paul R.; McEwen, Tom A.; McKeon, Brian F.; Payson, Paul M.; Brost, George A.; Pirich, Andrew R.; Castaneda, Carlos; Tsap, Boris; Fetterman, Harold R. [International Photonics Consultants, 30 Tierra Monte NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87122 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, 25 Electronic Pkwy., Rome, New York 13441 (United States); University of California, One Shields Ave., Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Pacific Wave Industries, 129 Sheldon St., El Segundo, California 90245 (United States)

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Mach-Zehnder interferometric electro-optic polymer modulators composed of highly nonlinear phenyltetraene bridge-type chromophores within an amorphous polycarbonate host matrix were investigated for their resistance to gamma rays and 25.6 MeV protons. No device failures were observed and the majority of irradiated modulators exhibited decreases in half-wave voltage and optical insertion losses compared to nonirradiated control samples undergoing aging processes. Irradiated device responses were attributed to scission, cross-linking, and free volume processes. The data suggests that strongly poled devices are less likely to de-pole under the influence of ionizing radiation.

  10. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Schneibel, Joachim H. (Knoxville, TN); Pint, Bruce A. (Knoxville, TN); Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  11. Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well Cement Composites Multifunctional Corrosion-resistant Foamed Well...

  12. New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive...

  13. Sensitivity studies on the impacts of Tibetan Plateau snowpack pollution on the Asian hydrological cycle and monsoon climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Flanner, M. G.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Weiguo

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest and largest plateau in the world, has long been identified to be critical in regulating the Asian monsoon climate and hydrological cycle. The snowpack and glaciers over the TP provide fresh water to billions of people in Asian countries, but the TP glaciers have been retreating extensively at a speed faster than any other part of the world. In this study a series of experiments with a global climate model are designed to simulate black carbon (BC) and dust in snow and their radiative forcing and to assess the relative impacts of anthropogenic CO2 and carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere and snow, respectively, on the snowpack over the TP, as well as their subsequent impacts on the Asian monsoon climate and hydrological cycle. Results show a large BC content in snow over the TP, especially the southern slope, with concentration larger than 100 k/kg. Because of the high aerosol content in snow and large incident solar radiation in the low latitude and high elevation, the TP exhibits the largest surface radiative forcing induced by aerosols (e.g. BC, Dust) in snow compared to other snow-covered regions in the world. The aerosol-induced snow albedo perturbations generate surface radiative forcing of 5-25 W m-2 during spring, with a maximum in April or May. BC-in-snow increases the surface air temperature by around 1.0oC averaged over the TP and reduces snowpack over the TP more than that induced by pre-industrial to present CO2 increase and carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere during spring. As a result, runoff increases during late winter and early spring but decreases during late spring and early summer (i.e. a trend toward earlier melt dates). The snowmelt efficacy, defined as the snowpack reduction per unit degree of warming induced by the forcing agent, is 1-4 times larger for BC-in-snow than CO2 increase during April-July, indicating that BC-in-snow more efficiently accelerates snowmelt because the increased net solar radiation induced by reduced albedo melts the snow more efficiently than snow melt due to warming in the air. The TP also influences the South (SAM) and East (EAM) Asian monsoon through its dynamical and thermal forcing. During boreal spring, aerosols are transported by the southwesterly and reach the higher altitude and/or deposited in the snowpack over the TP. While BC and OM in the atmosphere directly absorb sunlight and warm the air, the darkened snow surface polluted by BC absorbs more solar radiation and increases the skin temperature, which warms the air above by the increased sensible heat flux over the TP. Both effects enhance the upward motion of air and spur deep convection along the TP during pre-monsoon season, resulting in earlier onset of the SAM and increase of moisture, cloudiness and convective precipitation over northern India. BC-in-snow has a more significant impact on the EAM in July than CO2 increase and carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere. Contributed by the significant increase of both sensible heat flux associated with the warm skin temperature and latent heat flux associated with increased soil moisture with long memory, the role of the TP as a heat pump is elevated from spring through summer as the land-sea thermal contrast increases to strengthen the EAM. As a result, both southern China and northern China become wetter, but central China (i.e. Yangtze River Basin) becomes drier - a near zonal anomaly pattern that is consistent with the dominant mode of precipitation variability in East Asia. ?

  14. Mechanism of acquired temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFaline-Figueroa, Jos L

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant form of brain cancer. After aggressive treatment, therapy resistant tumors inevitably recur. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such resistance remain unclear. ...

  15. Evalutation and network of ec-decision support systems in the field of hydrological dispension models and of aquatic radioecological research Assessment of environmental models anf software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monte, L; Hofman, Dimitry

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evalutation and network of ec-decision support systems in the field of hydrological dispension models and of aquatic radioecological research

  16. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF FISH TAGGING PINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CORROSION RESISTANCE OF FISH TAGGING PINS [Marine Biological Laboratoryj WOODS HOLE, MASS. SPECIAL A, Seaton, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Arnie J. Suoraela, Commissioner CORROSION RESISTANCE were tagged with nickel and Type 304 stainless steel pins to compare the corrosion resistance

  17. CORROSION-RESISTANT COATING FOR CARBONATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CORROSION-RESISTANT COATING FOR CARBONATE FUEL CELL COMPONENTS Prepared For: California Energy ANALYSIS REPORT (FAR) CORROSION RESISTANT COATING FOR CARBONATE FUEL CELL COMPONENTS EISG AWARDEE Chemat://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Corrosion Resistant Coating for Carbonate Fuel Cell Components EISG Grant # 00-05 Awardee

  18. Modeling the Effects of Groundwater-fed Irrigation on Terrestrial Hydrology over the Conterminous United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi; Tang, Qiuhong; Gao, Huilin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human alteration of the land surface hydrologic cycle is substantial. Recent studies suggest that local water management practices including groundwater pumping and irrigation could significantly alter the quantity and distribution of water in the terrestrial system, with potential impacts on weather and climate through land-atmosphere feedbacks. In this study, we incorporated a groundwater withdrawal scheme into the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). To simulate the impact of irrigation realistically, we calibrated the CLM4 simulated irrigation amount against observations from agriculture census at the county scale over the conterminous United States (CONUS). The water used for irrigation was then removed from the surface runoff and groundwater aquifer according to a ratio determined from the county-level agricultural census data. Based on the simulations, the impact of groundwater withdrawals for irrigation on land surface and subsurface fluxes were investigated. Our results suggest that the impacts of irrigation on latent heat flux and potential recharge when water is withdrawn from surface water alone or from both surface and groundwater are comparable and local to the irrigation areas. However, when water is withdrawn from groundwater for irrigation, greater effects on the subsurface water balance were found, leading to significant depletion of groundwater storage in regions with low recharge rate and high groundwater exploitation rate. Our results underscore the importance of local hydrologic feedbacks in governing hydrologic response to anthropogenic change in CLM4 and the need to more realistically simulate the two-way interactions among surface water, groundwater, and atmosphere to better understand the impacts of groundwater pumping on irrigation efficiency and climate.

  19. Value of medium range weather forecasts in the improvement of seasonal hydrologic prediction skill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Voisin, Nathalie; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the contribution of medium range weather forecasts with lead times up to 14 days to seasonal hydrologic prediction skill over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). Three different Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP)-based experiments were performed for the period 1980-2003 using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model to generate forecasts of monthly runoff and soil moisture (SM) at lead-1 (first month of the forecast period) to lead-3. The first experiment (ESP) used a resampling from the retrospective period 1980-2003 and represented full climatological uncertainty for the entire forecast period. In the second and third experiments, the first 14 days of each ESP ensemble member were replaced by either observations (perfect 14-day forecast) or by a deterministic 14-day weather forecast. We used Spearman rank correlations of forecasts and observations as the forecast skill score. We estimated the potential and actual improvement in baseline skill as the difference between the skill of experiments 2 and 3 relative to ESP, respectively. We found that useful runoff and SM forecast skill at lead-1 to -3 months can be obtained by exploiting medium range weather forecast skill in conjunction with the skill derived by the knowledge of initial hydrologic conditions. Potential improvement in baseline skill by using medium range weather forecasts, for runoff (SM) forecasts generally varies from 0 to 0.8 (0 to 0.5) as measured by differences in correlations, with actual improvement generally from 0 to 0.8 of the potential improvement. With some exceptions, most of the improvement in runoff is for lead-1 forecasts, although some improvement in SM was achieved at lead-2.

  20. Model-Based Analysis of the Role of Biological, Hydrological and Geochemical Factors Affecting Uranium Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jiao; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium contamination is a serious concern at several sites motivating the development of novel treatment strategies such as the Geobacter-mediated reductive immobilization of uranium. However, this bioremediation strategy has not yet been optimized for the sustained uranium removal. While several reactive-transport models have been developed to represent Geobacter-mediated bioremediation of uranium, these models often lack the detailed quantitative description of the microbial process (e.g., biomass build-up in both groundwater and sediments, electron transport system, etc.) and the interaction between biogeochemical and hydrological process. In this study, a novel multi-scale model was developed by integrating our recent model on electron capacitance of Geobacter (Zhao et al., 2010) with a comprehensive simulator of coupled fluid flow, hydrologic transport, heat transfer, and biogeochemical reactions. This mechanistic reactive-transport model accurately reproduces the experimental data for the bioremediation of uranium with acetate amendment. We subsequently performed global sensitivity analysis with the reactive-transport model in order to identify the main sources of prediction uncertainty caused by synergistic effects of biological, geochemical, and hydrological processes. The proposed approach successfully captured significant contributing factors across time and space, thereby improving the structure and parameterization of the comprehensive reactive-transport model. The global sensitivity analysis also provides a potentially useful tool to evaluate uranium bioremediation strategy. The simulations suggest that under difficult environments (e.g., highly contaminated with U(VI) at a high migration rate of solutes), the efficiency of uranium removal can be improved by adding Geobacter species to the contaminated site (bioaugmentation) in conjunction with the addition of electron donor (biostimulation). The simulations also highlight the interactive effect of initial cell concentration and flow rate on U(VI) reduction.

  1. Modeling of thermally driven hydrological processes in partially saturated fractured rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, Yvonne; Birkholzer, Jens; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a review of the research that led to an in-depth understanding of flow and transport processes under strong heat stimulation in fractured, porous rock. It first describes the anticipated multiple processes that come into play in a partially saturated, fractured porous volcanic tuff geological formation, when it is subject to a heat source such as that originating from the decay of radionuclides. The rationale is then given for numerical modeling being a key element in the study of multiple processes that are coupled. The paper outlines how the conceptualization and the numerical modeling of the problem evolved, progressing from the simplified to the more realistic. Examples of numerical models are presented so as to illustrate the advancement and maturation of the research over the last two decades. The most recent model applied to in situ field thermal tests is characterized by (1) incorporation of a full set of thermal-hydrological processes into a numerical simulator, (2) realistic representation of the field test geometry, in three dimensions, and (3) use of site-specific characterization data for model inputs. Model predictions were carried out prior to initiation of data collection, and the model results were compared to diverse sets of measurements. The approach of close integration between modeling and field measurements has yielded a better understanding of how coupled thermal hydrological processes produce redistribution of moisture within the rock, which affects local permeability values and subsequently the flow of liquid and gases. The fluid flow in turn will change the temperature field. We end with a note on future research opportunities, specifically those incorporating chemical, mechanical, and microbiological factors into the study of thermal and hydrological processes.

  2. Geochemical evidence for the hydrology of a Tamarack-peat bog, Brimfield Township, Portage County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, T.P.; Miller, L.A. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Geology and Water Resources)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peat Bogs and wetlands represent unique environmental settings what are increasingly subjected to anthropogenic stresses involving inputs of water and chemicals. This study used geochemical and hydrologic monitoring to determine the inputs and fates of elements of the Kent-Brimfield bog located in Portage County, Ohio. Based on physical and chemical information collected over one year, a model is proposed here describing the hydrologic connection between a bog and shallow ground water surrounding the bog. The chemical composition of precipitation, soil water and ground water in the bog vicinity were monitored for one year. Field measurements included water levels, pH, Eh, alkalinity and temperature. Trace metal content of the peat, the pore waters, soil water and ground waters were determined by GFAA, ICP and LIC methods. This bog was found to function as part of a perched water table aquifer. Water in the upper 3 m of the bog is found to be chemically similar to precipitation, but modified by reactions involving dissolution of mineral matter and biologic processes. The chemistry of water deeper in the bog (> 3m) resembles shallow ground water surrounding the bog, modified by weathering of underlying geologic materials and sulfate reduction. This similarity, along with ground water elevations within and outside of the bog, supports that shallow ground water interacts with, and helps maintain water levels in the upper surface of the bog. From these results, a model is proposed for the seasonal variations in hydrologic processes operating in the wetland and surrounding basin, and describes how wetlands may change seasonally from being influent to effluent systems.

  3. Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Hydrologic and Natural Gas Sampling and Analysis Results for 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted hydrologic and natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site on June 16, and 17, 2009. Hydrologic sampling consists of collecting water samples from water wells and surface water locations. Natural gas sampling consists of collecting both gas samples and samples of produced water from gas production wells. The water well samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and tritium. Surface water samples were analyzed for tritium. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. Water samples were analyzed by ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, and natural gas samples were analyzed by Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois. Concentrations of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides in water samples collected in the vicinity of the Gasbuggy site continue to demonstrate that the sample locations have not been impacted by detonation-related contaminants. Results from the sampling of natural gas from producing wells demonstrate that the gas wells nearest the Gasbuggy site are not currently impacted by detonation-related contaminants. Annual sampling of the gas production wells nearest the Gasbuggy site for gas and produced water will continue for the foreseeable future. The sampling frequency of water wells and surface water sources in the surrounding area will be reduced to once every 5 years. The next hydrologic sampling event at water wells, springs, and ponds will be in 2014.

  4. Hydrologic studies in wells open through large intervals. Annual report, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes and summarizes activities, data, and preliminary data interpretation from the INEL Oversight Program R&D-1 project titled ``Hydrologic Studies In Wells Open Through Large Intervals.`` The project is designed to use a straddle-packer system to isolate, hydraulically test, and sample specific intervals of monitoring wells that are open (uncased, unscreened) over large intervals of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The objectives of the project are to determine and compare vertical variations in water quality and aquifer properties that have previously only been determined in an integrated fashion over the entire thickness of the open interval of the observation wells.

  5. Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Patrick; Houseworth, James

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to build upon previous compilations of shale formations within many of the major sedimentary basins in the US by developing GIS data delineating isopach and structural depth maps for many of these units. These data are being incorporated into the LANL digital GIS database being developed for determining host rock distribution and depth/thickness parameters consistent with repository design. Methods were developed to assess hydrological and geomechanical properties and conditions for shale formations based on sonic velocity measurements.

  6. Monitoring Cracking of a Smectitic Vertisol using Three-dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerson, Jason Paul

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Upon desiccation, the matrix of Vertisols and other expansive soils shrinks. Matrix shrinkage results in the formation of cracks that can alter the hydrology of the soil. Despite the importance of cracks, many hydrologic models do not account...

  7. Hydrologic and Vegetation Effects on Water Column Phosphorus in Wetland Mesocosms J. R. White,* K. R. Reddy, and J. Majer-Newman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Hydrologic and Vegetation Effects on Water Column Phosphorus in Wetland Mesocosms J. R. White,* K. The restoration plan for the Everglades includes construction of large stormwater treatment areas (STAs) decreased by 49% for the SAV treatments compared with 41% for the EAV treatments, irrespective of hydrology

  8. Long-term hydrologic monitoring program. Rulison Event Site, Grand Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hydrologic Program Advisory Group reviewed the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program proposed for the Rulison site at their December 12, 1971, meeting. Samples are collected annually, at about the same dates each year. The hydraulic head, temperature in /sup 0/C, pH, and electrical conductance are recorded at the time of sample collection. Prior to October 1, 1979, each sample was analyzed for gamma emitters and tritium. Gross alpha and beta radioactivity measurements were made on all samples collected. After October 1, 1979, these analyses were discontinued in favor of high-resolution gamma spectrometry using a GeLi detector. For each sample location, samples of raw water and filtered and acidified watar are collected. The raw water samples are analyzed for tritium by the conventional method. Those samples with concentrations that are below the detection level for this method are then analyzed by the enrichment method. Portions of the filtered and acidified samples are analyzed for gamma emitters.

  9. Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: The effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apul, Defne S. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Mail Stop 307, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)], E-mail: Defne.apul@utoledo.edu; Gardner, Kevin H. [Environmental Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, 35 Colovos Road, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)], E-mail: Kevin.gardner@unh.edu; Eighmy, T. Taylor [Environmental Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, 35 Colovos Road, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)], E-mail: Taylor.eighmy@unh.edu

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was to provide a tool for regulators to evaluate the groundwater contamination from the use of virgin and secondary materials in road construction. A finite element model, HYDRUS2D, was used to evaluate generic scenarios for secondary material use in base layers. Use of generic model results for particular applications was demonstrated through a steel slag example. The hydrology and reactive transport of contaminants were modeled in a two-dimensional cross section of a road. Model simulations showed that in an intact pavement, lateral velocities from the edge towards the centerline may transport contaminants in the base layer. The dominant transport mechanisms are advection closer to the edge and diffusion closer to the centerline. A shoulder joint in the pavement allows 0.03 to 0.45 m{sup 3}/day of infiltration per meter of joint length as a function of the base and subgrade hydrology and the rain intensity. Scenario simulations showed that salts in the base layer of pavements are depleted by 99% in the first 20 years, whereas the metals may not reach the groundwater in 20 years at any significant concentrations if the pavement is built on adsorbing soils.

  10. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2000 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M L; Eaton, G F; Hakemi, N L; Hudson, G B; Hutcheon, I D; Lau, C A; Kersting, A B; Kenneally, J M; Moran, J E; Phinney, D L; Rose, T P; Smith, D K; Sylwester, E R; Wang, L; Williams, R; Zavarin, M

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report highlights the results of FY 2000 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. This is the latest in a series of annual reports published by LLNL-ANCD to document recent investigations of radionuclide migration and transport processes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The HRMP is sponsored by Defense Programs (DP) at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOENV), and supports DP operations at the NTS through studies of radiochemical and hydrologic processes that are relevant to the DP mission. Other organizations that support the HRMP include Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPS), and Bechtel Nevada (BN). The UGTA Project is sponsored by the Environmental Management (EM) program at DOENV; its goal is to determine the extent of radionuclide contamination in groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. The project strategy follows guidelines set forth in a Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Participating contractors include LLNL (both ANCD and the Energy and Environmental Sciences Directorate), LANL, USGS, DRI, BN, and IT Corporation (with subcontract support from Geotrans Inc.).

  11. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cements resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  12. 612 SOIL SCI. SOC. AM. J., VOL. 66, MARCHAPRIL 2002 model: User's manual. Communications 91:6, Swedish University Linsley, R.K., M.A. Kohler, and J.L.H. Paulus. 1975. Hydrology for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaye, Jason P.

    .J. Morel-Sey- toux (ed.) Unsaturated flow in hydrologic modeling theory andquium, 12th, Perth, Western

  13. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  14. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Abrasion resistant track shoe grouser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Keith D; Diekevers, Mark S; Afdahl, Curt D; Steiner, Kevin L; Barnes, Christopher A

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A track shoe for a track-type vehicle. The track shoe includes a base plate and a grouser projecting away from the base plate. A capping surface structure of substantially horseshoe shaped cross-section is disposed across a distal portion of the grouser. The capping surface structure covers portions of a distal edge surface and adjacent lateral surfaces. The capping surface structure is formed from an material characterized by enhanced wear resistance relative to portions of the grouser underlying the capping surface structure.

  16. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  17. Temperature Resistant Optimal Ratchet Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Manchein; Alan Celestino; Marcus W Beims

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable periodic structures containing optimal ratchet transport, recently found in the parameter space dissipation versus ratchet parameter [PRL 106, 234101 (2011)], are shown to be resistant to reasonable temperatures, reinforcing the expectation that they are essential to explain the optimal ratchet transport in nature. Critical temperatures for their destruction, valid from the overdamping to close to the conservative limits, are obtained numerically and shown to be connected to the current efficiency, given here analytically. Results are demonstrated for a discrete ratchet model and generalized to the Langevin equation with an additional external oscillating force.

  18. Analysis of the spatial variation in the parameters of the SWAT model with application in Flanders,Northern Belgium Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(5), 931939 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ,Northern Belgium 931 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(5), 931939 (2004) © EGU Analysis of the spatial.heuvelmans@agr.kuleuven.ac.be Abstract Operational applications of a hydrological model often require the prediction of stream flow of a large river basin. Keywords: hydrological model, regionalisation, parameterisation, spatial variability

  19. Integration of spatial datasets to suppor t the review of hydrometric networks and the identification of representative catchments Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(6), 11031117 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and the identification of representative catchments 1103 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(6), 11031117 (2004) © EGU of representative catchments C.L.R. Laize Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, UK E into account the reduction in hydrological uncertainty brought about by the data added since the last network

  20. Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams:potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(6), 675684 (2005) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -output nutrient mass balances 675 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9(6), 675684 (2005) © EGU Uncertainty of stream nutrient retention/release under a wide spectrum of hydrological conditions. Providing good estimates of the mass balances for nutrients depends on precise hydrological monitoring and good chemical

  1. INFLUENCE DES DFAUTS TENDUS SUR LES PROPRITS SUPRACONDUCTRICES DU NIOBIUM (1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    240. INFLUENCE DES DFAUTS TENDUS SUR LES PROPRITS SUPRACONDUCTRICES DU NIOBIUM (1) Par B. B monocristaux de niobium. La comparaison des mesures d'aimantation avec les prvisions des thories des resistivity measurements, and electron microscope observations were performed with several niobium single

  2. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes. 3 figs.

  3. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes.

  4. Accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements of laser-doped areas in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich, Martin, E-mail: mh.seris@gmail.com [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Kluska, Sven; Binder, Sebastian [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hameiri, Ziv [The School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Hoex, Bram [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    It is investigated how potential drop sheet resistance measurements of areas formed by laser-assisted doping in crystalline Si wafers are affected by typically occurring experimental factors like sample size, inhomogeneities, surface roughness, or coatings. Measurements are obtained with a collinear four point probe setup and a modified transfer length measurement setup to measure sheet resistances of laser-doped lines. Inhomogeneities in doping depth are observed from scanning electron microscope images and electron beam induced current measurements. It is observed that influences from sample size, inhomogeneities, surface roughness, and coatings can be neglected if certain preconditions are met. Guidelines are given on how to obtain accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped regions.

  5. Schlumberger Resistivity Soundings At Chena Geothermal Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Schlumberger Resistivity Soundings Activity Date 1979 - 1980 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Geophysical studies through the University of Alaska...

  6. Magnetotelluric Transect of Long Valley Caldera: Resistivity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MT line. Our MT data set reveals numerous resistivity structures which illuminate the evolution and present state of the Long Valley system. Many of these have been quantified...

  7. Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(3), 545549 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects 545 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(3), 545549 (2004) © EGU Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects Robert A. Briers and John H The impacts of coniferous plantation forestry on the biology of upland streams in the UK are firmly

  8. Source document compilation: Los Alamos investigations related to the environment, engineering, geology, and hydrology, 1961--1990. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purtymun, W.D. [comp.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a compilation of informal reports, letters, and memorandums regarding geologic and hydrologic studies and investigations such as foundation investigations for structures, drilling or coring for environmental studies, development of water supply, or construction of test or observation wells for monitoring. Also included are replies requested for specific environmental, engineering, geologic, and hydrologic problems. The purpose of this document is to preserve and make the original data available to the environmental studies that are now in progress at Los Alamos and provide a reference for and supplement the LAMS report ``Records of Observation Wells, Test Holes, Test Wells, Supply Wells, Springs, and Surface water stations at Los Alamos: with Reference to the Geology and Hydrology,`` which is in preparation. The informal reports and memorandums are listed chronologically from December 1961 to January 1990. Item 208 is a descriptive history of the US Geological Survey`s activities at Los Alamos from 1946 through 1972. The history includes a list of published and unpublished reports that cover geology, hydrology, water supply, waste disposal, and environmental monitoring in the Los Alamos area.

  9. Estimation of hydrologic properties of heterogeneous geologic media with an inverse method based on iterated function systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, C.A.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrologic properties of heterogeneous geologic media are estimated by simultaneously inverting multiple observations from well-test data. A set of pressure transients observed during one or more interference tests is compared to the corresponding values obtained by numerically simulating the tests using a mathematical model. The parameters of the mathematical model are varied and the simulation repeated until a satisfactory match to the observed pressure transients is obtained, at which point the model parameters are accepted as providing a possible representation of the hydrologic property distribution. Restricting the search to parameters that represent fractal hydrologic property distributions can improve the inversion process. Far fewer parameters are needed to describe heterogeneity with a fractal geometry, improving the efficiency and robustness of the inversion. Additionally, each parameter set produces a hydrologic property distribution with a hierarchical structure, which mimics the multiple scales of heterogeneity often seen in natural geological media. Application of the IFS inverse method to synthetic interference-test data shows that the method reproduces the synthetic heterogeneity successfully for idealized heterogeneities, for geologically-realistic heterogeneities, and when the pressure data includes noise.

  10. Challenges in defining a radiologic and hydrologic source term for underground nuclear test centers, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.K.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compilation of a radionuclide inventory for long-lived radioactive contaminants residual from nuclear testing provides a partial measure of the radiologic source term at the Nevada Test Site. The radiologic source term also includes potentially mobile short-lived radionuclides excluded from the inventory. The radiologic source term for tritium is known with accuracy and is equivalent to the hydrologic source term within the saturated zone. Definition of the total hydrologic source term for fission and activation products that have high activities for decades following underground testing involves knowledge and assumptions which are presently unavailable. Systematic investigation of the behavior of fission products, activation products and actinides under saturated or Partially saturated conditions is imperative to define a representative total hydrologic source term. This is particularly important given the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides within testing centers. Data quality objectives which emphasize a combination of measurements and credible estimates of the hydrologic source term are a priority for near-field investigations at the Nevada Test Site.

  11. Coupled Geochemical and Hydrological Processes Governing the Fate and Transport of Radionuclides and Toxic Metals Beneath the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Fendorf; Phil Jardine

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was to provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of coupled hydrological and geochemical mechanisms that are responsible for the accelerated migration and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals in the badose zone beneath the Hanford Tank Farms.

  12. Changes in glaciers in the Swiss Alps and impact on basin hydrology: Current state of the art and future research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffel, Markus

    Review Changes in glaciers in the Swiss Alps and impact on basin hydrology: Current state of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland H I G H L I G H T S Comprehensive review of glacier changes in the Swiss forcing. Extrapolation of air temperature can affect model projections of glacier evolution. Debris

  13. Modeling the effect of glacier recession on streamflow1 response using a coupled glacio-hydrological model2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    1 Modeling the effect of glacier recession on streamflow1 response using a coupled glacio an integrated spatially distributed hydrologic and glacier dynamic model,14 and use it to investigate the effect of glacier recession on streamflow variations for the Upper15 Bow River basin, a tributary of the South

  14. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

  15. GROUNDWATER FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELING Application to Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Coastal Wetland Hydrology, and Deep Well Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukop, Mike

    GROUNDWATER FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODELING Application to Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Coastal, but is also lost to surface water drainage and potential submarine groundwater discharge. There are also to deal with issues such as submarine groundwater discharge and coastal wetland hydrology. SEAWAT also has

  16. Effect of grid size on runoff and soil moisture for a variable-source-area hydrology model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    landscapes are dependent on the distribution and pattern of soil moisture and water transport. In this paper for efficient manage- ment of water quality [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1994, 1995, 1996Effect of grid size on runoff and soil moisture for a variable-source-area hydrology model Wen

  17. Aerosol Effects on Clouds, Energy & Hydrologic Cycle Steven Ghan, Trond Iversen, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Athanasios Nenes, Joyce Penner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cycle and a "semi-direct" effect by suppressing cloud formation due to absorption of solar radiation cloud coverage. The increased cloud albedo and cloud cover decrease solar insolation at the surfaceAerosol Effects on Clouds, Energy & Hydrologic Cycle Steven Ghan, Trond Iversen, Jon Egill

  18. James W. Jawitz 2169 McCarty Hall/PO Box 110290 Assistant Professor, Environmental Hydrology Gainesville, FL 32611

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    . Hydraulic analysis of cell-network treatment wetlands. Journal of Hydrology, 330, pp. 721-724, doi:10.1016/j treatment wetland in Florida. Ecological Engineering, 26, 132­146, doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2005 zone treatment: Experimental and modeling assessment of the benefits of partial source removal $991

  19. Enhanced Resistance to Control Potato Tuberworm by Combining Engineered Resistance, Avidin, and Natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    Enhanced Resistance to Control Potato Tuberworm by Combining Engineered Resistance, Avidin & Edward J. Grafius Published online: 15 November 2008 # Potato Association of America 2008 Abstract Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is a destructive insect pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum (L

  20. DOWN-STREAM SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE TRAITS ALONG METAL CONTAMINATED STREAM REACHES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuckfield, C; J V Mcarthur (NOEMAIL), J

    2007-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Sediment bacteria samples were collected from three streams in South Carolina, two contaminated with multiple metals (Four Mile Creek and Castor Creek), one uncontaminated (Meyers Branch), and another metal contaminated stream (Lampert Creek) in northern Washington State. Growth plates inoculated with Four Mile Creek sample extracts show bacteria colony growth after incubation on plates containing either one of two aminoglycosides (kanamycin or streptomycin), tetracycline or chloramphenocol. This study analyzes the spatial pattern of antibiotic resistance in culturable sediment bacteria in all four streams that may be due to metal contamination. We summarize the two aminoglycoside resistance measures and the 10 metals concentrations by Principal Components Analysis. Respectively, 63% and 58% of the variability was explained in the 1st principal component of each variable set. We used the respective multivariate summary metrics (i.e. 1st principal component scores) as input measures for exploring the spatial correlation between antibiotic resistance and metal concentration for each stream reach sampled. Results show a significant and negative correlation between metals scores versus aminoglycoside resistance scores and suggest that selection for metal tolerance among sediment bacteria may influence selection for antibiotic resistance differently than previously supposed.. In addition, we borrow a method from geostatistics (variography) wherein a spatial cross-correlation analysis shows that decreasing metal concentrations scores are associated with increasing aminoglycoside resistance scores as the separation distance between sediment samples decreases, but for contaminated streams only. Since these results were counter to our initial expectation and to other experimental evidence for water column bacteria, we suspect our field results are influenced by metal bioavailability in the sediments and by a contaminant promoted interaction or ''cocktail effect'' from complex combinations of pollution mediated selection agents.

  1. A survey of anthracnose resistant sorghum germplasm lines to identify additional resistance genes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiltse, Curtis Craig

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Discussion. . Conclusion 12 . . . 14 . . . 14 . . . 17 . . . . 20 . . . . 21 25 vn CHAPTER Page IV INHERITANCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF RESISTANCE. . . 27 Introduction Materials and Methods Plant Materials Collerornchum gramimcola Inoculation... must be characterized Once characterized, the new resistance genes can be pyramided or used as needed. This experiment was designed to determine if different 14 sources of genetic resistance exist among 13 resistant sorghum germplasm lines released...

  2. Hydrologic assessment, Eastern Coal Province, Area 23, Alabama: Black Warrior River; Buttahatchee River; Cahaba River; Sipsey River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harkins, J.R.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Area 23 is located at the southern end of the Eastern Coal Province, in the Mobile River basin, includes the Warrior, Cahaba, and edges of the Plateau coal fields in Alabama, and covers an area of 4716 square miles. This report is designed to be useful to mine owners and operators and consulting engineers by presenting information about existing hydrologic conditions and identification of sources of hydrologic information. General hydrologic information is presented in a brief text and illustrations on a single water-resources related topic. Area 23 is underlain by the Coker and Pottsville Formations and the pre-Pennsylvanian rocks. Area 23 has a moist temperate climate with an annual average rainfall of 54 inches and the majority of the area is covered by forest. The soils have a high erosion potential when the vegetative cover is removed. Use of water is primarily from surface-water sources as ground-water supplies generally are not sufficient for public supplies. The US Geological Survey operates a network of hydrologic data collection stations to monitor the streamflow and ground-water conditions. This network includes data for 180 surface-water stations and 49 ground-water observation wells. These data include rate of flow, water levels, and water-quality parameters. Hydrologic problems relating to surface mining are (1) erosion and sedimentation, (2) decline in ground-water levels, and (3) degradation of water quality. Decline in ground-water levels can occur in and near surface-mining areas when excavation extends below the static water level in the aquifer. This can cause nearby wells and springs to go dry. Acid mine drainage is a problem only adjacent to the mined area.

  3. Annual hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed: Water Year 1990 (October 1989--September 1990)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Moore, G.K.; Watts, J.A.; Broders, C.C.; Bednarek, A.T.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes, for the Water Year 1990 (October 1989-- September 1990), the dynamic hydrologic data collected on the Whiteoak Creek (WOC) Watershed's surface and subsurface flow systems. These systems affect the quality or quantity of surface water and groundwater. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to 1. characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow system, 2. plan and assess remedial action activities, and 3. provide long-term availability of data and assure quality. Characterizing the hydrology of the WOC watershed provides a better understanding of the processes which drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identifying of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. Hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. The majority of the data summarized in this report are available from the Remedial Action Programs Data and Information Management System data base. Surface water data available within the WOC flow system include discharge and runoff, surface water quality, radiological and chemical contamination of sediments, and descriptions of the outfalls to the WOC flow system. Climatological data available for the Oak Ridge area include precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. Information on groundwater levels, aquifer characteristics, and groundwater quality are presented. Anomalies in the data and problems with monitoring and accuracy are discussed. 58 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. A new formula to compute apparent resistivities from marine magnetometric resistivity data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    A new formula to compute apparent resistivities from marine magnetometric resistivity data Jiuping formulas to compute the apparent resistiv- ity have their own limitations and are invalid for a deep-sea experiment. In this paper, we derive an apparent-resistivity formula based upon the magnetic field resulting

  5. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2012 at Rulison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 8, 2012. The samples were shipped to GEL Laboratories in Charleston, South Carolina, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry; tritium was analyzed using two methods. The conventional tritium method has a detection limit on the order of 400 pCi/L, and a select set of samples was analyzed for tritium using the enriched method, which has a detection limit on the order of 3 pCi/L.

  6. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Sampling and Analysis Results for 2011 at Rulison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) on May 18, 2011. The samples were shipped to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, for analysis. All requested analyses were successfully completed, with the exception of the determination of tritium concentration by the enrichment method. The laboratory no longer provides that service. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional method. Starting in 2012, DOE will retain a different laboratory that provides the enriched tritium analysis service.

  7. Hydrologic Nuclide Transport Models in Cyder, A Geologic Disposal Software Library - 13328

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, Kathryn D. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Component level and system level abstraction of detailed computational geologic repository models have resulted in four rapid computational models of hydrologic radionuclide transport at varying levels of detail. Those models are described, as is their implementation in Cyder, a software library of interchangeable radionuclide transport models appropriate for representing natural and engineered barrier components of generic geology repository concepts. A proof of principle demonstration was also conducted in which these models were used to represent the natural and engineered barrier components of a repository concept in a reducing, homogenous, generic geology. This base case demonstrates integration of the Cyder open source library with the Cyclus computational fuel cycle systems analysis platform to facilitate calculation of repository performance metrics with respect to fuel cycle choices. (authors)

  8. Gasbuggy, New Mexico Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) that has been conducted since 1972 at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico underground nuclear detonation site. The nuclear testing was conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program, which is discussed in greater detail in Appendix A. The detonation at Gasbuggy took place in 1967, 4,240 feet below ground surface, and was designed to fracture the host rock of a low-permeability natural gas-bearing formation in an effort to improve gas production. The site has historically been managed under the Nevada Offsites Project. These underground nuclear detonation sites are within the United States but outside of the Nevada Test Site where most of the experimental nuclear detonations conducted by the U.S. Government took place. Gasbuggy is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM ).

  9. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  10. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  11. High impact resistant ceramic composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derkacy, J.A.

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic material and a method of forming a ceramic material which possesses a high impact resistance are disclosed. The material comprises: (a) a first continuous phase of [beta]-SiC; and (b) a second phase of about 25-40 vol % TiB[sub 2]. Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] is preferably used as a densification aid. The material is formed by hot-pressing the mixture at a temperature from greater than about 1800 C to less than the transition temperature of [beta]-SiC to [alpha]-SiC. The hot-pressing is performed at a pressure of about 2000 psi to about 4000 psi in an inert atmosphere for several hours and results in the formation of a two phase sintered ceramic composite material. 6 figures.

  12. The Hydrological Impact of Geoengineering in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilmes, S.; Fasullo, John; Lamarque, J.-F.; Marsh, D.; Mills, Mike; Alterskjaer, Kari; Muri, Helene O.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Boucher, Olivier; Schulz, M.; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Jones, A.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John; Bou Karam, Diana; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Rasch, Philip J.; Singh, Balwinder; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Robock, Alan; Yang, Shuting; Watanabe, Shingo

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: The hydrologic impact of enhancing Earths albedo due to solar radiation management (SRM) is investigated using simulations from 12 models contributing to the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). An artificial experiment is investigated, where global mean temperature is preserved at pre-industrial conditions, while atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are quadrupled. The associated reduction of downwelling surface solar radiation in a high CO2 environment leads to a reduction of global evaporation of 10% and 4% and precipitation of 6.1% and 6.3% over land and ocean, respectively. An initial reduction of latent heat flux at the surface is largely driven by reduced evapotranspiration over land with instantly increasing CO2 concentrations in both experiments. A warming surface associated with the transient adjustment in the 4xCO2 experiment further generates an increase of global precipitation, with considerable regional changes, such as a significant precipitation reduction of 7% for the North American summer monsoon. Reduced global precipitation persists in the geoengineered experiment where temperatures are stabilized, with considerable regional rainfall deficits. Precipitation reductions that are consistent in sign across models are identified in the geoengineered experiment over monsoonal land regions of East Asia (6%), North America (7%), South America (6%) and South Africa (5%). In contrast to the 4xCO2 experiment, where the frequency of months with heavy precipitation intensity is increased by over 50%, it is reduced by up to 20% in the geoengineering scenario . The reduction in heavy precipitation is more pronounced over land than over the ocean, and accompanies a stronger reduction in evaporation over land. For northern mid-latitudes, maximum precipitation reduction over land ranges from 1 to 16% for individual models. For 45-65N, the frequency of median to high intensity precipitation in summer is strongly reduced. These changes in precipitation in both total amount and frequency of extremes, point to a considerable weakening of the hydrological cycle in a geoengineered world.

  13. Inverse Modeling of Hydrologic Parameters Using Surface Flux and Runoff Observations in the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yu; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Tian, Fuqiang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrates the possibility of inverting hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Previous studies showed that surface flux and runoff calculations are sensitive to major hydrologic parameters in CLM4 over different watersheds, and illustrated the necessity and possibility of parameter calibration. Two inversion strategies, the deterministic least-square fitting and stochastic Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) - Bayesian inversion approaches, are evaluated by applying them to CLM4 at selected sites. The unknowns to be estimated include surface and subsurface runoff generation parameters and vadose zone soil water parameters. We find that using model parameters calibrated by the least-square fitting provides little improvements in the model simulations but the sampling-based stochastic inversion approaches are consistent - as more information comes in, the predictive intervals of the calibrated parameters become narrower and the misfits between the calculated and observed responses decrease. In general, parameters that are identified to be significant through sensitivity analyses and statistical tests are better calibrated than those with weak or nonlinear impacts on flux or runoff observations. Temporal resolution of observations has larger impacts on the results of inverse modeling using heat flux data than runoff data. Soil and vegetation cover have important impacts on parameter sensitivities, leading to the different patterns of posterior distributions of parameters at different sites. Overall, the MCMC-Bayesian inversion approach effectively and reliably improves the simulation of CLM under different climates and environmental conditions. Bayesian model averaging of the posterior estimates with different reference acceptance probabilities can smooth the posterior distribution and provide more reliable parameter estimates, but at the expense of wider uncertainty bounds.

  14. Application of a medium-range global hydrologic probabilistic forecast scheme to the Ohio River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voisin, Nathalie; Pappenberger, Florian; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Buizza, Roberto; Schaake, John

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 10-day globally applicable flood prediction scheme was evaluated using the Ohio River basin as a test site for the period 2003-2007. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model was initialized with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis temperatures and wind, and Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission Multi Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) precipitation up to the day of forecast. In forecast mode, the VIC model was then forced with a calibrated and statistically downscaled ECMWF ensemble prediction system (EPS) 10-day ensemble forecast. A parallel set up was used where ECMWF EPS forecasts were interpolated to the spatial scale of the hydrology model. Each set of forecasts was extended by 5 days using monthly mean climatological variables and zero precipitation in order to account for the effect of initial conditions. The 15-day spatially distributed ensemble runoff forecasts were then routed to four locations in the basin, each with different drainage areas. Surrogates for observed daily runoff and flow were provided by the reference run, specifically VIC simulation forced with ECMWF analysis fields and TMPA precipitation fields. The flood prediction scheme using the calibrated and downscaled ECMWF EPS forecasts was shown to be more accurate and reliable than interpolated forecasts for both daily distributed runoff forecasts and daily flow forecasts. Initial and antecedent conditions dominated the flow forecasts for lead times shorter than the time of concentration depending on the flow forecast amounts and the drainage area sizes. The flood prediction scheme had useful skill for the 10 following days at all sites.

  15. Oxidation-resistant interfacial coatings for continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugham, S.; Liaw, P.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Stinton, D.P.; Bleier, A.; Besmann, T.M.; Lara-Curzio, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rebillat, F. [LCTS, Pessac (France)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing an oxidation-resistant interfacial coating for continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) continues to be a major challenge. CFCCs` mechanical behavior are influenced by the interfacial bonding characteristics between the fiber and the matrix. Finite element modeling studies suggest that a low-modulus interfacial coating material will be effective in reducing the residual thermal stresses that are generated upon cooling from processing temperatures. Nicalon/SiC composites with carbon, alumina and mullite interfacial coatings were fabricated with the SiC matrix deposited using a forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration process. Composites with mullite interfacial coatings exhibited considerable fiber pull-out even after oxidation and have potential as a composite system.

  16. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Abstract:...

  17. Earth resistivity measurement near substation ground grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lodwig, S.G.; Mateja, S.A. [ComEd, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper substation grounding grid design requires good, accurate soil resistivity measurements. This data is essential to model the substation ground grid to design a safe ground grid with a satisfactory ground grid resistance at minimum cost. For substations with several decades of service, there is some concern that a grid may have deteriorated, been damaged during equipment installation or excavation, or that initial soil resistivity measurements were lost or may not have been correctly performed. Ground grid conductors change the substation surface voltage distribution. Any voltage measurements taken at the complete substation will also vary from the tests made without conductors present. During testing, current was injected in the soil by probes placed near the ground grid. The current tends to follow the ground grid conductors since copper is a far better conductor than the soil it is placed in. Resistance readings near grids will be lower than readings in undisturbed soil. Since computer models were unavailable for many years, analyzing the effect of the grid conductors on soil resistivity measurements was very difficult. As a result, soil resistivity measurements made close to substations were of little use to the engineer unless some means of correcting the measured values could be developed. This paper will present results of soil resistivity measurements near a substation ground grid before and after a ground grid has been installed and describes a means of calculating the undisturbed soil model.

  18. VISCOUS AND RESISTIVE EFFECTS ON THE MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY WITH A NET TOROIDAL FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Jacob B.; Hawley, John F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Resistivity and viscosity have a significant role in establishing the energy levels in turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in local astrophysical disk models. This study uses the Athena code to characterize the effects of a constant shear viscosity nu and Ohmic resistivity eta in unstratified shearing box simulations with a net toroidal magnetic flux. A previous study of shearing boxes with zero net magnetic field performed with the ZEUS code found that turbulence dies out for values of the magnetic Prandtl number, P {sub m} = nu/eta, below P {sub m} approx 1; for P {sub m} approx> 1, time- and volume-averaged stress levels increase with P {sub m}. We repeat these experiments with Athena and obtain consistent results. Next, the influence of viscosity and resistivity on the toroidal field MRI is investigated both for linear growth and for fully developed turbulence. In the linear regime, a sufficiently large nu or eta can prevent MRI growth; P {sub m} itself has little direct influence on growth from linear perturbations. By applying a range of values for nu and eta to an initial state consisting of fully developed turbulence in the presence of a background toroidal field, we investigate their effects in the fully nonlinear system. Here, increased viscosity enhances the turbulence, and the turbulence decays only if the resistivity is above a critical value; turbulence can be sustained even when P {sub m} < 1, in contrast to the zero net field model. While we find preliminary evidence that the stress converges to a small range of values when nu and eta become small enough, the influence of dissipation terms on MRI-driven turbulence for relatively large eta and nu is significant, independent of field geometry.

  19. Effects of soot-induced snow albedo change on snowpack and hydrological cycle in western United States based on Weather Research and Forecasting chemistry and regional climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2009-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative forcing induced by soot on snow is a major anthropogenic forcing affecting the global climate. However, it is uncertain how the soot-induced snow albedo perturbation affects regional snowpack and the hydrological cycle. In this study we simulated the deposition of soot aerosol on snow and investigated the resulting impact on snowpack and the surface water budget in the western United States. A yearlong simulation was performed using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) to determine an annual budget of soot deposition, followed by two regional climate simulations using WRF in meteorology-only mode, with and without the soot-induced snow albedo perturbations. The chemistry simulation shows large spatial variability in soot deposition that reflects the localized emissions and the influence of the complex terrain. The soot-induced snow albedo perturbations increase the net solar radiation flux at the surface during late winter to early spring, increase the surface air temperature, reduce snow water equivalent amount, and lead to reduced snow accumulation and less spring snowmelt. These effects are stronger over the central Rockies and southern Alberta, where soot deposition and snowpack overlap the most. The indirect forcing of soot accelerates snowmelt and alters stream flows, including a trend toward earlier melt dates in the western United States. The soot-induced albedo reduction initiates a positive feedback process whereby dirty snow absorbs more solar radiation, heating the surface and warming the air. This warming causes reduced snow depth and fraction, which further reduces the regional surface albedo for the snow covered regions. Our simulations indicate that the change of maximum snow albedo induced by soot on snow contributes to 60% of the net albedo reduction over the central Rockies. Snowpack reduction accounts for the additional 40%.

  20. Field scale evaluation of the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor and assessment of river-aquifer interaction at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site / by Andrew Scott Alden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alden, Andrew Scott

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors (ISPFS), recently developed by Dr. Sanford Ballard at Sandia National Laboratories, were field tested at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site near College Station, Texas. The Flow Sensors use a thermal...

  1. Field scale evaluation of the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor and assessment of river-aquifer interaction at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site / by Andrew Scott Alden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alden, Andrew Scott

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors (ISPFS), recently developed by Dr. Sanford Ballard at Sandia National Laboratories, were field tested at the Brazos River Hydrologic Field Site near College Station, Texas. The Flow Sensors use a thermal...

  2. Demographic and trophic dynamics of fishes in relation to hydrologic variation in channel and floodplain habitats of the Brazos River, Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeug, Steven Christopher

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Large rivers in North America have been subjected to a variety of hydrologic alterations that have negatively impacted aquatic fauna. These impacts have triggered restoration efforts, including management of flows, to restore or maintain ecological...

  3. The effect of fractures, faults, and sheared shale zones on the hydrology of Bear Creek Burial Grounds A-South, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollon, Dwight Mitchell

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous hydrologic models of flow in Bear Creek Valley have presented lateral flow as occurring through the Nolichucky Shale in parallel to strike fractures within thin carbonate beds; the effects of faults were not considered. This study presents...

  4. The effect of fractures, faults, and sheared shale zones on the hydrology of Bear Creek Burial Grounds A-South, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollon, Dwight Mitchell

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous hydrologic models of flow in Bear Creek Valley have presented lateral flow as occurring through the Nolichucky Shale in parallel to strike fractures within thin carbonate beds; the effects of faults were not considered. This study presents...

  5. Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drici, Warda

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the analysis of the available hydrologic data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  6. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel...

  7. Test Procedure for UV Weathering Resistance of Backsheet | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Test Procedure for UV Weathering Resistance of Backsheet Test Procedure for UV Weathering Resistance of Backsheet Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27...

  8. adult plant resistance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 39 THE ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT OF STEM RUST SUSCEPTIBLE AND RESISTANT WHEATS Breeding new varieties of wheat resistant... to the stem rust fungus, Puccinia...

  9. antimicrobial resistance mechanisms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Myers, Cullen Lucan 2013-01-01 31 Original article Mechanisms of resistance to acrolein Physics Websites Summary: Original article Mechanisms of resistance to acrolein in...

  10. ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance Print Thursday, 25 July 2013 13:44 In the...

  11. New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

  12. Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency &...

  13. how many doses can you miss before resistance emerges?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Adherence to antiretroviral HIV drugs: how many doses can you miss before resistance emerges? Abstract. The emergence of drug resistance is one of the...

  14. DC Resistivity Survey (Wenner Array) At Mt Princeton Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2008 - 2010 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determination of groundwater flux patterns Notes Researchers measured DC resistivity and produced 12 resistivity...

  15. Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbine Engines Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbine Engines...

  16. High PID Resistant Cross-Linked Encapsulnt Based on Polyolefin...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    are some concern about thermal creep resistance We have developed new polyolefin encapsulant "SOLAR ASCE TM" , which is based on high electrical resistivity polyolefin...

  17. Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of...

  18. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweitzer, Donald G. (Bayport, NY); Davis, Mary S. (Wading River, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  19. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  20. Scalability of grid- and subbasin-based land surface modeling approaches for hydrologic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Voisin, Nathalie; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the relative merits of grid- and subbasin-based land surface modeling approaches for hydrologic simulations, with a focus on their scalability (i.e., abilities to perform consistently across a range of spatial resolutions) in simulating runoff generation. Simulations produced by the grid- and subbasin-based configurations of the Community Land Model (CLM) are compared at four spatial resolutions (0.125o, 0.25o, 0.5o and 1o) over the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Using the 0.125o resolution simulation as the reference, statistical skill metrics are calculated and compared across simulations at 0.25o, 0.5o and 1o spatial resolutions of each modeling approach at basin and topographic region levels. Results suggest significant scalability advantage for the subbasin-based approach compared to the grid-based approach for runoff generation. Basin level annual average relative errors of surface runoff at 0.25o, 0.5o, and 1o compared to 0.125o are 3%, 4%, and 6% for the subbasin-based configuration and 4%, 7%, and 11% for the grid-based configuration, respectively. The scalability advantages of the subbasin-based approach are more pronounced during winter/spring and over mountainous regions. The source of runoff scalability is found to be related to the scalability of major meteorological and land surface parameters of runoff generation. More specifically, the subbasin-based approach is more consistent across spatial scales than the grid-based approach in snowfall/rainfall partitioning, which is related to air temperature and surface elevation. Scalability of a topographic parameter used in the runoff parameterization also contributes to improved scalability of the rain driven saturated surface runoff component, particularly during winter. Hence this study demonstrates the importance of spatial structure for multi-scale modeling of hydrological processes, with implications to surface heat fluxes in coupled land-atmosphere modeling.

  1. Economic, Hydrologic and Environmental Appraisal of Texas Inter-basin Water Transfers: Model Development and Initial Appraisal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Yongxia; McCarl, Bruce A.

    impacts and water quality changes. Water-related models that deal with hydrologic and environmental issues commonly focus on the quantity issues such as water supply and water flow but do not have economic or water quality dimensions (Wurbs, 2003... on combining surface and ground water by integrating the Edwards Aquifer Groundwater and River System Simulation Model (EDSIMR). 2 Modeling framework Economic theory indicates that water should be allocated to the highest valued users in order to achieve...

  2. Long-Term Hydrologic Responses To Shrub Removal In A SW Texas Rangeland: Using Soil Chloride To Estimate Deep Drainage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barre, David Anthony

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    LONG-TERM HYDROLOGIC RESPONSES TO SHRUB REMOVAL IN A SW TEXAS RANGELAND: USING SOIL CHLORIDE TO ESTIMATE DEEP DRAINAGE A Thesis by DAVID ANTHONY BARRE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... of the study were to identify those biotic and abiotic factors facilitating deep drainage and to examine differences in recharge for the years following clearing of natural shrub vegetation. Soil chloride was examined to estimate long-term recharge rates...

  3. A Large-Scale, High-Resolution Hydrological Model Parameter Data Set for Climate Change Impact Assessment for the Conterminous US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL] [ORNL; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL] [ORNL; Naz, Bibi S [ORNL] [ORNL; Tootle, Glenn [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa] [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To extend geographical coverage, refine spatial resolution, and improve modeling efficiency, a computation- and data-intensive effort was conducted to organize a comprehensive hydrologic dataset with post-calibrated model parameters for hydro-climate impact assessment. Several key inputs for hydrologic simulation including meteorologic forcings, soil, land class, vegetation, and elevation were collected from multiple best-available data sources and organized for 2107 hydrologic subbasins (8-digit hydrologic units, HUC8s) in the conterminous United States at refined 1/24 (~4 km) spatial resolution. Using high-performance computing for intensive model calibration, a high-resolution parameter dataset was prepared for the macro-scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC simulation was driven by DAYMET daily meteorological forcing and was calibrated against USGS WaterWatch monthly runoff observations for each HUC8. The results showed that this new parameter dataset may help reasonably simulate runoff at most US HUC8 subbasins. Based on this exhaustive calibration effort, it is now possible to accurately estimate the resources required for further model improvement across the entire conterminous United States. We anticipate that through this hydrologic parameter dataset, the repeated effort of fundamental data processing can be lessened, so that research efforts can emphasize the more challenging task of assessing climate change impacts. The pre-organized model parameter dataset will be provided to interested parties to support further hydro-climate impact assessment.

  4. Impact Resistance of Stitched Composites and Metacomposites ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact Resistance of Stitched Composites and Metacomposites Apr 07 2015 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Dr. K. T. Tan, Assistant Professor, Dept of Mechanical Engrng, University of Akron,...

  5. Genomic analysis of hepatic insulin resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raab, R. Michael

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Type II Diabetes mellitus is a genetically complex disease characterized by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, which results in simultaneous hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Because of the prevalence of type II ...

  6. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs. Understanding its structure may help...

  7. High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Filtered Arc Cr-Al-N Abstract: The requirements for low cost and high-tempurater corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks...

  8. Engineered Surfaces to Resist Corrosion and Wear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    MATS4007 Engineered Surfaces to Resist Corrosion and Wear Course Outline Session 2, 2014 School.................................................................................................4 Part III Corrosion and Control) LG07 Lecturer 28 Jul 1 Introduction to friction and wear JH Introduction to corrosion SC 4 Aug 2

  9. Bayesian estimation of resistivities from seismic velocities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werthmller, Dieter

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    I address the problem of finding a background model for the estimation of resistivities in the earth from controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data by using seismic data and well logs as constraints. Estimation of ...

  10. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  11. The influence of toughening-particles in CFRPs on low velocity impact damage resistance performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    polymer (CFRP) composites was investigated. Five carbon fibre reinforced systems consisting of four damage modes. Due to cost and processing considerations, composite materials commonly use thermoset scale of the crack-tip process zone; in composite materials the interply region is constrained

  12. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  13. Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard Brian (Athens, GA); Summers, Anne O. (Athens, GA); Rugh, Clayton L. (Athens, GA)

    1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

  14. Geomorphic controls on hydrology and vegetation in an arid basin: Turkana district, northern Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppinger, K.D.; Doehring, D.O.; Schimel, D.S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a broad ecological study of Kenyan pastoralist adaptation to periodic drought, a study was done to determine how arid region geomorphology affects hydrology and subsequently vegetative patterns. In this study area, 100 kilometers south of Lake Turkana, it appears that irregular precipitation is stored in bajada sediments and is available to deeply rooted vegetation over long periods of time. This vegetation provides a relatively constant food source for people's herds of browsers, the camels and goats, whereas cattle, which graze mainly on grasses, are significant producers only during wet seasons. Field observations suggest that the mountain and abutting pediment soils are too shallow to store appreciable water. However, greater quantities of water are stored in the deeper bajada sediments adjacent to the pediment where pastoralists dig temporary wells in ephemeral channels during wet seasons. Density of tree growth is greater along channels, and highest canopy cover values are found about the pediment-bajada interface. Geohydrologic processes in this area provide the basis for continuous occupation by the desert people, in contrast to recurring famines in adjacent areas, by enhancing the growth of woody vegetation.

  15. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Derivation from regional analysis of streamflow recession curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Ali, Melkamu; Leng, Guoyong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Wang, Shaowen; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfallrunoff response, especially in steep terrain. Its contribution to total runoff is, however, poorly represented in the current generation of land surface models. The lack of physical basis of these common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation of the stormflow (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global land surface models. This paper is aimed at deriving regionalized parameterizations of the storagedischarge relationship relating to subsurface stormflow from a topdown empirical data analysis of streamflow recession curves extracted from 50 eastern United States catchments. Detailed regression analyses were performed between parameters of the empirical storagedischarge relationships and the controlling climate, soil and topographic characteristics. The regression analyses performed on empirical recession curves at catchment scale indicated that the coefficient of the power-law form storagedischarge relationship is closely related to the catchment hydrologic characteristics, which is consistent with the hydraulic theory derived mainly at the hillslope scale. As for the exponent, besides the role of field scale soil hydraulic properties as suggested by hydraulic theory, it is found to be more strongly affected by climate (aridity) at the catchment scale. At a fundamental level these results point to the need for more detailed exploration of the co-dependence of soil, vegetation and topography with climate.

  16. Response of snow-dependent hydrologic extremes to continued global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University; Scherer, Martin [Stanford University; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Snow accumulation is critical for water availability in the Northern Hemisphere1,2, raising concern that global warming could have important impacts on natural and human systems in snow-dependent regions1,3. Although regional hydrologic changes have been observed (for example, refs 1,3 5), the time of emergence of extreme changes in snow accumulation and melt remains a key unknown for assessing climate- change impacts3,6,7. We find that the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble exhibits an imminent shift towards low snow years in the Northern Hemisphere, with areas of western North America, northeastern Europe and the Greater Himalaya showing the strongest emergence during the near- termdecadesandat2 Cglobalwarming.Theoccurrenceof extremely low snow years becomes widespread by the late twenty-first century, as do the occurrences of extremely high early-season snowmelt and runoff (implying increasing flood risk), and extremely low late-season snowmelt and runoff (implying increasing water stress). Our results suggest that many snow-dependent regions of the Northern Hemisphere are likely to experience increasing stress from low snow years within the next three decades, and from extreme changes in snow-dominated water resources if global warming exceeds 2 C above the pre-industrial baseline.

  17. Hydrological and solute budgets of Lake Qinghai, the largest lake on the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Zhangdong; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Yi; Shi, Yuewei

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water level and chemistry of Lake Qinghai are sensitive to climate changes and are important for paleoclimatic implications. An accurate understanding of hydrological and chemical budgets is crucial for quantifying geochemical proxies and carbon cycle. Published results of water budget are firstly reviewed in this paper. Chemical budget and residence time of major dissolved constituents in the lake are estimated using reliable water budget and newly obtained data for seasonal water chemistry. The results indicate that carbonate weathering is the most important riverine process, resulting in dominance of Ca2+ and DIC for river waters and groundwater. Groundwater contribution to major dissolved constituents is relatively small (4.2 0.5%). Wet atmospheric deposition contributes annually 7.444.0% soluble flux to the lake, resulting from eolian dust throughout the seasons. Estimates of chemical budget further suggest that (1) the Buha-type water dominates the chemical components of the lake water, (2) Na+, Cl?, Mg2+, and K+ in lake water are enriched owing to their conservative behaviors, and (3) precipitation of authigenic carbonates (low-Mg calcite, aragonite, and dolomite) transits quickly dissolved Ca2+ into the bottom sediments of the lake, resulting in very low Ca2+ in the lake water. Therefore, authigenic carbonates in the sediments hold potential information on the relative contribution of different solute inputs to the lake and the lake chemistry in the past.

  18. Karst characterization in a semi-arid region using gravity, seismic, and resistivity geophysical techniques.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnhart, Kevin Scott

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We proposed to customize emerging in situ geophysical monitoring technology to generate time-series data during sporadic rain events in a semi-arid region. Electrodes were to be connected to wireless %5Cnodes%22 which can be left in the eld for many months. Embedded software would then increase sampling frequency during periods of rainfall. We hypothesized that this contrast between no-volume ow in karst passageways dur- ing dry periods and partial- or saturated-volume ow during a rain event is detectable by these Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) geophysical nodes, we call this a Wireless Resistivity Network (WRN). The development of new methodologies to characterize semi-arid karst hydrology is intended to augment Sandia National Laboratorys mission to lead e orts in energy technologies, waste disposal and climate security by helping to identify safe and secure regions and those that are at risk. Development and initial eld testing identi ed technological barriers to using WRNs for identifying semi-arid karst, exposing R&D which can be targeted in the future. Gravity, seismic, and resis- tivity surveys elucidated how each technique might e ectively be used to characterize semi-arid karst. This research brings to light the importance and challenges with char- acterizing semi-arid karst through a multi-method geophysical study. As there have been very few studies with this emphasis, this study has expanded the body of practical experience needed to protect the nations water and energy security interests.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly industrialized areas pose challenges for surface electrical resistivity characterization due to metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically more conductive than the desired targets and will mask the deeper subsurface information. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes in the area near the target. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes to electrically monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank with both synthetic examples and a field demonstration. The synthetic examples place a simple target of varying electrical properties beneath a very low resistivity layer. The layer is meant to replicate the effects of infrastructure. Both surface and long electrodes are tested on the synthetic domain. The leak demonstration for the field experiment is simulated by injecting a high conductivity fluid in a perforated well within the S tank farm at Hanford, and the resistivity measurements are made before and after the leak test. All data are processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure is applied in both the time and space domains. The synthetic test case shows that the long electrode ERM could detect relative changes in resistivity that are commensurate with the differing target properties. The surface electrodes, on the other hand, had a more difficult time matching the original target's footprint. The field results shows a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site after cessation of the injections. The time lapsed regularization parameter has a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post injection datasets, but the interpretation of the target is consistent across all values of the parameter. The long electrode ERM method may provide a tool for near real-time monitoring of leaking underground storage tanks.

  20. Iron Reduction and Radionuclide Immobilization: Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Hydrologic controls & Reaction-Based Modeling - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William D. Burgos

    2004-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research focused on (1) microbial reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) individually, and concomitantly in natural sediments, (2) Fe(III) oxide surface chemistry, specifically with respect to reactions with Fe(II)and U(VI), (3) the influence of humic substances on Fe(III) and U(VI) bioreduction, and on U(VI) complexation, and (4) the development of reaction-based reactive transport biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results. We have continued our investigations on microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Modeling our earlier experimental results required assumption of a hydrated surface for hematite, more reactive than predicted based on theoretical solubility (Burgos et al.2002). Subsequent studies with Shewanella putrefaciens and Geobacter sulfurreducens confirmed the rates of Fe(III) bioreduction depend on oxide surface area rather than oxide thermodynamic properties (Roden,2003a,b;2004; Burgos et al,2003). We examined the potential for bioreduction of U(VI) by Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of synthetic Fe(III) oxides and natural Fe(III) oxide-containing solids (Jeon et al,2004a,b) in which more than 95% of added U(VI) was sorbed to mineral surfaces. The results showed a significant portion of solid-associated U(VI) was resistant to both enzymatic and abiotic (Fe(II)-driven) reduction, but the rate and extent of bioreduction of U(VI) was increased due to the addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). We conducted long-term semicontinuous culture and column experiments on coupled Fe(III) oxide/U(VI) reduction. These experiments were conducted with natural subsurface sediment from the Oyster site in Virginia, whose Fe content and microbial reducibility are comparable to ORNL FRC sediments (Jeon et al, 2004b). The results conclusively demonstrated the potential for sustained removal of U(VI) from solution via DMRB activity in excess of the U(VI) sorption capacity of the natural mineral assemblages. Jang (2004) demonstrated that the hydrated surface of nano-particles of hematite (prepared according to well-cited recipes and confirmed to be 100% hematite by Mossbauer spectroscopy and XRD) exhibited the solubility of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Jang (2004) also demonstrated that the sorptive reactivity of hematite and HFO were identical except for different specific surface area and pHzpc, and that the reduction of U(VI) by sorbed Fe(II) in the presence of the two phases was also similar in spite of theoretical predictions of large differences in Nernst potential. These results are consistent with the modeling of hematite bioreduction experiments where the thermodynamic potential of hematite had to be adjusted to represent a more disordered surface phase in order to accurately model bioreduction kinetics (Burgos et al, 2002, 2003). We have demonstrated that humic substances enhance solid-phase Fe(III) bioreduction via both electron shuttling and Fe(II) complexation(Royer et al, 2002a, b). We have found that humic substances were shown to inhibit the bioreduction of dissolved U(VI) and that soluble humic-U(IV) complexes were likely formed (Burgos et al, 2004). Kirkham (2004) measured and modeled complexation of U(VI) by humic substances as a function of pH, pCO2, U(VI) concentration, and humic concentration, and demonstrated that humic substances can complex U(VI) even at neutral pH values and in the presence of high (ca.30 mM) carbonate concentrations. Jang(2004) measured the abiotic reduction of U(VI) by Fe(II) sorbed to Fe(III) oxides in the presence/absence of humic substances and demonstrated that humic substances inhibited the heterogeneous reduction of U(VI). We have recently developed, validated, and documented a series of diagonalized reaction-based reactive transport computer models (HYDROGEOCHEM; Yeh et al,2004a,b). We demonstrated that parallel kinetic reactions could be modeled if separate experiments are used to independently measure each contributing kinetic reaction (Burgos et al, 2003). We have demonstrated the use of a reaction-based reactive transport model (HYDROGE

  1. Experimental investigation of copper matrix longitudinal resistance in a composite Nb-Ti wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gubkin, I.N.; Kozlenkova, N.I.; Nikulin, A.D.; Polikarpova, M.V.; Filkin, V.Ya. (A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The longitudinal resistance of multifilamentary superconducting wires is among the major parameters used in design and optimization of superconducting magnetic systems. To enhance the conductivity of the copper matrix, it is made of pipes and rods of enhanced quality copper produced by electron beam melting (resistance ratio between two temperatures, 295 K and 4.2 K, R[sub 295]/R[sub 4.2] > 200). Yet for readily obtainable conductors this parameter is much lower. The reduction of the copper-matrix electrical conductivity may be attributed to wire-production technology involving processes such as extrusion, drawing and intermediate thermal processing, as well as to the size effect. Copper-matrix longitudinal resistance was studied as a function of wire diameter on specimens of multifilamentary Nb-Ti wire with filaments coated by a Nb layer. Experimental results are compared with the Sondheimer calculations for a monofilament conductor as well as with the Gavalloni calculations for an ideal wire with hexagonally located filaments. It has been shown that the best fit with the experiment is provided by the Sondheimer approximation. Comparison of the results of this work with other authors' data obtained for the specimens with no niobium barrier, allows the authors to single out the influence of a pure size effect and diffusion of Ti on the resistivity.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LEAKS USING TIME LAPSED LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUCKER DF; FINK JB; LOKE MH; MYERS DA

    2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly industrialized areas pose significant challenges for surface based electrical resistivity characterization and monitoring due to the high degree of metallic infrastructure. The infrastructure is typically several orders of magnitude more conductive than the desired targets, preventing the geophysicist from obtaining a clear picture of the subsurface. These challenges may be minimized if steel-cased wells are used as long electrodes. We demonstrate a method of using long electrodes in a complex nuclear waste facility to monitor a simulated leak from an underground storage tank. The leak was simulated by injecting high conductivity fluid in a perforated well and the resistivity measurements were made before and after the leak test. The data were processed in four dimensions, where a regularization procedure was applied in both the time and space domains. The results showed a lowered resistivity feature develop south of the injection site. The time lapsed regularization parameter had a strong influence on the differences in inverted resistivity between the pre and post datasets, potentially making calibration of the results to specific hydrogeologic parameters difficult.

  3. Study on the thermal resistance in secondary particles chain of silica aerogel by molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190 (China); Department of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qiu, L., E-mail: qiulin111@sina.com, E-mail: jzzhengxinghua@163.com; Zheng, X. H., E-mail: qiulin111@sina.com, E-mail: jzzhengxinghua@163.com; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190 (China)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the heat transport in secondary particles chain of silica aerogel. The two adjacent particles as the basic heat transport unit were modelled to characterize the heat transfer through the calculation of thermal resistance and vibrational density of states (VDOS). The total thermal resistance of two contact particles was predicted by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD). The defects were formed by deleting atoms in the system randomly first and performing heating and quenching process afterwards to achieve the DLCA (diffusive limited cluster-cluster aggregation) process. This kind of treatment showed a very reasonable prediction of thermal conductivity for the silica aerogels compared with the experimental values. The heat transport was great suppressed as the contact length increased or defect concentration increased. The constrain effect of heat transport was much significant when contact length fraction was in the small range (<0.5) or the defect concentration is in the high range (>0.5). Also, as the contact length increased, the role of joint thermal resistance played in the constraint of heat transport was increasing. However, the defect concentration did not affect the share of joint thermal resistance as the contact length did. VDOS of the system was calculated by numerical method to characterize the heat transport from atomic vibration view. The smaller contact length and greater defect concentration primarily affected the longitudinal acoustic modes, which ultimately influenced the heat transport between the adjacent particles.

  4. Jones et al. Canada's lithospheric resistivity Page 1 The electrical resistivity of Canada's lithosphere and correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    Jones et al. Canada's lithospheric resistivity Page 1 The electrical resistivity of Canada and Jessica E. Spratt1,7 1: Geological Survey of Canada, 615 Booth St., Ottawa, ON, K1A 0E9, Canada. 2: Department of Geological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2, Canada. Email: ij

  5. PLANT RESISTANCE Field and Storage Testing Bt Potatoes for Resistance to Potato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    PLANT RESISTANCE Field and Storage Testing Bt Potatoes for Resistance to Potato Tuberworm Lansing, MI 48824 J. Econ. Entomol. 97(4): 14251431 (2004) ABSTRACT Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes worldwide. The introduction of the Bacillus

  6. PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Natural and Engineered Resistance Mechanisms in Potato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    PLANT RESISTANCE Evaluation of Natural and Engineered Resistance Mechanisms in Potato Against Colorado Potato Beetle in a No-Choice Field Study SUSANNAH G. COOPER,1 DAVID S. DOUCHES,1,2 JOSEPH J. COOMBS,1 AND EDWARD J. GRAFIUS3 J. Econ. Entomol. 100(2): 573579 (2007) ABSTRACT The Colorado potato

  7. PLANT RESISTANCE A Test of Taxonomic Predictivity: Resistance to the Colorado Potato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spooner, David

    PLANT RESISTANCE A Test of Taxonomic Predictivity: Resistance to the Colorado Potato Beetle in Wild Relatives of Cultivated Potato S. H. JANSKY,1 R. SIMON,2 AND D. M. SPOONER3 J. Econ. Entomol. 102(1): 422431 (2009) ABSTRACT Wild relatives of potato offer a tremendous germplasm resource for breeders

  8. Geology, hydrology, chemistry, and microbiology of the in situ bioremediation demonstration site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hall, S.H.; Truex, M.J.; Vermeul, V.R.; Engelman, R.E.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes characterization information on the geology, hydrology, microbiology, contaminant distribution, and ground-water chemistry to support demonstration of in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this information is to provide baseline conditions, including a conceptual model of the aquifer being utilized for in situ bioremediation. Data were collected from sampling and other characterization activities associated with three wells drilled in the upper part of the suprabasalt aquifer. Results of point-dilution tracer tests, conducted in the upper 9 m (30 ft) of the aquifer, showed that most ground-water flow occurs in the upper part of this zone, which is consistent with hydraulic test results and geologic and geophysical data. Other tracer test results indicated that natural ground-water flow velocity is equal to or less than about 0.03 m/d (0.1 ft/d). Laboratory hydraulic conductivity measurements, which represent the local distribution of vertical hydraulic conductivity, varied up to three orders of magnitude. Based on concentration data from both the vadose and saturated zone, it is suggested that most, if not all, of the carbon tetrachloride detected is representative of the aqueous phase. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, associated with a contaminant plume in the 200-West Area, ranged from approximately 500 to 3,800 {mu}g/L in the aqueous phase and from approximately 10 to 290 {mu}g/L in the solid phase at the demonstration site. Carbon tetrachloride gas was detected in the vadose zone, suggesting volatilization and subsequent upward migration from the saturated zone.

  9. Nepal's Crisis: Mobilising International Influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Crisis Group

    2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Policy Briefing Asia Briefing N49 Kathmandu/Brussels, 19 April 2006 Nepals Crisis: Mobilising International Influence I. OVERVIEW Pro-democracy demonstrations and a general strike across Nepal in recent weeks mark a decisive shift... institutions) to form a common front on strategy and tactics to maximise international influence in assisting Nepals escape from its worsening conflict. The conflict remains soluble and a genuine democratic mass movement increases the chances of a...

  10. Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szkely, V; Kollar, E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

  11. Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Szekely; S. Torok; E. Kollar

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

  12. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

  13. Emerging pathogens: Dynamics, mutation and drug resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perelson, A.S.; Goldstein, B.; Korber, B.T. [and others

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were to develop models of the spread of pathogens, such as HIV-1 and influenza, in humans, and then to use the models to address the possibility of designing appropriate drug therapies that may limit the ability of the pathogen to escape treatment by mutating into a drug resistant form. We have developed a model of drug-resistance to amantidine and rimantadine, the two major antiviral drugs used to treat influenza, and have used the model to suggest treatment strategies during an epidemic.

  14. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Orlando, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

  15. THE EFFECT OF SUBBANDGAP ILLUMINATION ON THE BULK RESISTIVITY OF CDZNTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, J.; Washington, A.; Duff, M.; Burger, A.; Groza, M.; Buliga, V.

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The variation in bulk resistivity during infrared (IR) illumination above 950 nm of state-of-the-art CdZnTe (CZT) crystals grown using the traveling heating method or the modified Bridgman method is documented. The change in steady-state current with and without illumination is also evaluated. The influence of secondary phases (SP) on current?voltage (I?V) characteristics is discussed using IR transmission microscopy to determine the defect concentration within the crystal bulk. SP present within the CZT are connected to the existence of deep, IR-excitable traps within the bandgap.

  16. Sensitivity of Surface Flux Simulations to Hydrologic Parameters Based on an Uncertainty Quantification Framework Applied to the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lin, Guang; Ricciuto, Daniel M.

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties in hydrologic parameters could have significant impacts on the simulated water and energy fluxes and land surface states, which will in turn affect atmospheric processes and the carbon cycle. Quantifying such uncertainties is an important step toward better understanding and quantification of uncertainty of integrated earth system models. In this paper, we introduce an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to analyze sensitivity of simulated surface fluxes to selected hydrologic parameters in the Community Land Model (CLM4) through forward modeling. Thirteen flux tower footprints spanning a wide range of climate and site conditions were selected to perform sensitivity analyses by perturbing the parameters identified. In the UQ framework, prior information about the parameters was used to quantify the input uncertainty using the Minimum-Relative-Entropy approach. The quasi-Monte Carlo approach was applied to generate samples of parameters on the basis of the prior pdfs. Simulations corresponding to sampled parameter sets were used to generate response curves and response surfaces and statistical tests were used to rank the significance of the parameters for output responses including latent (LH) and sensible heat (SH) fluxes. Overall, the CLM4 simulated LH and SH show the largest sensitivity to subsurface runoff generation parameters. However, study sites with deep root vegetation are also affected by surface runoff parameters, while sites with shallow root zones are also sensitive to the vadose zone soil water parameters. Generally, sites with finer soil texture and shallower rooting systems tend to have larger sensitivity of outputs to the parameters. Our results suggest the necessity of and possible ways for parameter inversion/calibration using available measurements of latent/sensible heat fluxes to obtain the optimal parameter set for CLM4. This study also provided guidance on reduction of parameter set dimensionality and parameter calibration framework design for CLM4 and other land surface models under different hydrologic and climatic regimes.

  17. Resistance heater for use in a glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A resistance heating element that includes: a resistance heating medium of a mixture of electrically conductive and insulative particles in powdered form mixed together in predetermined proportions to achieve a given resistivity; a hollow outer electrode surrounding the resistance heating medium; and an inner electrode coaxially disposed within said outer electrode. In its preferred embodiments, the electrically conductive powder is selected from the group consisting essentially of graphite, Inconel alloy, molybdenum, nichrome alloy and stainless steel, while the insulator powder is silicon dioxide or alumina. The resistance heating element, being resistant to damage from mechanical shock and corrosion at elevated temperatures, is used in a glass melter.

  18. Sufficient Conditions for Collision-Resistant Hashing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostrovsky, Rafail

    information retrieval (PIR) protocols and homomorphic one-way commitments. Keywords. Collision-resistant hash. A homomorphic encryption is a semantically secure encryption in which the plaintexts are taken from a group (single-server, sublinear-communication) one-round PIR protocol [15]. Since PIR is implied by homomorphic

  19. TRANSIENT THERMAL BEHAVIOR IN RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    temperature response during resistance spot welding was measured and discussed with various process parameters that the measurement of temperature profiles developed during the welding process is very important in this respect composition on galvanized steel, the temperature distribution during welding was monitored in a one

  20. Nigrostriatal Dopmaine Function and Insulin Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jill Kathleen

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    in Parkinson's disease. We used the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of PD to analyze glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin resistance following dopamine (DA) depletion. Finally, we combined a high fat diet and low dose 6-OHDA model to determine...